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Sample records for power laws reveal

  1. Power-Law Modeling of Cancer Cell Fates Driven by Signaling Data to Reveal Drug Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signals are captured and transmitted by signaling proteins inside a cell. An important type of cellular responses to the signals is the cell fate decision, e.g., apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell fate regulation are still unclear, thus comprehensive and detailed kinetic models are not yet available. Alternatively, data-driven models are promising to bridge signaling data with the phenotypic measurements of cell fates. The traditional linear model for data-driven modeling of signaling pathways has its limitations because it assumes that the a cell fate is proportional to the activities of signaling proteins, which is unlikely in the complex biological systems. Therefore, we propose a power-law model to relate the activities of all the measured signaling proteins to the probabilities of cell fates. In our experiments, we compared our nonlinear power-law model with the linear model on three cancer datasets with phosphoproteomics and cell fate measurements, which demonstrated that the nonlinear model has superior performance on cell fates prediction. By in silico simulation of virtual protein knock-down, the proposed model is able to reveal drug effects which can complement traditional approaches such as binding affinity analysis. Moreover, our model is able to capture cell line specific information to distinguish one cell line from another in cell fate prediction. Our results show that the power-law data-driven model is able to perform better in cell fate prediction and provide more insights into the signaling pathways for cancer cell fates than the linear model.

  2. Power-Law Modeling of Cancer Cell Fates Driven by Signaling Data to Reveal Drug Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signals are captured and transmitted by signaling proteins inside a cell. An important type of cellular responses to the signals is the cell fate decision, e.g., apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell fate regulation are still unclear, thus comprehensive and detailed kinetic models are not yet available. Alternatively, data-driven models are promising to bridge signaling data with the phenotypic measurements of cell fates. The traditional linear model for data-driven modeling of signaling pathways has its limitations because it assumes that the a cell fate is proportional to the activities of signaling proteins, which is unlikely in the complex biological systems. Therefore, we propose a power-law model to relate the activities of all the measured signaling proteins to the probabilities of cell fates. In our experiments, we compared our nonlinear power-law model with the linear model on three cancer datasets with phosphoproteomics and cell fate measurements, which demonstrated that the nonlinear model has superior performance on cell fates prediction. By in silico simulation of virtual protein knock-down, the proposed model is able to reveal drug effects which can complement traditional approaches such as binding affinity analysis. Moreover, our model is able to capture cell line specific information to distinguish one cell line from another in cell fate prediction. Our results show that the power-law data-driven model is able to perform better in cell fate prediction and provide more insights into the signaling pathways for cancer cell fates than the linear model. PMID:27764199

  3. Power laws reveal phase transitions in landscape controls of fire regimes

    Treesearch

    Donald McKenzie; Maureen C. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the environmental controls on historical wildfires, and how they changed across spatial scales, is difficult because there are no surviving explicit records of either weather or vegetation (fuels). Here we show how power laws associated with fire-event time series arise in limited domains of parameters that represent critical transitions in the controls...

  4. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  5. Anisotropic power-law inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-12-01

    We study an inflationary scenario in supergravity model with a gauge kinetic function. We find exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when both the potential function for an inflaton and the gauge kinetic function are exponential type. The dynamical system analysis tells us that the anisotropic power-law inflation is an attractor for a large parameter region.

  6. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  7. Power Law Distribution in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Hari M.; Campanha, José R.; Prado, Fernando D.

    We studied the statistical distribution of candidate's performance which is measured through their marks in university entrance examination (Vestibular) of UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista) for years 1998, 1999, and 2000. All students are divided in three groups: Physical, Biological and Humanities. We paid special attention to the examination of Portuguese language which is common for all and examinations for the particular area. We observed long ubiquitous power law tails in Physical and Biological sciences. This indicate the presence of strong positive feedback in sciences. We are able to explain completely these statistical distributions through Gradually Truncated Power law distributions which we developed recently to explain statistical behavior of financial market. The statistical distribution in case of Portuguese language and humanities is close to normal distribution. We discuss the possible reason for this peculiar behavior.

  8. Power-Law Distributions Based on Exponential Distributions: Latent Scaling, Spurious Zipf's Law, and Fractal Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-03-01

    The difference between the inverse power function and the negative exponential function is significant. The former suggests a complex distribution, while the latter indicates a simple distribution. However, the association of the power-law distribution with the exponential distribution has been seldom researched. This paper is devoted to exploring the relationships between exponential laws and power laws from the angle of view of urban geography. Using mathematical derivation and numerical experiments, I reveal that a power-law distribution can be created through a semi-moving average process of an exponential distribution. For the distributions defined in a one-dimension space (e.g. Zipf's law), the power exponent is 1; while for those defined in a two-dimension space (e.g. Clark's law), the power exponent is 2. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the exponential distributions suggest a hidden scaling, but the scaling exponents suggest a Euclidean dimension. Second, special power-law distributions can be derived from exponential distributions, but they differ from the typical power-law distributions. Third, it is the real power-law distributions that can be related with fractal dimension. This study discloses an inherent link between simplicity and complexity. In practice, maybe the result presented in this paper can be employed to distinguish the real power laws from spurious power laws (e.g. the fake Zipf distribution).

  9. Inverse-power-law behavior of cellular motility reveals stromal-epithelial cell interactions in 3D co-culture by OCT fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Yu, Xiao; Gilliss, Thomas; Alabi, Oluwafemi; Taylor, Russell M; Troester, Melissa A

    2015-10-20

    The progression of breast cancer is known to be affected by stromal cells within the local microenvironment. Here we study the effect of stromal fibroblasts on the in-place motions (motility) of mammary epithelial cells within organoids in 3D co-culture, inferred from the speckle fluctuation spectrum using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to Brownian motion, mammary cell motions exhibit an inverse power-law fluctuation spectrum. We introduce two complementary metrics for quantifying fluctuation spectra: the power-law exponent and a novel definition of the motility amplitude, both of which are signal- and position-independent. We find that the power-law exponent and motility amplitude are positively (p<0.001) and negatively (p<0.01) correlated with the density of stromal cells in 3D co-culture, respectively. We also show how the hyperspectral data can be visualized using these metrics to observe heterogeneity within organoids. This constitutes a simple and powerful tool for detecting and imaging cellular functional changes with OCT.

  10. Inverse-power-law behavior of cellular motility reveals stromal–epithelial cell interactions in 3D co-culture by OCT fluctuation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Yu, Xiao; Gilliss, Thomas; Alabi, Oluwafemi; Taylor, Russell M.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The progression of breast cancer is known to be affected by stromal cells within the local microenvironment. Here we study the effect of stromal fibroblasts on the in-place motions (motility) of mammary epithelial cells within organoids in 3D co-culture, inferred from the speckle fluctuation spectrum using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to Brownian motion, mammary cell motions exhibit an inverse power-law fluctuation spectrum. We introduce two complementary metrics for quantifying fluctuation spectra: the power-law exponent and a novel definition of the motility amplitude, both of which are signal- and position-independent. We find that the power-law exponent and motility amplitude are positively (p<0.001) and negatively (p<0.01) correlated with the density of stromal cells in 3D co-culture, respectively. We also show how the hyperspectral data can be visualized using these metrics to observe heterogeneity within organoids. This constitutes a simple and powerful tool for detecting and imaging cellular functional changes with OCT. PMID:26973862

  11. Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2014-12-02

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power-law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds, and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.

  12. Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2014-12-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power-law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds, and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.

  13. A mechanism producing power law etc. distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heling; Shen, Hongjun; Yang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Power law distribution is playing an increasingly important role in the complex system study. Based on the insolvability of complex systems, the idea of incomplete statistics is utilized and expanded, three different exponential factors are introduced in equations about the normalization condition, statistical average and Shannon entropy, with probability distribution function deduced about exponential function, power function and the product form between power function and exponential function derived from Shannon entropy and maximal entropy principle. So it is shown that maximum entropy principle can totally replace equal probability hypothesis. Owing to the fact that power and probability distribution in the product form between power function and exponential function, which cannot be derived via equal probability hypothesis, can be derived by the aid of maximal entropy principle, it also can be concluded that maximal entropy principle is a basic principle which embodies concepts more extensively and reveals basic principles on motion laws of objects more fundamentally. At the same time, this principle also reveals the intrinsic link between Nature and different objects in human society and principles complied by all.

  14. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  15. Power law inflation with electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xianghui; Isenberg, James

    2013-07-15

    We generalize Ringström’s global future causal stability results (Ringström 2009) [11] for certain expanding cosmological solutions of the Einstein-scalar field equations to solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field system. In particular, after noting that the power law inflationary spacetimes (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}, ϕ{sup -hat}) considered by Ringström (2009) in [11] are solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field system (with exponential potential) as well as of the Einstein-scalar field system (with the same exponential potential), we consider (nonlinear) perturbations of initial data sets of these spacetimes which include electromagnetic perturbations as well as gravitational and scalar perturbations. We show that if (as in Ringström (2009) [11]) we focus on pairs of relatively scaled open sets U{sub R{sub 0}}⊂U{sub 4R{sub 0}} on an initial slice of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}), and if we choose a set of perturbed data which on U{sub 4R{sub 0}} is sufficiently close to that of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat},ϕ{sup -hat}, A{sup -hat} = 0), then in the maximal globally hyperbolic spacetime development (M{sup n+1},g,ϕ,A) of this data via the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field equations, all causal geodesics emanating from U{sub R{sub 0}} are future complete (just as in (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat})). We also verify that, in a certain sense, the future asymptotic behavior of the fields in the spacetime developments of the perturbed data sets does not differ significantly from the future asymptotic behavior of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}, ϕ{sup -hat}, A{sup -hat} = 0). -- Highlights: •We prove stability of expanding solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field equations. •All nearby solutions are geodesically complete. •The topology of the initial slice is irrelevant to our stability results.

  16. Power-law regularities in human language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehri, Ali; Lashkari, Sahar Mohammadpour

    2016-11-01

    Complex structure of human language enables us to exchange very complicated information. This communication system obeys some common nonlinear statistical regularities. We investigate four important long-range features of human language. We perform our calculations for adopted works of seven famous litterateurs. Zipf's law and Heaps' law, which imply well-known power-law behaviors, are established in human language, showing a qualitative inverse relation with each other. Furthermore, the informational content associated with the words ordering, is measured by using an entropic metric. We also calculate fractal dimension of words in the text by using box counting method. The fractal dimension of each word, that is a positive value less than or equal to one, exhibits its spatial distribution in the text. Generally, we can claim that the Human language follows the mentioned power-law regularities. Power-law relations imply the existence of long-range correlations between the word types, to convey an especial idea.

  17. Power Laws and Market Crashes ---Empirical Laws on Bursting Bubbles---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizoji, T.

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the statistical properties of a statistical ensemble of stock prices. We selected 1200 stocks traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and formed a statistical ensemble of daily stock prices for each trading day in the 3-year period from January 4, 1999 to December 28, 2001, corresponding to the period of the forming of the internet bubble in Japn, and its bursting in the Japanese stock market. We found that the tail of the complementary cumulative distribution function of the ensemble of stock prices in the high value of the price is well described by a power-law distribution, P (S > x) ˜ x^{-α}, with an exponent that moves in the range of 1.09 < α < 1.27. Furthermore, we found that as the power-law exponents α approached unity, the bubbles collapsed. This suggests that Zipf's law for stock prices is a sign that bubbles are going to burst.

  18. Hierarchical networks, power laws, and neuronal avalanches.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Eric J; Landsberg, Adam S

    2013-03-01

    We show that in networks with a hierarchical architecture, critical dynamical behaviors can emerge even when the underlying dynamical processes are not critical. This finding provides explicit insight into current studies of the brain's neuronal network showing power-law avalanches in neural recordings, and provides a theoretical justification of recent numerical findings. Our analysis shows how the hierarchical organization of a network can itself lead to power-law distributions of avalanche sizes and durations, scaling laws between anomalous exponents, and universal functions-even in the absence of self-organized criticality or critical points. This hierarchy-induced phenomenon is independent of, though can potentially operate in conjunction with, standard dynamical mechanisms for generating power laws.

  19. Search in power-law networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamic, Lada A.; Lukose, Rajan M.; Puniyani, Amit R.; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2001-10-01

    Many communication and social networks have power-law link distributions, containing a few nodes that have a very high degree and many with low degree. The high connectivity nodes play the important role of hubs in communication and networking, a fact that can be exploited when designing efficient search algorithms. We introduce a number of local search strategies that utilize high degree nodes in power-law graphs and that have costs scaling sublinearly with the size of the graph. We also demonstrate the utility of these strategies on the GNUTELLA peer-to-peer network.

  20. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipf’s law, Pareto’s law, and Heaps’ law—three elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences.

  1. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipf's law, Pareto's law, and Heaps' law—three elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences.

  2. Power law analysis of the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs.

  3. Power-law statistics for avalanches in a martensitic transformation.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, R; Ananthakrishna, G

    2001-04-30

    We devise a two-dimensional model that mimics the recently observed power-law distributions for the amplitudes and durations of the acoustic emission signals observed during martensitic transformation [Vives et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1694 (1994)]. We include a threshold mechanism, long-range interaction between the transformed domains, inertial effects, and dissipation arising due to the motion of the interface. The model exhibits thermal hysteresis and, more importantly, it shows that the energy is released in the form of avalanches with power-law distributions for their amplitudes and durations. Computer simulations also reveal morphological features similar to those observed in real systems.

  4. Relativity, nonextensivity, and extended power law distributions.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; Lima, J A S

    2005-11-01

    A proof of the relativistic theorem by including nonextensive effects is given. As it happens in the nonrelativistic limit, the molecular chaos hypothesis advanced by Boltzmann does not remain valid, and the second law of thermodynamics combined with a duality transformation implies that the parameter lies on the interval [0,2]. It is also proven that the collisional equilibrium states (null entropy source term) are described by the relativistic power law extension of the exponential Juttner distribution which reduces, in the nonrelativistic domain, to the Tsallis power law function. As a simple illustration of the basic approach, we derive the relativistic nonextensive equilibrium distribution for a dilute charged gas under the action of an electromagnetic field . Such results reduce to the standard ones in the extensive limit, thereby showing that the nonextensive entropic framework can be harmonized with the space-time ideas contained in the special relativity theory.

  5. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Duncan A J; Nikulin, Vadim V; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-06-02

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram.

  6. Between disorder and order: A case study of power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong; Zhao, Youjie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Xiong, Fei; Sun, Yongke; He, Xin; Wang, Lichao

    2016-08-01

    Power law is an important feature of phenomena in long memory behaviors. Zipf ever found power law in the distribution of the word frequencies. In physics, the terms order and disorder are Thermodynamic or statistical physics concepts originally and a lot of research work has focused on self-organization of the disorder ingredients of simple physical systems. It is interesting what make disorder-order transition. We devise an experiment-based method about random symbolic sequences to research regular pattern between disorder and order. The experiment results reveal power law is indeed an important regularity in transition from disorder to order. About these results the preliminary study and analysis has been done to explain the reasons.

  7. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-06-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram.

  8. Power laws governing epidemics in isolated populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Anderson, R. M.

    1996-06-01

    TEMPORAL changes in the incidence of measles virus infection within large urban communities in the developed world have been the focus of much discussion in the context of the identification and analysis of nonlinear and chaotic patterns in biological time series1-11. In contrast, the measles records for small isolated island populations are highly irregular, because of frequent fade-outs of infection12-14, and traditional analysis15 does not yield useful insight. Here we use measurements of the distribution of epidemic sizes and duration to show that regularities in the dynamics of such systems do become apparent. Specifically, these biological systems are characterized by well-defined power laws in a manner reminiscent of other nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical systems in the physical sciences16-19. We further show that the observed power-law exponents are well described by a simple lattice-based model which reflects the social interaction between individual hosts.

  9. Variational Principle for the Pareto Power Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Anirban; Patriarca, Marco

    2009-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the appearance of power-law distributions in various complex systems. It is shown that in a conservative mechanical system composed of subsystems with different numbers of degrees of freedom a robust power-law tail can appear in the equilibrium distribution of energy as a result of certain superpositions of the canonical equilibrium energy densities of the subsystems. The derivation only uses a variational principle based on the Boltzmann entropy, without assumptions outside the framework of canonical equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two examples are discussed, free diffusion on a complex network and a kinetic model of wealth exchange. The mechanism is illustrated in the general case through an exactly solvable mechanical model of a dimensionally heterogeneous system.

  10. Fractal power law in literary English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, L. L.; Gonçalves, L. B.

    2006-02-01

    We present in this paper a numerical investigation of literary texts by various well-known English writers, covering the first half of the twentieth century, based upon the results obtained through corpus analysis of the texts. A fractal power law is obtained for the lexical wealth defined as the ratio between the number of different words and the total number of words of a given text. By considering as a signature of each author the exponent and the amplitude of the power law, and the standard deviation of the lexical wealth, it is possible to discriminate works of different genres and writers and show that each writer has a very distinct signature, either considered among other literary writers or compared with writers of non-literary texts. It is also shown that, for a given author, the signature is able to discriminate between short stories and novels.

  11. Transient ultrasonic fields in power law attenuation media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James F.

    Ultrasonic waves in biological media experience frequency dependent attenuation. Extensive measurement of the attenuation coefficient in human and mammalian tissue in the ultrasonic range has revealed a power law dependence on frequency, where the power law exponent ranges between 0 and 2. For most tissue, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 1.7, which cannot be explained by classical theories for ultrasonic absorption, such as thermo-viscosity or molecular relaxation. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (1) to understand the analytical structure of transient fields in power law media, (2) to provide a possible description of the physical mechanism responsible for power law attenuation in biological media, and (3) to develop analytical models for transient, three-dimensional sound beams in power law media. Insight into general dissipative media is gained by studying the approximations available in viscous media. The Stokes wave equation is considered in the time domain, and an asymptotic, causal Green's function is rigorously derived and verified using the material impulse response function (MIRF) approach. A lossy impulse response for the Stokes wave equation is derived for calculations of transient fields generated by finite aperture radiators. Expressions for the uniform circular aperture (in both the nearfield and the farfield), the uniform rectangular aperture in the nearfield, and the spherical shell in the nearfield are then derived. Power-law media is then studied using fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs), which add loss to the wave equation with a time-fractional or space-fractional derivative. A FPDE is derived that exactly describes power law attenuation, and analytical, time-domain James F. Kelly Green's functions in power law media are derived for exponents between 0 and 2. To construct solutions, stable law probability distributions are utilized, which are widely used in the study of anomalous diffusion and in the study of

  12. Kant on causal laws and powers.

    PubMed

    Henschen, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the paper is threefold. Its first aim is to defend Eric Watkins's claim that for Kant, a cause is not an event but a causal power: a power that is borne by a substance, and that, when active, brings about its effect, i.e. a change of the states of another substance, by generating a continuous flow of intermediate states of that substance. The second aim of the paper is to argue against Watkins that the Kantian concept of causal power is not the pre-critical concept of real ground but the category of causality, and that Kant holds with Hume that causal laws cannot be inferred non-inductively (that he accordingly has no intention to show in the Second analogy or elsewhere that events fall under causal laws). The third aim of the paper is to compare the Kantian position on causality with central tenets of contemporary powers ontology: it argues that unlike the variants endorsed by contemporary powers theorists, the Kantian variants of these tenets are resistant to objections that neo-Humeans raise to these tenets.

  13. Poissonian renormalizations, exponentials, and power laws.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive "renormalization study" of Poisson processes governed by exponential and power-law intensities. These Poisson processes are of fundamental importance, as they constitute the very bedrock of the universal extreme-value laws of Gumbel, Fréchet, and Weibull. Applying the method of Poissonian renormalization we analyze the emergence of these Poisson processes, unveil their intrinsic dynamical structures, determine their domains of attraction, and characterize their structural phase transitions. These structural phase transitions are shown to be governed by uniform and harmonic intensities, to have universal domains of attraction, to uniquely display intrinsic invariance, and to be intimately connected to "white noise" and to "1/f noise." Thus, we establish a Poissonian explanation to the omnipresence of white and 1/f noises.

  14. Spectra that behave like power-laws are not necessarily power-laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, John J.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that measured power spectral densities (spectra) that closely resemble power-law spectra may, in fact, have mathematical forms that are not power laws in the mathematical sense. If power spectral estimates show a good fit to a straight line on a log-log plot over a finite frequency range, that is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the mathematical form of the spectrum is, in fact, a power-law over that range. It is also pointed out that to accurately fit a power-law function to experimental data using linear least squares techniques in log-log space, as is often done in practice, it is essential that the data is uniformly distributed along the abscissa in log-space (in the stochastic sense) or, otherwise, the data must be linearly interpolated onto a uniform grid to ensure that the data employed in the fitting procedure is equally weighted along the abscissa. These two important points are not widely appreciated by researchers in the field and the pitfalls associated with commonly used fitting techniques are often overlooked in the analysis of solar wind data.

  15. Existence Theory for Stochastic Power Law Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breit, Dominic

    2015-06-01

    We consider the equations of motion for an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid in a bounded Lipschitz domain during the time interval (0, T) together with a stochastic perturbation driven by a Brownian motion W. The balance of momentum reads as where v is the velocity, the pressure and f an external volume force. We assume the common power law model and show the existence of martingale weak solution provided . Our approach is based on the -truncation and a harmonic pressure decomposition which are adapted to the stochastic setting.

  16. Spectrum of power laws for curved hand movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-07-21

    In a planar free-hand drawing of an ellipse, the speed of movement is proportional to the -1/3 power of the local curvature, which is widely thought to hold for general curved shapes. We investigated this phenomenon for general curved hand movements by analyzing an optimal control model that maximizes a smoothness cost and exhibits the -1/3 power for ellipses. For the analysis, we introduced a new representation for curved movements based on a moving reference frame and a dimensionless angle coordinate that revealed scale-invariant features of curved movements. The analysis confirmed the power law for drawing ellipses but also predicted a spectrum of power laws with exponents ranging between 0 and -2/3 for simple movements that can be characterized by a single angular frequency. Moreover, it predicted mixtures of power laws for more complex, multifrequency movements that were confirmed with human drawing experiments. The speed profiles of arbitrary doodling movements that exhibit broadband curvature profiles were accurately predicted as well. These findings have implications for motor planning and predict that movements only depend on one radian of angle coordinate in the past and only need to be planned one radian ahead.

  17. Spectrum of power laws for curved hand movements

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2015-01-01

    In a planar free-hand drawing of an ellipse, the speed of movement is proportional to the −1/3 power of the local curvature, which is widely thought to hold for general curved shapes. We investigated this phenomenon for general curved hand movements by analyzing an optimal control model that maximizes a smoothness cost and exhibits the −1/3 power for ellipses. For the analysis, we introduced a new representation for curved movements based on a moving reference frame and a dimensionless angle coordinate that revealed scale-invariant features of curved movements. The analysis confirmed the power law for drawing ellipses but also predicted a spectrum of power laws with exponents ranging between 0 and −2/3 for simple movements that can be characterized by a single angular frequency. Moreover, it predicted mixtures of power laws for more complex, multifrequency movements that were confirmed with human drawing experiments. The speed profiles of arbitrary doodling movements that exhibit broadband curvature profiles were accurately predicted as well. These findings have implications for motor planning and predict that movements only depend on one radian of angle coordinate in the past and only need to be planned one radian ahead. PMID:26150514

  18. Power laws and fragility in flow networks☆

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Jesse; Chu, Catherine J.; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2015-01-01

    What makes economic and ecological networks so unlike other highly skewed networks in their tendency toward turbulence and collapse? Here, we explore the consequences of a defining feature of these networks: their nodes are tied together by flow. We show that flow networks tend to the power law degree distribution (PLDD) due to a self-reinforcing process involving position within the global network structure, and thus present the first random graph model for PLDDs that does not depend on a rich-get-richer function of nodal degree. We also show that in contrast to non-flow networks, PLDD flow networks are dramatically more vulnerable to catastrophic failure than non-PLDD flow networks, a finding with potential explanatory power in our age of resource- and financial-interdependence and turbulence. PMID:26082568

  19. Classical orbits in power-law potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Aaron K.; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    1994-04-01

    The motion of bodies in power-law potentials of the form V(r)=λrα has been of interest ever since the time of Newton and Hooke. Aspects of the relation between powers α and ᾱ, where (α+2)(ᾱ+2)=4, are derived for classical motion and the relation to the quantum-mechanical problem is given. An improvement on a previous expression for the WKB quantization condition for nonzero orbital angular momenta is obtained. Relations with previous treatments, such as those of Newton, Bertrand, Bohlin, Fauré, and Arnold, are noted, and a brief survey of the literature on the problem over more than three centuries is given.

  20. The origin of power-law rheology in foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert; Crocker, John

    Soft glassy matter (SGM) such as foams, emulsions, and colloids, exhibit interesting rheological properties that have long defied explanation. In particular, the shear modulus of these materials displays weak power law frequency dependence. To understand the origin of this property in more depth, we have built a three-dimensional, modified Bubble Dynamics model. The bubbles interact with a purely repulsive harmonic potential and ripen according to diffusion-based governing equations. Notably, the bubble motion has a Levy flight character, in addition to being spatially correlated in the form of avalanches. Microrheology studies reveal that the power-law shear modulus is the result of constraint release driven by the bubbles' super-diffusive motion combined with simple yield of the resulting stress. The super-diffusive motion of the bubbles, in turn, is the result of the system taking a fractal path in configuration space. We shall discuss the origins of this fractal scaling.

  1. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powers of Administrative Law Judge. 417.6 Section 417.6... Administrative Law Judge. The designated Administrative Law Judge shall have authority: (a) To give notice... other actions authorized by the regulations in this part. The Administrative Law Judge's authority...

  2. 43 CFR 4.1121 - Powers of administrative law judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Powers of administrative law judges. 4... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1121 Powers of administrative law judges. (a) Under the regulations of this part, an administrative law judge may— (1) Administer oaths and affirmations; (2) Issue subpoenas; (3) Issue...

  3. Power Law Distributions in Two Community Currencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichiji, N.; Nishibe, M.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight certain newly discovered social phenomena that accord with Zipf's law, in addition to the famous natural and social phenomena including word frequencies, earthquake magnitude, city size, income1 etc. that are already known to follow it. These phenomena have recently been discovered within the transaction amount (payments or receipts) distributions within two different Community Currencies (CC) that had been initiated as social experiments. One is a local CC circulating in a specific geographical area, such as a town. The other is a virtual CC used among members who belong to a certain community of interest (COI) on the Internet. We conducted two empirical studies to estimate the economic vitalization effects they had on their respective local economies. The results we found were that the amount of transactions (payments and receipts) of the two CCs was distributed according to a power-law distribution with a unity rank exponent. In addition, we found differences between the two CCs with regard to the shapes of their distribution over a low-transaction range. The result may originate from the difference in methods of issuing CCs or in the magnitudes of the minimum-value unit; however, this result calls for further investigation.

  4. Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Trujillo, Juan J.

    2013-07-15

    Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media.

  5. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram. PMID:27250630

  6. Small power systems for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Paul E.; Mauk, Michael G.; Sulima, Oleg V.

    2002-08-01

    Recent events have increased interest in the use of sensors by law enforcement and homeland defense related organizations. Autonomous sensors such as those under development for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) program are suitable for some of these applications. The operational lifetime of a UGS depends on the power consumption of the package and the space allocated for batteries. We survey and assess options for powering these devices ina long-term scenario. These alternatives are in various stages of development, and range from conventional batteries and solar cells that are ready for deployment and are now commercially available; to technologies developed for other applications (e.g., power for deep-space probes, man portable power for soldiers, or for sensors in oil drilling bore holes) that would need to be adapted to UGS's; to new and often speculative concepts that are in the laboratory or are still on the drawing board. Ideally, unattended ground sensors do not require servicing, re- energizing or refueling; and are capable of autonomous operation for weeks or even years. Further, UGS's may need to be used covertly, which restricts schemes that would provide a detectable signature. Reliability, ruggedness, cost, weight, size, camouflaging, use of toxic materials and other safety or disposal aspects, restrictions on their deployment (e.g., whether UGS's can be dropped form the air or whether they need to be uprighted or favorably oriented), storage and inventorying considerations, temperature ranges of operation, and complexity of associated electronics are also important issues. In this paper, we will limit the discussion to systems where operating power does not exceed 5 watts since larger systems are commercially available. Some subjectivity in comparisons is perhaps inevitable, but despite the disparate physics upon which these devices are based, a few common criteria can be invoked for discussing their suitability for energy storage and powering UGS

  7. Discovery of power-laws in chemical space.

    PubMed

    Benz, Ryan W; Swamidass, S Joshua; Baldi, Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Power-law distributions have been observed in a wide variety of areas. To our knowledge however, there has been no systematic observation of power-law distributions in chemoinformatics. Here, we present several examples of power-law distributions arising from the features of small, organic molecules. The distributions of rigid segments and ring systems, the distributions of molecular paths and circular substructures, and the sizes of molecular similarity clusters all show linear trends on log-log rank/ frequency plots, suggesting underlying power-law distributions. The number of unique features also follow Heaps'-like laws. The characteristic exponents of the power-laws lie in the 1.5-3 range, consistently with the exponents observed in other power-law phenomena. The power-law nature of these distributions leads to several applications including the prediction of the growth of available data through Heaps' law and the optimal allocation of experimental or computational resources via the 80/20 rule. More importantly, we also show how the power-laws can be leveraged to efficiently compress chemical fingerprints in a lossless manner, useful for the improved storage and retrieval of molecules in large chemical databases.

  8. Power-law spatial dispersion from fractional Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-10-15

    A microscopic model in the framework of fractional kinetics to describe spatial dispersion of power-law type is suggested. The Liouville equation with the Caputo fractional derivatives is used to obtain the power-law dependence of the absolute permittivity on the wave vector. The fractional differential equations for electrostatic potential in the media with power-law spatial dispersion are derived. The particular solutions of these equations for the electric potential of point charge in this media are considered.

  9. Stochastic dynamics and a power law for measles variability.

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, M; Grenfell, B

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of a power law scaling between the mean and variance of natural populations, this phenomenon has been observed for a variety of species. Here, we show that the same form of power law scaling also occurs in measles case reports in England and Wales. Remarkably this power law holds over four orders of magnitude. We consider how the natural experiment of vaccination affects the slope of the power law. By examining simple generic models, we are able to predict the effects of stochasticity and coupling and we propose a new phenomenon associated with the critical community size. PMID:10365402

  10. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipf’s law, Pareto’s law, and Heaps’ law—three elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences. -- Highlights: ► The large-ensemble asymptotic statistics of rank distributions are explored. ► Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses are applied. ► Associated oligarchy sizes and induced innovation rates are analyzed. ► General elemental statistical connections are established. ► The underlying connections between Zipf’s, Pareto’s and Heaps’ laws are unveiled.

  11. Power law models of stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Man Kit

    Viewing the stock market as a self-organized system, Sornette and Johansen introduced physics-based models to study the dynamics of stock market crashes from the perspective of complex systems. This involved modeling stock market Indices using a mathematical power law exhibiting log-periodicity as the system approaches a market crash, which acts like a critical point in a thermodynamic system. In this dissertation, I aim to investigate stock indices to determine whether or not they exhibit log-periodic oscillations, according to the models proposed by Sornette, as they approach a crash. In addition to analyzing stock market crashes in the frequency domain using the discrete Fourier transform and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, I perform a detailed analysis of the stock market crash models through parameter estimation and model testing. I find that the probability landscapes have a complex topography and that there is very little evidence that these phase transition-based models accurately describe stock market crashes.

  12. The invariances of power law size distributions.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Size varies. Small things are typically more frequent than large things. The logarithm of frequency often declines linearly with the logarithm of size. That power law relation forms one of the common patterns of nature. Why does the complexity of nature reduce to such a simple pattern? Why do things as different as tree size and enzyme rate follow similarly simple patterns? Here I analyze such patterns by their invariant properties. For example, a common pattern should not change when adding a constant value to all observations. That shift is essentially the renumbering of the points on a ruler without changing the metric information provided by the ruler. A ruler is shift invariant only when its scale is properly calibrated to the pattern being measured. Stretch invariance corresponds to the conservation of the total amount of something, such as the total biomass and consequently the average size. Rotational invariance corresponds to pattern that does not depend on the order in which underlying processes occur, for example, a scale that additively combines the component processes leading to observed values. I use tree size as an example to illustrate how the key invariances shape pattern. A simple interpretation of common pattern follows. That simple interpretation connects the normal distribution to a wide variety of other common patterns through the transformations of scale set by the fundamental invariances.

  13. The invariances of power law size distributions

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Size varies. Small things are typically more frequent than large things. The logarithm of frequency often declines linearly with the logarithm of size. That power law relation forms one of the common patterns of nature. Why does the complexity of nature reduce to such a simple pattern? Why do things as different as tree size and enzyme rate follow similarly simple patterns? Here I analyze such patterns by their invariant properties. For example, a common pattern should not change when adding a constant value to all observations. That shift is essentially the renumbering of the points on a ruler without changing the metric information provided by the ruler. A ruler is shift invariant only when its scale is properly calibrated to the pattern being measured. Stretch invariance corresponds to the conservation of the total amount of something, such as the total biomass and consequently the average size. Rotational invariance corresponds to pattern that does not depend on the order in which underlying processes occur, for example, a scale that additively combines the component processes leading to observed values. I use tree size as an example to illustrate how the key invariances shape pattern. A simple interpretation of common pattern follows. That simple interpretation connects the normal distribution to a wide variety of other common patterns through the transformations of scale set by the fundamental invariances. PMID:27928497

  14. Power law exponents characterizing human DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provata, A.; Oikonomou, Th.

    2007-05-01

    The size distributions of all known coding and noncoding DNA sequences are studied in all human chromosomes. In a unified approach, both introns and intergenic regions are treated as noncoding regions. The distributions of noncoding segments Pnc(S) of size S present long tails Pnc(S)˜S-1-μnc , with exponents μnc ranging between 0.71 (for chromosome 13) and 1.2 (for chromosome 19). On the contrary, the exponential, short-range decay terms dominate in the distributions of coding (exon) segments Pc(S) in all chromosomes. Aiming to address the emergence of these statistical features, minimal, stochastic, mean-field models are proposed, based on randomly aggregating DNA strings with duplication, influx and outflux of genomic segments. These minimal models produce both the short-range statistics in the coding and the observed power law and fractal statistics in the noncoding DNA. The minimal models also demonstrate that although the two systems (coding and noncoding) coexist, alternating on the same linear chain, they act independently: the coding as a closed, equilibrium system and the noncoding as an open, out-of-equilibrium one.

  15. Piecewise power laws in individual learning curves.

    PubMed

    Donner, Yoni; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The notion that human learning follows a smooth power law (PL) of diminishing gains is well-established in psychology. This characteristic is observed when multiple curves are averaged, potentially masking more complex dynamics underpinning the curves of individual learners. Here, we analyzed 25,280 individual learning curves, each comprising 500 measurements of cognitive performance taken from four cognitive tasks. A piecewise PL (PPL) model explained the individual learning curves significantly better than a single PL, controlling for model complexity. The PPL model allows for multiple PLs connected at different points in the learning process. We also explored the transition dynamics between PL curve component pieces. Performance in later pieces typically surpassed that in earlier pieces, after a brief drop in performance at the transition point. The transition rate was negatively associated with age, even after controlling for overall performance. Our results suggest at least two processes at work in individual learning curves: locally, a gradual, smooth improvement, with diminishing gains within a specific strategy, which is modeled well as a PL; and globally, a discrete sequence of strategy shifts, in which each strategy is better in the long term than the ones preceding it. The piecewise extension of the classic PL of practice has implications for both individual skill acquisition and theories of learning.

  16. Helmholtz solitons in power-law optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Potton, R. J.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2007-09-15

    A nonlinear Helmholtz equation for optical materials with regimes of power-law type of nonlinearity is proposed. This model captures the evolution of broad beams at any angle with respect to the reference direction in a wide range of media, including some semiconductors, doped glasses, and liquid crystals. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented for a generic nonlinearity, within which known Kerr solitons comprise a subset. Three general conservation laws are also reported. Analysis and numerical simulations examine the stability of the Helmholtz power-law solitons. A propagation feature, associated with spatial solitons in power-law media, constituting a class of oscillatory solution, is identified.

  17. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single

  18. Rate-Controlling Mechanisms in Five-Power-Law Creep

    SciTech Connect

    Michael E. Kassner

    2004-04-20

    OAK-B135 Rate-Controlling Mechanisms in Five-Power-Law Creep. The initial grant emphasized the rate-controlling processes for five power-law creep. The effort has six aspects: (1) Theory of Taylor hardening from the Frank dislocation network in five power law substructures. (2) The dual dynamical and hardening nature of dislocations in five power law substructures. (3) Determination of the existence of long-range internal stress in five-power law creep dislocation substructures. (4) Dynamic recovery mechanisms associated with dislocation heterogeneities during five power law creep. (5) Versatility of five power law creep concept to other (hcp) crystal structures. (6) Writing of a book on ''Fundamental of Creep in Metals and Alloys'' by M.E. Kassner and Maria-Teresa Perez-Frado (postdoctoral scholar, funded by this project) Elsevier Press, 2004, in press. These areas are consistent with the original goals of this project as delineated in the original proposal to Basic Energy Sciences. The progress in each of these areas will be discussed separately and there will be an attempt to tie each aspect together so as to allow a summary regarding the conclusions with respect to the rate-controlling mechanisms of five power-law creep.

  19. Systematic harmonic power laws inter-relating multiple fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakeres, Donald; Buckhanan, Wayne; Andrianarijaona, Vola

    2017-01-01

    Power laws and harmonic systems are ubiquitous in physics. We hypothesize that 2, π, the electron, Bohr radius, Rydberg constant, neutron, fine structure constant, Higgs boson, top quark, kaons, pions, muon, Tau, W, and Z when scaled in a common single unit are all inter-related by systematic harmonic powers laws. This implies that if the power law is known it is possible to derive a fundamental constant's scale in the absence of any direct experimental data of that constant. This is true for the case of the hydrogen constants. We created a power law search engine computer program that randomly generated possible positive or negative powers searching when the product of logical groups of constants equals 1, confirming they are physically valid. For 2, π, and the hydrogen constants the search engine found Planck's constant, Coulomb's energy law, and the kinetic energy law. The product of ratios defined by two constants each was the standard general format. The search engine found systematic resonant power laws based on partial harmonic fraction powers of the neutron for all of the constants with products near 1, within their known experimental precision, when utilized with appropriate hydrogen constants. We conclude that multiple fundamental constants are inter-related within a harmonic power law system.

  20. Stochastic model of Zipf's law and the universality of the power-law exponent.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ken

    2014-04-01

    We propose a stochastic model of Zipf's law, namely a power-law relation between rank and size, and clarify as to why a specific value of its power-law exponent is quite universal. We focus on the successive total of a multiplicative stochastic process. By employing properties of a well-known stochastic process, we concisely show that the successive total follows a stationary power-law distribution, which is directly related to Zipf's law. The formula of the power-law exponent is also derived. Finally, we conclude that the universality of the rank-size exponent is brought about by symmetry between an increase and a decrease in the random growth rate.

  1. Power-law relaxation in a complex system: Omori law after a financial market crash.

    PubMed

    Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N

    2003-07-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of a financial market just after the occurrence of a crash by investigating the number of times the absolute value of an index return is exceeding a given threshold value. We show that the empirical observation of a power law evolution of the number of events exceeding the selected threshold (a behavior known as the Omori law in geophysics) is consistent with the simultaneous occurrence of (i) a return probability density function characterized by a power law asymptotic behavior and (ii) a power-law relaxation decay of its typical scale. Our empirical observation cannot be explained within the framework of simple and widespread stochastic volatility models.

  2. Power-law confusion: You say incremental, I say differential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.

    1993-01-01

    Power-law distributions are commonly used to describe the frequency of occurrences of crater diameters, stellar masses, ring particle sizes, planetesimal sizes, and meteoroid masses to name a few. The distributions are simple, and this simplicity has led to a number of misstatements in the literature about the kind of power-law that is being used: differential, cumulative, or incremental. Although differential and cumulative power-laws are mathematically trivial, it is a hybrid incremental distribution that is often used and the relationship between the incremental distribution and the differential or cumulative distributions is not trivial. In many cases the slope of an incremental power-law will be nearly identical to the slope of the cumulative power-law of the same distribution, not the differential slope. The discussion that follows argues for a consistent usage of these terms and against the oft-made implicit claim that incremental and differential distributions are indistinguishable.

  3. Resurrecting power law inflation in the light of Planck results

    SciTech Connect

    Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that a canonical scalar field with an exponential potential can drive power law inflation (PLI). However, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in such models turns out to be larger than the stringent limit set by recent Planck results. We propose a new model of power law inflation for which the scalar spectra index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub N{sub L}{sup equil}} are in excellent agreement with Planck results. Inflation, in this model, is driven by a non-canonical scalar field with an inverse power law potential. The Lagrangian for our model is structurally similar to that of a canonical scalar field and has a power law form for the kinetic term. A simple extension of our model resolves the graceful exit problem which usually afflicts models of power law inflation.

  4. Power laws in citation distributions: evidence from Scopus.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Michal

    Modeling distributions of citations to scientific papers is crucial for understanding how science develops. However, there is a considerable empirical controversy on which statistical model fits the citation distributions best. This paper is concerned with rigorous empirical detection of power-law behaviour in the distribution of citations received by the most highly cited scientific papers. We have used a large, novel data set on citations to scientific papers published between 1998 and 2002 drawn from Scopus. The power-law model is compared with a number of alternative models using a likelihood ratio test. We have found that the power-law hypothesis is rejected for around half of the Scopus fields of science. For these fields of science, the Yule, power-law with exponential cut-off and log-normal distributions seem to fit the data better than the pure power-law model. On the other hand, when the power-law hypothesis is not rejected, it is usually empirically indistinguishable from most of the alternative models. The pure power-law model seems to be the best model only for the most highly cited papers in "Physics and Astronomy". Overall, our results seem to support theories implying that the most highly cited scientific papers follow the Yule, power-law with exponential cut-off or log-normal distribution. Our findings suggest also that power laws in citation distributions, when present, account only for a very small fraction of the published papers (less than 1 % for most of science fields) and that the power-law scaling parameter (exponent) is substantially higher (from around 3.2 to around 4.7) than found in the older literature.

  5. Evolution of power law distributions in science and society.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Pyo; McCoy, Benjamin J

    2005-09-01

    Power law distributions have been observed in numerous physical and social systems; for example, the size distributions of particles, aerosols, corporations, and cities are often power laws. Each system is an ensemble of clusters, comprising units that combine with or dissociate from the cluster. Constructing models and investigating their properties are needed to understand how such clusters evolve. To describe the growth of clusters, we hypothesize that a distribution obeys a governing population dynamics equation based on a reversible association-dissociation process. The rate coefficients are considered to depend on the cluster size as power expressions, thus providing an explanation for the asymptotic evolution of power law distributions.

  6. Evolution of power law distributions in science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Young-Pyo; McCoy, Benjamin J.

    2005-09-01

    Power law distributions have been observed in numerous physical and social systems; for example, the size distributions of particles, aerosols, corporations, and cities are often power laws. Each system is an ensemble of clusters, comprising units that combine with or dissociate from the cluster. Constructing models and investigating their properties are needed to understand how such clusters evolve. To describe the growth of clusters, we hypothesize that a distribution obeys a governing population dynamics equation based on a reversible association-dissociation process. The rate coefficients are considered to depend on the cluster size as power expressions, thus providing an explanation for the asymptotic evolution of power law distributions.

  7. Auditory Power-Law Activation Avalanches Exhibit a Fundamental Computational Ground State.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Ruedi; Gomez, Florian

    2016-07-15

    The cochlea provides a biological information-processing paradigm that we are only beginning to understand in its full complexity. Our work reveals an interacting network of strongly nonlinear dynamical nodes, on which even a simple sound input triggers subnetworks of activated elements that follow power-law size statistics ("avalanches"). From dynamical systems theory, power-law size distributions relate to a fundamental ground state of biological information processing. Learning destroys these power laws. These results strongly modify the models of mammalian sound processing and provide a novel methodological perspective for understanding how the brain processes information.

  8. Auditory Power-Law Activation Avalanches Exhibit a Fundamental Computational Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Gomez, Florian

    2016-07-01

    The cochlea provides a biological information-processing paradigm that we are only beginning to understand in its full complexity. Our work reveals an interacting network of strongly nonlinear dynamical nodes, on which even a simple sound input triggers subnetworks of activated elements that follow power-law size statistics ("avalanches"). From dynamical systems theory, power-law size distributions relate to a fundamental ground state of biological information processing. Learning destroys these power laws. These results strongly modify the models of mammalian sound processing and provide a novel methodological perspective for understanding how the brain processes information.

  9. Thresholded Power law Size Distributions of Instabilities in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2015-11-01

    Power-law-like size distributions are ubiquitous in astrophysical instabilities. There are at least four natural effects that cause deviations from ideal power law size distributions, which we model here in a generalized way: (1) a physical threshold of an instability; (2) incomplete sampling of the smallest events below a threshold x0; (3) contamination by an event-unrelated background xb; and (4) truncation effects at the largest events due to a finite system size. These effects can be modeled in the simplest terms with a “thresholded power law” distribution function (also called generalized Pareto [type II] or Lomax distribution), N(x){dx}\\propto {(x+{x}0)}-a{dx}, where x0 > 0 is positive for a threshold effect, while x0 < 0 is negative for background contamination. We analytically derive the functional shape of this thresholded power law distribution function from an exponential growth evolution model, which produces avalanches only when a disturbance exceeds a critical threshold x0. We apply the thresholded power law distribution function to terrestrial, solar (HXRBS, BATSE, RHESSI), and stellar flare (Kepler) data sets. We find that the thresholded power law model provides an adequate fit to most of the observed data. Major advantages of this model are the automated choice of the power law fitting range, diagnostics of background contamination, physical instability thresholds, instrumental detection thresholds, and finite system size limits. When testing self-organized criticality models that predict ideal power laws, we suggest including these natural truncation effects.

  10. Power-law models of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Vera, Julio; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Wellstead, Peter; Banga, Julio R; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2007-07-01

    The mathematical modelling of signal transduction pathways has become a valuable aid to understanding the complex interactions involved in intracellular signalling mechanisms. An important aspect of the mathematical modelling process is the selection of the model type and structure. Until recently, the convention has been to use a standard kinetic model, often with the Michaelis-Menten steady state assumption. However this model form, although valuable, is only one of a number of choices, and the aim of this article is to consider the mathematical structure and essential features of an alternative model form--the power-law model. Specifically, we analyse how power-law models can be applied to increase our understanding of signal transduction pathways when there may be limited prior information. We distinguish between two kinds of power law models: a) Detailed power-law models, as a tool for investigating pathways when the structure of protein-protein interactions is completely known, and; b) Simplified power-law models, for the analysis of systems with incomplete structural information or insufficient quantitative data for generating detailed models. If sufficient data of high quality are available, the advantage of detailed power-law models is that they are more realistic representations of non-homogenous or crowded cellular environments. The advantages of the simplified power-law model formulation are illustrated using some case studies in cell signalling. In particular, the investigation on the effects of signal inhibition and feedback loops and the validation of structural hypotheses are discussed.

  11. van der Waals dispersion power laws for cleavage, exfoliation, and stretching in multiscale, layered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Tim; Gray, Evan; Dobson, John F.

    2009-03-01

    Layered and nanotubular systems that are metallic or graphitic are known to exhibit unusual dispersive van der Waals (vdW) power laws under some circumstances. In this Brief Report we investigate the vdW power laws of bulk and finite layered systems and their interactions with other layered systems and atoms in the electromagnetically nonretarded case. The investigation reveals substantial difference between “cleavage” and “exfoliation” of graphite and metals where cleavage obeys a C2D-2 vdW power law while exfoliation obeys a C3log(D/D0)D-3 law for graphitics and a C5/2D-5/2 law for layered metals. This leads to questions of relevance in the interpretation of experimental results for these systems which have previously assumed more trivial differences. Furthermore we gather further insight into the effect of scale on the vdW power laws of systems that simultaneously exhibit macroscopic and nanoscopic dimensions. We show that, for metallic and graphitic layered systems, the known “unusual” power laws can be reduced to standard or near standard power laws when the effective scale of one or more dimension is changed. This allows better identification of the systems for which the commonly employed “sum of C6D-6 ” type vdW methods might be valid such as layered bulk to layered bulk and layered bulk to atom.

  12. Statistical Analyses Support Power Law Distributions Found in Neuronal Avalanches

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Andreas; Yu, Shan; Plenz, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of neuronal avalanches in cortical networks has been reported to follow a power law distribution with exponent close to −1.5, which is a reflection of long-range spatial correlations in spontaneous neuronal activity. However, identifying power law scaling in empirical data can be difficult and sometimes controversial. In the present study, we tested the power law hypothesis for neuronal avalanches by using more stringent statistical analyses. In particular, we performed the following steps: (i) analysis of finite-size scaling to identify scale-free dynamics in neuronal avalanches, (ii) model parameter estimation to determine the specific exponent of the power law, and (iii) comparison of the power law to alternative model distributions. Consistent with critical state dynamics, avalanche size distributions exhibited robust scaling behavior in which the maximum avalanche size was limited only by the spatial extent of sampling (“finite size” effect). This scale-free dynamics suggests the power law as a model for the distribution of avalanche sizes. Using both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and a maximum likelihood approach, we found the slope to be close to −1.5, which is in line with previous reports. Finally, the power law model for neuronal avalanches was compared to the exponential and to various heavy-tail distributions based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and by using a log-likelihood ratio test. Both the power law distribution without and with exponential cut-off provided significantly better fits to the cluster size distributions in neuronal avalanches than the exponential, the lognormal and the gamma distribution. In summary, our findings strongly support the power law scaling in neuronal avalanches, providing further evidence for critical state dynamics in superficial layers of cortex. PMID:21720544

  13. Statistical analyses support power law distributions found in neuronal avalanches.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Andreas; Yu, Shan; Plenz, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of neuronal avalanches in cortical networks has been reported to follow a power law distribution with exponent close to -1.5, which is a reflection of long-range spatial correlations in spontaneous neuronal activity. However, identifying power law scaling in empirical data can be difficult and sometimes controversial. In the present study, we tested the power law hypothesis for neuronal avalanches by using more stringent statistical analyses. In particular, we performed the following steps: (i) analysis of finite-size scaling to identify scale-free dynamics in neuronal avalanches, (ii) model parameter estimation to determine the specific exponent of the power law, and (iii) comparison of the power law to alternative model distributions. Consistent with critical state dynamics, avalanche size distributions exhibited robust scaling behavior in which the maximum avalanche size was limited only by the spatial extent of sampling ("finite size" effect). This scale-free dynamics suggests the power law as a model for the distribution of avalanche sizes. Using both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and a maximum likelihood approach, we found the slope to be close to -1.5, which is in line with previous reports. Finally, the power law model for neuronal avalanches was compared to the exponential and to various heavy-tail distributions based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and by using a log-likelihood ratio test. Both the power law distribution without and with exponential cut-off provided significantly better fits to the cluster size distributions in neuronal avalanches than the exponential, the lognormal and the gamma distribution. In summary, our findings strongly support the power law scaling in neuronal avalanches, providing further evidence for critical state dynamics in superficial layers of cortex.

  14. Power-law distribution of family names in Japanese societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazima, Sasuke; Lee, Youngki; Nagamine, Tomomasa; Miyajima, Hiroaki

    2000-04-01

    We study the frequency distribution of family names. From a common data base, we count the number of people who share the same family name. This is the size of the family. We find that (i) the total number of different family names in a society scales as a power law of the population, (ii) the total number of family names of the same size decreases as the size increases with a power law and (iii) the relation between size and rank of a family name also shows a power law. These scaling properties are found to be consistent for five different regional communities in Japan.

  15. Power law corrections to BTZ black hole entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dharm Veer

    2015-11-01

    We study the quantum scalar field in the background of BTZ black hole and evaluate the entanglement entropy of the nonvacuum states. The entropy is proportional to the area of event horizon for the ground state, but the area law is violated in the case of nonvacuum states (first excited state and mixed states) and the corrections scale as power law.

  16. Fractal ladder models and power law wave equations

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, James F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in mammalian tissue is approximated by a frequency-dependent power law for frequencies less than 100 MHz. To describe this power law behavior in soft tissue, a hierarchical fractal network model is proposed. The viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue are captured by a constitutive equation based on a lumped parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots. In the low-frequency limit, this ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation with a time-fractional derivative. By combining this constitutive equation with linearized conservation principles and an adiabatic equation of state, a fractional partial differential equation that describes power law attenuation is derived. The resulting attenuation coefficient is a power law with exponent ranging between 1 and 2, while the phase velocity is in agreement with the Kramers–Kronig relations. The fractal ladder model is compared to published attenuation coefficient data, thus providing equivalent lumped parameters. PMID:19813816

  17. Fractal ladder models and power law wave equations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, James F; McGough, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in mammalian tissue is approximated by a frequency-dependent power law for frequencies less than 100 MHz. To describe this power law behavior in soft tissue, a hierarchical fractal network model is proposed. The viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue are captured by a constitutive equation based on a lumped parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots. In the low-frequency limit, this ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation with a time-fractional derivative. By combining this constitutive equation with linearized conservation principles and an adiabatic equation of state, a fractional partial differential equation that describes power law attenuation is derived. The resulting attenuation coefficient is a power law with exponent ranging between 1 and 2, while the phase velocity is in agreement with the Kramers-Kronig relations. The fractal ladder model is compared to published attenuation coefficient data, thus providing equivalent lumped parameters.

  18. General 2.5 power law of metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Yijin; Zeng, Zhidan; Shi, Crystal Y.; Zhang, Bo; Lou, Hongbo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Weihua; Sheng, Hongwei; Mao, Ho-kwang; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass (MG) is an important new category of materials, but very few rigorous laws are currently known for defining its “disordered” structure. Recently we found that under compression, the volume (V) of an MG changes precisely to the 2.5 power of its principal diffraction peak position (1/q1). In the present study, we find that this 2.5 power law holds even through the first-order polyamorphic transition of a Ce68Al10Cu20Co2 MG. This transition is, in effect, the equivalent of a continuous “composition” change of 4f-localized “big Ce” to 4f-itinerant “small Ce,” indicating the 2.5 power law is general for tuning with composition. The exactness and universality imply that the 2.5 power law may be a general rule defining the structure of MGs. PMID:26831105

  19. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  20. Optical monitoring for power law fluids during spin coating.

    PubMed

    Jardim, P L G; Michels, A F; Horowitz, F

    2012-01-30

    Optical monitoring is applied, in situ and in real time, to non-newtonian, power law fluids in the spin coating process. An analytical exact solution is presented for thickness evolution that well fits to most measurement data. As result, typical rheological parameters are obtained for several CMC (carboximetilcelullose) concentrations and rotation speeds. Optical monitoring thus precisely indicates applicability of the model to power law fluids under spin coating.

  1. Singularity problems of the power law for modeling creep compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, D. A.; Hiel, C.

    1985-01-01

    An explanation is offered for the extreme sensitivity that has been observed in the power law parameters of the T300/934 graphite epoxy material systems during experiments to evaluate the system's viscoelastic response. It is shown that the singularity associated with the power law can explain the sensitivity as well as the observed variability in the calculated parameters. Techniques for minimizing errors are suggested.

  2. Exploring the effect of power law social popularity on language evolution.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of a power-law-distributed social popularity on the origin and change of language, based on three artificial life models meticulously tracing the evolution of linguistic conventions including lexical items, categories, and simple syntax. A cross-model analysis reveals an optimal social popularity, in which the λ value of the power law distribution is around 1.0. Under this scaling, linguistic conventions can efficiently emerge and widely diffuse among individuals, thus maintaining a useful level of mutual understandability even in a big population. From an evolutionary perspective, we regard this social optimality as a tradeoff among social scaling, mutual understandability, and population growth. Empirical evidence confirms that such optimal power laws exist in many large-scale social systems that are constructed primarily via language-related interactions. This study contributes to the empirical explorations and theoretical discussions of the evolutionary relations between ubiquitous power laws in social systems and relevant individual behaviors.

  3. Power-law relaxation in human violent conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoli, Sergio; Antonio, Fernando J.; Itami, Andreia S.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2017-08-01

    We study relaxation patterns of violent conflicts after bursts of activity. Data were obtained from available catalogs on the conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Northern Ireland. We find several examples in each catalog for which the observed relaxation curves can be well described by an asymptotic power-law decay (the analog of the Omori's law in geophysics). The power-law exponents are robust, nearly independent of the conflict. We also discuss the exogenous or endogenous nature of the shocks. Our results suggest that violent conflicts share with earthquakes and other natural and social phenomena a common feature in the dynamics of aftershocks.

  4. Relaxation Dynamics of Non-Power-Law Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-12-01

    The relaxation of non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on partially wetted surfaces is rarely investigated. This study assesses the relaxation behavior of 14 partial wetting systems with non-power-law fluids by sessile drop method. These systems are two carboxymethylcellulose sodium solutions on two kinds of slides, cover glass, and silicon wafer surfaces; three polyethylene glycol (PEG400) + silica nanoparticle suspensions on polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene surfaces. The dynamic contact angle and moving velocity of contact line relationship data for relaxation drops of the 14 tested systems demonstrate a power-law fluid-like behavior, and the equivalent power exponent for a certain fluid on different solid substrates are uniform. By analyzing the relationship between the equivalent power exponent and shear rate, it is proposed that a fluid regime with shear rates of a few tens of s controls relaxation dynamics.

  5. A generalization of the power law distribution with nonlinear exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Faustino; Sarabia, José María

    2017-01-01

    The power law distribution is usually used to fit data in the upper tail of the distribution. However, commonly it is not valid to model data in all the range. In this paper, we present a new family of distributions, the so-called Generalized Power Law (GPL), which can be useful for modeling data in all the range and possess power law tails. To do that, we model the exponent of the power law using a non-linear function which depends on data and two parameters. Then, we provide some basic properties and some specific models of that new family of distributions. After that, we study a relevant model of the family, with special emphasis on the quantile and hazard functions, and the corresponding estimation and testing methods. Finally, as an empirical evidence, we study how the debt is distributed across municipalities in Spain. We check that power law model is only valid in the upper tail; we show analytically and graphically the competence of the new model with municipal debt data in the whole range; and we compare the new distribution with other well-known distributions including the Lognormal, the Generalized Pareto, the Fisk, the Burr type XII and the Dagum models.

  6. Distortion of power law blinking with binning and thresholding

    SciTech Connect

    Amecke, Nicole; Heber, André; Cichos, Frank

    2014-03-21

    Fluorescence intermittency is a random switching between emitting (on) and non-emitting (off) periods found for many single chromophores such as semiconductor quantum dots and organic molecules. The statistics of the duration of on- and off-periods are commonly determined by thresholding the emission time trace of a single chromophore and appear to be power law distributed. Here we test with the help of simulations if the experimentally determined power law distributions can actually reflect the underlying statistics. We find that with the experimentally limited time resolution real power law statistics with exponents α{sub on/off} ≳ 1.6, especially if α{sub on} ≠ α{sub off} would not be observed as such in the experimental data after binning and thresholding. Instead, a power law appearance could simply be obtained from the continuous distribution of intermediate intensity levels. This challenges much of the obtained data and the models describing the so-called power law blinking.

  7. Edge effect on the power law distribution of granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, Kinga A; Wijngaarden, Rinke J

    2007-10-01

    Many punctuated phenomena in nature are claimed [e.g., by the theory of self-organized criticality (SOC)] to be power-law distributed. In our experiments on a three-dimensional pile of long-grained rice, we find that by only changing the boundary condition of the system, we switch from such power-law-distributed avalanche sizes to quasiperiodic system-spanning avalanches. Conversely, by removing ledges the incidence of system-spanning avalanches is significantly reduced. This may offer a perspective on new avalanche prevention schemes. In addition, our findings may help to explain why the archetype of SOC, the sandpile, was found to have power-law-distributed avalanches in some experiments, while in other experiments quasiperiodic system-spanning avalanches were found.

  8. Power-law hereditariness of hierarchical fractal bones.

    PubMed

    Deseri, Luca; Di Paola, Mario; Zingales, Massimiliano; Pollaci, Pietro

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce a hierarchic fractal model to describe bone hereditariness. Indeed, experimental data of stress relaxation or creep functions obtained by compressive/tensile tests have been proved to be fit by power law with real exponent 0 ⩽ β ⩽1. The rheological behavior of the material has therefore been obtained, using the Boltzmann-Volterra superposition principle, in terms of real order integrals and derivatives (fractional-order calculus). It is shown that the power laws describing creep/relaxation of bone tissue may be obtained by introducing a fractal description of bone cross-section, and the Hausdorff dimension of the fractal geometry is then related to the exponent of the power law.

  9. Power-law relations in random networks with communities.

    PubMed

    Stegehuis, Clara; van der Hofstad, Remco; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S H

    2016-07-01

    Most random graph models are locally tree-like-do not contain short cycles-rendering them unfit for modeling networks with a community structure. We introduce the hierarchical configuration model (HCM), a generalization of the configuration model that includes community structures, while properties such as the size of the giant component, and the size of the giant percolating cluster under bond percolation can still be derived analytically. Viewing real-world networks as realizations of HCM, we observe two previously undiscovered power-law relations: between the number of edges inside a community and the community sizes, and between the number of edges going out of a community and the community sizes. We also relate the power-law exponent τ of the degree distribution with the power-law exponent of the community-size distribution γ. In the case of extremely dense communities (e.g., complete graphs), this relation takes the simple form τ=γ-1.

  10. MHD micropumping of power-law fluids: A numerical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Saied

    2013-02-01

    The performance of MHD micropumps is studied numerically assuming that the viscosity of the fluid is shear-dependent. Using power-law model to represent the fluid of interest, the effect of power-law exponent, N, is investigated on the volumetric flow rate in a rectangular channel. Assuming that the flow is laminar, incompressible, two-dimensional, but (approximately) unidirectional, finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the governing equations. It is found that shear-thinning fluids provide a larger flow rate as compared to Newtonian fluids provided that the Hartmann number is above a critical value. There exists also an optimum Hartmann number (which is larger than the critical Hartmann number) at which the flow rate is maximum. The power-law exponent, N, strongly affects the optimum geometry depending on the Hartmann number being smaller or larger than the critical Hartmann number.

  11. A power law approach to orifice flow rate calibration.

    PubMed

    Rhinehart, R Russell; Gebreyohannes, Solomon; Sridhar, Upasana Manimegalai; Patrachari, Anirudh; Rahaman, M S

    2011-04-01

    Although standards for orifice flow meter design, installation, and calibration are supported herein, noncompliant devices exist in many pilot-, lab-scale, and on-board applications. For these, a common calibration practice is to preserve the ideal square root relation and determine a device specific discharge coefficient value. This work provides theoretical and empirical analyses to support relaxing the square root relation between orifice pressure drop and flow rate for noncompliant devices. The resulting power law relation is shown to improve accuracy, precision, and rangeability. Whether a device specific square root or power law model is used, it requires off-line or in-line calibration data. As such, a power law calibration model may only be useful for on-board and small-scale applications.

  12. Statistical Models of Power-law Distributions in Homogeneous Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Ilan

    2011-01-04

    A variety of in-situ measurements in space plasmas point out to an intermittent formation of distribution functions with elongated tails and power-law at high energies. Power-laws form ubiquitous signature of many complex systems, plasma being a good example of a non-Boltzmann behavior for distribution functions of energetic particles. Particles, which either undergo mutual collisions or are scattered in phase space by electromagnetic fluctuations, exhibit statistical properties, which are determined by the transition probability density function of a single interaction, while their non-asymptotic evolution may determine the observed high-energy populations. It is shown that relaxation of the Brownian motion assumptions leads to non-analytical characteristic functions and to generalization of the Fokker-Planck equation with fractional derivatives that result in power law solutions parameterized by the probability density function.

  13. Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Pablo A; Quiñones, Renato A; Abades, Sebastian; Labra, Fabio; Tognelli, Marcelo; Arim, Matias; Rivadeneira, Marcelo

    2005-05-01

    Scaling relationships (where body size features as the independent variable) and power-law distributions are commonly reported in ecological systems. In this review we analyze scaling relationships related to energy acquisition and transformation and power-laws related to fluctuations in numbers. Our aim is to show how individual level attributes can help to explain and predict patterns at the level of populations that can propagate at upper levels of organization. We review similar relationships also appearing in the analysis of aquatic ecosystems (i.e. the biomass spectra) in the context of ecological invariant relationships (i.e. independent of size) such as the 'energetic equivalence rule' and the 'linear biomass hypothesis'. We also discuss some power-law distributions emerging in the analysis of numbers and fluctuations in ecological attributes as they point to regularities that are yet to be integrated with traditional scaling relationships and which we foresee as an exciting area of future research.

  14. Universal power law behaviors in genomic sequences and evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignetti, Loredana; Caselle, Michele

    2007-08-01

    We study the length distribution of a particular class of DNA sequences known as the 5' untranslated regions exons. These exons belong to the messenger RNA of protein coding genes, but they are not coding (they are located upstream of the coding portion of the mRNA) and are thus less constrained from an evolutionary point of view. We show that in both mice and humans these exons show a very clean power law decay in their length distribution and suggest a simple evolutionary model, which may explain this finding. We conjecture that this power law behavior could indeed be a general feature of higher eukaryotes.

  15. Power Laws, Flicker Noise, and the Barkhausen Effect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    AD-A274 702 AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-93038 POWER LAWS, FLICKER NOISE, AND THE BARKHAUSEN EFFECT DTIC ELECTE JA~N 211994 3 L.V. MEISEL S D P.J...CATES C&MORD October 1993 Fuel 4. TITLE AND SUBTITU S. FUNDING NUMBERS POWER LAWS. FUCKER NOISE. AND THE BARKHAUSEN EFFECT AMCMS: 611L02.H61L1 6. AUTHOR... Barkhausen effect was studied in three ferromagnetic metals: an amorphous alloy, iron. and alumel. The data exhibit all the characteristics of self

  16. Soliton solutions with power-law nonlinearity in inhomogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Chao-Qing; Yu, Fang-Bo

    2013-04-01

    We construct the relation between the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equations with power-law nonlinearity and the constant coefficient one via a transformation. Based on this transformation, we analytically obtain the closed-form bright and dark soliton solutions for variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equations with power-law nonlinearity, third-order dispersion and self-steepening effect. The dynamic behaviors of bright and dark solitons in dispersion-decreasing fibers with hyperbolic, exponential, linear, logarithmic and Gaussian profiles are analyzed.

  17. Power laws of wealth, market order volumes and market returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sorin; Richmond, Peter

    2001-10-01

    Using the Generalized Lotka Volterra model adapted to deal with mutiagent systems we can investigate economic systems from a general viewpoint and obtain generic features common to most economies. Assuming only weak generic assumptions on capital dynamics, we are able to obtain very specific predictions for the distribution of social wealth. First, we show that in a ‘fair’ market, the wealth distribution among individual investors fulfills a power law. We then argue that ‘fair play’ for capital and minimal socio-biological needs of the humans traps the economy within a power law wealth distribution with a particular Pareto exponent α∼ {3}/{2}. In particular, we relate it to the average number of individuals L depending on the average wealth: α∼ L/( L-1). Then we connect it to certain power exponents characterizing the stock markets. We find that the distribution of volumes of the individual (buy and sell) orders follows a power law with similar exponent β∼α∼ {3}/{2}. Consequently, in a market where trades take place by matching pairs of such sell and buy orders, the corresponding exponent for the market returns is expected to be of order γ∼2 α∼3. These results are consistent with recent experimental measurements of these power law exponents (S. Maslov, M. Mills, Physica A 299 (2001) 234 for β; P. Gopikrishnan et al., Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 5305 for γ).

  18. Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, Jiri

    2012-07-01

    We analyze for the first time a unique public procurement database, which includes information about a number of bidders for a contract, a final price, an identification of a winner and an identification of a contracting authority for each of more than 40000 public procurements in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2011, focusing on the distributional properties of the variables of interest. We uncover several scaling laws —the exponential law for the number of bidders, and the power laws for the total revenues and total spendings of the participating companies, which even follows Zipf's law for the 100 most spending institutions. We propose an analogy between extensive and non-extensive systems in physics and the public procurement market situations. Through an entropy maximization, such analogy yields some interesting results and policy implications with respect to the Maxwell-Boltzmann and Pareto distributions in the analyzed quantities.

  19. Power law relationships for rain attenuation and reflectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The equivalent reflectivity, specific attenuation and volumetric backscatter cross section of rain are calculated and tabulated at a number of frequencies from 1 to 500 GHz using classical Mie theory. The first two parameters are shown to be closely approximated as functions of rain rate by the power law aR to the b power. The a's and b's are also tabulated and plotted for convenient reference.

  20. Medical practices display power law behaviors similar to spoken languages.

    PubMed

    Paladino, Jonathan D; Crooke, Philip S; Brackney, Christopher R; Kaynar, A Murat; Hotchkiss, John R

    2013-09-04

    Medical care commonly involves the apprehension of complex patterns of patient derangements to which the practitioner responds with patterns of interventions, as opposed to single therapeutic maneuvers. This complexity renders the objective assessment of practice patterns using conventional statistical approaches difficult. Combinatorial approaches drawn from symbolic dynamics are used to encode the observed patterns of patient derangement and associated practitioner response patterns as sequences of symbols. Concatenating each patient derangement symbol with the contemporaneous practitioner response symbol creates "words" encoding the simultaneous patient derangement and provider response patterns and yields an observed vocabulary with quantifiable statistical characteristics. A fundamental observation in many natural languages is the existence of a power law relationship between the rank order of word usage and the absolute frequency with which particular words are uttered. We show that population level patterns of patient derangement: practitioner intervention word usage in two entirely unrelated domains of medical care display power law relationships similar to those of natural languages, and that-in one of these domains-power law behavior at the population level reflects power law behavior at the level of individual practitioners. Our results suggest that patterns of medical care can be approached using quantitative linguistic techniques, a finding that has implications for the assessment of expertise, machine learning identification of optimal practices, and construction of bedside decision support tools.

  1. Electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Prakash; Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids through a narrow confinement in the form of a deformable tube is investigated. The fluid is considered to be divided into two regions - a non-Newtonian core region (described by the power-law behavior) which is surrounded by a thin wall-adhering layer of Newtonian fluid. This division mimics the occurrence of a wall-adjacent cell-free skimming layer in blood samples typically handled in microfluidic transport. The pumping characteristics and the trapping of the fluid bolus are studied by considering the effect of fluid viscosities, power-law index and electroosmosis. It is found that the zero-flow pressure rise is strongly dependent on the relative viscosity ratio of the near-wall depleted fluid and the core fluid as well as on the power-law index. The effect of electroosmosis on the pressure rise is strongly manifested at lower occlusion values, thereby indicating its importance in transport modulation for weakly peristaltic flow. It is also established that the phenomenon of trapping may be controlled on-the-fly by tuning the magnitude of the electric field: the trapping vanishes as the magnitude of the electric field is increased. Similarly, the phenomenon of reflux is shown to disappear due to the action of the applied electric field. These findings may be applied for the modulation of pumping in bio-physical environments by means of external electric fields.

  2. Constraints on cosmological parameters in power-law cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Sarita; Altaibayeva, A.; Shahalam, M.; Singh, J. K.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we examine observational constraints on the power law cosmology; essentially dependent on two parameters H0 (Hubble constant) and q (deceleration parameter). We investigate the constraints on these parameters using the latest 28 points of H(z) data and 580 points of Union2.1 compilation data and, compare the results with the results of ΛCDM . We also forecast constraints using a simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey. Our studies give better insight into power law cosmology than the earlier done analysis by Kumar [arXiv:1109.6924] indicating it tuning well with Union2.1 compilation data but not with H(z) data. However, the constraints obtained on and i.e. H0 average and q average using the simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey are found to be inconsistent with the values obtained from the H(z) and Union2.1 compilation data. We also perform the statefinder analysis and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard ΛCDM model as q → -1. Finally, we observe that although the power law cosmology explains several prominent features of evolution of the Universe, it fails in details.

  3. The power laws of nanoscale forces under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chia-Yun; Olukan, Tuza; Santos, Sergio; Al Ghaferi, Amal; Chiesa, Matteo

    2015-12-25

    We report a power law derived from experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) data suggesting a nano to mesoscale transition in force-distance dependencies. Our results are in relative agreement with the Hamaker and Lifshitz theories for van der Waals forces for the larger tip radii only.

  4. Back-reaction effects in power-law inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, M.

    2004-02-01

    I consider a power-law inflationary model taking into account back-reaction effects. The interesting result is that the spectrum for the scalar-field fluctuations does not depend on the expansion rate of the Universe p and that it results to be scale invariant for cosmological scales. However, the amplitude for these fluctuations depends on p.

  5. Avalanches and power-law behaviour in lung inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suki, Béla; Barabási, Albert-László; Hantos, Zoltán; Peták, Ferenc; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1994-04-01

    WHEN lungs are emptied during exhalation, peripheral airways close up1. For people with lung disease, they may not reopen for a significant portion of inhalation, impairing gas exchange2,3. A knowledge of the mechanisms that govern reinflation of collapsed regions of lungs is therefore central to the development of ventilation strategies for combating respiratory problems. Here we report measurements of the terminal airway resistance, Rt , during the opening of isolated dog lungs. When inflated by a constant flow, Rt decreases in discrete jumps. We find that the probability distribution of the sizes of the jumps and of the time intervals between them exhibit power-law behaviour over two decades. We develop a model of the inflation process in which 'avalanches' of airway openings are seen-with power-law distributions of both the size of avalanches and the time intervals between them-which agree quantitatively with those seen experimentally, and are reminiscent of the power-law behaviour observed for self-organized critical systems4. Thus power-law distributions, arising from avalanches associated with threshold phenomena propagating down a branching tree structure, appear to govern the recruitment of terminal airspaces.

  6. Constraints on cosmological parameters in power-law cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Sarita; Singh, J.K.; Altaibayeva, A.; Myrzakulov, R.; Shahalam, M. E-mail: aziza.bibol@mail.ru E-mail: jainendrrakumar@rediffmail.com

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we examine observational constraints on the power law cosmology; essentially dependent on two parameters H{sub 0} (Hubble constant) and q (deceleration parameter). We investigate the constraints on these parameters using the latest 28 points of H(z) data and 580 points of Union2.1 compilation data and, compare the results with the results of ΛCDM . We also forecast constraints using a simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey. Our studies give better insight into power law cosmology than the earlier done analysis by Kumar [arXiv:1109.6924] indicating it tuning well with Union2.1 compilation data but not with H(z) data. However, the constraints obtained on and i.e. H{sub 0} average and q average using the simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey are found to be inconsistent with the values obtained from the H(z) and Union2.1 compilation data. We also perform the statefinder analysis and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard ΛCDM model as q → −1. Finally, we observe that although the power law cosmology explains several prominent features of evolution of the Universe, it fails in details.

  7. Medical practices display power law behaviors similar to spoken languages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical care commonly involves the apprehension of complex patterns of patient derangements to which the practitioner responds with patterns of interventions, as opposed to single therapeutic maneuvers. This complexity renders the objective assessment of practice patterns using conventional statistical approaches difficult. Methods Combinatorial approaches drawn from symbolic dynamics are used to encode the observed patterns of patient derangement and associated practitioner response patterns as sequences of symbols. Concatenating each patient derangement symbol with the contemporaneous practitioner response symbol creates “words” encoding the simultaneous patient derangement and provider response patterns and yields an observed vocabulary with quantifiable statistical characteristics. Results A fundamental observation in many natural languages is the existence of a power law relationship between the rank order of word usage and the absolute frequency with which particular words are uttered. We show that population level patterns of patient derangement: practitioner intervention word usage in two entirely unrelated domains of medical care display power law relationships similar to those of natural languages, and that–in one of these domains–power law behavior at the population level reflects power law behavior at the level of individual practitioners. Conclusions Our results suggest that patterns of medical care can be approached using quantitative linguistic techniques, a finding that has implications for the assessment of expertise, machine learning identification of optimal practices, and construction of bedside decision support tools. PMID:24007376

  8. Spectral geometry of power-law potentials in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Richard L.

    1989-06-01

    It is supposed that a single particle moves in openR3 in an attractive central power-law potential V(q)(r)=sgn(q)rq, q>-2, and obeys nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. This paper is concerned with the question: How do the discrete eigenvalues Enl(q) of the Hamiltonian H=-Δ+V(q) depend on the power parameter q\\? Pure power-law potentials have the elementary property that, for p

  9. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  10. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-11-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  11. The speed–curvature power law in Drosophila larval locomotion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery that the locomotor trajectories of Drosophila larvae follow the power-law relationship between speed and curvature previously found in the movements of human and non-human primates. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking in controlled but naturalistic sensory environments, we tested the law in maggots tracing different trajectory types, from reaching-like movements to scribbles. For most but not all flies, we found that the law holds robustly, with an exponent close to three-quarters rather than to the usual two-thirds found in almost all human situations, suggesting dynamic effects adding on purely kinematic constraints. There are different hypotheses for the origin of the law in primates, one invoking cortical computations, another viscoelastic muscle properties coupled with central pattern generators. Our findings are consistent with the latter view and demonstrate that the law is possible in animals with nervous systems orders of magnitude simpler than in primates. Scaling laws might exist because natural selection favours processes that remain behaviourally efficient across a wide range of neural and body architectures in distantly related species. PMID:28120807

  12. The speed-curvature power law in Drosophila larval locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Gomez-Marin, Alex

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery that the locomotor trajectories of Drosophila larvae follow the power-law relationship between speed and curvature previously found in the movements of human and non-human primates. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking in controlled but naturalistic sensory environments, we tested the law in maggots tracing different trajectory types, from reaching-like movements to scribbles. For most but not all flies, we found that the law holds robustly, with an exponent close to three-quarters rather than to the usual two-thirds found in almost all human situations, suggesting dynamic effects adding on purely kinematic constraints. There are different hypotheses for the origin of the law in primates, one invoking cortical computations, another viscoelastic muscle properties coupled with central pattern generators. Our findings are consistent with the latter view and demonstrate that the law is possible in animals with nervous systems orders of magnitude simpler than in primates. Scaling laws might exist because natural selection favours processes that remain behaviourally efficient across a wide range of neural and body architectures in distantly related species. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Scaling range of power laws that originate from fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt

    2013-05-01

    We extend our previous study of scaling range properties performed for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) [Physica A 392, 2384 (2013)] to other techniques of fluctuation analysis (FA). The new technique, called modified detrended moving average analysis (MDMA), is introduced, and its scaling range properties are examined and compared with those of detrended moving average analysis (DMA) and DFA. It is shown that contrary to DFA, DMA and MDMA techniques exhibit power law dependence of the scaling range with respect to the length of the searched signal and with respect to the accuracy R^{2} of the fit to the considered scaling law imposed by DMA or MDMA methods. This power law dependence is satisfied for both uncorrelated and autocorrelated data. We find also a simple generalization of this power law relation for series with a different level of autocorrelations measured in terms of the Hurst exponent. Basic relations between scaling ranges for different techniques are also discussed. Our findings should be particularly useful for local FA in, e.g., econophysics, finances, or physiology, where the huge number of short time series has to be examined at once and wherever the preliminary check of the scaling range regime for each of the series separately is neither effective nor possible.

  14. Scaling range of power laws that originate from fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt

    2013-05-01

    We extend our previous study of scaling range properties performed for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) [Physica A0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2013.01.049 392, 2384 (2013)] to other techniques of fluctuation analysis (FA). The new technique, called modified detrended moving average analysis (MDMA), is introduced, and its scaling range properties are examined and compared with those of detrended moving average analysis (DMA) and DFA. It is shown that contrary to DFA, DMA and MDMA techniques exhibit power law dependence of the scaling range with respect to the length of the searched signal and with respect to the accuracy R2 of the fit to the considered scaling law imposed by DMA or MDMA methods. This power law dependence is satisfied for both uncorrelated and autocorrelated data. We find also a simple generalization of this power law relation for series with a different level of autocorrelations measured in terms of the Hurst exponent. Basic relations between scaling ranges for different techniques are also discussed. Our findings should be particularly useful for local FA in, e.g., econophysics, finances, or physiology, where the huge number of short time series has to be examined at once and wherever the preliminary check of the scaling range regime for each of the series separately is neither effective nor possible.

  15. Power law cosmology model comparison with CMB scale information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutusaus, Isaac; Lamine, Brahim; Blanchard, Alain; Dupays, Arnaud; Zolnierowski, Yves; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Ealet, Anne; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Ilić, Stéphane; Pisani, Alice; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Sakr, Ziad; Salvatelli, Valentina; Schücker, Thomas; Tilquin, André; Virey, Jean-Marc

    2016-11-01

    Despite the ability of the cosmological concordance model (Λ CDM ) to describe the cosmological observations exceedingly well, power law expansion of the Universe scale radius, R (t )∝tn, has been proposed as an alternative framework. We examine here these models, analyzing their ability to fit cosmological data using robust model comparison criteria. Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and acoustic scale information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have been used. We find that SNIa data either alone or combined with BAO can be well reproduced by both Λ CDM and power law expansion models with n ˜1.5 , while the constant expansion rate model (n =1 ) is clearly disfavored. Allowing for some redshift evolution in the SNIa luminosity essentially removes any clear preference for a specific model. The CMB data are well known to provide the most stringent constraints on standard cosmological models, in particular, through the position of the first peak of the temperature angular power spectrum, corresponding to the sound horizon at recombination, a scale physically related to the BAO scale. Models with n ≥1 lead to a divergence of the sound horizon and do not naturally provide the relevant scales for the BAO and the CMB. We retain an empirical footing to overcome this issue: we let the data choose the preferred values for these scales, while we recompute the ionization history in power law models, to obtain the distance to the CMB. In doing so, we find that the scale coming from the BAO data is not consistent with the observed position of the first peak of the CMB temperature angular power spectrum for any power law cosmology. Therefore, we conclude that when the three standard probes (SNIa, BAO, and CMB) are combined, the Λ CDM model is very strongly favored over any of these alternative models, which are then essentially ruled out.

  16. Power-law behavior of power spectra in low Prandtl number Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    Paul, M R; Cross, M C; Fischer, P F; Greenside, H S

    2001-10-08

    The origin of the power-law decay measured in the power spectra of low Prandtl number Rayleigh-Bénard convection near the onset of chaos is addressed using long time numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations in cylindrical domains. The power law is found to arise from quasidiscontinuous changes in the slope of the time series of the heat transport associated with the nucleation of dislocation pairs and roll pinch-off events. For larger frequencies, the power spectra decay exponentially as expected for time continuous deterministic dynamics.

  17. Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law

  18. Power-law rheology controls aftershock triggering and decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Shcherbakov, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of aftershocks is a signature of physical systems exhibiting relaxation phenomena. They are observed in various natural or experimental systems and usually obey several non-trivial empirical laws. Here we consider a cellular automaton realization of a nonlinear viscoelastic slider-block model in order to infer the physical mechanisms of triggering responsible for the occurrence of aftershocks. We show that nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in the occurrence of aftershocks. The model reproduces several empirical laws describing the statistics of aftershocks. In case of earthquakes, the proposed model suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge, underlying lower crust, and upper mantle controls the decay rate of aftershocks. This is verified by analysing several prominent aftershock sequences for which the rheological properties of the underlying crust and upper mantle were established.

  19. Power-law rheology controls aftershock triggering and decay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Shcherbakov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of aftershocks is a signature of physical systems exhibiting relaxation phenomena. They are observed in various natural or experimental systems and usually obey several non-trivial empirical laws. Here we consider a cellular automaton realization of a nonlinear viscoelastic slider-block model in order to infer the physical mechanisms of triggering responsible for the occurrence of aftershocks. We show that nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in the occurrence of aftershocks. The model reproduces several empirical laws describing the statistics of aftershocks. In case of earthquakes, the proposed model suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge, underlying lower crust, and upper mantle controls the decay rate of aftershocks. This is verified by analysing several prominent aftershock sequences for which the rheological properties of the underlying crust and upper mantle were established. PMID:27819355

  20. There is More than a Power Law in Zipf

    PubMed Central

    Cristelli, Matthieu; Batty, Michael; Pietronero, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The largest cities, the most frequently used words, the income of the richest countries, and the most wealthy billionaires, can be all described in terms of Zipf’s Law, a rank-size rule capturing the relation between the frequency of a set of objects or events and their size. It is assumed to be one of many manifestations of an underlying power law like Pareto’s or Benford’s, but contrary to popular belief, from a distribution of, say, city sizes and a simple random sampling, one does not obtain Zipf’s law for the largest cities. This pathology is reflected in the fact that Zipf’s Law has a functional form depending on the number of events N. This requires a fundamental property of the sample distribution which we call ‘coherence’ and it corresponds to a ‘screening’ between various elements of the set. We show how it should be accounted for when fitting Zipf’s Law. PMID:23139862

  1. COSMOLOGY OF CHAMELEONS WITH POWER-LAW COUPLINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2011-05-20

    In chameleon field theories, a scalar field can couple to matter with gravitational strength and still evade local gravity constraints due to a combination of self-interactions and the couplings to matter. Originally, these theories were proposed with a constant coupling to matter; however, the chameleon mechanism also extends to the case where the coupling becomes field dependent. We study the cosmology of chameleon models with power-law couplings and power-law potentials. It is found that these generalized chameleons, when viable, have a background expansion very close to {Lambda}CDM, but can in some special cases enhance the growth of the linear perturbations at low redshifts. For the models we consider, it is found that this region of the parameter space is ruled out by local gravity constraints. Imposing a coupling to dark matter only, the local constraints are avoided, and it is possible to have observable signatures on the linear matter perturbations.

  2. Power law Kohn anomalies and the excitonic transition in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, F.; Fertig, H. A.

    2012-08-01

    Dirac electrons in graphene in the presence of Coulomb interactions of strength β have been shown to display power law behavior with β dependent exponents in certain correlation functions, which we call the mass susceptibilities of the system. In this work, we first discuss how this phenomenon is intimately related to the excitonic insulator transition, showing the explicit relation between the gap equation and response function approaches to this problem. We then provide a general computation of these mass susceptibilities in the ladder approximation, and present an analytical computation of the static exponent within a simplified kernel model, obtaining η0=√{1-β/βc}. Finally we emphasize that the behavior of these susceptibilities provides new experimental signatures of interactions, such as power law Kohn anomalies in the dispersion of several phonons, which could potentially be used as a measurement of β.

  3. Interacting discrete Markov processes with power-law probability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Kevin D.; Jakeman, Eric

    2017-09-01

    During recent years there has been growing interest in the occurrence of long-tailed distributions, also known as heavy-tailed or fat-tailed distributions, which can exhibit power-law behaviour and often characterise physical systems that undergo very large fluctuations. In this paper we show that the interaction between two discrete Markov processes naturally generates a time-series characterised by such a distribution. This possibility is first demonstrated by numerical simulation and then confirmed by a mathematical analysis that enables the parameter range over which the power-law occurs to be quantified. The results are supported by comparison of numerical results with theoretical predictions and general conclusions are drawn regarding mechanisms that can cause this behaviour.

  4. Power-law distribution in Japanese racetrack betting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinomiya, Takashi

    2006-08-01

    Gambling is one of the basic economic activities that humans indulge in. An investigation of gambling activities provides deep insights into the economic actions of people and sheds lights on the study of econophysics. In this paper we present an analysis of the distribution of the final odds of the races organized by the Japan Racing Association. The distribution of the final odds Po(x) indicates a clear power-law Po(x)∝1/x, where x represents the final odds. This power-law can be explained on the basis of the assumption that every bettor bets his money on the horse that appears to be the strongest in a race.

  5. Power law behavior of the zigzag transition in Yukawa clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, T. E.; Magyar, Andrew L.

    2010-11-15

    We provide direct experimental evidence that the width of a Yukawa cluster exhibits power law behavior during the one-dimensional (1D) to two-dimensional (2D) zigzag transition. Configurations of small dusty (complex) plasma clusters confined in a biharmonic potential well are characterized as the well anisotropy is varied. When the anisotropy is large the particles are in a 1D straight-line configuration. As the anisotropy is decreased the cluster undergoes a zigzag transition to a 2D configuration. The measured dependence of cluster width on anisotropy follows a power law. A second transition from the zigzag to an elliptical configuration is also observed. The results are in very good agreement with a model of identical particles interacting through a Yukawa potential.

  6. Lévy flights with power-law absorption.

    PubMed

    Cattivelli, Luca; Agliari, Elena; Sartori, Fabio; Cassi, Davide

    2015-10-01

    We consider a particle performing a stochastic motion on a one-dimensional lattice with jump lengths distributed according to a power law with exponent μ+1. Assuming that the walker moves in the presence of a distribution a(x) of targets (traps) depending on the spatial coordinate x, we study the probability that the walker will eventually find any target (will eventually be trapped). We focus on the case of power-law distributions a(x)∼x(-α) and we find that, as long as μ<α, there is a finite probability that the walker will never be trapped, no matter how long the process is. This result is shown via analytical arguments and numerical simulations which also evidence the emergence of slow searching (trapping) times in finite-size system. The extension of this finding to higher-dimensional structures is also discussed.

  7. Power-law cosmology, SN Ia, and BAO

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, Aleksander; Halenka, Vitali; Tkachev, Igor E-mail: vithal@umich.edu

    2014-10-01

    We revise observational constraints on the class of models of modified gravity which at low redshifts lead to a power-law cosmology. To this end we use available public data on Supernova Ia and on baryon acoustic oscillations. We show that the expansion regime a(t) ∼ t{sup β} with β close to 3/2 in a spatially flat universe is a good fit to these data.

  8. Power law distribution of dividends in horse races

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K.; Domany, E.

    2001-02-01

    We discovered that the distribution of dividends in Korean horse races follows a power law. A simple model of betting is proposed, which reproduces the observed distribution. The model provides a mechanism to arrive at the true underlying winning probabilities, which are initially unknown, in a self-organized collective fashion, through the dynamic process of betting. Numerical simulations yield excellent agreement with the empirical data.

  9. Power-law behavior in social and economical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Keizo; Miyazima, Sasuke

    2004-12-01

    We have already found power-law behavior in various phenomena such as high-tax payer, population distribution, name distribution, passenger number at stations, student number in a university from high schools, and so on. We can explain why these phenomena show such interesting behaviors by doing simulations based on adequate models. We have come to the conclusion that there are fractal structures underlying those phenomena.

  10. Coalescence of Drops of a Power-law Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, Pritish; Thete, Sumeet; Basaran, Osman

    2014-11-01

    Drop coalescence is crucial in a host of industrial, household, and natural processes that involve dispersions. Coalescence is a rate-controlling process in breaking emulsions and strongly influences drop-size-distributions in sprays. In a continuum approach, coalescence begins by the formation of a microscopic, non-slender bridge connecting the two drops. Indefinitely large axial curvature at the neck results in local lowering of pressure that drives fluid from the bulk of the drops toward the neck, thereby causing the bridge radius r (t) and height z (t) to increase in time t. The coalescence of Newtonian drops in air has heretofore been thoroughly studied. Here, we extend these earlier studies by analyzing the coalescence of drops of power-law fluids because many fluids encountered in real applications, including cosmetic creams, shampoos, grease, and paint, exhibit power-law (deformation-rate thinning) rheology. On account of the non-slender geometry of the liquid bridge connecting the two drops (z << r) , we analyze the resulting free surface flow problem by numerical simulation. Among other results, we present and discuss the nature of flows and scaling behaviors for r and z as functions of the initial viscosity and power-law index (0 < n <= 1) .

  11. Power-law citation distributions are not scale-free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosovsky, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We analyze time evolution of statistical distributions of citations to scientific papers published in the same year. While these distributions seem to follow the power-law dependence we find that they are nonstationary and the exponent of the power-law fit decreases with time and does not come to saturation. We attribute the nonstationarity of citation distributions to different longevity of the low-cited and highly cited papers. By measuring citation trajectories of papers we found that citation careers of the low-cited papers come to saturation after 10-15 years while those of the highly cited papers continue to increase indefinitely: The papers that exceed some citation threshold become runaways. Thus, we show that although citation distribution can look as a power-law dependence, it is not scale free and there is a hidden dynamic scale associated with the onset of runaways. We compare our measurements to our recently developed model of citation dynamics based on copying-redirection-triadic closure and find explanations to our empirical observations.

  12. Bounds of memory strength for power-law series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fangjian; Yang, Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Zhou, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Many time series produced by complex systems are empirically found to follow power-law distributions with different exponents α . By permuting the independently drawn samples from a power-law distribution, we present nontrivial bounds on the memory strength (first-order autocorrelation) as a function of α , which are markedly different from the ordinary ±1 bounds for Gaussian or uniform distributions. When 1 <α ≤3 , as α grows bigger, the upper bound increases from 0 to +1 while the lower bound remains 0; when α >3 , the upper bound remains +1 while the lower bound descends below 0. Theoretical bounds agree well with numerical simulations. Based on the posts on Twitter, ratings of MovieLens, calling records of the mobile operator Orange, and the browsing behavior of Taobao, we find that empirical power-law-distributed data produced by human activities obey such constraints. The present findings explain some observed constraints in bursty time series and scale-free networks and challenge the validity of measures such as autocorrelation and assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous systems.

  13. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws Using SHJAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2009-01-01

    High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling laws. Configurations considered in the present study consist of convergent and convergent-divergent axisymmetric nozzles. Following the work of Viswanathan, velocity power factors are estimated using a least squares fit on spectral power density as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. The regression parameters are scrutinized for their uncertainty within the desired confidence margins. As an immediate application of the velocity power laws, spectral density in supersonic jets are decomposed into their respective components attributed to the jet mixing noise and broadband shock associated noise. Subsequent application of the least squares method on the shock power intensity shows that the latter also scales with some power of the shock parameter. A modified shock parameter is defined in order to reduce the dependency of the regression factors on the nozzle design point within the uncertainty margins of the least squares method.

  14. Law of approach to magnetic saturation in nanocrystalline and amorphous ferromagnets with improved transition behavior between power-law regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Iskhakov, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    New law of the approach to magnetic saturation is proposed based on scaling in ferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy. This law is consistent with the known laws derived within perturbation theory in extreme cases, but it describes the transition mode between the power-low asymptotic regimes better. The improved law is proper for reliable fitting the approach magnetization to saturation in nanocrystalline and amorphous ferromagnets.

  15. Self-dual quasiperiodic systems with power-law hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sarang

    2017-08-01

    We introduce and explore a family of self-dual models of single-particle motion in quasiperiodic potentials, with hopping amplitudes that fall off as a power law with exponent p . These models are generalizations of the familiar Aubry-André model. For large enough p , their static properties are similar to those of the Aubry-André model, although the low-frequency conductivity in the localized phase is sensitive to p . For p ≲2.1 the Aubry-André localization transition splits into three transitions; two distinct intermediate regimes with both localized and delocalized states appear near the self-dual point of the Aubry-André model. In the intermediate regimes, the density of states is singular continuous in much of the spectrum, and is approximately self-similar: states form narrow energy bands, which are divided into yet narrower subbands; we find no clear sign of a mobility edge. When p <1 , localized states are not stable in random potentials; in the present model, however, tightly localized states are present for relatively large systems. We discuss the frequency-dependence and strong sample-to-sample fluctuations of the low-frequency optical conductivity, although a suitably generalized version of Mott's law is recovered when the power law is slowly decaying. We present evidence that many of these features persist in models that are away from self-duality.

  16. Imaging viscoelastic properties of live cells by AFM: power-law rheology on the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Fabian M; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schierbaum, Nicolas; Goldmann, Wolfgang H; Fabry, Ben; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2015-06-21

    We developed force clamp force mapping (FCFM), an atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique for measuring the viscoelastic creep behavior of live cells with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. FCFM combines force-distance curves with an added force clamp phase during tip-sample contact. From the creep behavior measured during the force clamp phase, quantitative viscoelastic sample properties are extracted. We validate FCFM on soft polyacrylamide gels. We find that the creep behavior of living cells conforms to a power-law material model. By recording short (50-60 ms) force clamp measurements in rapid succession, we generate, for the first time, two-dimensional maps of power-law exponent and modulus scaling parameter. Although these maps reveal large spatial variations of both parameters across the cell surface, we obtain robust mean values from the several hundreds of measurements performed on each cell. Measurements on mouse embryonic fibroblasts show that the mean power-law exponents and the mean modulus scaling parameters differ greatly among individual cells, but both parameters are highly correlated: stiffer cells consistently show a smaller power-law exponent. This correlation allows us to distinguish between wild-type cells and cells that lack vinculin, a dominant protein of the focal adhesion complex, even though the mean values of viscoelastic properties between wildtype and knockout cells did not differ significantly. Therefore, FCFM spatially resolves viscoelastic sample properties and can uncover subtle mechanical signatures of proteins in living cells.

  17. Simulation of Codman's paradox reveals a general law of motion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei Lai

    2006-01-01

    Codman's paradox refers to a specific pattern of motion at the shoulder joint. It asked how a mysterious axial rotation about the longitudinal axis of the arm occurred during two or three sequential arm rotations that did not involve rotation about the long-axis. The objective of this paper was to find how the mysterious axial rotation occurred in the Codman's paradox. First, Codman's paradox and Codman's rotation were defined in general situations that involved arm rotations about orthogonal axes starting from the neutral attitude as well as rotations about non-orthogonal axes and starting from non-neutral attitudes. Then a general law of motion was proposed to answer the question of the Codman's paradox, which is stated as when the long-axis of the arm performs a closed-loop motion by three sequential rotations defined as Codman's rotation, it produces an equivalent axial rotation angle about the long-axis. The equivalent axial rotation angle equals the angle of swing-the second rotation in the three sequential long-axis rotations. Validity of the proposed law of motion is demonstrated by computer simulation of various Codman's rotations. Clinical relevance of the proposed law of motion is also discussed in the paper.

  18. Influence of DBT reconstruction algorithm on power law spectrum coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancamberg, Laurence; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Abderrahmane, Ilyes H.; Palma, Giovanni; Milioni de Carvalho, Pablo; Iordache, Rǎzvan; Muller, Serge

    2015-03-01

    In breast X-ray images, texture has been characterized by a noise power spectrum (NPS) that has an inverse power-law shape described by its slope β in the log-log domain. It has been suggested that the magnitude of the power-law spectrum coefficient β is related to mass lesion detection performance. We assessed β in reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images to evaluate its sensitivity to different typical reconstruction algorithms including simple back projection (SBP), filtered back projection (FBP) and a simultaneous iterative reconstruction algorithm (SIRT 30 iterations). Results were further compared to the β coefficient estimated from 2D central DBT projections. The calculations were performed on 31 unilateral clinical DBT data sets and simulated DBT images from 31 anthropomorphic software breast phantoms. Our results show that β highly depends on the reconstruction algorithm; the highest β values were found for SBP, followed by reconstruction with FBP, while the lowest β values were found for SIRT. In contrast to previous studies, we found that β is not always lower in reconstructed DBT slices, compared to 2D projections and this depends on the reconstruction algorithm. All β values estimated in DBT slices reconstructed with SBP were larger than β values from 2D central projections. Our study also shows that the reconstruction algorithm affects the symmetry of the breast texture NPS; the NPS of clinical cases reconstructed with SBP exhibit the highest symmetry, while the NPS of cases reconstructed with SIRT exhibit the highest asymmetry.

  19. SHJAR Jet Noise Data and Power Spectral Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2009-01-01

    High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling laws. Configurations considered in the present study consist of convergent and convergent-divergent axisymmetric nozzles. The measured spectral data are shown in narrow band and cover 8193 equally spaced points in a typical Strouhal number range of 0.0 to 10.0. The measured data are reported as lossless (i.e., atmospheric attenuation is added to measurements), and at 24 equally spaced angles (50deg to 165deg) on a 100-diameter (200-in.) arc. Following the work of Viswanathan, velocity power factors are evaluated using a least squares fit on spectral power density as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. The goodness of the fit and the confidence margins for the two regression parameters are studied at each angle, and alternative relationships are proposed to improve the spectral collapse when certain conditions are met. As an immediate application of the velocity power laws, spectral density in shockcontaining jets are decomposed into components attributed to jet mixing noise and shock noise. From this analysis, jet noise prediction tools can be developed with different spectral components derived from different physics.

  20. a, b careful: The challenge of scale invariance for comparative analyses in power law models of the streamflow recession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David; Karst, Nathaniel; Thompson, Sally E.

    2015-11-01

    The falling limb of the hydrograph—the streamflow recession—is frequently well approximated by power law functions, in the form dq/dt = -aqb, so that recessions are often characterized in terms of their power law parameters (a, b). The empirical determination and interpretation of the parameter a is typically biased by the presence of a ubiquitous mathematical artifact resulting from the scale-free properties of the power law function. This reduces the information available from recession parameter analysis and creates several heretofore unaddressed methodological "pitfalls." This letter outlines the artifact, demonstrates its genesis, and presents an empirical rescaling method to remove artifact effects from fitted recession parameters. The rescaling process reveals underlying climatic patterns obscured in the original data and, we suggest, could maximize the information content of fitted power laws.

  1. Power laws of complex systems from extreme physical information.

    PubMed

    Frieden, B Roy; Gatenby, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    Many complex systems obey allometric, or power, laws y=Y x(a) . Here y > or = 0 is the measured value of some system attribute a , Y> or =0 is a constant, and x is a stochastic variable. Remarkably, for many living systems the exponent a is limited to values n/4 , n=0, +/-1, +/-2.... Here x is the mass of a randomly selected creature in the population. These quarter-power laws hold for many attributes, such as pulse rate (n=-1) . Allometry has, in the past, been theoretically justified on a case-by-case basis. An ultimate goal is to find a common cause for allometry of all types and for both living and nonliving systems. The principle I-J=extremum of extreme physical information is found to provide such a cause. It describes the flow of Fisher information J-->I from an attribute value a on the cell level to its exterior observation y . Data y are formed via a system channel function y identical to f (x,a) , with f (x,a) to be found. Extremizing the difference I-J through variation of f (x,a) results in a general allometric law f (x,a) identical to y=Y x(a) . Darwinian evolution is presumed to cause a second extremization of I-J , now with respect to the choice of a . The solution is a=n/4 , n=0,+/-1,+/-2..., defining the particular powers of biological allometry. Under special circumstances, the model predicts that such biological systems are controlled by only two distinct intracellular information sources. These sources are conjectured to be cellular DNA and cellular transmembrane ion gradients.

  2. Event-scale power law recession analysis: quantifying methodological uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Charalampous, Kyriakos; Veenstra, Andrew; Thompson, Sally E.

    2017-01-01

    The study of single streamflow recession events is receiving increasing attention following the presentation of novel theoretical explanations for the emergence of power law forms of the recession relationship, and drivers of its variability. Individually characterizing streamflow recessions often involves describing the similarities and differences between model parameters fitted to each recession time series. Significant methodological sensitivity has been identified in the fitting and parameterization of models that describe populations of many recessions, but the dependence of estimated model parameters on methodological choices has not been evaluated for event-by-event forms of analysis. Here, we use daily streamflow data from 16 catchments in northern California and southern Oregon to investigate how combinations of commonly used streamflow recession definitions and fitting techniques impact parameter estimates of a widely used power law recession model. Results are relevant to watersheds that are relatively steep, forested, and rain-dominated. The highly seasonal mediterranean climate of northern California and southern Oregon ensures study catchments explore a wide range of recession behaviors and wetness states, ideal for a sensitivity analysis. In such catchments, we show the following: (i) methodological decisions, including ones that have received little attention in the literature, can impact parameter value estimates and model goodness of fit; (ii) the central tendencies of event-scale recession parameter probability distributions are largely robust to methodological choices, in the sense that differing methods rank catchments similarly according to the medians of these distributions; (iii) recession parameter distributions are method-dependent, but roughly catchment-independent, such that changing the choices made about a particular method affects a given parameter in similar ways across most catchments; and (iv) the observed correlative relationship

  3. Power laws, discontinuities and regional city size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, C.R.; Gallagher, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Urban systems are manifestations of human adaptation to the natural environment. City size distributions are the expression of hierarchical processes acting upon urban systems. In this paper, we test the entire city size distributions for the southeastern and southwestern United States (1990), as well as the size classes in these regions for power law behavior. We interpret the differences in the size of the regional city size distributions as the manifestation of variable growth dynamics dependent upon city size. Size classes in the city size distributions are snapshots of stable states within urban systems in flux. ?? 2008.

  4. Firms growth dynamics, competition and power-law scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Hari M.; Campanha, José R.

    2003-05-01

    We study the growth dynamics of the size of manufacturing firms considering competition and normal distribution of competency. We start with the fact that all components of the system struggle with each other for growth as happened in real competitive business world. The detailed quantitative agreement of the theory with empirical results of firms growth based on a large economic database spanning over 20 years is good with a single set of the parameters for all the curves. Further, the empirical data of the variation of the standard deviation of the growth rate with the size of the firm are in accordance with the present theory rather than a simple power law.

  5. Power-law tails in the distribution of order imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Gu, Gao-Feng; Xu, Hai-Chuan; Xiong, Xiong; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the probability distribution of order imbalance calculated from the order flow data of 43 Chinese stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. Two definitions of order imbalance are considered based on the order number and the order size. We find that the order imbalance distributions of individual stocks have power-law tails. However, the tail index fluctuates remarkably from stock to stock. We also investigate the distributions of aggregated order imbalance of all stocks at different timescales Δt. We find no clear trend in the tail index with respect Δt. All the analyses suggest that the distributions of order imbalance are asymmetric.

  6. Elastohydrodynamic analysis using a power law pressure-viscosity relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    An isothermal elastohydrodynamic (EHD) inlet analysis of the Grubin type which considers a power law pressure-viscosity relation and a finite pressure at the inlet edge of the Hertzian contact zone was performed. Comparisons made with published X-ray EHD film thickness data for a synthetic paraffinic oil and when conventional EHD theory showed that the present theory exhibits a slightly stronger film thickness load dependence than do previous isothermal EHD theories but far less than that exhibited by the measured data.

  7. Power-law time distribution of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mega, Mirko S; Allegrini, Paolo; Grigolini, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Palatella, Luigi; Rapisarda, Andrea; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2003-05-09

    We study the statistical properties of time distribution of seismicity in California by means of a new method of analysis, the diffusion entropy. We find that the distribution of time intervals between a large earthquake (the main shock of a given seismic sequence) and the next one does not obey Poisson statistics, as assumed by the current models. We prove that this distribution is an inverse power law with an exponent mu=2.06+/-0.01. We propose the long-range model, reproducing the main properties of the diffusion entropy and describing the seismic triggering mechanisms induced by large earthquakes.

  8. Analytical Limit Distributions from Random Power-Law Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Irwin; Mizuno, Daisuke

    2016-07-01

    Nature is full of power-law interactions, e.g., gravity, electrostatics, and hydrodynamics. When sources of such fields are randomly distributed in space, the superposed interaction, which is what we observe, is naively expected to follow a Gauss or Lévy distribution. Here, we present an analytic expression for the actual distributions that converge to novel limits that are in between these already-known limit distributions, depending on physical parameters, such as the concentration of field sources and the size of the probe used to measure the interactions. By comparing with numerical simulations, the origin of non-Gauss and non-Lévy distributions are theoretically articulated.

  9. Conductivity scaling in supercritical percolation of nanoparticles--not a power law.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Östling, Mikael

    2015-02-28

    The power-law behavior widely observed in supercritical percolation systems of conductive nanoparticles may merely be a phenomenological approximation to the true scaling law not yet discovered. In this work, we derive a comprehensive yet simple scaling law and verify its extensive applicability to various experimental and numerical systems. In contrast to the power law which lacks theoretical backing, the new scaling law is explanatory and predictive, and thereby helpful to gain more new insights into percolation systems of conductive nanoparticles.

  10. Optimized dynamical decoupling for power-law noise spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Pasini, S.; Uhrig, G. S.

    2010-01-15

    We analyze the suppression of decoherence by means of dynamical decoupling in the pure-dephasing spin-boson model for baths with power law spectra. The sequence of ideal pi pulses is optimized according to the power of the bath. We expand the decoherence function and separate the canceling divergences from the relevant terms. The proposed sequence is chosen to be the one minimizing the decoherence function. By construction, it provides the best performance. We analytically derive the conditions that must be satisfied. The resulting equations are solved numerically. The solutions are very close to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence for a soft cutoff of the bath while they approach the Uhrig dynamical-decoupling sequence as the cutoff becomes harder.

  11. Power Law Distributions of Patents as Indicators of Innovation

    PubMed Central

    O’Neale, Dion R. J.; Hendy, Shaun C.

    2012-01-01

    The total number of patents produced by a country (or the number of patents produced per capita) is often used as an indicator for innovation. Here we present evidence that the distribution of patents amongst applicants within many countries is well-described by power laws with exponents that vary between 1.66 (Japan) and 2.37 (Poland). We suggest that this exponent is a useful new metric for studying innovation. Using simulations based on simple preferential attachment-type rules that generate power laws, we find we can explain some of the variation in exponents between countries, with countries that have larger numbers of patents per applicant generally exhibiting smaller exponents in both the simulated and actual data. Similarly we find that the exponents for most countries are inversely correlated with other indicators of innovation, such as research and development intensity or the ubiquity of export baskets. This suggests that in more advanced economies, which tend to have smaller values of the exponent, a greater proportion of the total number of patents are filed by large companies than in less advanced countries. PMID:23227144

  12. Power Laws in Real Estate Prices during Bubble Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takaaki; Mizuno, Takayuki; Shimizu, Chihiro; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    How can we detect real estate bubbles? In this paper, we propose making use of information on the cross-sectional dispersion of real estate prices. During bubble periods, prices tend to go up considerably for some properties, but less so for others, so that price inequality across properties increases. In other words, a key characteristic of real estate bubbles is not the rapid price hike itself but a rise in price dispersion. Given this, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether developments in the dispersion in real estate prices can be used to detect bubbles in property markets as they arise, using data from Japan and the U.S. First, we show that the land price distribution in Tokyo had a power-law tail during the bubble period in the late 1980s, while it was very close to a lognormal before and after the bubble period. Second, in the U.S. data we find that the tail of the house price distribution tends to be heavier in those states which experienced a housing bubble. We also provide evidence suggesting that the power-law tail observed during bubble periods arises due to the lack of price arbitrage across regions.

  13. Power law distributions of patents as indicators of innovation.

    PubMed

    O'Neale, Dion R J; Hendy, Shaun C

    2012-01-01

    The total number of patents produced by a country (or the number of patents produced per capita) is often used as an indicator for innovation. Here we present evidence that the distribution of patents amongst applicants within many countries is well-described by power laws with exponents that vary between 1.66 (Japan) and 2.37 (Poland). We suggest that this exponent is a useful new metric for studying innovation. Using simulations based on simple preferential attachment-type rules that generate power laws, we find we can explain some of the variation in exponents between countries, with countries that have larger numbers of patents per applicant generally exhibiting smaller exponents in both the simulated and actual data. Similarly we find that the exponents for most countries are inversely correlated with other indicators of innovation, such as research and development intensity or the ubiquity of export baskets. This suggests that in more advanced economies, which tend to have smaller values of the exponent, a greater proportion of the total number of patents are filed by large companies than in less advanced countries.

  14. Implitcation of a Power-Law Climate Response Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, R.

    2015-12-01

    A study of global mean temperature is presented assuming that the climate response function to anthropogenic forcing is a power law. This general form allows for long-range dependancies with only 3 parameter while remaining within the linear forcing paradigm. This establish a one-to-one relation between the scaling exponent H and the ratio of the Transient Climate Response, TCR, and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity, ECS. The scaling exponent of the power law is estimated by a regression of temperature as a function of forcing and by a spectral analysis of the temperature and the forcing. We consider for the analysis 5 different datasets of historical global mean temperature and 100 CMIP5 RCP runs distributed among the 4 scenarios. We find that the error function for the estimate on historical temperature is very wide and thus, many scaling exponent can be used without meaningful changes in the fit residuals of historical temperatures; their response in the year 2100 on the other hand, is very broad. CMIP5 runs allow a narrower estimate of H which can then be used to estimate the ECS by dividing the TCR estimated from the historical data.

  15. Power-law distributions from additive preferential redistributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ree, Suhan

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a nongrowth model that generates the power-law distribution with the Zipf exponent. There are N elements, each of which is characterized by a quantity, and at each time step these quantities are redistributed through binary random interactions with a simple additive preferential rule, while the sum of quantities is conserved. The situation described by this model is similar to those of closed N -particle systems when conservative two-body collisions are only allowed. We obtain stationary distributions of these quantities both analytically and numerically while varying parameters of the model, and find that the model exhibits the scaling behavior for some parameter ranges. Unlike well-known growth models, this alternative mechanism generates the power-law distribution when the growth is not expected and the dynamics of the system is based on interactions between elements. This model can be applied to some examples such as personal wealths, city sizes, and the generation of scale-free networks when only rewiring is allowed.

  16. Beyond the power law: Uncovering stylized facts in interbank networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermarliere, Benjamin; Karas, Alexei; Ryckebusch, Jan; Schoors, Koen

    2015-06-01

    We use daily data on bilateral interbank exposures and monthly bank balance sheets to study network characteristics of the Russian interbank market over August 1998-October 2004. Specifically, we examine the distributions of (un)directed (un)weighted degree, nodal attributes (bank assets, capital and capital-to-assets ratio) and edge weights (loan size and counterparty exposure). We search for the theoretical distribution that fits the data best and report the "best" fit parameters. We observe that all studied distributions are heavy tailed. The fat tail typically contains 20% of the data and can be mostly described well by a truncated power law. Also the power law, stretched exponential and log-normal provide reasonably good fits to the tails of the data. In most cases, however, separating the bulk and tail parts of the data is hard, so we proceed to study the full range of the events. We find that the stretched exponential and the log-normal distributions fit the full range of the data best. These conclusions are robust to (1) whether we aggregate the data over a week, month, quarter or year; (2) whether we look at the "growth" versus "maturity" phases of interbank market development; and (3) with minor exceptions, whether we look at the "normal" versus "crisis" operation periods. In line with prior research, we find that the network topology changes greatly as the interbank market moves from a "normal" to a "crisis" operation period.

  17. Observing Power-Law Dynamics of Position-Velocity Correlation in Anomalous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afek, Gadi; Coslovsky, Jonathan; Courvoisier, Arnaud; Livneh, Oz; Davidson, Nir

    2017-08-01

    In this Letter, we present a measurement of the phase-space density distribution (PSDD) of ultracold 87Rb atoms performing 1D anomalous diffusion. The PSDD is imaged using a direct tomographic method based on Raman velocity selection. It reveals that the position-velocity correlation function Cx v(t ) builds up on a time scale related to the initial conditions of the ensemble and then decays asymptotically as a power law. We show that the decay follows a simple scaling theory involving the power-law asymptotic dynamics of position and velocity. The generality of this scaling theory is confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations of two distinct models of anomalous diffusion.

  18. Brain Network Dynamics Adhere to a Power Law

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo G.; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of complex networks such as the Internet are characterized by a power scaling between the temporal mean and dispersion of signals at each network node. Here we tested the hypothesis that the temporal dynamics of the brain networks are characterized by a similar power law. This realization could be useful to assess the effects of randomness and external modulators on the brain network dynamics. Simulated data using a well-stablished random diffusion model allowed us to predict that the temporal dispersion of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and that of the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) scale with their temporal means. We tested this hypothesis in open-access resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 66 healthy subjects. A robust power law emerged from the temporal dynamics of ALFF and lFCD metrics, which was insensitive to the methods used for the computation of the metrics. The scaling exponents (ALFF: 0.8 ± 0.1; lFCD: 1.1 ± 0.1; mean ± SD) decreased with age and varied significantly across brain regions; multimodal cortical areas exhibited lower scaling exponents, consistent with a stronger influence of external inputs, than limbic and subcortical regions, which exhibited higher scaling exponents, consistent with a stronger influence of internal randomness. Findings are consistent with the notion that external inputs govern neuronal communication in the brain and that their relative influence differs between brain regions. Further studies will assess the potential of this metric as biomarker to characterize neuropathology. PMID:28261049

  19. 29 CFR 1955.12 - Administrative law judge; powers and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative law judge; powers and duties. 1955.12... Formal Proceeding § 1955.12 Administrative law judge; powers and duties. (a) The administrative law judge... U.S.C. 554-557 (hereinafter called the APA). (b) On any procedural question not otherwise regulated...

  20. 29 CFR 1955.12 - Administrative law judge; powers and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative law judge; powers and duties. 1955.12... Formal Proceeding § 1955.12 Administrative law judge; powers and duties. (a) The administrative law judge... U.S.C. 554-557 (hereinafter called the APA). (b) On any procedural question not otherwise regulated...

  1. Ensemble of LIF neurons with random membrane decay constant: emergence of power-law behavior in ISI distribution.

    PubMed

    Karmeshu; Sharma, Sudheer Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed to explain the emergence of power law behavior in the spiking neurons where the membrane decay constant is assumed to vary randomly across the population of neurons. The proposed approach, akin to superstatistics, provides a plausible mechanism for generating power law behavior in non-equilibrium systems with fluctuations in intensive quantity. This approach has led to formulation of a hypothesis that power law behavior in inter-spike interval (ISI) distribution results when several neurons group together and fire together. In presence of fluctuations in membrane decay constant governed by gamma distribution, the asymptotic analysis of ISI distribution yields a power law. This finding has been corroborated by simulation study when different types of probability distributions for membrane decay constant are considered. Our results are in agreement with the empirical findings due to Kim (2004) where the spiking trains of Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons display power law behavior. Further investigations in subthreshold regime reveals that the averaging of the membrane potential over a large number of neurons also yields power law.

  2. Passive mechanical behavior of human neutrophils: power-law fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, M A; Frank, R S; Waugh, R E

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of the neutrophil plays an important role in both the microcirculation and the immune system. Several laboratories in the past have developed mechanical models to describe different aspects of neutrophil deformability. In this study, the passive mechanical properties of normal human neutrophils have been further characterized. The cellular mechanical properties were assessed by single cell micropipette aspiration at fixed aspiration pressures. A numerical simulation was developed to interpret the experiments in terms of cell mechanical properties based on the Newtonian liquid drop model (Yeung and Evans, Biophys. J., 56: 139-149, 1989). The cytoplasmic viscosity was determined as a function of the ratio of the initial cell size to the pipette radius, the cortical tension, aspiration pressure, and the whole cell aspiration time. The cortical tension of passive neutrophils was measured to be about 2.7 x 10(-5) N/m. The apparent viscosity of neutrophil cytoplasm was found to depend on aspiration pressure, and ranged from approximately 500 Pa.s at an aspiration pressure of 98 Pa (1.0 cm H2O) to approximately 50 Pa.s at 882 Pa (9.0 cm H2O) when tested with a 4.0-micron pipette. These data provide the first documentation that the neutrophil cytoplasm exhibits non-Newtonian behavior. To further characterize the non-Newtonian behavior of human neutrophils, a mean shear rate gamma m was estimated based on the numerical simulation. The apparent cytoplasmic viscosity appears to decrease as the mean shear rate increases. The dependence of cytoplasmic viscosity on the mean shear rate can be approximated as a power-law relationship described by mu = mu c(gamma m/gamma c)-b, where mu is the cytoplasmic viscosity, gamma m is the mean shear rate, mu c is the characteristic viscosity at characteristic shear rate gamma c, and b is a material coefficient. When gamma c was set to 1 s-1, the material coefficients for passive neutrophils were determined to be mu c

  3. Resetting of fluctuating interfaces at power-law times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shamik; Nagar, Apoorva

    2016-11-01

    What happens when the time evolution of a fluctuating interface is interrupted by resetting to a given initial configuration after random time intervals τ distributed as a power-law ˜ {τ }-(1+α ); α \\gt 0? For an interface of length L in one dimension, and an initial flat configuration, we show that depending on α, the dynamics in the limit L\\to ∞ exhibit a spectrum of rich long-time behavior. It is known that without resetting, the interface width grows unbounded with time as {t}β in this limit, where β is the so-called growth exponent characteristic of the universality class for a given interface dynamics. We show that introducing resetting leads to fluctuations that are bounded at large times for α \\gt 1. Corresponding to such a reset-induced stationary state is a distribution of fluctuations that is strongly non-Gaussian, with tails decaying as a power-law. The distribution exhibits a distinctive cuspy behavior for a small argument, implying that the stationary state is out of equilibrium. For α \\lt 1, on the contrary, resetting to the flat configuration is unable to counter the otherwise unbounded growth of fluctuations in time, so that the distribution of fluctuations remains time dependent with an ever-increasing width, even at long times. Although stationary for α \\gt 1, the width of the interface grows forever with time as a power-law for 1\\lt α \\lt {α }({{w})}, and converges to a finite constant only for larger α, thereby exhibiting a crossover at {α }({{w})}=1 + 2β . The time-dependent distribution of fluctuations exhibits for α \\lt 1 and for small arguments further interesting crossover behavior from cusp to divergence across {α }({{d})}=1-β . We demonstrate these results by exact analytical results for the paradigmatic Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) dynamical evolution of the interface, and further corroborate our findings by extensive numerical simulations of interface models in the EW and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class.

  4. Power-law weighted networks from local attachments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriano, P.; Finke, J.

    2012-07-01

    This letter introduces a mechanism for constructing, through a process of distributed decision-making, substrates for the study of collective dynamics on extended power-law weighted networks with both a desired scaling exponent and a fixed clustering coefficient. The analytical results show that the connectivity distribution converges to the scaling behavior often found in social and engineering systems. To illustrate the approach of the proposed framework we generate network substrates that resemble steady state properties of the empirical citation distributions of i) publications indexed by the Institute for Scientific Information from 1981 to 1997; ii) patents granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office from 1975 to 1999; and iii) opinions written by the Supreme Court and the cases they cite from 1754 to 2002.

  5. Bubble coalescence in a power-law fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, Pritish; Thete, Sumeet; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    As two spherical gas bubbles in a liquid are slowly brought together, the liquid film or sheet between them drains and ultimately ruptures, forming a circular hole that connects them. The high curvature near the edge of the liquid sheet drives flow radially outward, causing the film to retract and the radius of the hole to increase with time. Recent experimental and theoretical work in this area has uncovered self-similarity and universal scaling regimes when two bubbles coalesce in a Newtonian fluid. Motivated by applications such as polymer and composites processing, food and drug manufacture, and aeration/deaeration systems where the liquids often exhibit deformation-rate thinning rheology, we extend the recent Newtonian studies to bubble coalescence in power-law fluids. In our work, we use a combination of thin-film theory and full 3D, axisymmetric computations to probe the dynamics in the aftermath of the singularity.

  6. Deviation from power law of the global seismic moment distribution

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Isabel; Corral, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of seismic moment is of capital interest to evaluate earthquake hazard, in particular regarding the most extreme events. We make use of likelihood-ratio tests to compare the simple Gutenberg-Richter power-law (PL) distribution with two statistical models that incorporate an exponential tail, the so-called tapered Gutenberg-Richter (Tap) and the truncated gamma, when fitted to the global CMT earthquake catalog. Although the Tap distribution does not introduce any significant improvement of fit respect the PL, the truncated gamma does. Simulated samples of this distribution, with parameters β = 0.68 and mc = 9.15 and reshuffled in order to mimic the time occurrence of the order statistics of the empirical data, are able to explain the temporal heterogeneity of global seismicity both before and after the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 2004. PMID:28053311

  7. Deviation from power law of the global seismic moment distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Isabel; Corral, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of seismic moment is of capital interest to evaluate earthquake hazard, in particular regarding the most extreme events. We make use of likelihood-ratio tests to compare the simple Gutenberg-Richter power-law (PL) distribution with two statistical models that incorporate an exponential tail, the so-called tapered Gutenberg-Richter (Tap) and the truncated gamma, when fitted to the global CMT earthquake catalog. Although the Tap distribution does not introduce any significant improvement of fit respect the PL, the truncated gamma does. Simulated samples of this distribution, with parameters β = 0.68 and mc = 9.15 and reshuffled in order to mimic the time occurrence of the order statistics of the empirical data, are able to explain the temporal heterogeneity of global seismicity both before and after the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 2004.

  8. Unexpected power-law stress relaxation of entangled ring polymers

    PubMed Central

    KAPNISTOS, M.; LANG, M.; PYCKHOUT-HINTZEN, W.; RICHTER, D.; CHO, D.; CHANG, T.

    2016-01-01

    After many years of intense research, most aspects of the motion of entangled polymers have been understood. Long linear and branched polymers have a characteristic entanglement plateau and their stress relaxes by chain reptation or branch retraction, respectively. In both mechanisms, the presence of chain ends is essential. But how do entangled polymers without ends relax their stress? Using properly purified high-molar-mass ring polymers, we demonstrate that these materials exhibit self-similar dynamics, yielding a power-law stress relaxation. However, trace amounts of linear chains at a concentration almost two decades below their overlap cause an enhanced mechanical response. An entanglement plateau is recovered at higher concentrations of linear chains. These results constitute an important step towards solving an outstanding problem of polymer science and are useful for manipulating properties of materials ranging from DNA to polycarbonate. They also provide possible directions for tuning the rheology of entangled polymers. PMID:18953345

  9. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  10. Power-law creep and residual stresses in carbopol microgels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidon, Pierre; Manneville, Sebastien

    We report on the interplay between creep and residual stresses in carbopol microgels. When a constant shear stress σ is applied below the yield stress σc, the strain is shown to increase as a power law of time, γ (t) =γ0 +(t / τ) α , with and exponent α ~= 0 . 38 that is strongly reminiscent of Andrade creep in hard solids. For applied shear stresses lower than some characteristic value of about σc / 10 , the microgels experience a more complex creep behavior that we link to the existence of residual stresses and to weak aging of the system after preshear. The influence of the preshear protocol, of boundary conditions and of microgel concentration on residual stresses is investigated. We discuss our results in light of previous works on colloidal glasses and other soft glassy systems.

  11. Power-law resistivity, magnetic relaxation and ac susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, J.; van der Beek, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    The nonlinear diffusion of magnetic flux into a superconducting sample can be studied by measuring the relaxation of the magnetisation after application of a step field or by measuring the ac susceptibility, {chi}{sub 1} and its third harmonic, {chi}{sub 3}, or preferably both methods covering different time scales. Each has been analysed recently for a field-cooled sample of a material whose creep activation energy depends logarithmically on current density, J corresponding to a power-law relation between electric field, E and J. Here, results are compared, using a universal scaling depth. Maximum {chi}{sub 1}{double_prime} {vert_bar}{chi}{sub 3}{vert_bar} and values occur, and also the magnetisation has relaxed to half its initial value when the scaling depth is comparable to the sample half-thickness.

  12. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  13. POWER-LAW TEMPLATE FOR INFRARED POINT-SOURCE CLUSTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Das, Sudeep; Hincks, Adam D.; Page, Lyman A.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Devlin, Mark J.; Reese, Erik D.; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Spergel, David N.; Moodley, Kavilan; Wollack, Edward

    2012-06-20

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 {approx}< l {approx}< 2200), the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m; 1000 {approx}< l {approx}< 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C{sup clust}{sub l}{proportional_to}l{sup -n} with n = 1.25 {+-} 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, {nu}{sup {beta}} B({nu}, T{sub eff}), with a single emissivity index {beta} = 2.20 {+-} 0.07 and effective temperature T{sub eff} = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be {alpha}{sub 150-220} = 3.68 {+-} 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  14. Power-Law Template for Infrared Point-Source Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addison, Graeme E; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglas; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 approx < l approx < 2200), the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350, and 500 micron; 1000 approx < l approx < 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C(sup clust)(sub l) varies as l (sub -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, ?(sup Beta)B(?, T(sub eff) ), with a single emissivity index Beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T(sub eff) = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha(sub 150-220) = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  15. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglass; Spergel, David N.; Staggs,Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 < I < 2200), the Balloonborne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350 and 500 microns; 1000 < I < 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fit by a simple power law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  16. Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo ["Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer," Appl. Mech. Rev. 50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Reθ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.

  17. Electroosmotic flows of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in a cylindrical microchannel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun

    2013-03-01

    EOF of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in a cylindrical microchannel is analyzed theoretically. Specially, exact solutions of electroosmotic velocity corresponding to two special fluid behavior indices (n = 0.5 and 1.0) are found, while approximate solutions are derived for arbitrary values of fluid behavior index. It is found that because of the approximation for the first-order modified Bessel function of the first kind, the approximate solutions introduce largest errors for predicting electroosmotic velocity when the thickness of electric double layer is comparable to channel radius, but can accurately predict the electroosmotic velocity when the thickness of electric double layer is much smaller or larger than the channel radius. Importantly, the analysis reveals that the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity of power-law fluids in cylindrical microchannels becomes dependent on geometric dimensions (radius of channel), standing in stark contrast to the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity over planar surfaces or in parallel-plate microchannels. Such interesting and counterintuitive effects can be attributed to the nonlinear coupling among the electrostatics, channel geometry, and non-Newtonian hydrodynamics. Furthermore, a method for enhancement of EOFs of power-law fluids is proposed under a combined DC and AC electric field. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Empirical analysis on the connection between power-law distributions and allometries for urban indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. G. A.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    We report on the existing connection between power-law distributions and allometries. As it was first reported in Gomez-Lievano et al. (2012) for the relationship between homicides and population, when these urban indicators present asymptotic power-law distributions, they can also display specific allometries among themselves. Here, we present an extensive characterization of this connection when considering all possible pairs of relationships from twelve urban indicators of Brazilian cities (such as child labor, illiteracy, income, sanitation and unemployment). Our analysis reveals that all our urban indicators are asymptotically distributed as power laws and that the proposed connection also holds for our data when the allometric relationship displays enough correlations. We have also found that not all allometric relationships are independent and that they can be understood as a consequence of the allometric relationship between the urban indicator and the population size. We further show that the residuals fluctuations surrounding the allometries are characterized by an almost constant variance and log-normal distributions.

  19. New insight in fractional differentiation: power, exponential decay and Mittag-Leffler laws and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Atangana, Abdon

    2017-01-01

    Some physical problems found in nature can follow the power law; others can follow the Mittag-Leffler law and others the exponential decay law. On the other hand, one can observe in nature a physical problem that combines the three laws, it is therefore important to provide a new fractional operator that could possibly be used to model such physical problem. In this paper, we suggest a fractional operator power-law-exponential-Mittag-Leffler kernel with three fractional orders. Some very useful properties are obtained. Numerical solutions were obtained for three examples proposed. The results show that the new fractional operators are powerful mathematical tools to model complex problems.

  20. Vacuum flash geothermal power plants: Second Law analysis and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1997-12-31

    Hibara et al (1990) describe the concept of a vacuum-flash geothermal steam plant. The idea involves the use of near-boiling-point water available at numerous hot spring areas. The authors show that a steam plant using a vacuum pump to create the flash process for steam generation can compete thermodynamically and economically with binary plants of small capacity. However, the thermal efficiency they quote is very low (1.4%) and might discourage the use of such a scheme. This paper examines vacuum-flash plants using Second Law analysis, a thermodynamically appropriate method to assess the performance of the system (Moran, 1982; DiPippo and Marcille, 1984), and the results are both more revealing and more encouraging.

  1. Multiple short time power laws in the orientational relaxation of nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Jose, Prasanth P; Bagchi, Biman

    2006-11-14

    Relaxation in the nematic liquid crystalline phase is known to be sensitive to its proximity to both isotropic and smectic phases. Recent transient optical Kerr effect (OKE) studies have revealed, rather surprisingly, two temporal power laws at short to intermediate times and also an apparent absence of the expected exponential decay at longer times. In order to understand this unusual dynamics, we have carried out extensive molecular dynamics simulations of transient OKE and related orientational time correlation functions in a system of prolate ellipsoids (with aspect ratio equal to 3). The simulations find two distinct power laws, with a crossover region, in the decay of the orientational time correlation function at short to intermediate times (in the range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds). In addition, the simulation results fail to recover any long time exponential decay component. The system size dependence of the exponents suggests that the first power law may originate from the local orientational density fluctuations (like in a glassy liquid). The origin of the second power law is less clear and may be related to the long range fluctuations (such as smecticlike density fluctuations)--these fluctuations are expected to involve small free energy barriers. In support of the latter, the evidence of pronounced coupling between orientational and spatial densities at intermediate wave numbers is presented. This coupling is usually small in normal isotropic liquids, but it is large in the present case. In addition to slow collective orientational relaxation, the single particle orientational relaxation is also found to exhibit slow dynamics in the nematic phase in the long time.

  2. Universal fractional noncubic power law for density of metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Kono, Yoshio; Lin, Yu; Zeng, Zhidan; Wang, Junyue; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V; Park, Changyong; Meng, Yue; Yang, Wenge; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Mao, Wendy L

    2014-05-09

    As a fundamental property of a material, density is controlled by the interatomic distances and the packing of microscopic constituents. The most prominent atomistic feature in a metallic glass (MG) that can be measured is its principal diffraction peak position (q1) observable by x-ray, electron, or neutron diffraction, which is closely associated with the average interatomic distance in the first shell. Density (and volume) would naturally be expected to vary under compression in proportion to the cube of the one-dimensional interatomic distance. However, by using high pressure as a clean tuning parameter and high-resolution in situ techniques developed specifically for probing the density of amorphous materials, we surprisingly found that the density of a MG varies with the 5/2 power of q1, instead of the expected cubic relationship. Further studies of MGs of different compositions repeatedly produced the same fractional power law of 5/2 in all three MGs we investigated, suggesting a universal feature in MG.

  3. One loop back reaction on power law inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramo, L. R.; Woodard, R. P.

    1999-08-01

    We consider quantum-mechanical corrections to a homogeneous, isotropic, and spatially flat geometry whose scale factor expands classically as a general power of the comoving time. The effects of both gravitons and the scalar inflaton are computed at one loop using the manifestly causal formalism of Schwinger [J. Math. Phys. 2, 407 (1961); Particles, Sources and Fields (Addison, Wesley, Reading, MA, 1970)] with the Feynman rules recently developed by Iliopoulos et al. [Nucl. Phys. B 534, 419 (1998)]. We find no significant effect, in marked contrast to the result obtained by Mukhanov and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1624 (1998); Phys. Rev. D 56, 3248 (1997)] for chaotic inflation based on a quadratic potential. By applying the canonical technique of Mukhanov and co-workers to the exponential potentials of power law inflation, we show that the two methods produce the same results, within the approximations employed, for these backgrounds. We therefore conclude that the shape of the inflaton potential can have an enormous impact on the one loop back reaction.

  4. Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Höfinger, Siegfried; Venturini, Alessandro; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.

  5. Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalis, Evangelos E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Venturini, Alessandro

    2015-06-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.

  6. Evidence for two hard X-ray components in double power-law fits to the 1980 June 7 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean F.; Orwig, Larry E.

    1988-01-01

    The June 7, 1980 flare at 0312 UT was analyzed with double power-law fits on the basis of SMM hard X-ray burst spectrometer data. The flare is found to consist of seven peaks of characteristic time scale of about 8 sec followed by seven valleys which may contain significant peak components because of overlap. It is suggested that the possibility of thermal spectra for the peaks is unlikely. An investigation of the double power-law parameters through the third and fourth peaks revealed a hysteresis effect in the fourth peak. The present results have been interpreted in terms of a trap plus precipitation model.

  7. 5 CFR 2423.31 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Law Judge at the hearing. 2423.31 Section 2423.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS Hearing Procedures § 2423.31 Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing. (a) Conduct of hearing. The Administrative Law Judge shall conduct the hearing...

  8. Evaluation of detection model performance in power-law noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Arthur E.

    2001-06-01

    Two alternative forced-choice (2AFC) nodule detection performances of a number of model observers were evaluated for detection of simulated nodules in filtered power-law (1/f3) noise. The models included the ideal observer, the channelized Fisher-Hotelling (FH) model with two different basis function sets, the non-prewhitening matched filter with an eye filter (NPWE), and the Rose model with no DC response (RoseNDC). Detectability of the designer nodule signal was investigated. It has equation s((rho) )equalsA*Rect((rho) /2)(1-(rho) 2)v, where (rho) is a normalized distance (r/R), R is the nodule radius and A is signal amplitude. The nodule profile can be changed (designed) by changing the value of v. For example, the result is a sharp-edged, flat-topped disc for v equal to zero and the projection of a sphere for v equal to 0.5. Human observer experiments were done with nodules based on v equal to 0, 0.5 and 1.5. For the v equal to 1.5 case, human results could be well fitted using a variety of models. The human CD diagram slopes were -0.12, +0.27 and +0.44 for v equal to 0, 0.5 and 1.5 respectively.

  9. Mutually cooperative epidemics on power-law networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Peng-Bi; Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The spread of an infectious disease can, in some cases, promote the propagation of other pathogens favoring violent outbreaks, which cause a discontinuous transition to an endemic state. The topology of the contact network plays a crucial role in these cooperative dynamics. We consider a susceptible-infected-removed-type model with two mutually cooperative pathogens: An individual already infected with one disease has an increased probability of getting infected by the other. We present a heterogeneous mean-field theoretical approach to the coinfection dynamics on generic uncorrelated power-law degree-distributed networks and validate its results by means of numerical simulations. We show that, when the second moment of the degree distribution is finite, the epidemic transition is continuous for low cooperativity, while it is discontinuous when cooperativity is sufficiently high. For scale-free networks, i.e., topologies with diverging second moment, the transition is instead always continuous. In this way we clarify the effect of heterogeneity and system size on the nature of the transition, and we validate the physical interpretation about the origin of the discontinuity.

  10. Power-law cross-correlations estimation under heavy tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2016-11-01

    We examine the performance of six estimators of the power-law cross-correlations-the detrended cross-correlation analysis, the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis, the height cross-correlation analysis, the averaged periodogram estimator, the cross-periodogram estimator and the local cross-Whittle estimator-under heavy-tailed distributions. The selection of estimators allows to separate these into the time and frequency domain estimators. By varying the characteristic exponent of the α-stable distributions which controls the tails behavior, we report several interesting findings. First, the frequency domain estimators are practically unaffected by heavy tails bias-wise. Second, the time domain estimators are upward biased for heavy tails but they have lower estimator variance than the other group for short series. Third, specific estimators are more appropriate depending on distributional properties and length of the analyzed series. In addition, we provide a discussion of implications of these results for empirical applications as well as theoretical explanations.

  11. Money, power, gas and the law: The `big` convergence

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, S.S.

    1998-06-29

    Nothing ever endures but change, and in the ever whirling wheel of change that is the energy economy and its regulation, massive flux is under way. The key ingredients in this mix--the gas and electric industries, the financial instruments and entities that back them, and the laws and regulations that control and guide them--are in a confluence moving at warp speed. Assets are being divested or monetized. Financial products--not only reserves--are the answer to managing supply risks. Spark spreads--the financial differential between the price of gas as a commodity and gas that has been transformed into electrons--are being traded. Electric restructuring is being patterned on the template of the gas experience. Electronic bulletin boards and trading systems are linking the industries in cyberspace. And the consolidation of these industries has led to the biggest mating game in the energy industries` history, all at a fast-forward pace. Federal and state legislators and regulators swim in the same tank as the voracious entities this article discusses. Faced with unimagined combinations of players, complicated market power questions swirl around the merger and acquisition marriages. And, as the markets push ahead with new ideas, the regulators attempt to shape the process with their own proposals to influence the market of the next millennium. This article discusses some of the major moves and certain key regulatory decisions regarding these landscape-altering initiatives.

  12. Power law distributions and dynamic behaviour of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, P.

    2001-04-01

    A simple agent model is introduced by analogy with the mean field approach to the Ising model for a magnetic system. Our model is characterised by a generalised Langevin equation = F ϕ + G ϕ t where t is the usual Gaussian white noise, i.e.: t t' = 2Dδ t-t' and t = 0. Both the associated Fokker Planck equation and the long time probability distribution function can be obtained analytically. A steady state solution may be expressed as P ϕ = exp{ - Ψ ϕ - ln G(ϕ)} where Ψ ϕ = - F/ G dϕ and Z is a normalization factor. This is explored for the simple case where F ϕ = Jϕ + bϕ2 - cϕ3 and fluctuations characterised by the amplitude G ϕ = ϕ + ɛ when it readily yields for ϕ>>ɛ, a distribution function with power law tails, viz: P ϕ = exp{ 2bϕ-cϕ2 /D}. The parameter c ensures convergence of the distribution function for large values of ϕ. It might be loosely associated with the activity of so-called value traders. The parameter J may be associated with the activity of noise traders. Output for the associated time series show all the characteristics of familiar financial time series providing J < 0 and D | J|.

  13. Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-12-01

    For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(DCCA)(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρ(DCCA)(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1 ≤ ρ(DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1. Here we derive -1 ≤ ρ DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρ(DCCA) within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine-and for nonoverlapping windows we derive--that the standard deviation of ρ(DCCA)(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρ(DCCA)(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.

  14. Reciprocity and the Emergence of Power Laws in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnegg, Michael

    Research in network science has shown that many naturally occurring and technologically constructed networks are scale free, that means a power law degree distribution emerges from a growth model in which each new node attaches to the existing network with a probability proportional to its number of links (= degree). Little is known about whether the same principles of local attachment and global properties apply to societies as well. Empirical evidence from six ethnographic case studies shows that complex social networks have significantly lower scaling exponents γ ~ 1 than have been assumed in the past. Apparently humans do not only look for the most prominent players to play with. Moreover cooperation in humans is characterized through reciprocity, the tendency to give to those from whom one has received in the past. Both variables — reciprocity and the scaling exponent — are negatively correlated (r = -0.767, sig = 0.075). If we include this effect in simulations of growing networks, degree distributions emerge that are much closer to those empirically observed. While the proportion of nodes with small degrees decreases drastically as we introduce reciprocity, the scaling exponent is more robust and changes only when a relatively large proportion of attachment decisions follow this rule. If social networks are less scale free than previously assumed this has far reaching implications for policy makers, public health programs and marketing alike.

  15. Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-12-01

    For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρDCCA(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρDCCA(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1. Here we derive -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρDCCA within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine—and for nonoverlapping windows we derive—that the standard deviation of ρDCCA(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρDCCA(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.

  16. Gaussian-type light bullets in power-law nonlinear media with PT-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    The (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with power-law nonlinearities in two kinds of PT-symmetric potentials is investigated, and two kinds of Gaussian-type light bullet (LB) solutions are analytically derived. Based on these analytical solutions, the powers, power-flow densities and the phase switches are discussed. The linear stability analysis and the direct numerical simulation show that LB solutions are stable only when the imaginary parts of PT-symmetric potentials are below some thresholds in the focusing power-law nonlinear media, while they are always unstable in the defocusing power-law nonlinear media.

  17. Streamwater ages derived from tritium show power law variation with discharge like silica concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Michael; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Understanding runoff generation is important for management of freshwater systems. Determining transit time distributions of streamwaters and how they change with discharge gives information on the flowpaths and recharge sources of streams - vital information for determining the responses of streams to stressors such as pollution, landuse change, or climate change. This work takes a first look at unique information on how transit time distributions change with discharge in some New Zealand catchments. Transit time distributions of streamwaters have been determined from tritium measurements on single samples in this work. This allows changes with stream discharge to be observed, in contrast to previous isotope studies which have given averaged transit time distributions based on series of samples. In addition, tritium reveals the wide spectrum of ages present in streams whereas oxygen-18 or chloride variations only show the younger ages (Stewart et al., 2010). It was found that the mean transit time (MTT) data could be reasonably represented by straight lines in log-log plots, indicating power law relationships between MTT and discharge. Similar power law behaviour has been observed for the rock forming elements such as silica in streamwaters (Godsey et al., 2009). Case studies are presented for two New Zealand catchments, both with volcanic ash substrates. Toenepi is a dairy catchment near Hamilton, which shows well-constrained power law relationships between MTT and discharge, and between silica concentration and discharge (Morgenstern et al., 2010). Baseflow MTTs vary from 2.5 to 157 years. Tutaeuaua is a pastoral farming catchment near Taupo. Results for nested catchments along the stream also show power law relationships for both MTT and silica with discharge. Streamwater MTTs vary from 1 to 11 years. The results indicate that (1) relatively old waters dominate many streams, (2) streamwater ages vary with discharge, and (3) age, like silica, varies according to

  18. Scale Invariance in Landscape Evolution Models Using Stream Power Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang, J. S.; Parker, G.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEM) commonly utilize stream power laws to simulate river incision with formulations such as E = KAmSn, where E is a vertical incision rate [L/T], K is an erodibility constant [L1-2m/T], A is an upstream drainage area [L2], S is a local channel gradient [-], and m and n are positive exponents that describe the basin hydrology. In our reduced complexity model, the landscape approached equilibrium by balancing an incision rate with a constant, uniform, vertical rock uplift rate at every location in the landscape. From our simulations, for a combination of m and n, the landscape exhibited scale invariance. That is, regardless of the size and scale of the basin, the relief and vertical structure of the landscape remained constant. Therefore, the relief and elevation profile of the landscape at equilibrium were only dependent on the coefficients for erodibility and uplift and an equation that described how upstream area, A, increased as the length of a stream increased. In our analytical 1D models, we utilized two equations that described upslope area, (a) A = Bl, where B is the profile width [L], and l is the stream length from the ridge [L] and (b) A = Clh, Hack's Law, where C is a constant [L2-h] and h is a positive exponent. With these equations, (a) m = n and (b) hm = n resulted in scale invariance. In our numerical 2D models, the relationship between A and l was inherent in the actual structure of the drainage network. From our numerical 2D results, scale invariance occurred when 2m = n. Additionally, using reasonable values from the literature for exponents, n, m and h, resulted in singularities at the ridges in the landscape, which caused truncation error. In consequence, the elevation of the ridge increased as the number of grid cells in the domain increased in the numerical model, and the model was unable to converge. These singularities at the ridges appeared when (a) m ≥ n and (b) hm ≥ n in the analytical model and 2m ≥ n in

  19. Numerical tools for obtaining power-law representations of heavy-tailed datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Marc L.

    2016-01-01

    Many empirical datasets have highly skewed, non-Gaussian, heavy-tailed distributions, dominated by a relatively small number of data points at the high end of the distribution. Consistent with their role as stable distributions, power laws have frequently been proposed to model such datasets. However there are physical situations that require distributions with finite means. Such situations may call for power laws with high-end cutoffs. Here, I present a maximum-likelihood technique for determining an optimal cut-off power law to represent a given dataset. I also develop a new statistical test of the quality of fit. Results are demonstrated for a number of benchmark datasets. Non-power-law datasets can frequently be represented by power laws, but this is a trivial result unless the dataset spans a broad domain. Nevertheless, I demonstrate that there are non-power-law distributions, including broad log-normal distributions, whose tails can be fit to power laws over many orders of magnitude. Therefore, caution is called for whenever power laws are invoked to represent empirical data. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2015-60452-3

  20. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  1. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang-Bao

    2016-01-01

    An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid). In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule) dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.

  2. An Analytical Model of Wave-Induced Longshore Current Based on Power Law Wave Height Decay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    34I ANALYtTICAL MODEL OF NAVE-INDUCED LON6SHORE CURRENT BASED ON PONE* LAW.. (U) COASTAL ENG INEERING RESEAKNH CENTER VICKSBURG NS J N SMITH ET AL...j . - .L .V . : ; * AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF WAVE-INDUCED ~ z * LONGSHORE CURRENT BASED ON POWER LAW * - WAVE HEIGHT DECAY by Jane McKee...I_ I IF 31592 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) • An Analytical Model of Wave-Induced Longshore Current Based on Power Law . Wave

  3. Power-law scaling for macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity: Evidence from human movement and posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. Lee; Bodfish, James W.; Newell, Karl M.

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity of the dynamics of body rocking and sitting still across adults with stereotyped movement disorder and mental retardation (profound and severe) against controls matched for age, height, and weight. This analysis was performed through the examination of center of pressure (COP) motion on the mediolateral (side-to-side) and anteroposterior (fore-aft) dimensions and the entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of motion. Intentional body rocking and stereotypical body rocking possessed similar slopes for their respective frequency spectra, but differences were revealed during maintenance of sitting postures. The dynamics of sitting in the control group produced lower spectral slopes and higher complexity (approximate entropy). In the controls, the higher complexity found on each dimension of motion was related to a weaker coupling between dimensions. Information entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of COP motion and irregularity (complexity) of their respective motions fitted a power-law function, revealing a relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity across both groups and behaviors. This power-law relation affords the postulation that the organization of movement and posture dynamics occurs as a fractal process.

  4. Power-law scaling for macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity: evidence from human movement and posture.

    PubMed

    Hong, S Lee; Bodfish, James W; Newell, Karl M

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity of the dynamics of body rocking and sitting still across adults with stereotyped movement disorder and mental retardation (profound and severe) against controls matched for age, height, and weight. This analysis was performed through the examination of center of pressure (COP) motion on the mediolateral (side-to-side) and anteroposterior (fore-aft) dimensions and the entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of motion. Intentional body rocking and stereotypical body rocking possessed similar slopes for their respective frequency spectra, but differences were revealed during maintenance of sitting postures. The dynamics of sitting in the control group produced lower spectral slopes and higher complexity (approximate entropy). In the controls, the higher complexity found on each dimension of motion was related to a weaker coupling between dimensions. Information entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of COP motion and irregularity (complexity) of their respective motions fitted a power-law function, revealing a relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity across both groups and behaviors. This power-law relation affords the postulation that the organization of movement and posture dynamics occurs as a fractal process.

  5. Chimera patterns induced by distance-dependent power-law coupling in ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tanmoy; Dutta, Partha Sharathi; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of several chimera patterns and the associated transitions among them in a network of coupled oscillators, which are connected by a long-range interaction that obeys a distance-dependent power law. This type of interaction is common in physics and biology and constitutes a general form of coupling scheme, where by tuning the power-law exponent of the long-range interaction the coupling topology can be varied from local via nonlocal to global coupling. To explore the effect of the power-law coupling on collective dynamics, we consider a network consisting of a realistic ecological model of oscillating populations, namely the Rosenzweig-MacArthur model, and show that the variation of the power-law exponent mediates transitions between spatial synchrony and various chimera patterns. We map the possible spatiotemporal states and their scenarios that arise due to the interplay between the coupling strength and the power-law exponent.

  6. Linear combination of power-law functions for detecting multiscaling using detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, J. C.; Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2016-10-01

    In many instances, the fluctuation function obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) cannot be described by a uniform power-law function along scales. In fact, the manifestation of crossover scales may reflect the simultaneous action of different stochastic mechanisms displayed predominantly within certain scale ranges. This note proposes the use of a linear combination of power-law functions for adjusting DFA data. The idea is that each power-law function recast the dominance of certain stochastic mechanisms (e.g., the mean-reversion and long-term trends) at specific scale domains. Different values of the scaling exponents are numerically estimated by means of a nonlinear least-squares fitting of power-law functions. Examples of crude oil market and heart rate variability are discussed with some detail for illustrating the advantages of taking a linear combination of power-law functions for describing scaling behavior from DFA.

  7. Do wealth distributions follow power laws? Evidence from ‘rich lists’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We use data on the wealth of the richest persons taken from the 'rich lists' provided by business magazines like Forbes to verify if the upper tails of wealth distributions follow, as often claimed, a power-law behaviour. The data sets used cover the world's richest persons over 1996-2012, the richest Americans over 1988-2012, the richest Chinese over 2006-2012, and the richest Russians over 2004-2011. Using a recently introduced comprehensive empirical methodology for detecting power laws, which allows for testing the goodness of fit as well as for comparing the power-law model with rival distributions, we find that a power-law model is consistent with data only in 35% of the analysed data sets. Moreover, even if wealth data are consistent with the power-law model, they are usually also consistent with some rivals like the log-normal or stretched exponential distributions.

  8. Power law distribution in high frequency financial data? An econometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Lora; Vogt, Bodo

    2011-11-01

    Power law distributions are very common in natural sciences. We analyze high frequency financial data from XETRA and the NYSE using maximum likelihood estimation and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to test whether the power law hypothesis holds also for these data. We find that the universality and scale invariance properties of the power law are violated. Furthermore, the returns of Daimler Chrysler and SAP traded simultaneously on both exchanges follow a power law at one exchange, but not at the other. These results raise some questions about the no-arbitrage condition. Finally, we find that an exponential function provides a better fit for the tails of the sample distributions than a power law function.

  9. Chimera patterns induced by distance-dependent power-law coupling in ecological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tanmoy; Dutta, Partha Sharathi; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of several chimera patterns and the associated transitions among them in a network of coupled oscillators, which are connected by a long-range interaction that obeys a distance-dependent power law. This type of interaction is common in physics and biology and constitutes a general form of coupling scheme, where by tuning the power-law exponent of the long-range interaction the coupling topology can be varied from local via nonlocal to global coupling. To explore the effect of the power-law coupling on collective dynamics, we consider a network consisting of a realistic ecological model of oscillating populations, namely the Rosenzweig-MacArthur model, and show that the variation of the power-law exponent mediates transitions between spatial synchrony and various chimera patterns. We map the possible spatiotemporal states and their scenarios that arise due to the interplay between the coupling strength and the power-law exponent.

  10. Renormalization group approach to power-law modeling of complex metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bermejo, Benito

    2010-08-07

    In the modeling of complex biological systems, and especially in the framework of the description of metabolic pathways, the use of power-law models (such as S-systems and GMA systems) often provides a remarkable accuracy over several orders of magnitude in concentrations, an unusually broad range not fully understood at present. In order to provide additional insight in this sense, this article is devoted to the renormalization group analysis of reactions in fractal or self-similar media. In particular, the renormalization group methodology is applied to the investigation of how rate-laws describing such reactions are transformed when the geometric scale is changed. The precise purpose of such analysis is to investigate whether or not power-law rate-laws present some remarkable features accounting for the successes of power-law modeling. As we shall see, according to the renormalization group point of view the answer is positive, as far as power-laws are the critical solutions of the renormalization group transformation, namely power-law rate-laws are the renormalization group invariant solutions. Moreover, it is shown that these results also imply invariance under the group of concentration scalings, thus accounting for the reported power-law model accuracy over several orders of magnitude in metabolite concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the apparent power law in CDM halo pseudo-phase space density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadler, Ethan O.; Oh, S. Peng; Ji, Suoqing

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the apparent power-law scaling of the pseudo-phase space density (PPSD) in cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. We study fluid collapse, using the close analogy between the gas entropy and the PPSD in the fluid approximation. Our hydrodynamic calculations allow for a precise evaluation of logarithmic derivatives. For scale-free initial conditions, entropy is a power law in Lagrangian (mass) coordinates, but not in Eulerian (radial) coordinates. The deviation from a radial power law arises from incomplete hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE), linked to bulk inflow and mass accretion, and the convergence to the asymptotic central power-law slope is very slow. For more realistic collapse, entropy is not a power law with either radius or mass due to deviations from HSE and scale-dependent initial conditions. Instead, it is a slowly rolling power law that appears approximately linear on a log-log plot. Our fluid calculations recover PPSD power-law slopes and residual amplitudes similar to N-body simulations, indicating that deviations from a power law are not numerical artefacts. In addition, we find that realistic collapse is not self-similar; scalelengths such as the shock radius and the turnaround radius are not power-law functions of time. We therefore argue that the apparent power-law PPSD cannot be used to make detailed dynamical inferences or extrapolate halo profiles inwards, and that it does not indicate any hidden integrals of motion. We also suggest that the apparent agreement between the PPSD and the asymptotic Bertschinger slope is purely coincidental.

  12. Exponential and power-law mass distributions in brittle fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Linna, R. P.; Timonen, J.; Møller, Peder Friis; Oddershede, Lene

    2004-08-01

    Generic arguments, a minimal numerical model, and fragmentation experiments with gypsum disk are used to investigate the fragment-size distribution that results from dynamic brittle fragmentation. Fragmentation is initiated by random nucleation of cracks due to material inhomogeneities, and its dynamics are pictured as a process of propagating cracks that are unstable against side-branch formation. The initial cracks and side branches both merge mutually to form fragments. The side branches have a finite penetration depth as a result of inherent damping. Generic arguments imply that close to the minimum strain (or impact energy) required for fragmentation, the number of fragments of size s scales as s-(2D-1)/Df1(-(2/λ)Ds)+f2(-s0-1(λ+s1/D)D) , where D is the Euclidean dimension of the space, λ is the penetration depth, and f1 and f2 can be approximated by exponential functions. Simulation results and experiments can both be described by this theoretical fragment-size distribution. The typical largest fragment size s0 was found to diverge at the minimum strain required for fragmentation as it is inversely related to the density of initially formed cracks. Our results also indicate that scaling of s0 close to this divergence depends on, e.g., loading conditions, and thus is not universal. At the same time, the density of fragment surface vanishes as L-1 , L being the linear dimension of the brittle solid. The results obtained provide an explanation as to why the fragment-size distributions found in nature can have two components, an exponential as well as a power-law component, with varying relative weights.

  13. Power law olivine crystal size distributions in lithospheric mantle xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, P.; Tarquini, S.

    2002-12-01

    Olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs) have been measured in three suites of spinel- and garnet-bearing harzburgites and lherzolites found as xenoliths in alkaline basalts from Canary Islands, Africa; Victoria Land, Antarctica; and Pali Aike, South America. The xenoliths derive from lithospheric mantle, from depths ranging from 80 to 20 km. Their textures vary from coarse to porphyroclastic and mosaic-porphyroclastic up to cataclastic. Data have been collected by processing digital images acquired optically from standard petrographic thin sections. The acquisition method is based on a high-resolution colour scanner that allows image capturing of a whole thin section. Image processing was performed using the VISILOG 5.2 package, resolving crystals larger than about 150 μm and applying stereological corrections based on the Schwartz-Saltykov algorithm. Taking account of truncation effects due to resolution limits and thin section size, all samples show scale invariance of crystal size distributions over almost three orders of magnitude (0.2-25 mm). Power law relations show fractal dimensions varying between 2.4 and 3.8, a range of values observed for distributions of fragment sizes in a variety of other geological contexts. A fragmentation model can reproduce the fractal dimensions around 2.6, which correspond to well-equilibrated granoblastic textures. Fractal dimensions >3 are typical of porphyroclastic and cataclastic samples. Slight bends in some linear arrays suggest selective tectonic crushing of crystals with size larger than 1 mm. The scale invariance shown by lithospheric mantle xenoliths in a variety of tectonic settings forms distant geographic regions, which indicate that this is a common characteristic of the upper mantle and should be taken into account in rheological models and evaluation of metasomatic models.

  14. Power-law and exponential rank distributions: A panoramic Gibbsian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-04-15

    Rank distributions are collections of positive sizes ordered either increasingly or decreasingly. Many decreasing rank distributions, formed by the collective collaboration of human actions, follow an inverse power-law relation between ranks and sizes. This remarkable empirical fact is termed Zipf’s law, and one of its quintessential manifestations is the demography of human settlements — which exhibits a harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. In this paper we present a comprehensive statistical-physics analysis of rank distributions, establish that power-law and exponential rank distributions stand out as optimal in various entropy-based senses, and unveil the special role of the harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. Our results extend the contemporary entropy-maximization view of Zipf’s law to a broader, panoramic, Gibbsian perspective of increasing and decreasing power-law and exponential rank distributions — of which Zipf’s law is one out of four pillars.

  15. Power laws in the dynamic hysteresis of quantum nonlinear photonic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteels, W.; Storme, F.; Le Boité, A.; Ciuti, C.

    2016-03-01

    We explore theoretically the physics of dynamic hysteresis for driven-dissipative nonlinear photonic resonators. In the regime where the semiclassical mean-field theory predicts bistability, the exact steady-state density matrix is known to be unique, being a statistical mixture of two states; in particular, no static hysteresis cycle of the excited population occurs as a function of the driving intensity. Here, we predict that in the quantum regime a dynamic hysteresis with a rich phenomenology does appear when sweeping the driving amplitude in a finite time. The hysteresis area as a function of the sweep time reveals a double power-law decay, with a behavior qualitatively different from the mean-field predictions. The dynamic hysteresis power-law in the slow sweep limit defines a characteristic time, which depends dramatically on the size of the nonlinearity and on the frequency detuning between the driving and the resonator. In the strong nonlinearity regime, the characteristic time oscillates as a function of the intrinsic system parameters due to multiphotonic resonances. We show that the dynamic hysteresis for the considered class of driven-dissipative systems is due to a nonadiabatic response region with connections to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism for quenched phase transitions. We also consider the case of two coupled driven-dissipative nonlinear resonators, showing that dynamic hysteresis and power-law behavior occur also in the presence of correlations between resonators. Our theoretical predictions can be explored in a broad variety of physical systems, e.g., circuit QED superconducting resonators and semiconductor optical microcavities.

  16. Speed-curvature relations in speech production challenge the 1/3 power law.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Pascal; Fuchs, Susanne

    2008-09-01

    Relations between tangential velocity and trajectory curvature are analyzed for tongue movements during speech production in the framework of the 1/3 power law, discovered by Viviani and colleagues for arm movements. In 2004, Tasko and Westbury found for American English that the power function provides a good account of speech kinematics, but with an exponent that varies across articulators. The present work aims at broadening Tasko and Westbury's study 1) by analyzing speed-curvature relations for various languages (French, German, Mandarin) and for a biomechanical tongue model simulating speech gestures at various speaking rates and 2) by providing for each speaker or each simulated speaking rate a comparison of results found for the complete set of movements with those found for each movement separately. It is found that the 1/3 power law offers a fair description of the global speed-curvature relations for all speakers and all languages, when articulatory speech data are considered in their whole. This is also observed in the simulations, where the motor control model does not specify any kinematic property of the articulatory paths. However, the refined analysis for individual movements reveals numerous exceptions to this law: the velocity always decreases when curvature increases, but the slope in the log-log representation is variable. It is concluded that the speed-curvature relation is not controlled in speech movements and that it accounts only for general properties of the articulatory movements, which could arise from vocal tract dynamics or/and from stochastic characteristics of the measured signals.

  17. Power Spectra, Power Law Exponents, and Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podesta, J. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    The Wind spacecraft provides simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field measurements with 3- second time resolution, roughly an order of magnitude faster than previous measurements, enabling the small scale features of solar wind turbulence to be studied in unprecedented detail. Almost the entire inertial range can now be explored (the inertial range extends from approximately 1 to 10(exp 3) seconds in the spacecraft frame) although the dissipation range of the velocity fluctuations is still out of reach. Improved measurements of solar wind turbulence spectra at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane are presented including spectra of the energy and cross-helicity, the magnetic and kinetic energies, the Alfven ratio, the normalized cross-helicity, and the Elsasser ratio. Some recent observations and theoretical challenges are discussed including the observation that the velocity and magnetic field spectra often show different power law exponents with values close to 3/2 and 5/3, respectively; the energy (kinetic plus magnetic) and cross-helicity often have approximately equal power law exponents with values intermediate between 3/2 and 5/3; and the Alfven ratio, the ratio of the kinetic to magnetic energy spectra, is often a slowly increasing function of frequency increasing from around 0.4 to 1 for frequencies in the inertial range. Differences between high- and low-speed wind are also discussed. Comparisons with phenomenological turbulence theories show that important aspects of the physics are yet unexplained.

  18. Power Spectra, Power Law Exponents, and Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podesta, J. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    The Wind spacecraft provides simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field measurements with 3- second time resolution, roughly an order of magnitude faster than previous measurements, enabling the small scale features of solar wind turbulence to be studied in unprecedented detail. Almost the entire inertial range can now be explored (the inertial range extends from approximately 1 to 10(exp 3) seconds in the spacecraft frame) although the dissipation range of the velocity fluctuations is still out of reach. Improved measurements of solar wind turbulence spectra at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane are presented including spectra of the energy and cross-helicity, the magnetic and kinetic energies, the Alfven ratio, the normalized cross-helicity, and the Elsasser ratio. Some recent observations and theoretical challenges are discussed including the observation that the velocity and magnetic field spectra often show different power law exponents with values close to 3/2 and 5/3, respectively; the energy (kinetic plus magnetic) and cross-helicity often have approximately equal power law exponents with values intermediate between 3/2 and 5/3; and the Alfven ratio, the ratio of the kinetic to magnetic energy spectra, is often a slowly increasing function of frequency increasing from around 0.4 to 1 for frequencies in the inertial range. Differences between high- and low-speed wind are also discussed. Comparisons with phenomenological turbulence theories show that important aspects of the physics are yet unexplained.

  19. Power-law modeling based on least-squares minimization criteria.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bermejo, B; Fairén, V; Sorribas, A

    1999-10-01

    The power-law formalism has been successfully used as a modeling tool in many applications. The resulting models, either as Generalized Mass Action or as S-systems models, allow one to characterize the target system and to simulate its dynamical behavior in response to external perturbations and parameter changes. The power-law formalism was first derived as a Taylor series approximation in logarithmic space for kinetic rate-laws. The especial characteristics of this approximation produce an extremely useful systemic representation that allows a complete system characterization. Furthermore, their parameters have a precise interpretation as local sensitivities of each of the individual processes and as rate-constants. This facilitates a qualitative discussion and a quantitative estimation of their possible values in relation to the kinetic properties. Following this interpretation, parameter estimation is also possible by relating the systemic behavior to the underlying processes. Without leaving the general formalism, in this paper we suggest deriving the power-law representation in an alternative way that uses least-squares minimization. The resulting power-law mimics the target rate-law in a wider range of concentration values than the classical power-law. Although the implications of this alternative approach remain to be established, our results show that the predicted steady-state using the least-squares power-law is closest to the actual steady-state of the target system.

  20. Mathematical modeling of genome evolution: Where do the power laws come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koonin, Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Power law distributions appear in numerous biological, physical, social and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connections of enzymes and metabolites in metabolic networks, the number of interaction partners of a given protein, the number of members in paralogous families, and other quantities. In network analysis, power laws imply evolution of the network with preferential attachment, i.e. a greater likelihood of nodes being added to pre-existing hubs. Exploration of different types of evolutionary models in an attempt to determine which of them lead to power law distributions has the potential of revealing non-trivial aspects of genome evolution. A simple model of evolution of the domain composition of proteomes was developed, with the following elementary processes: i) domain birth (duplication with divergence), ii) death (inactivation and/or deletion), and iii) innovation (emergence from non-coding or non-globular sequences or acquisition via horizontal gene transfer). This formalism can be described as a birth, death and innovation model (BDIM). The formulas for equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size and the total number of families at equilibrium were derived for a general BDIM. All asymptotics of equilibrium frequencies of domain families possible for the given type of models were found and their appearance depending on model parameters was investigated. It was proved that the power law asymptotics appears if, and only if, the model is balanced, i.e., domain duplication (birth) and deletion (death) rates are asymptotically equal up to the second order. It was further proved that any power asymptotic with the degree not equal to -1 can appear only if the assumption of independence of the birth/death rates on the size of a domain family is rejected. Specific cases of BDIMs, namely simple, linear, polynomial and rational models, were

  1. AEGIS: A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF SPITZER POWER-LAW GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. Q.; Barmby, P.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Georgakakis, A.; Ivison, R. J.; Konidaris, N. P.; Rosario, D. J.; Nandra, K.

    2010-07-10

    This paper analyzes a sample of 489 Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) sources in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS), whose spectral energy distributions fit a red power law (PL) from 3.6 to 8.0 {mu}m. The median redshift for sources with known redshifts is (z) = 1.6. Though all or nearly all of the sample galaxies are likely to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs), only 33% were detected in the EGS X-ray survey (AEGIS-X) using 200 ks Chandra observations. The detected sources are X-ray luminous with L {sub X}>10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and moderately to heavily obscured with N {sub H}>10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. Stacking the X-ray-undetected sample members yields a statistically significant X-ray signal, suggesting that they are on average more distant or more obscured than sources with X-ray detections. The ratio of X-ray to mid-infrared fluxes suggests that a substantial fraction of the sources undetected in X-rays are obscured at the Compton-thick level, in contrast to the X-ray-detected sources, all of which appear to be Compton thin. For the X-ray-detected PL sources with redshifts, an X-ray luminosity L {sub X} {approx} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} marks a transition between low-luminosity, blue sources dominated by the host galaxy to high-luminosity, red PL sources dominated by nuclear activity. X-ray-to-optical ratios, infrared variability, and 24 {mu}m properties of the sample are consistent with the identification of infrared PL sources as active nuclei, but a rough estimate is that only 22% of AGNs are selected by the PL criteria. Comparison of the PL selection technique and various IRAC color criteria for identifying AGNs confirms that high-redshift samples selected via simple IRAC colors may be heavily contaminated by starlight-dominated objects.

  2. Simple inflationary quintessential model. II. Power law potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-09-01

    The present work is a sequel of our previous work [Phys. Rev. D 93, 084018 (2016)] which depicted a simple version of an inflationary quintessential model whose inflationary stage was described by a Higgs-type potential and the quintessential phase was responsible due to an exponential potential. Additionally, the model predicted a nonsingular universe in past which was geodesically past incomplete. Further, it was also found that the model is in agreement with the Planck 2013 data when running is allowed. But, this model provides a theoretical value of the running which is far smaller than the central value of the best fit in ns , r , αs≡d ns/d l n k parameter space where ns, r , αs respectively denote the spectral index, tensor-to-scalar ratio and the running of the spectral index associated with any inflationary model, and consequently to analyze the viability of the model one has to focus in the two-dimensional marginalized confidence level in the allowed domain of the plane (ns,r ) without taking into account the running. Unfortunately, such analysis shows that this model does not pass this test. However, in this sequel we propose a family of models runs by a single parameter α ∈[0 ,1 ] which proposes another "inflationary quintessential model" where the inflation and the quintessence regimes are respectively described by a power law potential and a cosmological constant. The model is also nonsingular although geodesically past incomplete as in the cited model. Moreover, the present one is found to be more simple compared to the previous model and it is in excellent agreement with the observational data. In fact, we note that, unlike the previous model, a large number of the models of this family with α ∈[0 ,1/2 ) match with both Planck 2013 and Planck 2015 data without allowing the running. Thus, the properties in the current family of models compared to its past companion justify its need for a better cosmological model with the successive

  3. Fitting power-laws in empirical data with estimators that work for all exponents

    PubMed Central

    Hanel, Rudolf; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Liu, Bo; Thurner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Most standard methods based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of power-law exponents can only be reliably used to identify exponents smaller than minus one. The argument that power laws are otherwise not normalizable, depends on the underlying sample space the data is drawn from, and is true only for sample spaces that are unbounded from above. Power-laws obtained from bounded sample spaces (as is the case for practically all data related problems) are always free of such limitations and maximum likelihood estimates can be obtained for arbitrary powers without restrictions. Here we first derive the appropriate ML estimator for arbitrary exponents of power-law distributions on bounded discrete sample spaces. We then show that an almost identical estimator also works perfectly for continuous data. We implemented this ML estimator and discuss its performance with previous attempts. We present a general recipe of how to use these estimators and present the associated computer codes. PMID:28245249

  4. Flows induced by power-law stretching surface motion modulated by transverse or orthogonal surface shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Boundary-layer solutions to Banks' problem for the flow induced by power-law stretching of a plate are obtained for two generalizations that include arbitrary transverse plate shearing motion. In one extension an arbitrary transverse shearing motion is the product of the power-law stretching. In the other extension the streamwise stretching coordinate is added to an arbitrary transverse shearing and together raised to the power of stretching. In addition we find that Banks' power law stretching may be accompanied by orthogonal power-law shear. In all cases, the original boundary-value problem of Banks [1] is recovered. Results are illustrated with velocity profiles both at the plate and at fixed height in the fluid above the plate.

  5. Fitting power-laws in empirical data with estimators that work for all exponents.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Rudolf; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Liu, Bo; Thurner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Most standard methods based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of power-law exponents can only be reliably used to identify exponents smaller than minus one. The argument that power laws are otherwise not normalizable, depends on the underlying sample space the data is drawn from, and is true only for sample spaces that are unbounded from above. Power-laws obtained from bounded sample spaces (as is the case for practically all data related problems) are always free of such limitations and maximum likelihood estimates can be obtained for arbitrary powers without restrictions. Here we first derive the appropriate ML estimator for arbitrary exponents of power-law distributions on bounded discrete sample spaces. We then show that an almost identical estimator also works perfectly for continuous data. We implemented this ML estimator and discuss its performance with previous attempts. We present a general recipe of how to use these estimators and present the associated computer codes.

  6. Transition from Exponential to Power Law Income Distributions in a Chaotic Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer-Lostao, Carmen; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    Economy is demanding new models, able to understand and predict the evolution of markets. To this respect, Econophysics offers models of markets as complex systems, that try to comprehend macro-, system-wide states of the economy from the interaction of many agents at micro-level. One of these models is the gas-like model for trading markets. This tries to predict money distributions in closed economies and quite simply, obtains the ones observed in real economies. However, it reveals technical hitches to explain the power law distribution, observed in individuals with high incomes. In this work, nonlinear dynamics is introduced in the gas-like model in an effort to overcomes these flaws. A particular chaotic dynamics is used to break the pairing symmetry of agents (i, j) ⇔ (j, i). The results demonstrate that a "chaotic gas-like model" can reproduce the Exponential and Power law distributions observed in real economies. Moreover, it controls the transition between them. This may give some insight of the micro-level causes that originate unfair distributions of money in a global society. Ultimately, the chaotic model makes obvious the inherent instability of asymmetric scenarios, where sinks of wealth appear and doom the market to extreme inequality.

  7. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  8. The double power law in human collaboration behavior: The case of Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    We study human behavior in terms of the inter-event time distribution of revision behavior on Wikipedia, an online collaborative encyclopedia. We observe a double power law distribution for the inter-editing behavior at the population level and a single power law distribution at the individual level. Although interactions between users are indirect or moderate on Wikipedia, we determine that the synchronized editing behavior among users plays a key role in determining the slope of the tail of the double power law distribution.

  9. Blinking in quantum dots: The origin of the grey state and power law statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Searson, Peter C.

    2011-09-01

    Quantum dot (QD) blinking is characterized by switching between an “on” state and an “off” state, and a power-law distribution of on and off times with exponents from 1.0 to 2.0. The origin of blinking behavior in QDs, however, has remained a mystery. Here we describe an energy-band model for QDs that captures the full range of blinking behavior reported in the literature and provides new insight into features such as the gray state, the power-law distribution of on and off times, and the power-law exponents.

  10. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  11. Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2015-07-23

    The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations.

  12. Fluctuation power spectra reveal dynamical heterogeneity of peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Bhavin; Yew, Zu Thur; Krivov, Sergei; McLeish, Tom; Paci, Emanuele

    2010-07-01

    Characterizing the conformational properties and dynamics of biopolymers and their relation to biological activity and function is an ongoing challenge. Single molecule techniques have provided a rich experimental window on these properties, yet they have often relied on simple one-dimensional projections of a multidimensional free energy landscape for a practical interpretation of the results. Here, we study three short peptides with different structural propensity (α helical, β hairpin, and random coil) in the presence (or absence) of a force applied to their ends using Langevin dynamics simulation and an all-atom model with implicit solvation. Each peptide produces fluctuation power spectra with a characteristic dynamic fingerprint consistent with persistent structural motifs of helices, hairpins, and random coils. The spectra for helix formation shows two well-defined relaxation modes, corresponding to local relaxation and cooperative coil to uncoil interconversion. In contrast, both the hairpin and random coil are polymerlike, showing a broad and continuous range of relaxation modes giving characteristic power laws of ω-5/4 and ω-3/2, respectively; the -5/4 power law for hairpins is robust and has not been previously observed. Langevin dynamics simulations of diffusers on a potential of mean force derived from the atomistic simulations fail to reproduce the fingerprints of each peptide motif in the power spectral density, demonstrating explicitly that such information is lacking in such one-dimensional projections. Our results demonstrate the yet unexploited potential of single molecule fluctuation spectroscopy to probe more fine scaled properties of proteins and biological macromolecules and how low dimensional projections may cause the loss of relevant information.

  13. Detailed empirical study of the term structure of interest rates. Emergence of power laws and scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderweireld, Thomas; Nuyts, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The technique of Padé approximants, introduced in a previous work, is applied to extended recent data on the distribution of variations of interest rates compiled by the Federal Reserve System in the US. It is shown that new power laws and new scaling laws emerge for any maturity not only as a function of the Lag but also as a function of the average inital rate. This is especially true for the one year maturity where critical forms and critical exponents are obtained. This suggests future work in the direction of constructing a theory of variations of interest rates at a more “microscopic” level.

  14. Logarithmic and Power Law Input-Output Relations in Sensory Systems with Fold-Change Detection

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Miri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Two central biophysical laws describe sensory responses to input signals. One is a logarithmic relationship between input and output, and the other is a power law relationship. These laws are sometimes called the Weber-Fechner law and the Stevens power law, respectively. The two laws are found in a wide variety of human sensory systems including hearing, vision, taste, and weight perception; they also occur in the responses of cells to stimuli. However the mechanistic origin of these laws is not fully understood. To address this, we consider a class of biological circuits exhibiting a property called fold-change detection (FCD). In these circuits the response dynamics depend only on the relative change in input signal and not its absolute level, a property which applies to many physiological and cellular sensory systems. We show analytically that by changing a single parameter in the FCD circuits, both logarithmic and power-law relationships emerge; these laws are modified versions of the Weber-Fechner and Stevens laws. The parameter that determines which law is found is the steepness (effective Hill coefficient) of the effect of the internal variable on the output. This finding applies to major circuit architectures found in biological systems, including the incoherent feed-forward loop and nonlinear integral feedback loops. Therefore, if one measures the response to different fold changes in input signal and observes a logarithmic or power law, the present theory can be used to rule out certain FCD mechanisms, and to predict their cooperativity parameter. We demonstrate this approach using data from eukaryotic chemotaxis signaling. PMID:25121598

  15. 14 CFR 406.109 - Administrative law judges-powers and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative law judges-powers and limitations. 406.109 Section 406.109 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Rules of Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.109 Administrative law...

  16. 14 CFR 406.109 - Administrative law judges-powers and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judges-powers and limitations. 406.109 Section 406.109 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Rules of Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.109 Administrative law...

  17. 14 CFR 406.109 - Administrative law judges-powers and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative law judges-powers and limitations. 406.109 Section 406.109 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Rules of Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.109 Administrative law...

  18. 14 CFR 406.109 - Administrative law judges-powers and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative law judges-powers and limitations. 406.109 Section 406.109 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Rules of Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.109 Administrative law...

  19. 14 CFR 406.109 - Administrative law judges-powers and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative law judges-powers and limitations. 406.109 Section 406.109 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Rules of Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.109 Administrative law...

  20. Charged Noncommutative Wormhole Solutions via Power-Law f(T) Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Shamaila; Jawad, Abdul; Bilal Amin, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we explore static spherically symmetric charged wormhole solutions in extended teleparallel gravity taking power-law f(T) models. We consider noncommutative geometry under Lorentzian distribution. In order to obtain matter components, we develop field equations using effective energy-momentum tensor for non-diagonal tetrad. We explore solutions by considering various viable power-law f(T) models, which also include teleparallel gravity case. The violation of energy conditions obtain by exotic matter to form wormhole solutions in teleparallel case while, physical acceptable wormhole solutions exist for charged noncommutative wormhole solutions for some cases of power-law models. The effective energy-momentum tensor and charge are responsible for the violation of the energy conditions. Also, we check the equilibrium condition for these solutions. The equilibrium condition meets for the teleparallel case and some power-law solutions while remaining solutions are either in less equilibrium or in disequilibrium situation.

  1. Research on power-law acoustic transient signal detection based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian-hui; Yang, Ri-jie; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    Aiming at the characteristics of acoustic transient signal emitted from antisubmarine weapon which is being dropped into water (torpedo, aerial sonobuoy and rocket assisted depth charge etc.), such as short duration, low SNR, abruptness and instability, based on traditional power-law detector, a new method to detect acoustic transient signal is proposed. Firstly wavelet transform is used to de-noise signal, removes random spectrum components and improves SNR. Then Power- Law detector is adopted to detect transient signal. The simulation results show the method can effectively extract envelop characteristic of transient signal on the condition of low SNR. The performance of WT-Power-Law markedly outgoes that of traditional Power-Law detection method.

  2. Convex and concave successions of power-law decays in small-angle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitas, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    The small-angle scattering (SAS) structure factor from a new model of a 3D deterministic fractal in which the relative positions and the number of structural units vary with fractal iteration number is calculated. It is shown that, depending on the relative positions of scattering units inside the fractal, we can obtain various types of power-law successions, such as: convex/concave - when the absolute value of the scattering exponent of the first power-law decay is higher/smaller than that of the subsequent power- law decay, or any combination of them (i.e. convex-concave or concave-convex). The obtained results can explain experimental SAS (neutron or X-rays) data which are characterized by a succession of power-law decays of arbitrary length.

  3. Explanation of power law behavior of autoregressive conditional duration processes based on the random multiplicative process.

    PubMed

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2004-04-01

    Autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) processes, which have the potential to be applied to power law distributions of complex systems found in natural science, life science, and social science, are analyzed both numerically and theoretically. An ACD(1) process exhibits the singular second order moment, which suggests that its probability density function (PDF) has a power law tail. It is verified that the PDF of the ACD(1) has a power law tail with an arbitrary exponent depending on a model parameter. On the basis of theory of the random multiplicative process a relation between the model parameter and the power law exponent is theoretically derived. It is confirmed that the relation is valid from numerical simulations. An application of the ACD(1) to intervals between two successive transactions in a foreign currency market is shown.

  4. Explanation of power law behavior of autoregressive conditional duration processes based on the random multiplicative process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2004-04-01

    Autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) processes, which have the potential to be applied to power law distributions of complex systems found in natural science, life science, and social science, are analyzed both numerically and theoretically. An ACD(1) process exhibits the singular second order moment, which suggests that its probability density function (PDF) has a power law tail. It is verified that the PDF of the ACD(1) has a power law tail with an arbitrary exponent depending on a model parameter. On the basis of theory of the random multiplicative process a relation between the model parameter and the power law exponent is theoretically derived. It is confirmed that the relation is valid from numerical simulations. An application of the ACD(1) to intervals between two successive transactions in a foreign currency market is shown.

  5. The power law for the perception of rotation by airline pilots.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the power laws for the perception of rotation about the three major body axes. Eighteen airline pilots made magnitude estimates of 5-sec pulses of nine angular accelerations having a range of acceleration x time of 10-150 deg/sec. The results showed that (1) the power law with an exponent of 1.4 describes the subjective motion of these pilots for all three major body axes, (2) the power law also describes the perception of motion for individual pilots with a substantial range of exponents, (3) there were significant correlations among the exponents for the three body axes, and (4) the data suggest that the power law over the wide range used may be more complex than implied by a formula with a single exponent.

  6. Hydrodynamics of Newtonian and power-law fluids in microchannel with superhydrophobic wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagner, S. A.; Patlazhan, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The flow peculiarities of the Newtonian and Carreau-Yasuda power-law fluids in a microchannel with the striped superhydrophobic wall is studied numerically. The driving forces leading to deviation of streamlines from the channel axis are analyzed.

  7. Apparent Power-Law Behavior of Conductance in Disordered Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Aleksandr; Fogler, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Observation of power-law dependence of conductance on temperature and voltage has been reported for a wide variety of low-dimensional systems(nano-wires, nano-tubes, and conducting polymers). This behavior has been attributed to the Luttinger liquid effects expected in a pure one-dimensional wire. However, the systems studied were neither one-dimensional nor defect-free. Using numerical simulations we show that the power-law behavior can arise from variable-range hopping in an ensemble of non-interacting disordered wires connected in parallel. This power-law behavior holds in restricted ranges of voltage and temperature, typical of experimental situations. Physically, it comes from rare, but highly conducting hopping paths that appear by chance in some members of the ensemble. The power-law exponents and their dependence on system parameters are consistent with the great majority of available empirical data. Supported by Grant NSF DMR-0706654.

  8. Tunable power law in the desynchronization events of coupled chaotic electronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Gilson F. de Lorenzo, Orlando di; Chevrollier, Martine; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Oriá, Marcos; Souza Cavalcante, Hugo L. D. de

    2014-03-15

    We study the statistics of the amplitude of the synchronization error in chaotic electronic circuits coupled through linear feedback. Depending on the coupling strength, our system exhibits three qualitatively different regimes of synchronization: weak coupling yields independent oscillations; moderate to strong coupling produces a regime of intermittent synchronization known as attractor bubbling; and stronger coupling produces complete synchronization. In the regime of moderate coupling, the probability distribution for the sizes of desynchronization events follows a power law, with an exponent that can be adjusted by changing the coupling strength. Such power-law distributions are interesting, as they appear in many complex systems. However, most of the systems with such a behavior have a fixed value for the exponent of the power law, while here we present an example of a system where the exponent of the power law is easily tuned in real time.

  9. Enhanced discriminability for nonbiological motion violating the two-thirds power law.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Roy; Goldstein, Ariel; Vuillaume, Laurène; Faivre, Nathan; Hassin, Ran R; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The two-thirds power law describes the relationship between velocity and curvature in human motor movements. Interestingly, this motor law also affects visual motion perception, in which stimuli moving according to the two-thirds power law are perceived to have a constant velocity compared to stimuli actually moving at constant velocity. Thus, visual motion adhering to biological motion principles causes a kinematic illusion of smooth and velocity-invariant motion. However, it is yet unclear how this motion law affects the discrimination of visual stimuli and if its encoding requires attention. Here we tested the perceptual discrimination of stimuli following biological (two-thirds power law) or nonbiological movement under conditions in which the stimuli were degraded or masked through continuous flash suppression. Additionally, we tested subjective perception of naturalness and velocity consistency. Our results show that the discriminability of a visual target is inversely related to the perceived "naturalness" of its movement. Discrimination of stimuli following the two-thirds power law required more time than the same stimuli moving at constant velocity or nonecological variants of the two-thirds power law and was present for both masked and degraded stimuli.

  10. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  11. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid). In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule) dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values. PMID:27840656

  12. Power-Law Dynamics of Membrane Conductances Increase Spiking Diversity in a Hodgkin-Huxley Model

    PubMed Central

    Teka, Wondimu; Stockton, David; Santamaria, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of non-Markovian power-law voltage dependent conductances on the generation of action potentials and spiking patterns in a Hodgkin-Huxley model. To implement slow-adapting power-law dynamics of the gating variables of the potassium, n, and sodium, m and h, conductances we used fractional derivatives of order η≤1. The fractional derivatives were used to solve the kinetic equations of each gate. We systematically classified the properties of each gate as a function of η. We then tested if the full model could generate action potentials with the different power-law behaving gates. Finally, we studied the patterns of action potential that emerged in each case. Our results show the model produces a wide range of action potential shapes and spiking patterns in response to constant current stimulation as a function of η. In comparison with the classical model, the action potential shapes for power-law behaving potassium conductance (n gate) showed a longer peak and shallow hyperpolarization; for power-law activation of the sodium conductance (m gate), the action potentials had a sharp rise time; and for power-law inactivation of the sodium conductance (h gate) the spikes had wider peak that for low values of η replicated pituitary- and cardiac-type action potentials. With all physiological parameters fixed a wide range of spiking patterns emerged as a function of the value of the constant input current and η, such as square wave bursting, mixed mode oscillations, and pseudo-plateau potentials. Our analyses show that the intrinsic memory trace of the fractional derivative provides a negative feedback mechanism between the voltage trace and the activity of the power-law behaving gate variable. As a consequence, power-law behaving conductances result in an increase in the number of spiking patterns a neuron can generate and, we propose, expand the computational capacity of the neuron. PMID:26937967

  13. Power-Law Dynamics of Membrane Conductances Increase Spiking Diversity in a Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    PubMed

    Teka, Wondimu; Stockton, David; Santamaria, Fidel

    2016-03-01

    We studied the effects of non-Markovian power-law voltage dependent conductances on the generation of action potentials and spiking patterns in a Hodgkin-Huxley model. To implement slow-adapting power-law dynamics of the gating variables of the potassium, n, and sodium, m and h, conductances we used fractional derivatives of order η≤1. The fractional derivatives were used to solve the kinetic equations of each gate. We systematically classified the properties of each gate as a function of η. We then tested if the full model could generate action potentials with the different power-law behaving gates. Finally, we studied the patterns of action potential that emerged in each case. Our results show the model produces a wide range of action potential shapes and spiking patterns in response to constant current stimulation as a function of η. In comparison with the classical model, the action potential shapes for power-law behaving potassium conductance (n gate) showed a longer peak and shallow hyperpolarization; for power-law activation of the sodium conductance (m gate), the action potentials had a sharp rise time; and for power-law inactivation of the sodium conductance (h gate) the spikes had wider peak that for low values of η replicated pituitary- and cardiac-type action potentials. With all physiological parameters fixed a wide range of spiking patterns emerged as a function of the value of the constant input current and η, such as square wave bursting, mixed mode oscillations, and pseudo-plateau potentials. Our analyses show that the intrinsic memory trace of the fractional derivative provides a negative feedback mechanism between the voltage trace and the activity of the power-law behaving gate variable. As a consequence, power-law behaving conductances result in an increase in the number of spiking patterns a neuron can generate and, we propose, expand the computational capacity of the neuron.

  14. Analytical study of solitons in the fiber waveguide with power law nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzazadeh, Mohammad; Ekici, Mehmet; Zhou, Qin; Sonmezoglu, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the existence of exact soliton solutions in fiber waveguide with power law nonlinearity. The propagation equation that is the resonant dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger's equation with power law nonlinearity is studied by three analytical methods. The integration tools are the extended trial equation method, exp(-Φ(ξ)) -expansion method and extended G‧ / G - expansion method. The presented results show that analytical optical solitons can exist in this setting.

  15. Theories of Power, Poverty, and Law: In Commemoration of the Contributions of Peter Bachrach--Power, Law, and Final Thoughts: The Contributions of Peter Bachrach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    I am pleased to be part of this symposium to celebrate the life and work of Peter Bachrach. Although my focus is the relevance of Peter's ideas of power to law, I want to begin with some personal comments as well as raise some final thoughts, drawing on others' contributions. Like so many of Peter's other students, I adored him. Peter's joy in…

  16. Theories of Power, Poverty, and Law: In Commemoration of the Contributions of Peter Bachrach--Power, Law, and Final Thoughts: The Contributions of Peter Bachrach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    I am pleased to be part of this symposium to celebrate the life and work of Peter Bachrach. Although my focus is the relevance of Peter's ideas of power to law, I want to begin with some personal comments as well as raise some final thoughts, drawing on others' contributions. Like so many of Peter's other students, I adored him. Peter's joy in…

  17. Power law relationships between health care utilization and symptom assessment among people with panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Katerndahl, David

    2010-06-01

    Although people with panic attacks are high utilizers of health care, the role of symptom assessment in care-seeking is unclear. Previous studies suggest that symptom perceptions are linearly related to utilization but panic appraisal is not. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between symptom assessment and utilization are non-linear, displaying power law distributions. This community-based study of 97 subjects with panic attacks assessed utilization of family doctor offices, total ambulatory utilization, and hospitalizations as well as symptom perceptions and panic appraisals. Matrices of symptom assessment versus utilization were created, and log-log plots were constructed. To minimize the risk of overestimation of power law distributions, linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were computed. None of the utilization versus symptom perceptions displayed power law distributions. However, all three measures of utilization showed power law relationships with panic appraisals, but in unique patterns. Although power law relationships were not found between symptom perceptions and utilization, unique patterns of power laws were identified between panic appraisals and all three measures of utilization.

  18. On the origin of power-law rheology during the evolution of damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Yusuke; Naylor, Mark; Touati, Sarah; Main, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Many composite materials, including rocks undergoing semi-brittle failure by stress-enhanced corrosion reactions, exhibit power law scaling between bulk stress and strain rate. Chemical reaction rate theory on a uniform material predicts instead an exponential dependence, so mean field models to account for power law behaviour usually require a specific (often power-law) underlying distribution of local material properties to account for this, ideally conditioned on experimental and theoretical studies of microstructures. This mean field approach however breaks down at higher crack density, where bulk properties also depend on the collective dynamics or interaction of a population of microstructures. To examine the relative contribution of material heterogeneity and crack-crack interactions, we develop a 2-dimensional spring-dashpot network with breaking bonds, and investigate the influence of the distribution of microscopic relaxation times generate a macroscopic rheology of power-law form. Specifically, we examine the possibility of non-power-law microscopic heterogeneity, e.g. a Gaussian distribution of relaxation times, leading to macroscopic power-law rheology.

  19. Power-law spectrum and small-world structure emerge from coupled evolution of neuronal activity and synaptic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hong-Li; Zhu, Chen-Ping; Guo, Yan-Dong; Teng, Ao; Jia, Jing; Kong, Hui; Zhou, Rui; Yang, Juan-Ping; Li, Su-Quan

    2015-04-01

    A co-evolutionary neuronal network model based on previous ones is proposed, and both functional and structural properties are numerically calculated. Recent experiments have revealed power-law behavior in electrocorticogram (ECoG) spectrum related with synaptic plasticity and reorganization. In the present neuronal network model, the network starts its evolution from the initial configuration of random network which is the least biased and without special structure, and the interaction rules among neurons are modified from both models by Bornholdt's and Arcangelis' groups to simulate the process of synaptic development and maturation. The system exhibits dynamic small-world structure which is the result of evolution instead of the assumption beforehand. Meanwhile, the power spectrum of electrical signals reproduces the power-law behavior with the exponent 2.0 just as what is experimentally measured in ECoG spectrum. Moreover, the power spectrum of the average degree per neuron over time also exhibits power-law behavior, with the exponent 2.0 again over more than 5 orders of magnitude. Different from previous results, our network exhibits assortative degree-degree correlation which is expected to be checked by experiments.

  20. Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Jiulin, Du

    2013-09-15

    Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law κ-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient, and thermal conductivity for the power-law κ-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are significantly modified by the κ-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter κ→∞ they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution.

  1. Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibatov, R. T.

    2011-08-01

    A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.

  2. Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and the growth-rate theorem.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel E

    2013-09-01

    Taylor's law (TL), a widely verified empirical relationship in ecology, states that the variance of population density is approximately a power-law function of mean density. The growth-rate theorem (GR) states that, in a subdivided population, the rate of change of the overall growth rate is proportional to the variance of the subpopulations' growth rates. We show that continuous-time exponential change implies GR at every time and, asymptotically for large time, TL with power-law exponent 2. We also show why diverse population-dynamic models predict TL in the limit of large time by identifying simple features these models share: If the mean population density and the variance of population density are (exactly or asymptotically) non-constant exponential functions of a parameter (e.g., time), then the variance of density is (exactly or asymptotically) a power-law function of mean density. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Astronomy phenomenological analysis of redshift-distance power laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, I. E.; Nicoll, J. F.

    The traditional astronomical literature accepts the linear redshift-distance law on the basis of its internal consistency with accepted models of the history of the universe more than on nontrivial clearly objective tests of the linear law for directly observed quantities. The reluctance to depend on such tests rested historically on the assumed large variation in the intrinsic luminosity of extragalactic objects and a distrust of curve-fitting and statistics. But such tests are eminently feasible on the basis of modern objectively specified samples and up-to-date statistical methodology. This paper compares red-shift distance relations of the form z=k r, for real values of p. Data from the visible, infrared, radio, and X-ray bands are examined. The deviation of predicted and observed apparent magnitudes, (a), and the difference between observed and predicated slope of the magnitude-log (z) plots, (b), are used to compare values of p. In summary, the p=1 values (corresponding to standard linear law) are more deviant than any other value of p, 1

  4. Timing of continuous motor imagery: the two-thirds power law originates in trajectory planning

    PubMed Central

    Flash, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The two-thirds power law, v = γκ−1/3, expresses a robust local relationship between the geometrical and temporal aspects of human movement, represented by curvature κ and speed v, with a piecewise constant γ. This law is equivalent to moving at a constant equi-affine speed and thus constitutes an important example of motor invariance. Whether this kinematic regularity reflects central planning or peripheral biomechanical effects has been strongly debated. Motor imagery, i.e., forming mental images of a motor action, allows unique access to the temporal structure of motor planning. Earlier studies have shown that imagined discrete movements obey Fitts's law and their durations are well correlated with those of actual movements. Hence, it is natural to examine whether the temporal properties of continuous imagined movements comply with the two-thirds power law. A novel experimental paradigm for recording sparse imagery data from a continuous cyclic tracing task was developed. Using the likelihood ratio test, we concluded that for most subjects the distributions of the marked positions describing the imagined trajectory were significantly better explained by the two-thirds power law than by a constant Euclidean speed or by two other power law models. With nonlinear regression, the β parameter values in a generalized power law, v = γκ−β, were inferred from the marked position records. This resulted in highly variable yet mostly positive β values. Our results imply that imagined trajectories do follow the two-thirds power law. Our findings therefore support the conclusion that the coupling between velocity and curvature originates in centrally represented motion planning. PMID:25609105

  5. Timing of continuous motor imagery: the two-thirds power law originates in trajectory planning.

    PubMed

    Karklinsky, Matan; Flash, Tamar

    2015-04-01

    The two-thirds power law, v = γκ(-1/3), expresses a robust local relationship between the geometrical and temporal aspects of human movement, represented by curvature κ and speed v, with a piecewise constant γ. This law is equivalent to moving at a constant equi-affine speed and thus constitutes an important example of motor invariance. Whether this kinematic regularity reflects central planning or peripheral biomechanical effects has been strongly debated. Motor imagery, i.e., forming mental images of a motor action, allows unique access to the temporal structure of motor planning. Earlier studies have shown that imagined discrete movements obey Fitts's law and their durations are well correlated with those of actual movements. Hence, it is natural to examine whether the temporal properties of continuous imagined movements comply with the two-thirds power law. A novel experimental paradigm for recording sparse imagery data from a continuous cyclic tracing task was developed. Using the likelihood ratio test, we concluded that for most subjects the distributions of the marked positions describing the imagined trajectory were significantly better explained by the two-thirds power law than by a constant Euclidean speed or by two other power law models. With nonlinear regression, the β parameter values in a generalized power law, v = γκ(-β), were inferred from the marked position records. This resulted in highly variable yet mostly positive β values. Our results imply that imagined trajectories do follow the two-thirds power law. Our findings therefore support the conclusion that the coupling between velocity and curvature originates in centrally represented motion planning. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Power law scaling in synchronization of brain signals depends on cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Jesse; Velazquez, Jose Luis Perez

    2014-01-01

    As it has several features that optimize information processing, it has been proposed that criticality governs the dynamics of nervous system activity. Indications of such dynamics have been reported for a variety of in vitro and in vivo recordings, ranging from in vitro slice electrophysiology to human functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, there still remains considerable debate as to whether the brain actually operates close to criticality or in another governing state such as stochastic or oscillatory dynamics. A tool used to investigate the criticality of nervous system data is the inspection of power-law distributions. Although the findings are controversial, such power-law scaling has been found in different types of recordings. Here, we studied whether there is a power law scaling in the distribution of the phase synchronization derived from magnetoencephalographic recordings during executive function tasks performed by children with and without autism. Characterizing the brain dynamics that is different between autistic and non-autistic individuals is important in order to find differences that could either aid diagnosis or provide insights as to possible therapeutic interventions in autism. We report in this study that power law scaling in the distributions of a phase synchrony index is not very common and its frequency of occurrence is similar in the control and the autism group. In addition, power law scaling tends to diminish with increased cognitive load (difficulty or engagement in the task). There were indications of changes in the probability distribution functions for the phase synchrony that were associated with a transition from power law scaling to lack of power law (or vice versa), which suggests the presence of phenomenological bifurcations in brain dynamics associated with cognitive load. Hence, brain dynamics may fluctuate between criticality and other regimes depending upon context and behaviors.

  7. Mapping power-law rheology of living cells using multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu

    2015-10-26

    We present multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) for mapping the complex shear modulus G* of living cells as a function of frequency over the range of 50–500 Hz in the same measurement time as the single-frequency force modulation measurement. The AFM technique enables us to reconstruct image maps of rheological parameters, which exhibit a frequency-dependent power-law behavior with respect to G{sup *}. These quantitative rheological measurements reveal a large spatial variation in G* in this frequency range for single cells. Moreover, we find that the reconstructed images of the power-law rheological parameters are much different from those obtained in force-curve or single-frequency force modulation measurements. This indicates that the former provide information about intracellular mechanical structures of the cells that are usually not resolved with the conventional force measurement methods.

  8. Modified power law equations for vertical wind profiles. [in investigation of windpower plant siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.; Richards, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    In an investigation of windpower plant siting, equations are presented and evaluated for a wind profile model which incorporates both roughness and wind speed effects, while retaining the basic simplicity of the Hellman power law. These equations recognize the statistical nature of wind profiles and are compatible with existing analytical models and recent wind profile data. Predictions of energy output based on the proposed profile equations are 10% to 20% higher than those made with the 1/7 power law. In addition, correlation between calculated and observed blade loads is significantly better at higher wind speeds when the proposed wind profile model is used than when a constant power model is used.

  9. Modified power law equations for vertical wind profiles. [in investigation of windpower plant siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.; Richards, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    In an investigation of windpower plant siting, equations are presented and evaluated for a wind profile model which incorporates both roughness and wind speed effects, while retaining the basic simplicity of the Hellman power law. These equations recognize the statistical nature of wind profiles and are compatible with existing analytical models and recent wind profile data. Predictions of energy output based on the proposed profile equations are 10% to 20% higher than those made with the 1/7 power law. In addition, correlation between calculated and observed blade loads is significantly better at higher wind speeds when the proposed wind profile model is used than when a constant power model is used.

  10. Power law or logarithmic law? — A data analysis for zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers with low Reδ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Matthias

    2000-03-01

    The paper presents an analysis of two-dimensional zero pressure gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) with regard to the application of power laws. Only TBL with low Reynolds number 300 < Reδ2 < 6200 are taken into account. It is found that a certain region of the mean velocity profile can be described with a power law of the formu +=C Pow{*}y +a. This power law region is not a priori identical with the overlap region. An algorithm for the determination of the wall skin friction using the power law is proposed. The method was applied with good result to ZPG TBL and to adverse pressure gradient (APG) TBL. To bridge the gap between the wall and the power law region an approach for the turbulent viscosity is suggested.

  11. The fractal nature of nature: power laws, ecological complexity and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Brown, James H; Gupta, Vijay K; Li, Bai-Lian; Milne, Bruce T; Restrepo, Carla; West, Geoffrey B

    2002-05-29

    Underlying the diversity of life and the complexity of ecology is order that reflects the operation of fundamental physical and biological processes. Power laws describe empirical scaling relationships that are emergent quantitative features of biodiversity. These features are patterns of structure or dynamics that are self-similar or fractal-like over many orders of magnitude. Power laws allow extrapolation and prediction over a wide range of scales. Some appear to be universal, occurring in virtually all taxa of organisms and types of environments. They offer clues to underlying mechanisms that powerfully constrain biodiversity. We describe recent progress and future prospects for understanding the mechanisms that generate these power laws, and for explaining the diversity of species and complexity of ecosystems in terms of fundamental principles of physical and biological science.

  12. Statistical evidence for power law temporal correlations in exploratory behaviour of rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Chetan K; Verma, Mahendra K; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2010-01-01

    Dynamics of exploratory behaviour of rats and home base establishment is investigated. Time series of instantaneous speed of rats was computed from their position during exploration. The probability distribution function (PDF) of the speed obeys a power law distribution with exponents ranging from 2.1 to 2.32. The PDF of the recurrence time of large speed also exhibits a power law, P(τ) ~ τ(⁻β) with β from 1.56 to 2.30. The power spectrum of the speed is in general agreement with the 1/f spectrum reported earlier. These observations indicate that the acquisition of spatial information during exploration is self-organized with power law temporal correlations. This provides a possible explanation for the home base behaviour of rats during exploration. The exploratory behaviour of rats resembles other systems exhibiting self-organized criticality, e.g., earthquakes, solar flares etc. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Power laws from individual differences in learning and forgetting: mathematical analyses.

    PubMed

    Murre, Jaap M J; Chessa, Antonio G

    2011-06-01

    It has frequently been claimed that learning performance improves with practice according to the so-called "Power Law of Learning." Similarly, forgetting may follow a power law. It has been shown on the basis of extensive simulations that such power laws may emerge through averaging functions with other, nonpower function shapes. In the present article, we supplement these simulations with a mathematical proof that power functions will indeed emerge as a result of averaging over exponential functions, if the distribution of learning rates follows a gamma distribution, a uniform distribution, or a half-normal function. Through a number of simulations, we further investigate to what extent these findings may affect empirical results in practice.

  14. The fractal nature of nature: power laws, ecological complexity and biodiversity.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James H; Gupta, Vijay K; Li, Bai-Lian; Milne, Bruce T; Restrepo, Carla; West, Geoffrey B

    2002-01-01

    Underlying the diversity of life and the complexity of ecology is order that reflects the operation of fundamental physical and biological processes. Power laws describe empirical scaling relationships that are emergent quantitative features of biodiversity. These features are patterns of structure or dynamics that are self-similar or fractal-like over many orders of magnitude. Power laws allow extrapolation and prediction over a wide range of scales. Some appear to be universal, occurring in virtually all taxa of organisms and types of environments. They offer clues to underlying mechanisms that powerfully constrain biodiversity. We describe recent progress and future prospects for understanding the mechanisms that generate these power laws, and for explaining the diversity of species and complexity of ecosystems in terms of fundamental principles of physical and biological science. PMID:12079523

  15. Hybrid solution for the laminar flow of power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A.; Pereira, L. M.; Macêdo, E. N.; Chaves, C. L.; Quaresma, J. N. N.

    The so-called generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is employed in the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of two-dimensional fully-developed laminar flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts. The characteristic of the automatic and straightforward global error control procedure inherent to this approach, permits the determination of fully converged benchmark results to assess the performance of purely numerical techniques. Therefore, numerical results for the product Fanning friction factor-generalized Reynolds number are computed for different values of power-law index and aspect ratio, which are compared with previously reported results in the literature, providing critical comparisons among them as well as illustrating the powerfulness of the integral transform approach. The resulting velocity profiles computed by using this methodology are also compared with those calculated by approximated methods for power-law fluids, within the range of governing parameters studied.

  16. Spreading law of non-Newtonian power-law liquids on a spherical substrate by an energy-balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2017-07-01

    The spreading of a cap-shaped spherical droplet of non-Newtonian power-law liquids, both shear-thickening and shear-thinning liquids, that completely wet a spherical substrate is theoretically investigated in the capillary-controlled spreading regime. The crater-shaped droplet model with the wedge-shaped meniscus near the three-phase contact line is used to calculate the viscous dissipation near the contact line. Then the energy balance approach is adopted to derive the equation that governs the evolution of the contact line. The time evolution of the dynamic contact angle θ of a droplet obeys a power law θ ˜t-α with the spreading exponent α , which is different from Tanner's law for Newtonian liquids and those for non-Newtonian liquids on a flat substrate. Furthermore, the line-tension dominated spreading, which could be realized on a spherical substrate for late-stage of spreading when the contact angle becomes low and the curvature of the contact line becomes large, is also investigated.

  17. Power, Resistance, and Emotional Economies in Women's Relationships with Mothers-in-Law in Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Kristy Y.; Pyke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This interview study interrogates how cultural values of filial piety inform Chinese American daughters-in-law's understanding of their relationship and power dynamics with immigrant Chinese American mothers-in-law. Ideals of filial respect accord limited authority to mothers-in-law, who engage other mechanisms of power, such as their domestic…

  18. Interception efficiency in flow of power-law fluids past confined porous bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the flow of power-law fluids through porous media is important for a wide range of filtration and sedimentation processes. In this study, the mobility of power-law fluids through porous media is investigated numerically and we use parametric studies to systematically understand the individual roles of geometrical characteristics, rheological properties as well as flow conditions. In addition, an analytical solution is presented that can be used as a modified Darcy law for generalized Newtonian fluids. Building on this modified Darcy law, the incompressible laminar flow of power-law and Carreau fluids past a confined porous body is modeled numerically. From the simulations we calculate the flow interception efficiency, which provides a measure of the fraction of streamlines that intercept a porous collector. Finally, the interception efficiency of power-law fluids are compared with the case of a Newtonian fluid. The focus of this work is principally for flow of inelastic fluids in fibrous media; however, the methodology can also be extended to other porous media.

  19. Power-law modeling based on least-squares criteria: consequences for system analysis and simulation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bermejo, B; Fairén, V; Sorribas, A

    2000-10-01

    The power-law formalism was initially derived as a Taylor series approximation in logarithmic space for kinetic rate-laws. The resulting models, either as generalized mass action (GMA) or as S-systems models, allow to characterize the target system and to simulate its dynamical behavior in response to external perturbations and parameter changes. This approach has been succesfully used as a modeling tool in many applications from cell metabolism to population dynamics. Without leaving the general formalism, we recently proposed to derive the power-law representation in an alternative way that uses least-squares (LS) minimization instead of the traditional derivation based on Taylor series [B. Hernández-Bermejo, V. Fairén, A. Sorribas, Math. Biosci. 161 (1999) 83-94]. It was shown that the resulting LS power-law mimics the target rate-law in a wider range of concentration values than the classical power-law, and that the prediction of the steady-state using the LS power-law is closer to the actual steady-state of the target system. However, many implications of this alternative approach remained to be established. We explore some of them in the present work. Firstly, we extend the definition of the LS power-law within a given operating interval in such a way that no preferred operating point is selected. Besides providing an alternative to the classical Taylor power-law, that can be considered a particular case when the operating interval is reduced to a single point, the LS power-law so defined is consistent with the results that can be obtained by fitting experimental data points. Secondly, we show that the LS approach leads to a system description, either as an S-system or a GMA model, in which the systemic properties (such as the steady-state prediction or the log-gains) appear averaged over the corresponding interval when compared with the properties that can be computed from Taylor-derived models in different operating points within the considered operating

  20. Decomposition of Heart Rate Variability Spectrum into a Power-Law Function and a Residual Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jane; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) of heart rate variability (HRV) contains a power-law relationship that can be obtained by plotting the logarithm of PSD against the logarithm of frequency. The PSD of HRV can be decomposed mathematically into a power-law function and a residual HRV (rHRV) spectrum. Almost all rHRV measures are significantly smaller than their corresponding HRV measures except the normalized high-frequency power (nrHFP). The power-law function can be characterized by the slope and Y-intercept of linear regression. Almost all HRV measures except the normalized low-frequency power have significant correlations with the Y-intercept, while almost all rHRV measures except the total power [residual total power (rTP)] do not. Though some rHRV measures still correlate significantly with the age of the subjects, the rTP, high-frequency power (rHFP), nrHFP, and low-/high-frequency power ratio (rLHR) do not. In conclusion, the clinical significances of rHRV measures might be different from those of traditional HRV measures. The Y-intercept might be a better HRV measure for clinical use because it is independent of almost all rHRV measures. The rTP, rHFP, nrHFP, and rLHR might be more suitable for the study of age-independent autonomic nervous modulation of the subjects.

  1. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Direct simulation Monte Carlo of rarefied hypersonic flow on power law shaped leading edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Wilson Fernando Nogueira Dos

    A numerical study of several parameters that influence the flowfield structure, aerodynamic surface quantities and shock wave structure at rarefied hypersonic flow conditions is conducted on power law shaped leading edges. The calculations are performed with a detailed computer code that properly accounts for nonequilibrium effects and that has been demonstrated to yield excellent comparisons with flight- and ground-test data. The flowfield structure, aerodynamic surface quantities and shock wave structure of power law shaped leading edges are examined in order to provide information on how well these shapes could stand as possible candidates for blunting geometries of hypersonic leading edges. Newtonian flow analysis has shown that these shapes exhibit both blunt and sharp aerodynamic properties. Moreover, computational investigation of minimum-drag bodies at supersonic and moderate hypersonic speeds has indicated that power law shapes for certain exponents yield the lowest wave drag. These qualities make power law shapes strong candidates for leading edge design. A very detailed description of the impact on the flow properties, such as velocity, density, temperature and pressure, has been presented separately in the vicinity of the nose of the leading edges due to changes in their shapes. Numerical solutions show that the shape of the leading edge disturbed the flowfield far upstream, where the domain of influence decreased as the leading edge became aerodynamically sharp. A detailed procedure is presented to predict the pressure gradient along the body surface in a rarefied environment. Numerical solutions show that the pressure gradient behavior follows that predicted by Newtonian theory. It is found that the pressure gradient along the body surface goes to zero at the nose of the leading edge for power law exponents less than 2/3, a characteristic of a blunt body. It is finite for power law exponent of 2/3 and goes to minus infinite for power law exponents

  4. Constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio for non-power-law models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Hobson, M. P.

    2013-08-01

    Recent cosmological observations hint at a deviation from the simple power-law form of the primordial spectrum of curvature perturbations. In this paper we show that in the presence of a tensor component, a turn-over in the initial spectrum is preferred by current observations, and hence non-power-law models ought to be considered. For instance, for a power-law parameterisation with both a tensor component and running parameter, current data show a preference for a negative running at more than 2.5σ C.L. As a consequence of this deviation from a power-law, constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r are slightly broader. We also present constraints on the inflationary parameters for a model-independent reconstruction and the Lasenby & Doran (LD) model. In particular, the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the LD model are: rLD = 0.11±0.024. In addition to current data, we show expected constraints from Planck-like and CMB-Pol sensitivity experiments by using Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo sampling chains. For all the models, we have included the Bayesian Evidence to perform a model selection analysis. The Bayes factor, using current observations, shows a strong preference for the LD model over the standard power-law parameterisation, and provides an insight into the accuracy of differentiating models through future surveys.

  5. Spreading of completely wetting, non-Newtonian fluids with non-power-law rheology.

    PubMed

    Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong; Su, Ay

    2010-08-01

    Spreading non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on completely wetting surfaces are seldom investigated. This study assessed the wetting behavior of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a Newtonian fluid, two carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sodium solutions, a PDMS+2%w/w silica nanoparticle suspension and three polyethylene glycol (PEG400)+5-10%w/w silica nanoparticle suspensions (non-power-law fluids) on a mica surface. The theta(D)-U and R-t data for spreading drops of the six tested, non-power-law fluids can be described by power-law wetting models. We propose that this behavior is attributable to a uniform shear rate (a few tens to a few hundreds of s(-1)) distributed over the thin-film regime that controls spreading dynamics. Estimated film thickness was below the resolution of an optical microscope for direct observation. Approximating a general non-Newtonian fluid spreading as a power-law fluid greatly simplifies theoretical analysis and data interpretation.

  6. Self-similar nonequilibrium dynamics of a many-body system with power-law interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Garrahan, Juan P.; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The influence of power-law interactions on the dynamics of many-body systems far from equilibrium is much less explored than their effect on static and thermodynamic properties. To gain insight into this problem we introduce and analyze here an out-of-equilibrium deposition process in which the deposition rate of a given particle depends as a power law on the distance to previously deposited particles. This model draws its relevance from recent experimental progress in the domain of cold atomic gases, which are studied in a setting where atoms that are excited to high-lying Rydberg states interact through power-law potentials that translate into power-law excitation rates. The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of this system turns out to be surprisingly rich. It features a self-similar evolution which leads to a characteristic power-law time dependence of observables such as the particle concentration, and results in a scale invariance of the structure factor. Our findings show that in dissipative Rydberg gases out of equilibrium the characteristic distance among excitations—often referred to as the blockade radius—is not a static but rather a dynamic quantity.

  7. Self-similar nonequilibrium dynamics of a many-body system with power-law interactions.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The influence of power-law interactions on the dynamics of many-body systems far from equilibrium is much less explored than their effect on static and thermodynamic properties. To gain insight into this problem we introduce and analyze here an out-of-equilibrium deposition process in which the deposition rate of a given particle depends as a power law on the distance to previously deposited particles. This model draws its relevance from recent experimental progress in the domain of cold atomic gases, which are studied in a setting where atoms that are excited to high-lying Rydberg states interact through power-law potentials that translate into power-law excitation rates. The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of this system turns out to be surprisingly rich. It features a self-similar evolution which leads to a characteristic power-law time dependence of observables such as the particle concentration, and results in a scale invariance of the structure factor. Our findings show that in dissipative Rydberg gases out of equilibrium the characteristic distance among excitations-often referred to as the blockade radius-is not a static but rather a dynamic quantity.

  8. Double Power Laws in the Event-integrated Solar Energetic Particle Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2016-04-01

    A double power law or a power law with exponential rollover at a few to tens of MeV nucleon-1 of the event-integrated differential spectra has been reported in many solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The rollover energies per nucleon of different elements correlate with a particle's charge-to-mass ratio (Q/A). The probable causes are suggested as residing in shock finite lifetimes, shock finite sizes, shock geometry, and an adiabatic cooling effect. In this work, we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate a particle's transport process in the inner heliosphere. We solve the focused transport equation using a time-backward Markov stochastic approach. The convection, magnetic focusing, adiabatic cooling effect, and pitch-angle scattering are included. The effects that the interplanetary turbulence imposes on the shape of the resulting SEP spectra are examined. By assuming a pure power-law differential spectrum at the Sun, a perfect double-power-law feature with a break energy ranging from 10 to 120 MeV nucleon-1 is obtained at 1 au. We found that the double power law of the differential energy spectrum is a robust result of SEP interplanetary propagation. It works for many assumptions of interplanetary turbulence spectra that give various forms of momentum dependence of a particle's mean free path. The different spectral shapes in low-energy and high-energy ends are not just a transition from the convection-dominated propagation to diffusion-dominated propagation.

  9. Study on local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Tiantian; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Liu, Xueting

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the flow characteristic and local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in a curved 90° bend pipe with circular cross-sections, which are widely used in industrial applications. By employing numerical simulation and theoretical analysis the properties of the flow and local resistance of power law fluid under different working conditions are obtained. To explore the change rule the experiment is carried out by changing the Reynolds number, the wall roughness and different diameter ratio of elbow pipe. The variation of the local resistance coefficient with the Reynolds number, the diameter ratio and the wall roughness is presented comprehensively in the paper. The results show that the local resistance force coefficient hardly changes with Reynolds number of the power law fluid; the wall roughness has a significant impact on the local resistance coefficient. As the pipe wall roughness increasing, the coefficient of local resistance force will increase. The main reason of the influence of the roughness on the local resistance coefficient is the increase of the eddy current region in the power law fluid flow, which increases the kinetic energy dissipation of the main flow. This paper provides theoretical and numerical methods to understand the local resistance property of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes.

  10. Prediction of radio frequency power generation of Neptune's magnetosphere from generalized radiometric Bode's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millon, M. A.; Goertz, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetospheric radio frequency emission power has been shown to vary as a function of both solar wind and planetary values such as magnetic field by Kaiser and Desch. Planetary magnetic fields have been shown to scale with planetary variables such as density and angular momentum by numerous researchers. This paper combines two magnetic scaling laws (Busse's and Curtis Ness') with the radiometric law to yield "Bode's"-type laws governing planetary radio emission. Further analysis allows the reduction of variables to planetary mass and orbital distance. These generalized laws are then used to predict the power output of Neptune to be about 1.6×107W; with the intensity peaking at about 3 MHz.

  11. Power Law Behavior and Self-Similarity in Modern Industrial Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, António M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    Advances in technology have produced more and more intricate industrial systems, such as nuclear power plants, chemical centers and petroleum platforms. Such complex plants exhibit multiple interactions among smaller units and human operators, rising potentially disastrous failure, which can propagate across subsystem boundaries. This paper analyzes industrial accident data-series in the perspective of statistical physics and dynamical systems. Global data is collected from the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) during the time period from year 1903 up to 2012. The statistical distributions of the number of fatalities caused by industrial accidents reveal Power Law (PL) behavior. We analyze the evolution of the PL parameters over time and observe a remarkable increment in the PL exponent during the last years. PL behavior allows prediction by extrapolation over a wide range of scales. In a complementary line of thought, we compare the data using appropriate indices and use different visualization techniques to correlate and to extract relationships among industrial accident events. This study contributes to better understand the complexity of modern industrial accidents and their ruling principles.

  12. Stochastic Mixing Model with Power Law Decay of Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedotov, S.; Ihme, M.; Pitsch, H.

    2003-01-01

    Here we present a simple stochastic mixing model based on the law of large numbers (LLN). The reason why the LLN is involved in our formulation of the mixing problem is that the random conserved scalar c = c(t,x(t)) appears to behave as a sample mean. It converges to the mean value mu, while the variance sigma(sup 2)(sub c) (t) decays approximately as t(exp -1). Since the variance of the scalar decays faster than a sample mean (typically is greater than unity), we will introduce some non-linear modifications into the corresponding pdf-equation. The main idea is to develop a robust model which is independent from restrictive assumptions about the shape of the pdf. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we derive the integral equation from a stochastic difference equation describing the evolution of the pdf of a passive scalar in time. The stochastic difference equation introduces an exchange rate gamma(sub n) which we model in a first step as a deterministic function. In a second step, we generalize gamma(sub n) as a stochastic variable taking fluctuations in the inhomogeneous environment into account. In Section 3 we solve the non-linear integral equation numerically and analyze the influence of the different parameters on the decay rate. The paper finishes with a conclusion.

  13. On Integral Upper Limits Assuming Power-law Spectra and the Sensitivity in High-energy Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, Max L.

    2017-02-01

    The high-energy non-thermal universe is dominated by power-law-like spectra. Therefore, results in high-energy astronomy are often reported as parameters of power-law fits, or, in the case of a non-detection, as an upper limit assuming the underlying unseen spectrum behaves as a power law. In this paper, I demonstrate a simple and powerful one-to-one relation of the integral upper limit in the two-dimensional power-law parameter space into the spectrum parameter space and use this method to unravel the so-far convoluted question of the sensitivity of astroparticle telescopes.

  14. Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor's law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry.

    PubMed

    Lagrue, Clément; Poulin, Robert; Cohen, Joel E

    2015-02-10

    How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we found that species of different lifestyles differed in taxonomic distribution and body mass and were well described by three power laws: a spatial Taylor's law (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of the spatial mean population density); density-mass allometry (the spatial mean population density was a power-law function of mean body mass); and variance-mass allometry (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of mean body mass). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical confirmation of variance-mass allometry for any animal community. We found that the parameter values of all three relationships differed for species with different lifestyles in the same communities. Taylor's law and density-mass allometry accurately predicted the form and parameter values of variance-mass allometry. We conclude that species of different lifestyles in these metazoan communities obeyed the same major ecological power-law relationships but did so with parameters specific to each lifestyle, probably reflecting differences among lifestyles in population dynamics and spatial distribution.

  15. Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor’s law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry

    PubMed Central

    Lagrue, Clément; Poulin, Robert; Cohen, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we found that species of different lifestyles differed in taxonomic distribution and body mass and were well described by three power laws: a spatial Taylor’s law (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of the spatial mean population density); density-mass allometry (the spatial mean population density was a power-law function of mean body mass); and variance-mass allometry (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of mean body mass). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical confirmation of variance-mass allometry for any animal community. We found that the parameter values of all three relationships differed for species with different lifestyles in the same communities. Taylor's law and density-mass allometry accurately predicted the form and parameter values of variance-mass allometry. We conclude that species of different lifestyles in these metazoan communities obeyed the same major ecological power-law relationships but did so with parameters specific to each lifestyle, probably reflecting differences among lifestyles in population dynamics and spatial distribution. PMID:25550506

  16. Thermodynamics of (2 +1 )-dimensional charged black holes with power-law Maxwell field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional nonlinearly charged black holes have been considered with a power-law modified electromagnetic theory. The black hole solutions to Einstein's three-dimensional field equations with a negative cosmological constant have been constructed in the presence of power-law nonlinear electrodynamics. Through the physical and mathematical interpretation of the solutions, a new class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions has been introduced. The area law, surface gravity, and Gauss's law are utilized to obtain the entropy, temperature, and electric charge of the new AdS black holes, respectively. The quasilocal mass of the solutions has been calculated based on the counterterm method. A Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of entropy and charge has been obtained. It has been shown that the thermodynamical quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics for the new AdS black holes. Also, it has been found that in order for the Smarr mass formula to be compatible with the first law of black hole thermodynamics, the cosmological parameter Λ should be treated as a thermodynamical variable and the generalized first law of thermodynamics has been introduced. Through the canonical ensemble method, the black hole remnant or phase transitions have been investigated regarding the black hole heat capacity. It has been found that the AdS black hole solutions we just obtained are thermodynamically stable.

  17. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  18. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  19. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  20. Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties.

  1. Power-law decay of the spatial correlation function in exciton-polariton condensates

    PubMed Central

    Roumpos, Georgios; Lohse, Michael; Nitsche, Wolfgang H.; Keeling, Jonathan; Szymańska, Marzena Hanna; Littlewood, Peter B.; Löffler, Andreas; Höfling, Sven; Worschech, Lukas; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    We create a large exciton-polariton condensate and employ a Michelson interferometer setup to characterize the short- and long-distance behavior of the first order spatial correlation function. Our experimental results show distinct features of both the two-dimensional and nonequilibrium characters of the condensate. We find that the gaussian short-distance decay is followed by a power-law decay at longer distances, as expected for a two-dimensional condensate. The exponent of the power law is measured in the range 0.9–1.2, larger than is possible in equilibrium. We compare the experimental results to a theoretical model to understand the features required to observe a power law and to clarify the influence of external noise on spatial coherence in nonequilibrium phase transitions. Our results indicate that Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless-like phase order survives in open-dissipative systems. PMID:22496595

  2. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-02-29

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.

  3. Minimum variance projection for direct measurements of power-law spectra in the wavenumber domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Yasuhito; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Hada, Tohru

    2017-05-01

    Minimum variance projection is widely used in geophysical and space plasma measurements to identify the wave propagation direction and the wavenumber of the wave fields. The advantage of the minimum variance projection is its ability to estimate the energy spectra directly in the wavenumber domain using only a limited number of spatial samplings. While the minimum variance projection is constructed for discrete signals in the data, we find that the minimum variance projection can reasonably reproduce the spectral slope of the power-law spectrum if the data represent continuous power-law signals. The spectral slope study using the minimum variance projection is tested against synthetic random data with a power-law spectrum. The method is applicable even for a small number of spatial samplings. Conversely, the spatial aliasing causes a flattening of the spectrum.

  4. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  5. Power-law distribution of phase-locking intervals does not imply critical interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botcharova, M.; Farmer, S. F.; Berthouze, L.

    2012-11-01

    Neural synchronization plays a critical role in information processing, storage, and transmission. Characterizing the pattern of synchronization is therefore of great interest. It has recently been suggested that the brain displays broadband criticality based on two measures of synchronization, phase-locking intervals and global lability of synchronization, showing power-law statistics at the critical threshold in a classical model of synchronization. In this paper, we provide evidence that, within the limits of the model selection approach used to ascertain the presence of power-law statistics, the pooling of pairwise phase-locking intervals from a noncritically interacting system can produce a distribution that is similarly assessed as being power law. In contrast, the global lability of synchronization measure is shown to better discriminate critical from noncritical interaction.

  6. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-01

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  7. Power-law distribution of phase-locking intervals does not imply critical interaction.

    PubMed

    Botcharova, M; Farmer, S F; Berthouze, L

    2012-11-01

    Neural synchronization plays a critical role in information processing, storage, and transmission. Characterizing the pattern of synchronization is therefore of great interest. It has recently been suggested that the brain displays broadband criticality based on two measures of synchronization, phase-locking intervals and global lability of synchronization, showing power-law statistics at the critical threshold in a classical model of synchronization. In this paper, we provide evidence that, within the limits of the model selection approach used to ascertain the presence of power-law statistics, the pooling of pairwise phase-locking intervals from a noncritically interacting system can produce a distribution that is similarly assessed as being power law. In contrast, the global lability of synchronization measure is shown to better discriminate critical from noncritical interaction.

  8. Analysis of electroosmotic flow of power-law fluids in a slit microchannel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cunlu; Zholkovskij, Emilijk; Masliyah, Jacob H; Yang, Chun

    2008-10-15

    Electroosmotic flow of power-law fluids in a slit channel is analyzed. The governing equations including the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Cauchy momentum equation, and the continuity equation are solved to seek analytical expressions for the shear stress, dynamic viscosity, and velocity distribution. Specifically, exact solutions of the velocity distributions are explicitly found for several special values of the flow behavior index. Furthermore, with the implementation of an approximate scheme for the hyperbolic cosine function, approximate solutions of the velocity distributions are obtained. In addition, a generalized Smoluchowski velocity is introduced by taking into account contributions due to the finite thickness of the electric double layer and the flow behavior index of power-law fluids. Calculations are performed to examine the effects of kappaH, flow behavior index, double layer thickness, and applied electric field on the shear stress, dynamic viscosity, velocity distribution, and average velocity/flow rate of the electroosmotic flow of power-law fluids.

  9. Power law distribution of the duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: breakdown of scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul; Mounfield, Craig

    2001-04-01

    Power law distributions of macroscopic observables are ubiquitous in both the natural and social sciences. They are indicative of correlated, cooperative phenomena between groups of interacting agents at the microscopic level. In this paper, we argue that when one is considering aggregate macroeconomic data (annual growth rates in real per capita GDP in the seventeen leading capitalist economies from 1870 through to 1994) the magnitude and duration of recessions over the business cycle do indeed follow power law like behaviour for a significant proportion of the data (demonstrating the existence of cooperative phenomena amongst economic agents). Crucially, however, there are systematic deviations from this behaviour when one considers the frequency of occurrence of large recessions. Under these circumstances the power law scaling breaks down. It is argued that it is the adaptive behaviour of the agents (their ability to recognise the changing economic environment) which modifies their cooperative behaviour.

  10. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohen, Joel E.

    2016-02-01

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from `outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.

  11. Power-law X-ray and gamma-ray emission from relativistic thermal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    A common characteristic of cosmic sources is power-law X-ray emission. Extragalactic sources of this type include compact components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The present study is concerned with a theoretical model of such sources, taking into account the assumption that the power-law spectra are produced by repeated Compton scatterings of soft photons by relativistic thermal electrons. This is one of several possible physical mechanisms leading to the formation of a power-law spectrum. Attention is given to the Comptonization of soft photon sources, the rates of pair processes, the solution of the pair equilibrium equation, and the constraints on a soft photon source and an energy source. It is concluded that the compactness parameters L/R of most of the cosmic sources observed to date lie below the maximum luminosity curves considered.

  12. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: crystal phases.

    PubMed

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  13. Heat transfer analysis in an annular cone subjected to power law variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman Ahmed, N. J.; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Yunus Khan, T. M.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Athani, Abdulgaphur; Anjum Badruddin, Irfan

    2016-09-01

    Present study deals with the analysis of heat transfer and fluid flow behavior in an annular cone fixed with saturated porous medium. The inner surface of the cone is assumed to have power law variable wall temperature. The governing partial differential equations are solved using well known Finite Element Method (FEM). The coupled nonlinear differential equations are converted into the algebraic equations by using Galerkin method. A 3 noded triangular element is used to divide the porous domain into smaller segments. The effects of various geometrical parameters on the cone angle are presented. It is found that the effect of cone angle on the heat transfer characteristics and fluid flow behavior is considerably significant. The fluid moment is found to shift towards the upper side of cone with increase in the power law coefficient. The fluid velocity decreases with increase in the power law coefficient.

  14. Power-law velocity profile in turbulent boundary layers: An integral reynolds-number dependent solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Dey, Subhasish

    2011-10-01

    Geophysical flows of practical interest encompass turbulent boundary layer flows. The velocity profile in turbulent flows is generally described by a log- or a power-law applicable to certain zones of the boundary layer, or by wall-wake law for the entire zone of the boundary layer. In this study, a novel theory is proposed from which the power-law velocity profile is obtained for the turbulent boundary layer flow. The new power-law profile is based on the conservation of mass and the skin friction within the boundary layer. From the proposed theory, analytical expressions for the power-law velocity profile are presented, and their Reynolds-number dependency is highlighted. The velocity profile, skin friction coefficient and boundary layer thickness obtained from the proposed theory are validated by the reliable experimental data for zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. The expressions for Reynolds shear stress and eddy viscosity distributions across the boundary layer are also obtained and validated by the experimental data.

  15. Effect of Body Perturbations on Hypersonic Flow Over Slender Power Law Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold; Thornton, Philip R.

    1959-01-01

    Hypersonic-slender-body theory, in the limit as the free-stream Mach number becomes infinite, is used to find the effect of slightly perturbing the surface of slender two-dimensional and axisymmetric power law bodies, The body perturbations are assumed to have a power law variation (with streamwise distance downstream of the nose of the body). Numerical results are presented for (1) the effect of boundary-layer development on two dimensional and axisymmetric bodies, (2) the effect of very small angles of attack (on tow[dimensional bodies), and (3) the effect of blunting the nose of very slender wedges and cones.

  16. Spherical collapse model and cluster number counts in power-law f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekjani, M.; Basilakos, S.; Heidari, N.

    2017-04-01

    We study the spherical collapse model in the framework of spatially flat power law f(T) ∝ (- T)b gravity model. We find that the linear and non-linear growth of spherical overdensities of this particular f(T) model are affected by the power-law parameter b. Finally, we compute the predicted number counts of virialized haloes in order to distinguish the current f(T) model from the expectations of the concordance Λ cosmology. Specifically, the present analysis suggests that the f(T) gravity model with positive (negative) b predicts more (less) virialized objects with respect to those of Λ cold dark matter.

  17. Time-dependent Kramers escape rate in overdamped system with power-law distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanjun; Yin, Cangtao

    2016-05-01

    The probability distribution of Brownian particles moving in an overdamped complex system follows the generalized Smoluchowski equation, which can be rigorously proven that the exact time-dependent solution for this equation follows Tsallis form. Time-dependent escape rate in overdamped system with power-law distributions is then established based on the flux over population theory. The stationary state escape rate in overdamped system with power-law distribution which has been obtained before based on mean first passage time theory is recovered from time-dependent escape rate as time toward infinity.

  18. Power-law electrokinetic behavior as a direct probe of effective surface viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, Yuki; Netz, Roland R.; Bonthuis, Douwe Jan

    2017-02-01

    An exact solution to the Poisson-Boltzmann and Stokes equations is derived to describe the electric double layer with inhomogeneous dielectric and viscosity profiles in a lateral electric field. In the limit of strongly charged surfaces and low salinity, the electrokinetic flow magnitude follows a power law as a function of the surface charge density. Remarkably, the power-law exponent is determined by the interfacial dielectric constant and viscosity, the latter of which has eluded experimental determination. Our approach provides a novel method to extract the effective interfacial viscosity from standard electrokinetic experiments. We find good agreement between our theory and experimental data.

  19. One-dimensional quantum liquids with power-law interactions: the Luttinger staircase.

    PubMed

    Dalmonte, M; Pupillo, G; Zoller, P

    2010-10-01

    We study one-dimensional fermionic and bosonic gases with repulsive power-law interactions 1/|x|(β), with β>1, in the framework of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) theory. We obtain an accurate analytical expression linking the TLL parameter to the microscopic Hamiltonian, for arbitrary β and strength of the interactions. In the presence of a small periodic potential, power-law interactions make the TLL unstable towards the formation of a cascade of lattice solids with fractional filling, a "Luttinger staircase." Several of these quantum phases and phase transitions are realized with ground state polar molecules and weakly bound magnetic Feshbach molecules.

  20. The extent of power-law energy spectra in collisionless relativistic magnetic reconnection in pair plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.; Begelman, M. C.

    2015-12-30

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power law ${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.

  1. Non-Gaussian Fluctuations Resulting from Power-Law Trapping in a Lipid Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji; Yasuoka, Kenji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Yasui, Masato

    2011-10-01

    Anomalous diffusion in lipid bilayers is usually attributed to viscoelastic behavior. We compute the scaling exponent of relative fluctuations of the time-averaged mean square displacement in a lipid bilayer, by using a molecular dynamics simulation. According to the continuous time random walk theory, this exponent indicates non-Gaussian behavior caused by a power-law trapping time. Our results provide the first evidence that a lipid bilayer has not only viscoelastic properties but also trapping times distributed according to a power law.

  2. On the origin and robustness of power-law species–area relationships in ecology

    PubMed Central

    García Martín, Héctor; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    We present an explanation for the widely reported power-law species–area relationship (SAR), which relates the area occupied by a biome to the number of species that it supports. We argue that power-law SARs are a robust consequence of a skewed species abundance distribution resembling a lognormal with higher rarity, together with the observation that individuals of a given species tend to cluster. We show that the precise form of the SAR transcends the specific details of organism interactions, enabling us to characterize its broad trends across taxa. PMID:16801556

  3. Evidence for power-law dominated noise in vacuum deposited CaF2.

    PubMed

    Luhman, D R; Hallock, R B

    2004-06-25

    We have studied the surface roughness of CaF2 vacuum deposited on glass using atomic force microscopy for film coverages spanning an order of magnitude. We find the roughness exponent alpha=0.88+/-0.03, the growth exponent beta=0.75+/-0.03, and the dynamic exponent z=alpha/beta=1.17+/-0.06. Multifractality is also present, along with power-law behavior in the nearest neighbor height difference probability distribution. The results indicate noise dominated by a power-law distribution with exponent micro+1 approximately 4.6.

  4. Numerical Simulations of Power Law Heating Functions for Quiescent Loops: Stability and Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P. C.; Winter, H. D.; Munetsi-Mugomba, K.

    2007-12-01

    We present the numerical simulations of quiescent coronal loops with heating functions that are power law functions of pressure and temperature. These simulations are made using a time-dependent, 1D hydrodynamics code with heating functions that are treated as dynamic variables which are constantly re- evaluated during the loops' lifetimes. These numerical simulations provide a stability test for the analytical solutions formulated by Martens (2007, submitted) for the same heating functions. TRACE and XRT datasets are simulated to determine if present observables can provide adequate information to discriminate between power law heating functions.

  5. The first experimental confirmation of the fractional kinetics containing the complex-power-law exponents: Dielectric measurements of polymerization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.; Arbuzov, A. A.; Salehli, F.; Giz, A.; Bayrak, I.; Catalgil-Giz, H.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time we achieved incontestable evidence that the real process of dielectric relaxation during the polymerization reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is described in terms of the fractional kinetic equations containing complex-power-law exponents. The possibility of the existence of the fractional kinetics containing non-integer complex-power-law exponents follows from the general theory of dielectric relaxation that has been suggested recently by one of the authors (R.R.N). Based on the physical/geometrical meaning of the fractional integral with complex exponents there is a possibility to develop a general theory of dielectric relaxation based on the self-similar (fractal) character of the reduced (averaged) microprocesses that take place in the mesoscale region. This theory contains some essential predictions related to existence of the non-integer power-law kinetics and the results of this paper can be considered as the first confirmation of existence of the kinetic phenomena that are described by fractional derivatives with complex-power-law exponents. We want to stress here that with the help of a new complex fitting function for the complex permittivity it becomes possible to describe the whole process for real and imaginary parts simultaneously throughout the admissible frequency range (30 Hz-13 MHz). The fitting parameters obtained for the complex permittivity function for three temperatures (70, 90 and 110 °C) confirm in general the picture of reaction that was known qualitatively before. They also reveal some new features, which improve the interpretation of the whole polymerization process. We hope that these first results obtained in the paper will serve as a good stimulus for other researches to find the traces of the existence of new fractional kinetics in other relaxation processes unrelated to the dielectric relaxation. These results should lead to the reconsideration and generalization of irreversibility and kinetic phenomena that

  6. Tweedie convergence: A mathematical basis for Taylor's power law, 1/f noise, and multifractality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2011-12-01

    Plants and animals of a given species tend to cluster within their habitats in accordance with a power function between their mean density and the variance. This relationship, Taylor's power law, has been variously explained by ecologists in terms of animal behavior, interspecies interactions, demographic effects, etc., all without consensus. Taylor's law also manifests within a wide range of other biological and physical processes, sometimes being referred to as fluctuation scaling and attributed to effects of the second law of thermodynamics. 1/f noise refers to power spectra that have an approximately inverse dependence on frequency. Like Taylor's law these spectra manifest from a wide range of biological and physical processes, without general agreement as to cause. One contemporary paradigm for 1/f noise has been based on the physics of self-organized criticality. We show here that Taylor's law (when derived from sequential data using the method of expanding bins) implies 1/f noise, and that both phenomena can be explained by a central limit-like effect that establishes the class of Tweedie exponential dispersion models as foci for this convergence. These Tweedie models are probabilistic models characterized by closure under additive and reproductive convolution as well as under scale transformation, and consequently manifest a variance to mean power function. We provide examples of Taylor's law, 1/f noise, and multifractality within the eigenvalue deviations of the Gaussian unitary and orthogonal ensembles, and show that these deviations conform to the Tweedie compound Poisson distribution. The Tweedie convergence theorem provides a unified mathematical explanation for the origin of Taylor's law and 1/f noise applicable to a wide range of biological, physical, and mathematical processes, as well as to multifractality.

  7. From gene families and genera to incomes and internet file sizes: why power laws are so common in nature.

    PubMed

    Reed, William J; Hughes, Barry D

    2002-12-01

    We present a simple explanation for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions by showing that if stochastic processes with exponential growth in expectation are killed (or observed) randomly, the distribution of the killed or observed state exhibits power-law behavior in one or both tails. This simple mechanism can explain power-law tails in the distributions of the sizes of incomes, cities, internet files, biological taxa, and in gene family and protein family frequencies.

  8. Limit order placement as an utility maximization problem and the origin of power law distribution of limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo, F.

    2007-02-01

    I consider the problem of the optimal limit order price of a financial asset in the framework of the maximization of the utility function of the investor. The analytical solution of the problem gives insight on the origin of the recently empirically observed power law distribution of limit order prices. In the framework of the model, the most likely proximate cause of this power law is a power law heterogeneity of traders' investment time horizons.

  9. Geomorphological and hydrological implications of a given hydraulic geometry relationship, beyond the power-law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongChun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Channel geometry and hydraulic characteristics of a given river network, i.e., spatio-temporal variability of width, depth, and velocity, can be described as power functional relationships of flow discharge, named 'hydraulic geometry' (Leopold and Maddock, 1953). Many studies have focused on the implication of this power-law itself, i.e., self-similarity, and accordingly its exponents. Coefficients of the power functional relationships, on the contrary, have received little attention. They are often regarded as empirical constants, determined by 'best fitting' to the power-law without significant scientific implications. Here, we investigate and claim that power-law coefficients of hydraulic geometry relationships carry vital information of a given river system. We approach the given problem on the basis of 'basin hydraulic geometry' formulation (Stall and Fok, 1968) which decomposes power-law coefficients into more elementary constants. The linkage between classical power-law relationship (Leopold and Maddock, 1953) and the basin hydraulic geometry is provided by Paik and Kumar (2004). On the basis of this earlier study, it can be shown that coefficients and exponents of power-law hydraulic geometry are interrelated. In this sense, we argue that more elementary constants that constitute both exponents and coefficients carry important messages. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how these elementary constants vary over a wide range of catchments provided from Stall and Fok (1968) and Stall and Yang (1970). Findings of this study can provide new insights on fundamental understanding about hydraulic geometry relationships. Further, we expect that this understanding can help interpretation of hydraulic geometry relationship in the context of flood propagation through a river system as well. Keywords: Hydraulic geometry; Power-law; River network References Leopold, L. B., & Maddock, T. J. (1953). The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic

  10. Thermodynamic laws, economic methods and the productive power of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Ayres, Robert U.; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Energy plays only a minor role in orthodox theories of economic growth, because standard economic equilibrium conditions say that the output elasticity of a production factor, which measures the factor's productive power, is equal to the factor's share in total factor cost. Having commanded only a tiny cost share of about 5 percent so far, energy is often neglected altogether. On the other hand, energy conversion in the machines of the capital stock has been the basis of industrial growth. How can the physically obvious economic importance of energy be reconciled with the conditions for economic equilibrium, which result from the maximization of profit or overall welfare? We show that these equilibrium conditions no longer yield the equality of cost shares and output elasticities, if the optimization calculus takes technological constraints on the combinations of capital, labor, and energy into account. New econometric analyses of economic growth in Germany, Japan, and the USA yield output elasticities that are for energy much larger and for labor much smaller than their cost shares. Social consequences are discussed.

  11. Power loss in open cavity diodes and a modified Child-Langmuir law

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Debabrata; Kumar, Raghwendra; Puri, R.R.

    2005-09-15

    Diodes used in most high power devices are inherently open. It is shown that under such circumstances, there is a loss of electromagnetic radiation leading to a lower critical current as compared to closed diodes. The power loss can be incorporated in the standard Child-Langmuir framework by introducing an effective potential. The modified Child-Langmuir law can be used to predict the maximum power loss for a given plate separation and potential difference as well as the maximum transmitted current for this power loss. The effectiveness of the theory is tested numerically.

  12. Complex motion of a vehicle through a series of signals controlled by power-law phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a vehicle moving through the series of traffic signals controlled by the position-dependent phase of power law. All signals are controlled by both cycle time and position-dependent phase. The dynamic model of the vehicular motion is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The vehicular motion varies in a complex manner by varying cycle time for various values of the power of the position-dependent phase. The vehicle displays the periodic motion with a long cycle for the integer power of the phase, while the vehicular motion exhibits the very complex behavior for the non-integer power of the phase.

  13. Inverse free steering law for small satellite attitude control and power tracking with VSCMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. S. I.; Asghar, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in integrated power and attitude control systems (IPACSs) for small satellite, has opened a new dimension to more complex and demanding space missions. This paper presents a new inverse free steering approach for integrated power and attitude control systems using variable-speed single gimbal control moment gyroscope. The proposed inverse free steering law computes the VSCMG steering commands (gimbal rates and wheel accelerations) such that error signal (difference in command and output) in feedback loop is driven to zero. H∞ norm optimization approach is employed to synthesize the static matrix elements of steering law for a static state of VSCMG. Later these matrix elements are suitably made dynamic in order for the adaptation. In order to improve the performance of proposed steering law while passing through a singular state of CMG cluster (no torque output), the matrix element of steering law is suitably modified. Therefore, this steering law is capable of escaping internal singularities and using the full momentum capacity of CMG cluster. Finally, two numerical examples for a satellite in a low earth orbit are simulated to test the proposed steering law.

  14. Investigation of Bose Condensation in Ideal Bose Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.

    2016-02-01

    The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.

  15. Breast tumor subgroups reveal diverse clinical prognostic power

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoqi; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Zhang, Shihua

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of cancer therapies using molecular features and clinical observations is a key goal of cancer biology, which has been addressed comprehensively using whole patient datasets without considering the effect of tumor heterogeneity. We hypothesized that molecular features and clinical observations have different prognostic abilities for different cancer subtypes, and made a systematic study using both clinical observations and gene expression data. This analysis revealed that (1) gene expression profiles and clinical features show different prognostic power for the five breast cancer subtypes; (2) gene expression data of the normal-like subgroup contains more valuable prognostic information and survival associated contexts than the other subtypes, and the patient survival time of the normal-like subtype is more predictable based on the gene expression profiles; and (3) the prognostic power of many previously reported breast cancer gene signatures increased in the normal-like subtype and reduced in the other subtypes compared with that in the whole sample set. PMID:24499868

  16. Power law and log law velocity distributions in the wall bounded turbulent flows on transitional rough walls: New approach to universal scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Noor

    2006-11-01

    An alternate two layers theory, based on four new scalings for transitional wall roughness variables, is presented for large appropriate roughness Reynolds numbers. For velocity profile the matching of inner and outer layers in the overlap region, by Izakson-Millikan-Kolmogorov hypothesis (Afzal, N. 2005 Proc. Royal Society A: PME 461, 1889-1910) leads to functional solutions that are universal log laws, as well as universal power laws, that explicitly independent of transitional wall roughness, having same constants as in smooth wall case. The universal log or power laws velocity profile and skin friction, if expressed in terms of traditional Reynolds numbers also yield log law and power laws that depend on surface roughness. The skin friction, in traditional variables, is predicted by a single relation for inflectional type of Nikuradse roughness for sand grain type roughness data and Colebrook commercial monotonic roughness. The extensive experimental data for various types of wall transitional roughness provide very good support to present theory of universal log laws as well as new predictions in traditional log laws . The experimental data from various sources (Osaka and Mochizuki, Kameda et al, Antonia and Krogstad, Smalley et al, Schultz and Flack and Leonardi et al for boundary layers and Nikuradse, Shockling and Bakken for pipes/Channels) provide strong support to the new scaling for log and power laws. Moody type diagram for inflectional roughness for boundary layer and pipe flows are presented.

  17. Temporal and Spatial Power Laws of River Peak Flows and Flood Frequency Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, W. F.; Mantilla, R.; Perez, G.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that the quantiles of annual peak flows (floods) are related as power law functions of basin drainage areas. These relationships constitute the basis for the current methods of regional flood frequency estimation. It is less well known that flood events obey similar laws but with different and varied (from event to event) parameters. It has also been demonstrated that power law probability distributions offer very good fit to flood data and lead to more conservative estimates of extreme events compared to the standard methods. The authors review some of the previous findings and show additional analyses of temporal flood data from Iowa. They supplement the data-based analyses with simulations from a space-time model. The overall goal of the research is to connect the spatial and temporal aspects of flood genesis and improve our understanding of the physical aspects that control flood frequency.

  18. AC losses in superconductors with a power-law constitutive relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agassi, Y. D.

    2015-10-01

    The observed constitutive relation between the electrical field and current density in cuprates high temperature superconductors is a power-law of the current. This functional dependence is presumably related to the giant flux-creep domain. It is shown that this constitutive relation reflects the statistical spread of the pinning potential associated with creep motion of vortex bundles. The AC losses emanating from a power-law constitutive relation are calculated in an approach focused on the superconductor's electric field. For a slab geometry in the presence of a parallel AC magnetic field or transport current, the calculated AC-loss scaling laws are consistent with BSCCO data and the critical state model. Extensions of the approach are briefly discussed.

  19. Power-law statistics and universal scaling in the absence of criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, Jonathan; Destexhe, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Critical states are sometimes identified experimentally through power-law statistics or universal scaling functions. We show here that such features naturally emerge from networks in self-sustained irregular regimes away from criticality. In these regimes, statistical physics theory of large interacting systems predict a regime where the nodes have independent and identically distributed dynamics. We thus investigated the statistics of a system in which units are replaced by independent stochastic surrogates and found the same power-law statistics, indicating that these are not sufficient to establish criticality. We rather suggest that these are universal features of large-scale networks when considered macroscopically. These results put caution on the interpretation of scaling laws found in nature.

  20. Power-law statistics and universal scaling in the absence of criticality.

    PubMed

    Touboul, Jonathan; Destexhe, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Critical states are sometimes identified experimentally through power-law statistics or universal scaling functions. We show here that such features naturally emerge from networks in self-sustained irregular regimes away from criticality. In these regimes, statistical physics theory of large interacting systems predict a regime where the nodes have independent and identically distributed dynamics. We thus investigated the statistics of a system in which units are replaced by independent stochastic surrogates and found the same power-law statistics, indicating that these are not sufficient to establish criticality. We rather suggest that these are universal features of large-scale networks when considered macroscopically. These results put caution on the interpretation of scaling laws found in nature.

  1. Frequency variations of solar radio zebras and their power-law spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context. During solar flares several types of radio bursts are observed. The fine striped structures of the type IV solar radio bursts are called zebras. Analyzing them provides important information about the plasma parameters of their radio sources. We present a new analysis of zebras. Aims: Power spectra of the frequency variations of zebras are computed to estimate the spectra of the plasma density variations in radio zebra sources. Methods: Frequency variations of zebra lines and the high-frequency boundary of the whole radio burst were determined with and without the frequency fitting. The computed time dependencies of these variations were analyzed with the Fourier method. Results: First, we computed the variation spectrum of the high-frequency boundary of the whole radio burst, which is composed of several zebra patterns. This power spectrum has a power-law form with a power-law index -1.65. Then, we selected three well-defined zebra-lines in three different zebra patterns and computed the spectra of their frequency variations. The power-law indices in these cases are found to be in the interval between -1.61 and -1.75. Finally, assuming that the zebra-line frequency is generated on the upper-hybrid frequency and that the plasma frequency ωpe is much higher than the electron-cyclotron frequency ωce, the Fourier power spectra are interpreted to be those of the electron plasma density in zebra radio sources.

  2. THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR MULTI-TERM MODIFIED POWER LAW WAVE EQUATIONS IN A FINITE DOMAIN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, H.; Liu, F.; Meerschaert, M. M.; McGough, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative term in time, such as the Szabo wave equation, or the power law wave equation, describe important physical phenomena. However, studies of these multi-term time-space or time fractional wave equations are still under development. In this paper, multi-term modified power law wave equations in a finite domain are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals (1, 2], [2, 3), [2, 4) or (0, n) (n > 2), respectively. Analytical solutions of the multi-term modified power law wave equations are derived. These new techniques are based on Luchko’s Theorem, a spectral representation of the Laplacian operator, a method of separating variables and fractional derivative techniques. Then these general methods are applied to the special cases of the Szabo wave equation and the power law wave equation. These methods and techniques can also be extended to other kinds of the multi-term time-space fractional models including fractional Laplacian. PMID:26425384

  3. Branching random walk with step size coming from a power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Ayan; Subhra Hazra, Rajat; Roy, Parthanil

    2015-09-01

    In their seminal work, Brunet and Derrida made predictions on the random point configurations associated with branching random walks. We shall discuss the limiting behavior of such point configurations when the displacement random variables come from a power law. In particular, we establish that two prediction of remains valid in this setup and investigate various other issues mentioned in their paper.

  4. THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR MULTI-TERM MODIFIED POWER LAW WAVE EQUATIONS IN A FINITE DOMAIN.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Liu, F; Meerschaert, M M; McGough, R J

    2013-01-01

    Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative term in time, such as the Szabo wave equation, or the power law wave equation, describe important physical phenomena. However, studies of these multi-term time-space or time fractional wave equations are still under development. In this paper, multi-term modified power law wave equations in a finite domain are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals (1, 2], [2, 3), [2, 4) or (0, n) (n > 2), respectively. Analytical solutions of the multi-term modified power law wave equations are derived. These new techniques are based on Luchko's Theorem, a spectral representation of the Laplacian operator, a method of separating variables and fractional derivative techniques. Then these general methods are applied to the special cases of the Szabo wave equation and the power law wave equation. These methods and techniques can also be extended to other kinds of the multi-term time-space fractional models including fractional Laplacian.

  5. Model-based discrete relaxation process representation of band-limited power-law attenuation.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2013-03-01

    Frequency-dependent acoustical loss due to a multitude of physical mechanisms is commonly modeled by multiple relaxations. For discrete relaxation distributions, such models correspond with causal wave equations of integer-order temporal derivatives. It has also been shown that certain continuous distributions may give causal wave equations with fractional-order temporal derivatives. This paper demonstrates analytically that if the wave-frequency ω satisfies ΩL≪ω  ≪ΩH, a continuous relaxation distribution populating only Ω∈[ΩL,ΩH] gives the same effective wave equation as for a fully populated distribution. This insight sparks the main contribution: the elaboration of a method to determine discrete relaxation parameters intended for mimicking a desired attenuation behavior for band-limited waves. In particular, power-law attenuation is discussed as motivated by its prevalence in complex media, e.g., biological tissue. A Mittag-Leffler function related distribution of relaxation mechanisms has previously been shown to be related to the fractional Zener wave equation of three power-law attenuation regimes. Because these regimes correspond to power-law regimes in the relaxation distribution, the idea is to sample the distribution's compressibility contributions evenly in logarithmic frequency while appropriately taking the stepsize into account. This work thence claims to provide a model-based approach to determination of discrete relaxation parameters intended to adequately model attenuation power-laws.

  6. Realization of power law inflation & variants via variation of the strong coupling constant

    SciTech Connect

    AlHallak, M.; Chamoun, N.

    2016-09-05

    We present a model of power law inflation generated by variation of the strong coupling constant. We then extend the model to two varying coupling constants which leads to a potential consisting of a linear combination of exponential terms. Some variants of the latter may be self-consistent and can accommodate the experimental data of the Planck 2015 and other recent experiments.

  7. Fractal approach towards power-law coherency to measure cross-correlations between time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    We focus on power-law coherency as an alternative approach towards studying power-law cross-correlations between simultaneously recorded time series. To be able to study empirical data, we introduce three estimators of the power-law coherency parameter Hρ based on popular techniques usually utilized for studying power-law cross-correlations - detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) and height cross-correlation analysis (HXA). In the finite sample properties study, we focus on the bias, variance and mean squared error of the estimators. We find that the DMCA-based method is the safest choice among the three. The HXA method is reasonable for long time series with at least 104 observations, which can be easily attainable in some disciplines but problematic in others. The DCCA-based method does not provide favorable properties which even deteriorate with an increasing time series length. The paper opens a new venue towards studying cross-correlations between time series.

  8. Exponential and power-law contact distributions represent different atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A M

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that the dynamics of plant disease epidemics are very sensitive to the functional form of the contact distribution?the probability distribution function for the distance of viable fungal spore movement until deposition. Epidemics can take the form of a constant-velocity travelling wave when the contact distribution is exponentially bounded. Fat-tailed contact distributions, on the other hand, lead to epidemic spreads that accelerate over time. Some empirical data for contact distributions can be well represented by negative exponentials while other data are better represented by fat-tailed inverse power laws. Here we present data from numerical simulations that suggest that negative exponentials and inverse power laws are not competing candidate forms of the contact distribution but are instead representative of different atmospheric conditions. Contact distributions for atmospheric boundary-layers with stabilities ranging from strongly convective (a hot windless day time scenario) to stable stratification (a cold windy night time scenario) but without precipitation events are calculated using well-established state-of-the-art Lagrangian stochastic (particle tracking) dispersal models. Contact distributions are found to be well represented by exponentials for strongly convective conditions; a -3/2 inverse power law for convective boundary-layers with wind shear; and by a -2/3 inverse power law for stably stratified conditions.

  9. A theory of scintillation for two-component power law irregularity spectra: Overview and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Rino, Charles L.

    2016-06-01

    We extend the power law phase screen theory for ionospheric scintillation to account for the case where the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component inverse power law spectrum. The two-component model includes, as special cases, an unmodified power law and a modified power law with spectral break that may assume the role of an outer scale, intermediate break scale, or inner scale. As such, it provides a framework for investigating the effects of a spectral break on the scintillation statistics. Using this spectral model, we solve the fourth moment equation governing intensity variations following propagation through two-dimensional field-aligned irregularities in the ionosphere. A specific normalization is invoked that exploits self-similar properties of the structure to achieve a universal scaling, such that different combinations of perturbation strength, propagation distance, and frequency produce the same results. The numerical algorithm is validated using new theoretical predictions for the behavior of the scintillation index and intensity correlation length under strong scatter conditions. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the morphologies of the intensity spectrum, scintillation index, and intensity correlation length as functions of the spectral indices and strength of scatter; retrieve phase screen parameters from intensity scintillation observations; explore the relative contributions to the scintillation due to large- and small-scale ionospheric structures; and quantify the conditions under which a general spectral break will influence the scintillation statistics.

  10. Fokker-Planck equation of distributions of financial returns and power laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    2001-02-01

    Our purpose is to relate the Fokker-Planck formalism proposed by [Friedrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 5224] for the distribution of stock market returns to the empirically well-established power-law distribution with an exponent in the range 3-5. We show how to use Friedrich et al.'s formalism to predict that the distribution of returns is indeed asymptotically a power law with an exponent μ that can be determined from the Kramers-Moyal coefficients determined by Friedrich et al. However, with their values determined for the U.S. dollar-German mark exchange rates, the exponent μ predicted from their theory is found to be around 12, in disagreement with the often-quoted value between 3 and 5. This could be explained by the fact that the large asymptotic value of 12 does not apply to real data that lie still far from the stationary state of the Fokker-Planck description. Another possibility is that power laws are inadequate. The mechanism for the power law is based on the presence of multiplicative noise across time-scales, which is different from the multiplicative noise at fixed time-scales implicit in the ARCH models developed in the Finance literature.

  11. Graph Structure in Three National Academic Webs: Power Laws with Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike; Wilkinson, David

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the Web can be modeled as a mathematical graph and analyzes the graph structures of three national university publicly indexable Web sites from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Topics include commercial search engines and academic Web link research; method-analysis environment and data sets; and power laws. (LRW)

  12. Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

  13. Power-law spatial correlations in arrays of locally coupled lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogister, Fabien; Thornburg, K. S., Jr.; Fabiny, Larry; Moller, Michael; Roy, Rajarshi

    2004-09-01

    We investigate correlations of the intensity fluctuations of two-dimensional arrays of non-identical, locally-coupled lasers, numerically and experimentally. We find evidence of a power-law dependence of spatial correlations as a function of laser pair distance (or coupling strength) near the phase-locking threshold.

  14. Power-Law Spatial Correlations in Arrays of Locally Coupled Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogister, Fabien; Thornburg, K. Scott; Fabiny, L.; Möller, Michael; Roy, Rajarshi

    2004-03-01

    We investigate correlations of the intensity fluctuations of two-dimensional arrays of nonidentical, locally coupled lasers, numerically and experimentally. We find evidence of a power-law dependence of spatial correlations as a function of laser pair distance (or coupling strength) near the phase-locking threshold.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Stability of the Estimated Parameters of the Binary Power Law

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The binary power law has become a standard approach for describing and quantifying spatial patterns of disease incidence and summarizing the spatial dynamics of disease over the course of an epidemic. However, the portability and temporal stability of parameter estimates of the binary form of the p...

  16. Comments Regarding the Binary Power Law for Heterogeneity of Disease Incidence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The binary power law (BPL) has been successfully used to characterize heterogeneity (over dispersion or small-scale aggregation) of disease incidence for many plant pathosystems. With the BPL, the log of the observed variance is a linear function of the log of the theoretical variance for a binomial...

  17. Graph Structure in Three National Academic Webs: Power Laws with Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike; Wilkinson, David

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the Web can be modeled as a mathematical graph and analyzes the graph structures of three national university publicly indexable Web sites from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Topics include commercial search engines and academic Web link research; method-analysis environment and data sets; and power laws. (LRW)

  18. Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

  19. Power law for the duration of recession and prosperity in Latin American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    Ormerod and Mounfield [P. Ormerod, C. Mounfield, Power law distribution of duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: Breakdown of scaling, Physica A 293 (2001) 573] and Ausloos et al. [M. Ausloos, J. Mikiewicz, M. Sanglier, The durations of recession and prosperity: Does their distribution follow a power or an exponential law? Physica A 339 (2004) 548] have independently analyzed the duration of recessions for developed countries through the evolution of the GDP in different time windows. It was found that there is a power law governing the duration distribution. We have analyzed data collected from 19 Latin American countries in order to observe whether such results are valid or not for developing countries. The case of prosperity years is also discussed. We observe that the power law of recession time intervals, see Ref. [1], is valid for Latin American countries as well. Thus an interesting point is discovered: the same scaling time is found in the case of recessions for the three data sets (ca. 1 year), and this could represent a universal feature. Other time scale parameters differ significantly from each other.

  20. Simulation of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of apple: a power law approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi Souraki, B.; Tondro, H.; Ghavami, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, unsteady one-dimensional mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of apple was modeled using an approximate mathematical model. The mathematical model has been developed based on a power law profile approximation for moisture and solute concentrations in the spatial direction. The proposed model was validated by the experimental water loss and solute gain data, obtained from osmotic dehydration of infinite slab and cylindrical shape samples of apple in sucrose solutions (30, 40 and 50 % w/w), at different temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C). The proposed model's predictions were also compared with the exact analytical and also a parabolic approximation model's predictions. The values of mean relative errors respect to the experimental data were estimated between 4.5 and 8.1 %, 6.5 and 10.2 %, and 15.0 and 19.1 %, for exact analytical, power law and parabolic approximation methods, respectively. Although the parabolic approximation leads to simpler relations, the power law approximation method results in higher accuracy of average concentrations over the whole domain of dehydration time. Considering both simplicity and precision of the mathematical models, the power law model for short dehydration times and the simplified exact analytical model for long dehydration times could be used for explanation of the variations of the average water loss and solute gain in the whole domain of dimensionless times.

  1. 5 CFR 2423.24 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge during prehearing proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Powers and duties of the Administrative... duties of the Administrative Law Judge during prehearing proceedings. (a) Prehearing procedures. The... from, as appropriate, introducing evidence, calling witnesses, raising objections to the introduction...

  2. Power-law cosmic expansion in f(R) gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Goheer, Naureen; Larena, Julien; Dunsby, Peter K. S.

    2009-09-15

    We show that within the class of f(R) gravity theories, Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker power-law perfect fluid solutions only exist for R{sup n} gravity. This significantly restricts the set of exact cosmological solutions which have similar properties to what is found in standard general relativity.

  3. Power-law-like distributions in biomedical publications and research funding.

    PubMed

    Su, Andrew I; Hogenesch, John B

    2007-01-01

    Gene annotation, as measured by links to the biomedical literature and funded grants, is governed by a power law, indicating that researchers favor the extensive study of relatively few genes. This emphasizes the need for data-driven science to accomplish genome-wide gene annotation.

  4. Apparent power-law behavior of conductance in disordered quasi-one-dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Rodin, A S; Fogler, M M

    2010-09-03

    The dependence of hopping conductance on temperature and voltage for an ensemble of modestly long one-dimensional wires is studied numerically using the shortest-path algorithm. In a wide range of parameters this dependence can be approximated by a power law rather than the usual stretched-exponential form. The relation to recent experiments and prior analytical theory is discussed.

  5. The effect of a power-law mantle viscosity on trench retreat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2017-01-01

    The subduction of lithospheric plates is partitioned between subducting plate motion and lateral slab migration (i.e. trench retreat and advance). We use 3-D, dynamic models of subduction to address the role of a power-law mantle viscosity on subduction dynamics and, in particular, rates of trench retreat. For all numerical models tested, we find that a power-law rheology results in reduced rates of trench retreat, and elevated slab dip angles, relative to the equivalent isoviscous mantle model. We analyse the asthenospheric pressure distribution and the style of mantle flow, which exhibits only limited variability as a function of mantle rheology, in order to compute estimates of the mantle forces associated with subduction. The inclusion of a power-law rheology reduces the mantle shear force (which resists subducting plate motion) to a greater degree than it reduces the dynamic pressure gradient across the slab (which resists trench retreat). Therefore, the inclusion of a power-law mantle rheology favours a shift towards a subduction mode with a reduced trench retreat component, typically a relative reduction of order 25 per cent in our 3-D models. We suggest that this mechanism may be of importance for reducing the high trench retreat rates observed in many previous models to levels more in line with the average subduction partitioning observed on Earth at present (i.e. trench velocity ≤ plate velocity), for most absolute plate motion reference frames.

  6. Adjustment to Subtle Time Constraints and Power Law Learning in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jacqueline C; Chang, Seah; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1) varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms) randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over 3 consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB), a decrement in target (T2) identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1). Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal "power law" learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  7. DOUBLE POWER LAWS IN THE EVENT-INTEGRATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2016-04-10

    A double power law or a power law with exponential rollover at a few to tens of MeV nucleon{sup −1} of the event-integrated differential spectra has been reported in many solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The rollover energies per nucleon of different elements correlate with a particle's charge-to-mass ratio (Q/A). The probable causes are suggested as residing in shock finite lifetimes, shock finite sizes, shock geometry, and an adiabatic cooling effect. In this work, we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate a particle's transport process in the inner heliosphere. We solve the focused transport equation using a time-backward Markov stochastic approach. The convection, magnetic focusing, adiabatic cooling effect, and pitch-angle scattering are included. The effects that the interplanetary turbulence imposes on the shape of the resulting SEP spectra are examined. By assuming a pure power-law differential spectrum at the Sun, a perfect double-power-law feature with a break energy ranging from 10 to 120 MeV nucleon{sup −1} is obtained at 1 au. We found that the double power law of the differential energy spectrum is a robust result of SEP interplanetary propagation. It works for many assumptions of interplanetary turbulence spectra that give various forms of momentum dependence of a particle's mean free path. The different spectral shapes in low-energy and high-energy ends are not just a transition from the convection-dominated propagation to diffusion-dominated propagation.

  8. Widespread occurrence of power-law distributions in inter-repeat distances shaped by genome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Klimopoulos, Alexandros; Sellis, Diamantis; Almirantis, Yannis

    2012-05-10

    Repetitive DNA sequences derived from transposable elements (TE) are distributed in a non-random way, co-clustering with other classes of repeat elements, genes and other genomic components. In a previous work we reported power-law-like size distributions (linearity in log-log scale) in the spatial arrangement of Alu and LINE1 elements in the human genome. Here we investigate the large-scale features of the spatial arrangement of all principal classes of TEs in 14 genomes from phylogenetically distant organisms by studying the size distribution of inter-repeat distances. Power-law-like size distributions are found to be widespread, extending up to several orders of magnitude. In order to understand the emergence of this distributional pattern, we introduce an evolutionary scenario, which includes (i) Insertions of DNA segments (e.g., more recent repeats) into the considered sequence and (ii) Eliminations of members of the studied TE family. In the proposed model we also incorporate the potential for transposition events (characteristic of the DNA transposons' life-cycle) and segmental duplications. Simulations reproduce the main features of the observed size distributions. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of various genomic features on the presence and extent of power-law size distributions including TE class and age, mode of parental TE transmission, GC content, deletion and recombination rates in the studied genomic region, etc. Our observations corroborate the hypothesis that insertions of genomic material and eliminations of repeats are at the basis of power-laws in inter-repeat distances. The existence of these power-laws could facilitate the formation of the recently proposed "fractal globule" for the confined chromatin organization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Statistical Mechanics and Entropy Principles to Interpret Variability in Power Law Models of the Streamflow Recession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, D.; Karst, N.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple competing theories suggest that power law behavior governs the observed first-order dynamics of streamflow recessions - the important process by which catchments dry-out via the stream network, altering the availability of surface water resources and in-stream habitat. Frequently modeled as: dq/dt = -aqb, recessions typically exhibit a high degree of variability, even within a single catchment, as revealed by significant shifts in the values of "a" and "b" across recession events. One potential source of this variability lies in underlying, hard-to-observe fluctuations in how catchment water storage is partitioned amongst distinct storage elements, each having different discharge behaviors. Testing this and competing hypotheses with widely available streamflow timeseries, however, has been hindered by a power law scaling artifact that obscures meaningful covariation between the recession parameters, "a" and "b". Here we briefly outline a technique that removes this artifact, revealing intriguing new patterns in the joint distribution of recession parameters. Using long-term flow data from catchments in Northern California, we explore temporal variations, and find that the "a" parameter varies strongly with catchment wetness. Then we explore how the "b" parameter changes with "a", and find that measures of its variation are maximized at intermediate "a" values. We propose an interpretation of this pattern based on statistical mechanics, meaning "b" can be viewed as an indicator of the catchment "microstate" - i.e. the partitioning of storage - and "a" as a measure of the catchment macrostate (i.e. the total storage). In statistical mechanics, entropy (i.e. microstate variance, that is the variance of "b") is maximized for intermediate values of extensive variables (i.e. wetness, "a"), as observed in the recession data. This interpretation of "a" and "b" was supported by model runs using a multiple-reservoir catchment toy model, and lends support to the

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation with a finite number of particles in a power-law trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouadi, A.; Telmini, M.; Charron, E.

    2011-02-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of an ideal gas is investigated, beyond the thermodynamic limit, for a finite number N of particles trapped in a generic three-dimensional power-law potential. We derive an analytical expression for the condensation temperature Tc in terms of a power series in x0=ɛ0/kBTc, where ɛ0 denotes the zero-point energy of the trapping potential. This expression, which applies in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical power-law traps, is given analytically at infinite order. It is also given numerically for specific potential shapes as an expansion in powers of x0 up to the second order. We show that, for a harmonic trap, the well-known first-order shift of the critical temperature ΔTc/Tc∝N-1/3 is inaccurate when N⩽105, the next order (proportional to N-1/2) being significant. We also show that finite-size effects on the condensation temperature cancel out in a cubic trapping potential, e.g., V(r)∝r3. Finally, we show that in a generic power-law potential of higher order, e.g., V(r)∝rα with α>3, the shift of the critical temperature becomes positive. This effect provides a large increase of Tc for relatively small atom numbers. For instance, an increase of about +40% is expected with 104 atoms in a V(r)∝r12 trapping potential.

  11. Tachyon with an inverse power-law potential in a braneworld cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Domazet, Silvije; Djordjevic, Goran S.

    2017-08-01

    We study a tachyon cosmological model based on the dynamics of a 3-brane in the bulk of the second Randall-Sundrum model extended to more general warp functions. A well known prototype of such a generalization is the bulk with a selfinteracting scalar field. As a consequence of a generalized bulk geometry the cosmology on the observer brane is modified by the scale dependent four-dimensional gravitational constant. In particular, we study a power law warp factor which generates an inverse power-law potential V\\propto \\varphi-n of the tachyon field φ. We find a critical power n cr that divides two subclasses with distinct asymptotic behaviors: a dust universe for n>n_cr and a quasi de Sitter universe for 0.

  12. Phase diagram of softly repulsive systems: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law potentials.

    PubMed

    Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Giaquinta, Paolo V

    2005-10-08

    We redraw, using state-of-the-art methods for free-energy calculations, the phase diagrams of two reference models for the liquid state: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law repulsive potentials. Notwithstanding the different behaviors of the two potentials for vanishing interparticle distances, their thermodynamic properties are similar in a range of densities and temperatures, being ruled by the competition between the body-centered-cubic (bcc) and face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline structures and the fluid phase. We confirm the existence of a reentrant bcc phase in the phase diagram of the Gaussian-core model, just above the triple point. We also trace the bcc-fcc coexistence line of the inverse-power-law model as a function of the power exponent n and relate the common features in the phase diagrams of such systems to the softness degree of the interaction.

  13. Taylor's power law and fluctuation scaling explained by a central-limit-like convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2011-06-01

    A power function relationship observed between the variance and the mean of many types of biological and physical systems has generated much debate as to its origins. This Taylor's law (or fluctuation scaling) has been recently hypothesized to result from the second law of thermodynamics and the behavior of the density of states. This hypothesis is predicated on physical quantities like free energy and an external field; the correspondence of these quantities with biological systems, though, remains unproven. Questions can be posed as to the applicability of this hypothesis to the diversity of observed phenomena as well as the range of spatial and temporal scales observed with Taylor's law. We note that the cumulant generating functions derived from this thermodynamic model correspond to those derived over a quarter century earlier for a class of probabilistic models known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models. These latter models are characterized by variance-to-mean power functions; their phenomenological basis rests with a central-limit-theorem-like property that causes many statistical systems to converge mathematically toward a Tweedie form. We review evaluations of the Tweedie Poisson-gamma model for Taylor's law and provide three further cases to test: the clustering of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the horse chromosome 1, the clustering of genes within human chromosome 8, and the Mertens function. This latter case is a number theoretic function for which a thermodynamic model cannot explain Taylor's law, but where Tweedie convergence remains applicable. The Tweedie models are applicable to diverse biological, physical, and mathematical phenomena that express power variance functions over a wide range of measurement scales; they provide a probabilistic description for Taylor's law that allows mechanistic insight into complex systems without the assumption of a thermodynamic mechanism.

  14. Taylor's power law and fluctuation scaling explained by a central-limit-like convergence.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Wayne S; Jørgensen, Bent

    2011-06-01

    A power function relationship observed between the variance and the mean of many types of biological and physical systems has generated much debate as to its origins. This Taylor's law (or fluctuation scaling) has been recently hypothesized to result from the second law of thermodynamics and the behavior of the density of states. This hypothesis is predicated on physical quantities like free energy and an external field; the correspondence of these quantities with biological systems, though, remains unproven. Questions can be posed as to the applicability of this hypothesis to the diversity of observed phenomena as well as the range of spatial and temporal scales observed with Taylor's law. We note that the cumulant generating functions derived from this thermodynamic model correspond to those derived over a quarter century earlier for a class of probabilistic models known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models. These latter models are characterized by variance-to-mean power functions; their phenomenological basis rests with a central-limit-theorem-like property that causes many statistical systems to converge mathematically toward a Tweedie form. We review evaluations of the Tweedie Poisson-gamma model for Taylor's law and provide three further cases to test: the clustering of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the horse chromosome 1, the clustering of genes within human chromosome 8, and the Mertens function. This latter case is a number theoretic function for which a thermodynamic model cannot explain Taylor's law, but where Tweedie convergence remains applicable. The Tweedie models are applicable to diverse biological, physical, and mathematical phenomena that express power variance functions over a wide range of measurement scales; they provide a probabilistic description for Taylor's law that allows mechanistic insight into complex systems without the assumption of a thermodynamic mechanism.

  15. Deposition from evaporating drops: Power laws and new morphologies in coffee stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed-Brown, Julian E.

    We investigate the structure of stains formed through evaporative deposition in sessile drops. Commonly, the deposited stain has a high surface density near the three phase contact line of the drying drop and much less solute in the bulk of the drop. This is known as the ``coffee ring effect'' and primarily arises due to contact line pinning. While many features of the stain depend on subtle physical phenomena within the drop, the coffee ring effect stands out as a robust feature that persists in many varied experimental realizations. In 2009, Witten predicted another robust feature of deposited stains: an asymptotic regime where a robust power law governs the fadeout profile of the stain into the interior of the drop. This power law is only controlled by geometric properties at a single point and the power does not vary along the contact line. We investigate the approach to this power law using numerical methods. For many evaporation profiles (including common experimental ones) the numerics show good agreement with the power law prediction. However, we demonstrate an intuitive scheme to construct evaporation profiles that subvert the power law prediction. We find that, in general, the approach to the power law cannot be known without full knowledge of the evaporation and height profile. We also extend this work in another way. We apply the basic arguments of the coffee ring effect to the case where the drop has a receding contact line. Here, we develop a new theoretical framework for deposition that has not previously been studied. In this context, the surface density profile can be directly calculated. Unlike a pinned contact line, receding contact lines push fluid into the interior of the drop. This effect can be overcome by strong evaporation near the contact line, but in general the intuition from contact line pinning is reversed. Following Witten's example, we find that the surface density of the stain near the center of the drop goes as eta ∝ rnu, where

  16. Group invariant solution for a pre-existing fracture driven by a power-law fluid in permeable rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareo, A. G.; Mason, D. P.

    2016-06-01

    Group invariant analytical and numerical solutions for the evolution of a two-dimensional fracture with nonzero initial length in permeable rock and driven by an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid of power-law rheology are obtained. The effect of fluid leak-off on the evolution of the power-law fluid fracture is investigated.

  17. Focus expansion and stability of the spread parameter estimate of the power law model for dispersal gradients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Empirical and mechanistic modeling indicate that aerially transmitted pathogens follow a power law, resulting in dispersive epidemic waves. The spread parameter (b) of the power law model, which defines the distance travelled by the epidemic wave front, has been found to be approximately 2 for sever...

  18. Simple power law for transport ratio with bimodal distributions of coarse sediments under waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, Joseph; Thaxton, Christopher S.

    2008-03-01

    Morphodynamic models of coastal evolution require relatively simple parameterizations of sediment transport for application over larger scales. Here we present a transport parameterization for bimodal distributions of coarse quartz grains using simulations from a discrete particle model for sheet flow and near sheet flow conditions. The discrete particle model simulates the simplest one-dimensional fluid using a turbulent eddy viscosity determined from a mixing length coupled to particle motions. The motions of individual sand grains are simulated using spherical elements. Newton's second law in translational and rotational forms is solved for every particle in the domain as determined by both grain-grain and grain-fluid interactions. The forcing from idealized monochromatic waves is accomplished by specifying a spatially constant, time varying horizontal pressure gradient acting on the simulation domain. Consequently, the time series of the free-stream fluid acceleration and velocity are also fixed. Simulations cover a range of wave forcing, diameter ratios for the large and small grains in the bimodal size distribution, and mass ratios of large to small grains in the simulation domain, for a total of 243 unique simulation conditions. The simulation results are successfully parameterized with a simple power law that allows for the prediction of the transport rates of each size fraction in the bimodal distribution. The simple power law determined from simulations provides favorable predictions of transport rates for each size fraction when applied to available laboratory data for sheet flow with bimodal size distributions. It is important to note that rapid vertical kinematic sorting of grains by size is explicitly simulated with the model and thus implicitly captured by the power law. Discussion focuses on practical application of the power law.

  19. Fertility heterogeneity as a mechanism for power law distributions of recurrence times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2013-02-01

    We study the statistical properties of recurrence times in the self-excited Hawkes conditional Poisson process, the simplest extension of the Poisson process that takes into account how the past events influence the occurrence of future events. Specifically, we analyze the impact of the power law distribution of fertilities with exponent α, where the fertility of an event is the number of triggered events of first generation, on the probability distribution function (PDF) f(τ) of the recurrence times τ between successive events. The other input of the model is an exponential law quantifying the PDF of waiting times between an event and its first generation triggered events, whose characteristic time scale is taken as our time unit. At short-time scales, we discover two intermediate power law asymptotics, f(τ)˜τ-(2-α) for τ≪τc and f(τ)˜τ-α for τc≪τ≪1, where τc is associated with the self-excited cascades of triggered events. For 1≪τ≪1/ν, we find a constant plateau f(τ)≃const, while at long times, 1/ν≲τ, f(τ)≃e-ντ has an exponential tail controlled by the arrival rate ν of exogenous events. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the generation of power laws in the distribution of recurrence times, which results from a power law distribution of fertilities in the presence of self-excitation and cascades of triggering.

  20. Strain-rate Dependence of Power-law Creep and Folding of Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ord, A.; Hobbs, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Kocks (1987) proposed how the kinetics of deformation associated with different stress levels results in different shear stress-shear strain rate behaviours, with a cross-over or threshold from thermally activated dislocation motion at low stresses to viscous glide at some critical shear stress. Cordier (pers. comm.; Carrez et al., 2010) clarified this transition at least for MgO through atomistic, single dislocation and Dislocation Dynamics calculations. These studies indicate that the power-law relations observed experimentally for deforming rocks may be different for geological strain-rates, in that rate laws may become relatively strain-rate insensitive at low strain-rates. This transition from power law behaviour with relatively small values of the stress exponent, N, (N = 1 to 5) to large values of N (N = 5 to 20) has important implications for the development of localised behaviour during deformation as has been demonstrated at the other end of the spectrum for high stresses by Schmalholz and Fletcher (2011). Since localisation of fold systems arises from softening of the tangential viscosity, large values of N mean that little softening occurs with changes in strain rate, and sinusoidal folds are expected. There is therefore a critical range of N-values where localised, natural looking, folds develop. We explore the implications for folding of linear viscous single layers embedded in power-law viscous materials with N that varies with the stress level. The strain-rate dependence of the power law parameters results in strongly localised, aperiodic folding as opposed to the fold styles that arise from the linear Biot theory of folding. Also developed are axial plane shear fabrics. These structures resemble natural ones more than those that arise from simple Newtonian viscous or power-law behaviour with constant N. The results show that new studies of folded rocks and associated axial plane structures in the field may give important information on the

  1. Characterising rock fracture aperture-spacing relationships using power-law relationships: some considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit

    2016-04-01

    The size-scaling of rock fractures is a well-studied problem in geology, especially for permeability quantification. The intensity of fractures may control the economic exploitation of fractured reservoirs because fracture intensity describes the abundance of fractures potentially available for fluid flow. Moreover, in geotechnical engineering, fractures are important for parameterisation of stress models and excavation design. As fracture data is often collected from widely-spaced boreholes where core recovery is often incomplete, accurate interpretation and representation of fracture aperture-frequency relationships from sparse datasets is important. Fracture intensity is the number of fractures encountered per unit length along a sample scanline oriented perpendicular to the fractures in a set. Cumulative frequency of fractures (F) is commonly related to fracture aperture (A) in the form of a power-law (F = aA-b), with variations in the size of the a coefficient between sites interpreted to equate to fracture frequency for a given aperture (A). However, a common flaw in this approach is that even a small change in b can have a large effect on the response of the fracture frequency (F) parameter. We compare fracture data from the Late Permian Rangal Coal Measures from Australia's Bowen Basin, with fracture data from Jurassic carbonates from the Sierra Madre Oriental, northeastern Mexico. Both power-law coefficient a and exponent b control the fracture aperture-frequency relationship in conjunction with each other; that is, power-laws with relatively low a coefficients have relatively high b exponents and vice versa. Hence, any comparison of different power-laws must take both a and b into consideration. The corollary is that different sedimentary beds in the Sierra Madre carbonates do not show ˜8× the fracture frequency for a given fracture aperture, as based solely on the comparison of coefficient a. Rather, power-law "sensitivity factors" developed from both

  2. High-index asymptotics of spherical Bessel products averaged with modulated Gaussian power laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2014-12-01

    Bessel integrals of type are investigated, where the kernel g( k) is a modulated Gaussian power-law distribution , and the jl ( m) are multiple derivatives of spherical Bessel functions. These integrals define the multipole moments of Gaussian random fields on the unit sphere, arising in multipole fits of temperature and polarization power spectra of the cosmic microwave background. Two methods allowing efficient numerical calculation of these integrals are presented, covering Bessel indices l in the currently accessible multipole range 0 ≤ l ≤ 104 and beyond. The first method is based on a representation of spherical Bessel functions by Lommel polynomials. Gaussian power-law averages can then be calculated in closed form as finite Hankel series of parabolic cylinder functions, which allow high-precision evaluation. The second method is asymptotic, covering the high- l regime, and is applicable to general distribution functions g( k) in the integrand; it is based on the uniform Nicholson approximation of the Bessel derivatives in conjunction with an integral representation of squared Airy functions. A numerical comparison of these two methods is performed, employing Gaussian power laws and Kummer distributions to average the Bessel products.

  3. Second-order small-disturbance solutions for hypersonic flow over power-law bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Similarity solutions were found which give the adiabatic flow of an ideal gas about two-dimensional and axisymmetric power-law bodies at infinite Mach number to second order in the body slenderness parameter. The flow variables were expressed as a sum of zero-order and perturbation similarity functions for which the axial variations in the flow equations separated out. The resulting similarity equations were integrated numerically. The solutions, which are universal functions, are presented in graphic and tabular form. To avoid a singularity in the calculations, the results are limited to body power-law exponents greater than about 0.85 for the two-dimensional case and 0.75 for the axisymmetric case. Because of the entropy layer induced by the nose bluntness (for power-law bodies other than cones and wedges), only the pressure function is valid at the body surface. The similarity results give excellent agreement with the exact solutions for inviscid flow over wedges and cones having half-angles up to about 20 deg. They give good agreement with experimental shock-wave shapes and surface-pressure distributions for 3/4-power axisymmetric bodies, considering that Mach number and boundary-layer displacement effects are not included in the theory.

  4. A generalized power-law detection algorithm for humpback whale vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Helble, Tyler A; Ierley, Glenn R; D'Spain, Gerald L; Roch, Marie A; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-04-01

    Conventional detection of humpback vocalizations is often based on frequency summation of band-limited spectrograms under the assumption that energy (square of the Fourier amplitude) is the appropriate metric. Power-law detectors allow for a higher power of the Fourier amplitude, appropriate when the signal occupies a limited but unknown subset of these frequencies. Shipping noise is non-stationary and colored and problematic for many marine mammal detection algorithms. Modifications to the standard power-law form are introduced to minimize the effects of this noise. These same modifications also allow for a fixed detection threshold, applicable to broadly varying ocean acoustic environments. The detection algorithm is general enough to detect all types of humpback vocalizations. Tests presented in this paper show this algorithm matches human detection performance with an acceptably small probability of false alarms (P(FA) < 6%) for even the noisiest environments. The detector outperforms energy detection techniques, providing a probability of detection P(D) = 95% for P(FA) < 5% for three acoustic deployments, compared to P(FA) > 40% for two energy-based techniques. The generalized power-law detector also can be used for basic parameter estimation and can be adapted for other types of transient sounds.

  5. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, with Index (Public Law 96-501).

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act was enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. It was enacted to assist the electrical consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal columbia River Power System to achieve cost-effective energy conservation, to encourage the development of renewable energy resources, to establish a representative regional power planning process, to assure the region of an efficient and adequate power supply, and for other purposes. Contents of the Act are: short title and table of contents; purposes; definitions; regional planning and participation; sale of power; conservation and resource acquisition; rates; amendments to existing law; administrative provisions; savings provisions; effective date; and severability.

  6. Nonlinear quenches of power-law confining traps in quantum critical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Collura, Mario; Karevski, Dragi

    2011-02-15

    We describe the coherent quantum evolution of a quantum many-body system with a time-dependent power-law confining potential. The amplitude of the inhomogeneous potential is driven in time along a nonlinear ramp which crosses a critical point. Using Kibble-Zurek-like scaling arguments we derive general scaling laws for the density of excitations and energy excess generated during the nonlinear sweep of the confining potential. It is shown that, with respect to the sweeping rate, the densities follow algebraic laws with exponents that depend on the space-time properties of the potential and on the scaling dimensions of the densities. We support our scaling predictions with both analytical and numerical results on the Ising quantum chain with an inhomogeneous transverse field varying in time.

  7. Mapping Power Law Distributions in Digital Health Social Networks: Methods, Interpretations, and Practical Implications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Social networks are common in digital health. A new stream of research is beginning to investigate the mechanisms of digital health social networks (DHSNs), how they are structured, how they function, and how their growth can be nurtured and managed. DHSNs increase in value when additional content is added, and the structure of networks may resemble the characteristics of power laws. Power laws are contrary to traditional Gaussian averages in that they demonstrate correlated phenomena. Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate whether the distribution frequency in four DHSNs can be characterized as following a power law. A second objective is to describe the method used to determine the comparison. Methods Data from four DHSNs—Alcohol Help Center (AHC), Depression Center (DC), Panic Center (PC), and Stop Smoking Center (SSC)—were compared to power law distributions. To assist future researchers and managers, the 5-step methodology used to analyze and compare datasets is described. Results All four DHSNs were found to have right-skewed distributions, indicating the data were not normally distributed. When power trend lines were added to each frequency distribution, R 2 values indicated that, to a very high degree, the variance in post frequencies can be explained by actor rank (AHC .962, DC .975, PC .969, SSC .95). Spearman correlations provided further indication of the strength and statistical significance of the relationship (AHC .987. DC .967, PC .983, SSC .993, P<.001). Conclusions This is the first study to investigate power distributions across multiple DHSNs, each addressing a unique condition. Results indicate that despite vast differences in theme, content, and length of existence, DHSNs follow properties of power laws. The structure of DHSNs is important as it gives insight to researchers and managers into the nature and mechanisms of network functionality. The 5-step process undertaken to compare actor contribution patterns

  8. Mapping Power Law Distributions in Digital Health Social Networks: Methods, Interpretations, and Practical Implications.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Hyatt, Douglas; Ching, Andrew T

    2015-06-25

    Social networks are common in digital health. A new stream of research is beginning to investigate the mechanisms of digital health social networks (DHSNs), how they are structured, how they function, and how their growth can be nurtured and managed. DHSNs increase in value when additional content is added, and the structure of networks may resemble the characteristics of power laws. Power laws are contrary to traditional Gaussian averages in that they demonstrate correlated phenomena. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the distribution frequency in four DHSNs can be characterized as following a power law. A second objective is to describe the method used to determine the comparison. Data from four DHSNs—Alcohol Help Center (AHC), Depression Center (DC), Panic Center (PC), and Stop Smoking Center (SSC)—were compared to power law distributions. To assist future researchers and managers, the 5-step methodology used to analyze and compare datasets is described. All four DHSNs were found to have right-skewed distributions, indicating the data were not normally distributed. When power trend lines were added to each frequency distribution, R(2) values indicated that, to a very high degree, the variance in post frequencies can be explained by actor rank (AHC .962, DC .975, PC .969, SSC .95). Spearman correlations provided further indication of the strength and statistical significance of the relationship (AHC .987. DC .967, PC .983, SSC .993, P<.001). This is the first study to investigate power distributions across multiple DHSNs, each addressing a unique condition. Results indicate that despite vast differences in theme, content, and length of existence, DHSNs follow properties of power laws. The structure of DHSNs is important as it gives insight to researchers and managers into the nature and mechanisms of network functionality. The 5-step process undertaken to compare actor contribution patterns can be replicated in networks that are managed by

  9. Correlations of Power-law Spectral and QPO Features In Black Hole Candidate Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorito, Ralph; Titarchuk, Lev

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that strong correlations are observed between low frequency QPO s and the spectral power law index for a number of black hole candidate sources (BHCs), when these sources exhibit quasi-steady hard x-ray emission states. The dominant long standing interpretation of QPO's is that they are produced in and are the signature of the thermal accretion disk. Paradoxically, strong QPO's are present even in the cases where the thermal component is negligible. We present a model which identifies the origin of the QPO's and relates them directly to the properties of a compact coronal region which is bounded by the adjustment from Kepleriaa to sub-Kelperian inflow into the BH, and is primarily responsible for the observed power law spectrum. The model also predicts the relationship between high and low frequency QPO's and shows how BH's can be unique identified from observations of the soft states of NS's and BHC's.

  10. Synchronization and plateau splitting of coupled oscillators with long-range power-law interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Huan-Yu; Wu, Kuo-An

    2015-12-01

    We investigate synchronization and plateau splitting of coupled oscillators on a one-dimensional lattice with long-range interactions that decay over distance as a power law. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the dynamics of systems of coupled oscillators with power-law exponent α ≤1 is identical to that of the all-to-all coupling case. For α >1 , oscillatory behavior of the phase coherence appears as a result of single plateau splitting into multiple plateaus. A coarse-graining method is used to investigate the onset of plateau splitting. We analyze a simple oscillatory state formed by two plateaus in detail and propose a systematic approach to predict the onset of plateau splitting. The prediction of breaking points of plateau splitting is in quantitatively good agreement with numerical simulations.

  11. Finite-size nanowire at a surface: Unconventional power laws of the van der Waals interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnovets, K. A.; Kolezhuk, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    We study the van der Waals interaction of a metallic or narrow-gap semiconducting nanowire with a surface, in the regime of intermediate wire-surface distances (vF/c )L ≪d ≪L or L ≪d ≪(c /vF)L , where L is the nanowire length, d is the distance to the surface, and vF is the characteristic velocity of nanowire electrons (for a metallic wire, it is the Fermi velocity). Our approach, based on the Luttinger liquid framework, allows one to analyze the dependence of the interaction on the interplay between the nanowire length, wire-surface distance, and characteristic length scales related to the spectral gap and temperature. We show that this interplay leads to nontrivial modifications of the power law that governs van der Waals forces, in particular to a nonmonotonic dependence of the power-law exponent on the wire-surface separation.

  12. Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a family of power-law, wing body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The configurations analyzed are half-axisymmetric, power-law bodies surmounted by thin, flat wings. The wing planform matches the body shock-wave shape. Analytic solutions of the hypersonic small disturbance equations form a basis for calculating the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Boundary-layer displacement effects on the body and the wing upper surface are approximated. Skin friction is estimated by using compressible, laminar boundary-layer solutions. Good agreement was obtained with available experimental data for which the basic theoretical assumptions were satisfied. The method is used to estimate the effects of power-law, fineness ratio, and Mach number variations at full-scale conditions. The computer program is included.

  13. Segmentation of genomic DNA through entropic divergence: Power laws and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Rajeev K.; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna; Rao, J. Subba

    2002-05-01

    Genomic DNA is fragmented into segments using the Jensen-Shannon divergence. Use of this criterion results in the fragments being entropically homogeneous to within a predefined level of statistical significance. Application of this procedure is made to complete genomes of organisms from archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. The distribution of fragment lengths in bacterial and primitive eukaryotic DNAs shows two distinct regimes of power-law scaling. The characteristic length separating these two regimes appears to be an intrinsic property of the sequence rather than a finite-size artifact, and is independent of the significance level used in segmenting a given genome. Fragment length distributions obtained in the segmentation of the genomes of more highly evolved eukaryotes do not have such distinct regimes of power-law behavior.

  14. Experimental investigation on the spray characteristics of power-law fluid in a swirl injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fuqiang; Chang, Qing; Chen, Shixing; Guo, Jinpeng; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing

    2017-06-01

    High-speed photography and 3D phase Doppler methods are used to obtain the swirl jet images, 3D velocities and size distribution of different droplets (including deionized water and two kinds of power-law fluid). For the power-law fluids, a short circular jet is formed after the nozzle exit at low pressure. Along the X direction, the distributions of axial velocity w and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) are symmetrical and increase from the center to both sides. The effect of injection pressure on the radial velocity u is not obvious. Along the Z axis, the absolute value of 3D velocities decreases to some extent with droplets moving downstream. The SMD decreases apparently with the increment of the distance along the Z axis at 1.0 MPa.

  15. Creep substructure formation in sodium chloride single crystals in the power law and exponential creep regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Pharr, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Creep tests conducted on NaCl single crystals in the temperature range from 373 to 1023 K show that true steady state creep is obtained only above 873 K when the ratio of the applied stress to the shear modulus is less than or equal to 0.0001. Under other stress and temperature conditions, corresponding to both power law and exponential creep, the creep rate decreases monotonically with increasing strain. The transition from power law to exponential creep is shown to be associated with increases in the dislocation density, the cell boundary width, and the aspect ratio of the subgrains along the primary slip planes. The relation between dislocation structure and creep behavior is also assessed.

  16. Fluctuation in e-mail sizes weakens power-law correlations in e-mail flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Hieida, Yasuhiro; Tadaki, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    Power-law correlations have been observed in packet flow over the Internet. The possible origin of these correlations includes demand for Internet services. We observe the demand for e-mail services in an organization, and analyze correlations in the flow and the sequence of send requests using a Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). The correlation in the flow is found to be weaker than that in the send requests. Four types of artificial flow are constructed to investigate the effects of fluctuations in e-mail sizes. As a result, we find that the correlation in the flow originates from that in the sequence of send requests. The strength of the power-law correlation decreases as a function of the ratio of the standard deviation of e-mail sizes to their average.

  17. Speed-invariant encoding of looming object distance requires power law spike rate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Stephen E; Naud, Richard; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2013-08-13

    Neural representations of a moving object's distance and approach speed are essential for determining appropriate orienting responses, such as those observed in the localization behaviors of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We demonstrate that a power law form of spike rate adaptation transforms an electroreceptor afferent's response to "looming" object motion, effectively parsing information about distance and approach speed into distinct measures of the firing rate. Neurons with dynamics characterized by fixed time scales are shown to confound estimates of object distance and speed. Conversely, power law adaptation modifies an electroreceptor afferent's response according to the time scales present in the stimulus, generating a rate code for looming object distance that is invariant to speed and acceleration. Consequently, estimates of both object distance and approach speed can be uniquely determined from an electroreceptor afferent's firing rate, a multiplexed neural code operating over the extended time scales associated with behaviorally relevant stimuli.

  18. Market reaction to a bid-ask spread change: A power-law relaxation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, Adam; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2009-07-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of the bid-ask spread and of the midprice after a sudden variation of the spread in a double auction financial market. We find that the spread decays as a power law to its normal value. We measure the price reversion dynamics and the permanent impact, i.e., the long-time effect on price, of a generic event altering the spread and we find an approximately linear relation between immediate and permanent impact. We hypothesize that the power-law decay of the spread is a consequence of the strategic limit order placement of liquidity providers. We support this hypothesis by investigating several quantities, such as order placement rates and distribution of prices and times of submitted orders, which affect the decay of the spread.

  19. Sliding friction in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime for a power-law fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    A scaling analysis is undertaken for the load balance in sliding friction in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, with a particular emphasis on power-law shear-thinning typical of a structured liquid. It is argued that the shear-thinning regime is mechanically unstable if the power-law index n  <  1/2, where n is the exponent that relates the shear stress to the shear rate. Consequently the Stribeck (friction) curve should be discontinuous, with possible hysteresis. Further analysis suggests that normal stress and flow transience (stress overshoot) do not destroy this basic picture, although they may provide stabilising mechanisms at higher shear rates. Extensional viscosity is also expected to be insignificant unless the Trouton ratio is large. A possible application to shear thickening in non-Brownian particulate suspensions is indicated.

  20. Experimental evidence of power-law trapping-time distributions in porous media.

    PubMed

    Drazer, G; Zanette, D H

    1999-11-01

    We present experimental results of solute transport in porous samples made of packings of activated carbon porous grains. Exchange experiments, where the tagged solution initially saturating the medium is replaced with the same solution without tracer, are accurately described by macroscopic transport equations. On the other hand, in desorption experiments, where the tagged solution is replaced by water, the solute concentration exhibits a power-law decay for long times, which requires a more detailed, mesoscopic description. We reproduce this behavior within a continuous-time random-walk approach, where the waiting time distribution is related to the desorption isotherm. Results are compatible with a power-law trapping time distribution with divergent first moment, characteristic of anomalous (sub)diffusion.

  1. Universal power-law and partial condensation in aggregation-chipping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya

    2010-06-01

    The asymptotic behaviour of a distribution function P(X) for X clusters is investigated in aggregation-chipping processes, where aggregation and chipping off of a finite unit of size less than L take place simultaneously. Numerical simulations show that above a certain threshold ⟨X⟩c of an average cluster size, the system exhibits partial condensation where one condensed cluster coexists with a universal power-law distribution with the exponent -5/2 . The critical value ⟨X⟩c is calculated and turns out to increase monotonously with L . The z -transform technique is used to analyze the case L=2 in detail. Obtained results agree well with numerical ones. Finally, universality of the asymptotic power law is discussed for general cases. It becomes evident that universality holds as long as the size of chipped off unit is finite.

  2. Numerical simulation of nanofluids based on power-law fluids with flow and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Jiang, Yongyue; Chen, Aixin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heat transfer of nanofluids based on power-law fluids and movement of nanoparticles with the effect of thermophoresis in a rotating circular groove. The velocity of circular groove rotating is a constant and the temperature on the wall is kept to be zero all the time which is different from the temperature of nanofluids in the initial time. The effects of thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion are considered in temperature and concentration equations, and it is assumed that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is a function of concentration of nanoparticles. Based on numerical results, it can be found that nanofluids improve the process of heat transfer than base fluids in a rotating circular groove. The enhancement of heat transfer increases as the power law index of base fluids decreases.

  3. Formation of hard power laws in the energetic particle spectra resulting from relativistic magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2014-10-10

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density σ ≡ B(2)/(4πnm(e)c(2))>1 and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit σ ≫ 1, the spectral index approaches p = 1 and most of the available energy is converted into nonthermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.

  4. Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography.

    PubMed

    Holm, Sverre; Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2014-04-01

    A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. The fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation and the causal fractional Laplacian wave equation are all found to be low-frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations, whereas the former wave equations have been derived from the desire to model power law attenuation in applications like medical ultrasound. This has consequences for use in modeling and simulation, especially for applications that do not satisfy the low-frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications, the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the viable ones. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linking multiple relaxation, power-law attenuation, and fractional wave equations.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Holm, Sverre

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic wave attenuation is described by an experimentally established frequency power law in a variety of complex media, e.g., biological tissue, polymers, rocks, and rubber. Recent papers present a variety of acoustical fractional derivative wave equations that have the ability to model power-law attenuation. On the other hand, a multiple relaxation model is widely recognized as a physically based description of the acoustic loss mechanisms as developed by Nachman et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1584-1595 (1990)]. Through assumption of a continuum of relaxation mechanisms, each with an effective compressibility described by a distribution related to the Mittag-Leffler function, this paper shows that the wave equation corresponding to the multiple relaxation approach is identical to a given fractional derivative wave equation. This work therefore provides a physically based motivation for use of fractional wave equations in acoustic modeling.

  6. Power-Law Entanglement Spectrum in Many-Body Localized Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbyn, Maksym; Michailidis, Alexios A.; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Papić, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The entanglement spectrum of the reduced density matrix contains information beyond the von Neumann entropy and provides unique insights into exotic orders or critical behavior of quantum systems. Here, we show that strongly disordered systems in the many-body localized phase have power-law entanglement spectra, arising from the presence of extensively many local integrals of motion. The power-law entanglement spectrum distinguishes many-body localized systems from ergodic systems, as well as from ground states of gapped integrable models or free systems in the vicinity of scale-invariant critical points. We confirm our results using large-scale exact diagonalization. In addition, we develop a matrix-product state algorithm which allows us to access the eigenstates of large systems close to the localization transition, and discuss general implications of our results for variational studies of highly excited eigenstates in many-body localized systems.

  7. Power-Law Entanglement Spectrum in Many-Body Localized Phases.

    PubMed

    Serbyn, Maksym; Michailidis, Alexios A; Abanin, Dmitry A; Papić, Z

    2016-10-14

    The entanglement spectrum of the reduced density matrix contains information beyond the von Neumann entropy and provides unique insights into exotic orders or critical behavior of quantum systems. Here, we show that strongly disordered systems in the many-body localized phase have power-law entanglement spectra, arising from the presence of extensively many local integrals of motion. The power-law entanglement spectrum distinguishes many-body localized systems from ergodic systems, as well as from ground states of gapped integrable models or free systems in the vicinity of scale-invariant critical points. We confirm our results using large-scale exact diagonalization. In addition, we develop a matrix-product state algorithm which allows us to access the eigenstates of large systems close to the localization transition, and discuss general implications of our results for variational studies of highly excited eigenstates in many-body localized systems.

  8. Correlations of Power-law Spectral and QPO Features In Black Hole Candidate Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorito, Ralph; Titarchuk, Lev

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that strong correlations are observed between low frequency QPO s and the spectral power law index for a number of black hole candidate sources (BHCs), when these sources exhibit quasi-steady hard x-ray emission states. The dominant long standing interpretation of QPO's is that they are produced in and are the signature of the thermal accretion disk. Paradoxically, strong QPO's are present even in the cases where the thermal component is negligible. We present a model which identifies the origin of the QPO's and relates them directly to the properties of a compact coronal region which is bounded by the adjustment from Kepleriaa to sub-Kelperian inflow into the BH, and is primarily responsible for the observed power law spectrum. The model also predicts the relationship between high and low frequency QPO's and shows how BH's can be unique identified from observations of the soft states of NS's and BHC's.

  9. Market reaction to a bid-ask spread change: a power-law relaxation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Adam; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2009-07-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of the bid-ask spread and of the midprice after a sudden variation of the spread in a double auction financial market. We find that the spread decays as a power law to its normal value. We measure the price reversion dynamics and the permanent impact, i.e., the long-time effect on price, of a generic event altering the spread and we find an approximately linear relation between immediate and permanent impact. We hypothesize that the power-law decay of the spread is a consequence of the strategic limit order placement of liquidity providers. We support this hypothesis by investigating several quantities, such as order placement rates and distribution of prices and times of submitted orders, which affect the decay of the spread.

  10. Modeling power law absorption and dispersion for acoustic propagation using the fractional Laplacian.

    PubMed

    Treeby, Bradley E; Cox, B T

    2010-05-01

    The efficient simulation of wave propagation through lossy media in which the absorption follows a frequency power law has many important applications in biomedical ultrasonics. Previous wave equations which use time-domain fractional operators require the storage of the complete pressure field at previous time steps (such operators are convolution based). This makes them unsuitable for many three-dimensional problems of interest. Here, a wave equation that utilizes two lossy derivative operators based on the fractional Laplacian is derived. These operators account separately for the required power law absorption and dispersion and can be efficiently incorporated into Fourier based pseudospectral and k-space methods without the increase in memory required by their time-domain fractional counterparts. A framework for encoding the developed wave equation using three coupled first-order constitutive equations is discussed, and the model is demonstrated through several one-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations.

  11. Finite sample properties of power-law cross-correlations estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-02-01

    We study finite sample properties of estimators of power-law cross-correlations-detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), height cross-correlation analysis (HXA) and detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA)-with a special focus on short-term memory bias as well as power-law coherency. We present a broad Monte Carlo simulation study that focuses on different time series lengths, specific methods' parameter setting, and memory strength. We find that each method is best suited for different time series dynamics so that there is no clear winner between the three. The method selection should be then made based on observed dynamic properties of the analyzed series.

  12. Deviations from uniform power-law scaling due to exposure to high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posiewnik, A.

    2002-12-01

    A major challenge in biological physics is the analysis of time series that are typically highly nonstationary. Viswanathan et al. (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1) (1997) 845-899) using techniques based on the Fano factor and the Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis showed that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems in normal conditions are more stable than those of pathological systems-there is underlying loss of uniform power-law scaling in disease. Here we test, using the same techniques as Viswanathan et al. (1997), the hypothesis that deviations from uniform power-law scaling, similar to those seen in heart failure and deep apnea syndrome occur also for healthy subjects under pathological conditions (hypoxaemic stress during exposure to high altitude, over 6000 m).

  13. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative law...

  14. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available.

  15. Modeling explosion generated Scholte waves in sandy sediments with power law dependent shear wave speed.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Alexander G; Dahl, Peter H; Odom, Robert I

    2015-10-01

    Experimental measurements of Scholte waves from underwater explosions collected off the coast of Virginia Beach, VA in shallow water are presented. It is shown here that the dispersion of these explosion-generated Scholte waves traveling in the sandy seabed can be modeled using a power-law dependent shear wave speed profile and an empirical source model that determines the pressure time-series at 1 m from the source as a function of TNT-equivalent charge weight.

  16. Statistical Properties of Maximum Likelihood Estimators of Power Law Spectra Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index, sigma(sub 2), is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV, with a transition at the knee energy, E(sub k), to a steeper spectral index sigma(sub 2) greater than sigma(sub 1) above E(sub k). The maximum likelihood (ML) procedure was developed for estimating the single parameter sigma(sub 1) of a simple power law energy spectrum and generalized to estimate the three spectral parameters of the broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses and real cosmic-ray data. The statistical properties of the ML estimator were investigated and shown to have the three desirable properties: (Pl) consistency (asymptotically unbiased), (P2) efficiency (asymptotically attains the Cramer-Rao minimum variance bound), and (P3) asymptotically normally distributed, under a wide range of potential detector response functions. Attainment of these properties necessarily implies that the ML estimation procedure provides the best unbiased estimator possible. While simulation studies can easily determine if a given estimation procedure provides an unbiased estimate of the spectra information, and whether or not the estimator is approximately normally distributed, attainment of the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) can only be ascertained by calculating the CRB for an assumed energy spectrum- detector response function combination, which can be quite formidable in practice. However, the effort in calculating the CRB is very worthwhile because it provides the necessary means to compare the efficiency of competing estimation techniques and, furthermore, provides a stopping rule in the search for the best unbiased estimator. Consequently, the CRB for both the simple and broken power law energy spectra are derived herein and the conditions under which they are stained in practice are investigated.

  17. Laboratory Constraints on Chameleon Dark Energy and Power-Law Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, J. H.; Baumbaugh, A.; Chou, A. S.; Mazur, P. O.; Tomlin, R.; Wester, W.; Upadhye, A.; Weltman, A.

    2010-12-31

    We report results from a search for chameleon particles created via photon-chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of unexplored chameleon power-law and dark energy models. These results exclude 5 orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of 4 orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual models, exclude between 4 and 12 orders of magnitude in chameleon couplings to matter.

  18. Approximate Analytical Solutions for Hypersonic Flow Over Slender Power Law Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    Approximate analytical solutions are presented for two-dimensional and axisymmetric hypersonic flow over slender power law bodies. Both zero order (M approaches infinity) and first order (small but nonvanishing values of 1/(M(Delta)(sup 2) solutions are presented, where M is free-stream Mach number and Delta is a characteristic slope. These solutions are compared with exact numerical integration of the equations of motion and appear to be accurate particularly when the shock is relatively close to the body.

  19. Phenomenological Blasius-type friction equation for turbulent power-law fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbarlooei, H. R.; Cruz, D. O. A.; Ramos, F.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a friction formula for turbulent power-law fluid flows, a class of purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids commonly found in applications. Our model is derived through an extension of the friction factor analysis based on Kolmogorov's phenomenology, recently proposed by Gioia and Chakraborty. Tests against classical empirical data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Reynolds number. Limits of the model are also discussed.

  20. A power-law distribution for tenure lengths of sports managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidt, Toke S.; Leong, Bernard; Saslaw, William C.; Sgroi, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    We show that the tenure lengths for managers of sport teams follow a power law distribution with an exponent between 2 and 3. We develop a simple theoretical model which replicates this result. The model demonstrates that the empirical phenomenon can be understood as the macroscopic outcome of pairwise interactions among managers in a league, threshold effects in managerial performance evaluation, competitive market forces, and luck at the microscopic level.

  1. Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields.

    PubMed

    Steffen, J H; Upadhye, A; Baumbaugh, A; Chou, A S; Mazur, P O; Tomlin, R; Weltman, A; Wester, W

    2010-12-31

    We report results from a search for chameleon particles created via photon-chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of unexplored chameleon power-law and dark energy models. These results exclude 5 orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of 4 orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual models, exclude between 4 and 12 orders of magnitude in chameleon couplings to matter.

  2. Evidence of percolation related power law behavior in the thermal conductivity of nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.-W.; Park, S.-H.; Kapadia, R. S.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2013-06-01

    A power law relation for the thermal conductivity, indicative of percolation, is reported through measurements on carbon nanotube/polymer composites. Our results contradict earlier assertions and indicate that synthesis methodologies may be adapted to facilitate such behavior. Consistent modeling of the experimentally determined electrical and thermal conductivity anisotropy, in addition to the incorporation of interfacial resistance, was used to understand the underlying mechanisms and variations.

  3. Electron Recirculation in Electrostatic Multicusp Systems: 1. Confinement and Losses in Simple Power Law Wells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-19

    ELECTROSTATIC MULTICUSP SYSTEMS: I - CONFINEMENT AND LOSSES IN SIMPLE POWER LAW WELLSt Robert W. Bussard and Accesion For Katherine E. King NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB...9100 A Center Street, Manassas, VA 22110, (703) 330-7990 92-’ 9 q2-f- ,f ELECTRON RECIRCULATION IN ELECTROSTATIC MULTICUSP SYSTEMS: I - CONFINEMENT AND...confinement in Polywellt*-type multicusp systems. These are special polyhedral configurations 6 . 7 that allow formation of stable deep electrostatic

  4. Power-law distributions for a trapped ion interacting with a classical buffer gas.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Ralph G

    2009-02-13

    Classical collisions with an ideal gas generate non-Maxwellian distribution functions for a single ion in a radio frequency ion trap. The distributions have power-law tails whose exponent depends on the ratio of buffer gas to ion mass. This provides a statistical explanation for the previously observed transition from cooling to heating. Monte Carlo results approximate a Tsallis distribution over a wide range of parameters and have ab initio agreement with experiment.

  5. Improved power-law estimates from multiple samples provided by millennium climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, S. V.; Räisänen, P.; Silen, J.; Järvinen, H.; Laaksonen, A.

    2015-02-01

    Using the long annual mean temperature time series provided by millennium Earth System Model simulations and a method of discrete Fourier transform with varying starting point and length of time window together with averaging, we get good fits to power laws between two characteristic oscillatory timescales of the model climate: multidecadal (50-80 years) and El Nino (3-6 years) timescales. For global mean temperature, we fit β ˜ 0.35 in a relation S( f) ˜ f - β in a simulation without external climate forcing and β over 0.7 in a simulation with external forcing included. The power law is found both with and without external forcing despite the forcings, e.g. the volcanic forcing, not showing similar behaviour, indicating a nonlinear temperature response to time-varying forcing. We also fit a power law with β ˜ 8 to the narrow frequency range between El Nino frequencies (up to 1/(3.2 years)) and the Nyquist frequency (1/(2 years)). Also, monthly mean temperature time series are considered and a decent power-law fit for frequencies above 1/year is obtained. Regional variability in best-fit β is explored, and the impact of choosing the frequency range on the result is illustrated. When all resolved frequencies are used, land areas seem to have lower βs than ocean areas on average, but when fits are restricted to frequencies below 1/(6 years), this difference disappears, while regional differences still remain. Results compare well with measurements both for global mean temperature and for the central England temperature record.

  6. The Forbes 400, the Pareto power-law and efficient markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klass, O. S.; Biham, O.; Levy, M.; Malcai, O.; Solomon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical regularities at the top end of the wealth distribution in the United States are examined using the Forbes 400 lists of richest Americans, published between 1988 and 2003. It is found that the wealths are distributed according to a power-law (Pareto) distribution. This result is explained using a simple stochastic model of multiple investors that incorporates the efficient market hypothesis as well as the multiplicative nature of financial market fluctuations.

  7. Spectral properties of empirical covariance matrices for data with power-law tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Zdzisław; Görlich, Andrzej T.; Wacław, Bartłomiej

    2006-10-01

    We present an analytic method for calculating spectral densities of empirical covariance matrices for correlated data. In this approach the data is represented as a rectangular random matrix whose columns correspond to sampled states of the system. The method is applicable to a class of random matrices with radial measures including those with heavy (power-law) tails in the probability distribution. As an example we apply it to a multivariate Student distribution.

  8. Computed tomography-based diagnosis of diffuse compensatory enlargement of coronary arteries using scaling power laws

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yunlong; Choy, Jenny Susana; Wischgoll, Thomas; Luo, Tong; Teague, Shawn D.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2013-01-01

    Glagov's positive remodelling in the early stages of coronary atherosclerosis often results in plaque rupture and acute events. Because positive remodelling is generally diffused along the epicardial coronary arterial tree, it is difficult to diagnose non-invasively. Hence, the objective of the study is to assess the use of scaling power law for the diagnosis of positive remodelling of coronary arteries based on computed tomography (CT) images. Epicardial coronary arterial trees were reconstructed from CT scans of six Ossabaw pigs fed on a high-fat, high-cholesterol, atherogenic diet for eight months as well as the same number of body-weight-matched farm pigs fed on a lean chow (101.9±16.1 versus 91.5±13.1 kg). The high-fat diet Ossabaw pig model showed diffuse positive remodelling of epicardial coronary arteries. Good fit of measured coronary data to the length–volume scaling power law ( where Lc and Vc are crown length and volume) were found for both the high-fat and control groups (R2 = 0.95±0.04 and 0.99±0.01, respectively). The coefficient, KLV, decreased significantly in the high-fat diet group when compared with the control (14.6±2.6 versus 40.9±5.6). The flow–length scaling power law, however, was nearly unaffected by the positive remodelling. The length–volume and flow–length scaling power laws were preserved in epicardial coronary arterial trees after positive remodelling. KLV < 18 in the length–volume scaling relation is a good index of positive remodelling of coronary arteries. These findings provide a clinical rationale for simple, accurate and non-invasive diagnosis of positive remodelling of coronary arteries, using conventional CT scans. PMID:23365197

  9. The origin of tablet boudinage: Results from experiments using power-law rock analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, J.; Zulauf, G.; Kraus, R.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Zanella, F.

    2011-10-01

    We used power-law viscous plasticine ( n = ca. 7) as a rock analog to simulate boudinage of rocks undergoing dislocation creep and brittle fracture. A competent plasticine layer, oriented perpendicular to the main shortening direction, Z, underwent bulk pure flattening inside a less competent plasticine matrix. Computer tomographic analyses of the deformed samples revealed that boudinage results from an initial phase of viscous necking followed by tensile failure along the previously formed necks. The resulting boudins display a polygonal shape in plan-view and are referred to as 'tablet boudins' (in contrast to the square to rectangular shaped chocolate-tablet boudins). The ratio between the plan-view long and short axis, R, ranges from 1.2 to 2.6. The polygonal, non-isometric shape of the tablet boudins can be explained by the strong interaction of concentric and radial tensile fractures. With increasing layer thickness, Hi, the mean diameter of the boudin tablets, Wa, increases, while the number of boudins, N, decreases. Progressive finite strain results in a higher number of the boudins and a smaller mean diameter. The thickness of the boudins, Hf, is almost the same as the initial layer thickness, Hi, while the aspect ratio ( Wd = Wa / Hf) decreases with layer thickness and finite strain. The mean Wd values obtained from all experiments span from ca. 4 to ca. 11. Tablet boudins, described in the present paper, have yet not been described from natural outcrops. The reasons might be that pure flattening strain is not common in nature, and the characterization and evaluation of tablet boudins requires geometrical analysis in three dimensions, which is a difficult task when such structures occur in nature.

  10. The extent of power-law energy spectra in collisionless relativistic magnetic reconnection in pair plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; ...

    2015-12-30

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power lawmore » $${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.« less

  11. A power law distribution in patients’ lengths of stay in hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellervik, A.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of patients’ lengths of stay in English hospitals is measured by using routinely collected data from 11 years. It is found to be well approximated by a power law distribution spanning over more than three decades. To explain this observation, a theoretical resource allocation model is presented. It is based on iterative long-term scheduling of hospital beds, and its main assumption is that future beds are allocated preferentially. This represents a situation where different parts of the health care system compete for resources, with bargaining powers proportional to current resource levels.

  12. Diagnosing peak-discharge power laws observed in rainfall runoff events in Goodwin Creek experimental watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, Peter R.; Gupta, Vijay K.

    2007-11-01

    Observations from the Goodwin Creek experimental watershed (GCEW), Mississippi show that peak-discharge Q( A) and drainage area A are related, on average, by a power law or scaling relationship, Q( A) = αAθ, during single rainfall-runoff events. Observations also show that α and θ change between events, and, based on a recent analysis of 148 events, observations indicate that α and θ change because of corresponding changes in the depth, duration, and spatial variability of excess-rainfall. To improve our physical understanding of these observations, a 5-step framework for diagnosing observed power laws, or other space-time patterns in a basin, is articulated and applied to GCEW using a combination of analysis and numerical simulations. Diagnostic results indicate how the power laws are connected to physical conditions and processes. Derived expressions for α and θ show that if excess-rainfall depth is fixed then there is a decreasing concave relationship between α and excess-rainfall duration, and an increasing and slightly convex relationship between θ and excess rainfall duration. These trends are consistent with observations only when hillslope velocity vh is given a physically realistic value near 0.1 m/s. If vh ≫ 0.1 m/s, then the predicted trends deviate from observed trends. Results also suggest that trends in α and θ can be impacted by the dependence of vh and link velocity vl on excess-rainfall rate.

  13. Comment on ``Time needed to board an airplane: A power law and the structure behind it''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Noam

    2012-08-01

    Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.011130 85, 011130 (2012)] recently showed that for a simple model for the boarding of an airplane, the mean time to board scales as a power law with the number of passengers N and the exponent is less than 1. They note that this scaling leads to the prediction that the “back-to-front” strategy, where passengers are divided into groups from contiguous ranges of rows and each group is allowed to board in turn from back to front once the previous group has found their seats, has a longer boarding time than would a single group. Here I extend their results to a larger number of passengers using a sampling approach and explore a scenario where the queue is presorted into groups from back to front, but allowed to enter the plane as soon as they can. I show that the power law dependence on passenger numbers is different for large N and that there is a boarding time reduction for presorted groups, with a power law dependence on the number of presorted groups.

  14. Power law behavior of the isotope yield distributions in the multifragmentation regime of heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Chen, Z.; Keutgen, T.; Kowalski, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Sahu, P. K.; Schmidt, K. J.; Wang, J.

    2010-11-01

    Isotope yield distributions in the multifragmentation regime were studied with high-quality isotope identification, focusing on the intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) produced in semiviolent collisions. The yields were analyzed within the framework of a modified Fisher model. Using the ratio of the mass-dependent symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, asym/T, extracted in previous work and that of the pairing term, ap/T, extracted from this work, and assuming that both reflect secondary decay processes, the experimentally observed isotope yields were corrected for these effects. For a given I=N-Z value, the corrected yields of isotopes relative to the yield of C12 show a power law distribution Y(N,Z)/Y(12C)~A-τ in the mass range 1⩽A⩽30, and the distributions are almost identical for the different reactions studied. The observed power law distributions change systematically when I of the isotopes changes and the extracted τ value decreases from 3.9 to 1.0 as I increases from -1 to 3. These observations are well reproduced by a simple deexcitation model, with which the power law distribution of the primary isotopes is determined to be τprim=2.4±0.2, suggesting that the disassembling system at the time of the fragment formation is indeed at, or very near, the critical point.

  15. Explaining the power-law distribution of human mobility through transportation modality decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Musolesi, Mirco; Hui, Pan; Rao, Weixiong; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2015-01-01

    Human mobility has been empirically observed to exhibit Lévy flight characteristics and behaviour with power-law distributed jump size. The fundamental mechanisms behind this behaviour has not yet been fully explained. In this paper, we propose to explain the Lévy walk behaviour observed in human mobility patterns by decomposing them into different classes according to the different transportation modes, such as Walk/Run, Bike, Train/Subway or Car/Taxi/Bus. Our analysis is based on two real-life GPS datasets containing approximately 10 and 20 million GPS samples with transportation mode information. We show that human mobility can be modelled as a mixture of different transportation modes, and that these single movement patterns can be approximated by a lognormal distribution rather than a power-law distribution. Then, we demonstrate that the mixture of the decomposed lognormal flight distributions associated with each modality is a power-law distribution, providing an explanation to the emergence of Lévy Walk patterns that characterize human mobility patterns. PMID:25779306

  16. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohen, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from ‘outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954–2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related. PMID:26923210

  17. The Dynamics of Power laws: Fitness and Aging in Preferential Attachment Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, Alessandro; van der Hofstad, Remco; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    Continuous-time branching processes describe the evolution of a population whose individuals generate a random number of children according to a birth process. Such branching processes can be used to understand preferential attachment models in which the birth rates are linear functions. We are motivated by citation networks, where power-law citation counts are observed as well as aging in the citation patterns. To model this, we introduce fitness and age-dependence in these birth processes. The multiplicative fitness moderates the rate at which children are born, while the aging is integrable, so that individuals receives a finite number of children in their lifetime. We show the existence of a limiting degree distribution for such processes. In the preferential attachment case, where fitness and aging are absent, this limiting degree distribution is known to have power-law tails. We show that the limiting degree distribution has exponential tails for bounded fitnesses in the presence of integrable aging, while the power-law tail is restored when integrable aging is combined with fitness with unbounded support with at most exponential tails. In the absence of integrable aging, such processes are explosive.

  18. On the use of log-transformation vs. nonlinear regression for analyzing biological power laws.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; White, Ethan P; Hooten, Mevin B; Durham, Susan L

    2011-10-01

    Power-law relationships are among the most well-studied functional relationships in biology. Recently the common practice of fitting power laws using linear regression (LR) on log-transformed data has been criticized, calling into question the conclusions of hundreds of studies. It has been suggested that nonlinear regression (NLR) is preferable, but no rigorous comparison of these two methods has been conducted. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the error distribution determines which method performs better, with NLR better characterizing data with additive, homoscedastic, normal error and LR better characterizing data with multiplicative, heteroscedastic, lognormal error. Analysis of 471 biological power laws shows that both forms of error occur in nature. While previous analyses based on log-transformation appear to be generally valid, future analyses should choose methods based on a combination of biological plausibility and analysis of the error distribution. We provide detailed guidelines and associated computer code for doing so, including a model averaging approach for cases where the error structure is uncertain.

  19. Accuracy analysis of measurements on a stable power-law distributed series of events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. O.; Hopcraft, K. I.; Jakeman, E.; Siviour, G. B.

    2006-11-01

    We investigate how finite measurement time limits the accuracy with which the parameters of a stably distributed random series of events can be determined. The model process is generated by timing the emigration of individuals from a population that is subject to deaths and a particular choice of multiple immigration events. This leads to a scale-free discrete random process where customary measures, such as mean value and variance, do not exist. However, converting the number of events occurring in fixed time intervals to a 1-bit 'clipped' process allows the construction of well-behaved statistics that still retain vestiges of the original power-law and fluctuation properties. These statistics include the clipped mean and correlation function, from measurements of which both the power-law index of the distribution of events and the time constant of its fluctuations can be deduced. We report here a theoretical analysis of the accuracy of measurements of the mean of the clipped process. This indicates that, for a fixed experiment time, the error on measurements of the sample mean is minimized by an optimum choice of the number of samples. It is shown furthermore that this choice is sensitive to the power-law index and that the approach to Poisson statistics is dominated by rare events or 'outliers'. Our results are supported by numerical simulation.

  20. A stability analysis of the power-law steady state of marine size spectra.

    PubMed

    Datta, Samik; Delius, Gustav W; Law, Richard; Plank, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates the stability of the power-law steady state often observed in marine ecosystems. Three dynamical systems are considered, describing the abundance of organisms as a function of body mass and time: a "jump-growth" equation, a first order approximation which is the widely used McKendrick-von Foerster equation, and a second order approximation which is the McKendrick-von Foerster equation with a diffusion term. All of these yield a power-law steady state. We derive, for the first time, the eigenvalue spectrum for the linearised evolution operator, under certain constraints on the parameters. This provides new knowledge of the stability properties of the power-law steady state. It is shown analytically that the steady state of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation without the diffusion term is always unstable. Furthermore, numerical plots show that eigenvalue spectra of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation with diffusion give a good approximation to those of the jump-growth equation. The steady state is more likely to be stable with a low preferred predator:prey mass ratio, a large diet breadth and a high feeding efficiency. The effects of demographic stochasticity are also investigated and it is concluded that these are likely to be small in real systems.

  1. Mobility of power-law and Carreau fluids through fibrous media.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-12-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied, with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three methods are used here: (i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, (ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and (iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number and the medium porosity, our results show that for porosities less than ɛ≃0.65, the dimensionless mobility becomes independent of the Carreau number and the mobility function exhibits power-law characteristics as a result of the high shear rates at the pore scale. We derive a suitable criterion for determining the flow regime and the transition from a constant viscosity Newtonian response to a power-law regime in terms of a new Carreau number rescaled with a dimensionless function which incorporates the medium porosity and the arrangement of fibers.

  2. Comment on "Time needed to board an airplane: a power law and the structure behind it".

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Noam

    2012-08-01

    Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)] recently showed that for a simple model for the boarding of an airplane, the mean time to board scales as a power law with the number of passengers N and the exponent is less than 1. They note that this scaling leads to the prediction that the "back-to-front" strategy, where passengers are divided into groups from contiguous ranges of rows and each group is allowed to board in turn from back to front once the previous group has found their seats, has a longer boarding time than would a single group. Here I extend their results to a larger number of passengers using a sampling approach and explore a scenario where the queue is presorted into groups from back to front, but allowed to enter the plane as soon as they can. I show that the power law dependence on passenger numbers is different for large N and that there is a boarding time reduction for presorted groups, with a power law dependence on the number of presorted groups.

  3. Explaining the power-law distribution of human mobility through transportation modality decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Musolesi, Mirco; Hui, Pan; Rao, Weixiong; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2015-03-16

    Human mobility has been empirically observed to exhibit Lévy flight characteristics and behaviour with power-law distributed jump size. The fundamental mechanisms behind this behaviour has not yet been fully explained. In this paper, we propose to explain the Lévy walk behaviour observed in human mobility patterns by decomposing them into different classes according to the different transportation modes, such as Walk/Run, Bike, Train/Subway or Car/Taxi/Bus. Our analysis is based on two real-life GPS datasets containing approximately 10 and 20 million GPS samples with transportation mode information. We show that human mobility can be modelled as a mixture of different transportation modes, and that these single movement patterns can be approximated by a lognormal distribution rather than a power-law distribution. Then, we demonstrate that the mixture of the decomposed lognormal flight distributions associated with each modality is a power-law distribution, providing an explanation to the emergence of Lévy Walk patterns that characterize human mobility patterns.

  4. Mobility of power-law and Carreau fluids through fibrous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2015-12-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied, with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three methods are used here: (i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, (ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and (iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number and the medium porosity, our results show that for porosities less than ɛ ≃0.65 , the dimensionless mobility becomes independent of the Carreau number and the mobility function exhibits power-law characteristics as a result of the high shear rates at the pore scale. We derive a suitable criterion for determining the flow regime and the transition from a constant viscosity Newtonian response to a power-law regime in terms of a new Carreau number rescaled with a dimensionless function which incorporates the medium porosity and the arrangement of fibers.

  5. On the use of log-transformation vs. nonlinear regression for analyzing biological power laws

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xiao, X.; White, E.P.; Hooten, M.B.; Durham, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Power-law relationships are among the most well-studied functional relationships in biology. Recently the common practice of fitting power laws using linear regression (LR) on log-transformed data has been criticized, calling into question the conclusions of hundreds of studies. It has been suggested that nonlinear regression (NLR) is preferable, but no rigorous comparison of these two methods has been conducted. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the error distribution determines which method performs better, with NLR better characterizing data with additive, homoscedastic, normal error and LR better characterizing data with multiplicative, heteroscedastic, lognormal error. Analysis of 471 biological power laws shows that both forms of error occur in nature. While previous analyses based on log-transformation appear to be generally valid, future analyses should choose methods based on a combination of biological plausibility and analysis of the error distribution. We provide detailed guidelines and associated computer code for doing so, including a model averaging approach for cases where the error structure is uncertain. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Power-law scaling in daily rainfall patterns and consequences in urban stream discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeryang; Krueger, Elisabeth H.; Kim, Dongkyun; Rao, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Poissonian rainfall has been frequently used for modelling stream discharge in a catchment at the daily scale. Generally, it is assumed that the daily rainfall depth is described by memoryless exponential distribution which is transformed to stream discharge, resulting in an analytical pdf for discharge [Gamma distribution]. While it is true that catchment hydrological filtering processes (censored by constant rate ET losses, and first-order recession) increases "memory", reflected in 1/f noise in discharge time series. Here, we show that for urban watersheds in South Korea: (1) the observation of daily rainfall depths follow power-law pdfs, and spectral slopes range between 0.2 ~ 0.4; and (2) the stream discharge pdfs have power-law tails. These observation results suggest that multiple hydro-climatic factors (e.g., non-stationarity of rainfall patterns) and hydrologic filtering (increasing impervious area; more complex urban drainage networks) influence the catchment hydrologic responses. We test the role of such factors using a parsimonious model, using different types of daily rainfall patterns (e.g., power-law distributed rainfall depth with Poisson distribution in its frequency) and urban settings to reproduce patterns similar to those observed in empirical records. Our results indicate that fractality in temporally up-scaled rainfall, and the consequences of large extreme events are preserved as high discharge events in urbanizing catchments. Implications of these results to modeling urban hydrologic responses and impacts on receiving waters are discussed.

  7. Explaining the power-law distribution of human mobility through transportation modality decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kai; Musolesi, Mirco; Hui, Pan; Rao, Weixiong; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2015-03-01

    Human mobility has been empirically observed to exhibit Lévy flight characteristics and behaviour with power-law distributed jump size. The fundamental mechanisms behind this behaviour has not yet been fully explained. In this paper, we propose to explain the Lévy walk behaviour observed in human mobility patterns by decomposing them into different classes according to the different transportation modes, such as Walk/Run, Bike, Train/Subway or Car/Taxi/Bus. Our analysis is based on two real-life GPS datasets containing approximately 10 and 20 million GPS samples with transportation mode information. We show that human mobility can be modelled as a mixture of different transportation modes, and that these single movement patterns can be approximated by a lognormal distribution rather than a power-law distribution. Then, we demonstrate that the mixture of the decomposed lognormal flight distributions associated with each modality is a power-law distribution, providing an explanation to the emergence of Lévy Walk patterns that characterize human mobility patterns.

  8. The Dynamics of Power laws: Fitness and Aging in Preferential Attachment Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, Alessandro; van der Hofstad, Remco; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-07-01

    Continuous-time branching processes describe the evolution of a population whose individuals generate a random number of children according to a birth process. Such branching processes can be used to understand preferential attachment models in which the birth rates are linear functions. We are motivated by citation networks, where power-law citation counts are observed as well as aging in the citation patterns. To model this, we introduce fitness and age-dependence in these birth processes. The multiplicative fitness moderates the rate at which children are born, while the aging is integrable, so that individuals receives a finite number of children in their lifetime. We show the existence of a limiting degree distribution for such processes. In the preferential attachment case, where fitness and aging are absent, this limiting degree distribution is known to have power-law tails. We show that the limiting degree distribution has exponential tails for bounded fitnesses in the presence of integrable aging, while the power-law tail is restored when integrable aging is combined with fitness with unbounded support with at most exponential tails. In the absence of integrable aging, such processes are explosive.

  9. Holographic conductivity in the massive gravity with power-law Maxwell field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehyadegari, A.; Kord Zangeneh, M.; Sheykhi, A.

    2017-10-01

    We obtain a new class of topological black hole solutions in (n + 1)-dimensional massive gravity in the presence of the power-Maxwell electrodynamics. We calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the system and show that the first law of thermodynamics is satisfied on the horizon. Then, we investigate the holographic conductivity for the four and five dimensional black brane solutions. For completeness, we study the holographic conductivity for both massless (m = 0) and massive (m ≠ 0) gravities with power-Maxwell field. The massless gravity enjoys translational symmetry whereas the massive gravity violates it. For massless gravity, we observe that the real part of conductivity, Re [ σ ], decreases as charge q increases when frequency ω tends to zero, while the imaginary part of conductivity, Im [ σ ], diverges as ω → 0. For the massive gravity, we find that Im [ σ ] is zero at ω = 0 and becomes larger as q increases (temperature decreases), which is in contrast to the massless gravity. It also has a maximum value for ω ≠ 0 which increases with increasing q (with fixed p) or increasing p (with fixed q) for (2 + 1)-dimensional dual system, where p is the power parameter of the power-law Maxwell field. Interestingly, we observe that in contrast to the massless case, Re [ σ ] has a maximum value at ω = 0 (known as the Drude peak) for p = (n + 1) / 4 (conformally invariant electrodynamics) and this maximum increases with increasing q. In this case (m ≠ 0) and for different values of p, the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity has a relative extremum for ω ≠ 0. Finally, we show that for high frequencies, the real part of the holographic conductivity have the power law behavior in terms of frequency, ωa where a ∝ (n + 1 - 4 p). Some similar behaviors for high frequencies in possible dual CFT systems have been reported in experimental observations.

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation with a finite number of particles in a power-law trap

    SciTech Connect

    Jaouadi, A.; Telmini, M.; Charron, E.

    2011-02-15

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of an ideal gas is investigated, beyond the thermodynamic limit, for a finite number N of particles trapped in a generic three-dimensional power-law potential. We derive an analytical expression for the condensation temperature T{sub c} in terms of a power series in x{sub 0}={epsilon}{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}, where {epsilon}{sub 0} denotes the zero-point energy of the trapping potential. This expression, which applies in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical power-law traps, is given analytically at infinite order. It is also given numerically for specific potential shapes as an expansion in powers of x{sub 0} up to the second order. We show that, for a harmonic trap, the well-known first-order shift of the critical temperature {Delta}T{sub c}/T{sub c{proportional_to}}N{sup -1/3} is inaccurate when N{<=}10{sup 5}, the next order (proportional to N{sup -1/2}) being significant. We also show that finite-size effects on the condensation temperature cancel out in a cubic trapping potential, e.g., V(r){proportional_to}r{sup 3}. Finally, we show that in a generic power-law potential of higher order, e.g., V(r){proportional_to}r{sup {alpha}} with {alpha}>3, the shift of the critical temperature becomes positive. This effect provides a large increase of T{sub c} for relatively small atom numbers. For instance, an increase of about +40% is expected with 10{sup 4} atoms in a V(r){proportional_to}r{sup 12} trapping potential.

  11. Analytical modeling of dynamic behavior of piezo-thermo-electrically affected sigmoid and power-law graded nanoscale beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Salari, Erfan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, thermo-electro-mechanical vibration characteristics of both sigmoid and power-law functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) nanobeams subjected to in-plane thermal loads and applied electric voltage are carried out by presenting a Navier-type solution for the first time. Three kinds of thermal loading, namely uniform, linear and nonlinear temperature rises through the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-electro-mechanical properties of FGP nanobeam are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness according to power-law and sigmoid distribution. Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of nanobeam. Using Hamilton's principle, the nonlocal equations of motion together with corresponding boundary conditions are obtained for the free vibration analysis of graded piezoelectric nanobeams including size effect and they are solved applying analytical solution. According to the numerical results, it is revealed that the proposed modeling can provide accurate frequency results of the FG nanobeams as compared some cases in the literature. In following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as various temperature distributions, external electric voltage, different material compositions, nonlocal parameter and mode number on the natural frequencies of the size-dependent FGP nanobeams in detail. It is found that the small scale effect and thermo-electrical loading have a significant effect on natural frequencies of FGP nanobeams. The results should be relevant to the design and application of the piezoelectric nanodevices.

  12. A Power-Law Growth and Decay Model with Autocorrelation for Posting Data to Social Networking Services.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Toshifumi; Matsui, Chihiro; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a power-law growth and decay model for posting data to social networking services before and after social events. We model the time series structure of deviations from the power-law growth and decay with a conditional Poisson autoregressive (AR) model. Online postings related to social events are described by five parameters in the power-law growth and decay model, each of which characterizes different aspects of interest in the event. We assess the validity of parameter estimates in terms of confidence intervals, and compare various submodels based on likelihoods and information criteria.

  13. A Power-Law Growth and Decay Model with Autocorrelation for Posting Data to Social Networking Services

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Toshifumi; Matsui, Chihiro; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a power-law growth and decay model for posting data to social networking services before and after social events. We model the time series structure of deviations from the power-law growth and decay with a conditional Poisson autoregressive (AR) model. Online postings related to social events are described by five parameters in the power-law growth and decay model, each of which characterizes different aspects of interest in the event. We assess the validity of parameter estimates in terms of confidence intervals, and compare various submodels based on likelihoods and information criteria. PMID:27505155

  14. On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-03-01

    We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of separate processes. Bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of separate Hurst exponents of the analyzed processes. Strength of short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties. Implications of these findings for the power-law cross-correlations concept are further discussed.

  15. Accurate and unbiased estimation of power-law exponents from single-emitter blinking data.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Jacob P; den Otter, Wouter K; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2006-11-28

    Single emitter blinking with a power-law distribution for the on and off times has been observed on a variety of systems including semiconductor nanocrystals, conjugated polymers, fluorescent proteins, and organic fluorophores. The origin of this behavior is still under debate. Reliable estimation of power exponents from experimental data is crucial in validating the various models under consideration. We derive a maximum likelihood estimator for power-law distributed data and analyze its accuracy as a function of data set size and power exponent both analytically and numerically. Results are compared to least-squares fitting of the double logarithmically transformed probability density. We demonstrate that least-squares fitting introduces a severe bias in the estimation result and that the maximum likelihood procedure is superior in retrieving the correct exponent and reducing the statistical error. For a data set as small as 50 data points, the error margins of the maximum likelihood estimator are already below 7%, giving the possibility to quantify blinking behavior when data set size is limited, e.g., due to photobleaching.

  16. Power graph compression reveals dominant relationships in genetic transcription networks.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, Sebastian E

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a framework for the discovery of dominant relationship patterns in transcription networks, by compressing the network into a power graph with overlapping power nodes. Our application of this approach to the transcription networks of S. cerevisiae and E. coli, paired with GO term enrichment analysis, provides a highly informative overview of the most prominent relationships in the gene regulatory networks of these two organisms.

  17. Emergence of power-law in a market with mixed models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Saif, M.; Gade, Prashant M.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the problem of wealth distribution from the viewpoint of asset exchange. Robust nature of Pareto's law across economies, ideologies and nations suggests that this could be an outcome of trading strategies. However, the simple asset exchange models fail to reproduce this feature. A Yardsale (YS) model in which amount put on the bet is a fraction of minimum of the two players leads to condensation of wealth in hands of some agent while theft and fraud (TF) model in which the amount to be exchanged is a fraction of loser's wealth leads to an exponential distribution of wealth. We show that if we allow few agents to follow a different model than others, i.e., there are some agents following TF model while rest follow YS model, it leads to distribution with power-law tails. Similar effect is observed when one carries out transactions for a fraction of one's wealth using TF model and for the rest YS model is used. We also observe a power-law tail in wealth distribution if we allow the agents to follow either of the models with some probability.

  18. Power-law behavior in the power spectrum induced by Brownian motion of a domain wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, Shinji; Mitsudo, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2003-07-01

    We show that Brownian motion of a one-dimensional domain wall in a large but finite system yields a ω-3/2 power spectrum. This is successfully applied to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with open boundaries. An excellent agreement between our theory and numerical results is obtained in a frequency range where the domain wall motion dominates and the discreteness of the system is not effective.

  19. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory: power spectral densities of the soma potential, soma membrane current and single-neuron contribution to the EEG.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2014-11-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting 1/f(α) behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency 1/f(α) power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as α∞(I) = 1/2 for the soma membrane current, α∞(p) = 3/2 for the current-dipole moment, and α∞(V) = 2 for the soma membrane potential. Comparison with available data suggests that the apparent power laws observed in the high-frequency end of the PSD spectra may stem from uncorrelated current sources which are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink (1/f) noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how 1/f(α) power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation.

  20. Power Laws from Linear Neuronal Cable Theory: Power Spectral Densities of the Soma Potential, Soma Membrane Current and Single-Neuron Contribution to the EEG

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Klas H.; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as for the soma membrane current, for the current-dipole moment, and for the soma membrane potential. Comparison with available data suggests that the apparent power laws observed in the high-frequency end of the PSD spectra may stem from uncorrelated current sources which are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink () noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation. PMID:25393030

  1. Phase scintillations due to equatorial F region irregularities with two-component power law spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Rastogi, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    Power spectra of weak phase scintillations on a 140-MHz signal, transmitted from the geostationary satellite ATS 6 and observed during premidnight and postmidnight periods at an equatorial station Ootacamund (magnetic dip 6 N), show that the nighttime equatorial F region irregularities in the wavelength range of about hundred meters to a few kilometers exhibit a two-component power law spectrum. The long- and short-wavelength spectral indices and the break scale at which the transition from a shallow to a steep slope occurs are determined self-consistently using both the phase and amplitude scintillation data. As the power spectra of phase scintillations do not exhibit the effect of Fresnel filtering, they provide fairly accurate estimates of the spectral indices and the break scale. These estimated parameters are utilized in a model calculation of the dependence of the S4 index on signal frequency based on weak scattering theory.

  2. A Control Law Design Method Facilitating Control Power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs: CRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Davidson, John B.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output control law design methodology, named "CRAFT", is presented. CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely, Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs. The methodology makes use of control law design metrics from each of the four design objective areas. It combines eigenspace assignment, which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with a graphical approach for representing the metrics that captures numerous design goals in one composite illustration. Sensitivity of the metrics to eigenspace choice is clearly displayed, enabling the designer to assess the cost of design tradeoffs. This approach enhances the designer's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and to reach effective final designs. An example of the CRAFT methodology applied to an advanced experimental fighter and discussion of associated design issues are provided.

  3. Maxwell's equal area law for black holes in power Maxwell invariant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huai-Fan; Guo, Xiong-ying; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhao, Ren

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the phase transition of black hole in power Maxwell invariant by means of Maxwell's equal area law. First, we review and study the analogy of nonlinear charged black hole solutions with the Van der Waals gas-liquid system in the extended phase space, and obtain isothermal P- v diagram. Then, using the Maxwell's equal area law we study the phase transition of AdS black hole with different temperatures. Finally, we extend the method to the black hole in the canonical (grand canonical) ensemble in which charge (potential) is fixed at infinity. Interestingly, we find the phase transition occurs in the both ensembles. We also study the effect of the parameters of the black hole on the two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black hole may go through a small-large phase transition similar to those of usual non-gravity thermodynamic systems.

  4. MHD thermosolutal marangoni convection heat and mass transport of power law fluid driven by temperature and concentration gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Chengru; Zheng, Liancun; Ma, Lianxi

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thermosolutal Marangoni convection heat and mass transfer of power-law fluids driven by a power law temperature and a power law concentration which is assumed that the surface tension varies linearly with both the temperature and concentration. Heat and mass transfer constitutive equation is proposed based on N-diffusion proposed by Philip and the abnormal convection-diffusion model proposed by Pascal in which we assume that the heat diffusion depends non-linearly on both the temperature and the temperature gradient and the mass diffusion depends non-linearly on both the concentration and the concentration gradient with modified Fourier heat conduction for power law fluid. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity transformations. Approximate analytical solution is obtained using homotopy analytical method (HAM). The transport characteristics of velocity, temperature and concentration fields are analyzed in detail.

  5. An improvement on the power law for the description of particle size distributions in potable water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceronio, A D; Haarhoff, J

    2005-01-01

    In potable water treatment, the use of the power law to describe particle size distributions (PSDs) in particle counting practice is common. The power law is popular because it allows the reduction of numerous data bits to two meaningful parameters that completely describe the size distribution characteristics of a particle suspension. The model is however flawed. This paper presents the further development of an improved model (the variable-beta model) first proposed by Lawler (1997). Both the power law model and variable-beta model are used to describe the PSDs of a large number of potable water treatment samples taken from full-scale plants and the resulting correlations are compared. The findings from the comparison of data reduction methodologies support the argument that the variable-beta model is fundamentally more correct than the power law model and consequently describes the PSDs better.

  6. Crossover from exponential to power-law scaling for human mobility pattern in urban, suburban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsing; Chen, Ying-Hsing; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2015-05-01

    Empirical analysis on human mobility has caught extensive attentions due to the accumulated human dynamical data and the advance of data mining technique. But the results of related research still have to further investigate on some issues such as spatial scale. In this paper, we explore human mobility in greater Kaohsiung area by using long-term taxicabs' GPS data. The trip distance in our dataset exhibits exponential decay for short trips and power-law scaling for long trips. We propose an approach to investigate the possible mechanism of the power-law tail. Moreover, we utilize the method of simulation and random relinking trip path to explain the empirical observation. Our results show that the origin of power-law movement distribution may be largely due to the power-law population distribution.

  7. Thermionic power-law decay of excited aluminum-cluster anions and its dependence on storage-device temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Froese, M. W.; Blaum, K.; Fellenberger, F.; Grieser, M.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Menk, S.; Orlov, D. A.; Repnow, R.; Sieber, T.; Hahn, R. von; Wolf, A.; Toker, Y.

    2011-02-15

    The decay of excited aluminum-cluster anions (Al{sub n}{sup -}, n=4 and 5) has been investigated in a cryogenic linear ion-beam trap. A power-law is found to accurately reproduce the time dependence of the observed decay rates at early storage times, although the exponents are significantly larger than the typically observed 1/t decay. It is shown that the power-law exponent is, at most, weakly dependent on the cluster electron affinity and heat capacity. A previous power-law exponent model for small clusters is also shown to be in disagreement with both investigated species. The attribution of a drop in the decay rate at later times to radiative cooling as observed in larger molecules also does not appear justified in our case. A strong dependence of the power-law exponent on the ambient temperature was observed.

  8. Effect of phase morphology on bulk strength for power-law materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Johnson, Scott E.; Cook, Alden; Vel, Senthil S.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of a polyphase aggregate comprising power-law materials is a function of the constitutive laws of the phases present, the arrangement of those phases and environmental conditions such as temperature. Primarily for geological applications, we consider the degree to which the arrangement of the phases has a significant influence on bulk strength. Calculations based on current single-mineral experimental data indicate that the absolute and relative strength differences between the upper and lower theoretical bounds vary widely with mineral pair, environmental conditions and strain rate. For example, at 850 °C, some pairs, such as plagioclase-clinopyroxene, are highly sensitive to phase morphology, whereas others, such as quartz-plagioclase, are not. Using a finite-element implementation of asymptotic expansion homogenization, we have calculated the bulk strength of natural and synthetic microstructures across macroscale strain gradients. We find that phase morphology does not change sufficiently in most cases to be the dominant factor in bulk strength variation. Thus on its own, phase morphology in an aggregate of power-law materials does not appear to be a major control on bulk strength under typical viscous geological conditions. However, phase morphology does affect microscale stress and strain rate patterns, which in turn can induce microscale variations in constitutive laws and diffusional pathways. These factors, including reactions and changing deformation mechanisms, are strongly influenced by phase morphology and do cause strength variation in rocks. As a result, any parametrization of rock strength needs to account for evolving modal mineralogy and deformation mechanisms in addition to morphological changes alone.

  9. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative...

  10. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative...

  11. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative...

  12. Self-similar rupture of thin free films of power law fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thete, Sumeet; Anthony, Christopher; Basaran, Osman; Doshi, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Rupture of a thin sheet (free film) of a power law fluid under the competing influences of destabilizing van der Waals pressure (vdWP) and stabilizing surface tension pressure (STP) is analyzed. In such a fluid, viscosity is not constant but decreases with the deformation rate raised to the n - 1 power where 0 < n <= 1 is the power law exponent (n = 1 for a Newtonian fluid). It is shown that when 1 > n > 6 / 7 , film rupture occurs under a balance between vdWP, inertial stress (IS), and viscous stress (VS), and the film thickness decreases as τ n / 3 and the lateral length scale as τ 1 - n / 2 where τ is time remaining to rupture. When n < 6 / 7 , the dominant balance changes so that VS becomes negligible and the film ruptures under the competition between vdWP, IS, and STP. In this new regime, film thickness and lateral length vary as τ 2 / 7 and τ 4 / 7.

  13. Universal inverse power-law distribution for temperature and rainfall in the UK region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    Meteorological parameters, such as temperature, rainfall, pressure, etc., exhibit selfsimilar space-time fractal fluctuations generic to dynamical systems in nature such as fluid flows, spread of forest fires, earthquakes, etc. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations display inverse power-law form signifying long-range correlations. A general systems theory model predicts universal inverse power-law form incorporating the golden mean for the fractal fluctuations. The model predicted distribution was compared with observed distribution of fractal fluctuations of all size scales (small, large and extreme values) in the historic month-wise temperature (maximum and minimum) and total rainfall for the four stations Oxford, Armagh, Durham and Stornoway in the UK region, for data periods ranging from 92 years to 160 years. For each parameter, the two cumulative probability distributions, namely cmax and cmin starting from respectively maximum and minimum data value were used. The results of the study show that (i) temperature distributions (maximum and minimum) follow model predicted distribution except for Stornowy, minimum temperature cmin. (ii) Rainfall distribution for cmin follow model predicted distribution for all the four stations. (iii) Rainfall distribution for cmax follows model predicted distribution for the two stations Armagh and Stornoway. The present study suggests that fractal fluctuations result from the superimposition of eddy continuum fluctuations.

  14. Power-Law Type Solutions of Fourth-Order Gravity for Multidimensional Bianchi i Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprasse, H.; Demaret, J.; Gatermann, K.; Melenk, H.

    This paper is devoted to the application of computer algebra to the study of solutions of the field equations derived from a non-linear Lagrangian, as suggested by recently proposed unified theories. More precisely, we restrict ourselves to the most general quadratic Lagrangian, i.e. containing quadratic contributions in the different curvature tensors exclusively. The corresponding field equations are then fourth-order in the metric tensor components. The cosmological models studied are the simplest ones in the class of spatially homogeneous but anisotropic models, i.e. Bianchi I models. For these models, we consider only power-law type solutions of the field equations. All the solutions of the associated system of algebraic equations are found, using computer algebra, from a search of its Groebner bases. While, in space dimension d=3, the Einsteinian-Kasner metric is still the most general power-law type solution, for d>3, no solution, other than the Minkowski space-time, is common to the three systems of equations corresponding to the three contributions to the Lagrangian density. In the case of a pure Riemann-squared contribution to the Lagrangian (suggested by a recent calculation of the effective action for the heterotic string), the possibility exists to realize a splitting of the d-dimensional space into a (d-3)-dimensional internal space and a physical 3-dimensional space, the latter expanding in time as a power bigger than 2 (about 4.5 when d=9).

  15. Power Law and Scaling in the Energy of Tropical Cyclones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, A.; Osso, A.; Llebot, J.

    2010-12-01

    The influence of climate variability and global warming on the occurrence of tropical cyclones is a controversial issue. Existing historical databases on the subject are not fully reliable, but a more fundamental hindrance is the lack of basic understanding regarding the intrinsic nature of tropical-cyclone genesis and evolution. It is known that tropical cyclones involve more than a passive response to changing external forcing, but it is not clear which dynamic behavior best describes them. We present an approach based on the application of the power dissipation index, which constitutes an estimation of released energy, to individual tropical cyclones. A robust law emerges for the statistics of power dissipation index, valid in four different ocean basins and over long time periods. In addition to suggesting a description of the physics of tropical cyclones in terms of critical phenomena, the scaling law enables us to quantify their response to changing climatic conditions, with an increase in the largest power dissipation index values with sea surface temperature or the presence of El Niño phenomena, depending on the basin under consideration. In this way, we demonstrate that the recent upswing in North Atlantic hurricane activity does not involve tropical cyclones that are quantitatively different from those in other sustained high-activity periods before 1970. A. Corral, A. Osso, and J.E. Llebot, Nature Phys. 2010.

  16. An Evaluation of Power Law Breakdown in Metals, Alloys, Dispersion Hardened Materials and Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.

    1999-10-20

    Creep at high stresses often produces strain rates that exceed those that would be predicted by a power law relationship. In this paper, we examine available high stress creep data for pure metals, solid solution alloys, dispersion strengthened powder metallurgy materials and compounds for power law breakdown (PLB). The results show that, if PLB is observed, then the onset of PLB is generally observed at about {epsilon}/D{sub eff} = 10{sup 13} m{sup -2}, where D{sub eff} is the effective diffusion coefficient incorporating lattice and dislocation pipe diffusion. The common origins of PLB for the various systems studied can be found in the production of excess vacancies by plastic deformation. Anomalous behavior in two pure metals (nickel and tungsten) and a solid solution alloy (Fe-25Cr and Fe-26Cr-1Mo) has been analyzed and provides insight into this excess vacancy mechanism. In metal systems, the onset of PLB is related to a change in the nature of the subgrain structure developed. In the PLB region, subgrains become imperfect containing dislocation tangles adjacent to the sub-boundary, and dislocation cells are evident. The dislocation tangles and cells are the source of excess vacancies and increase the creep rate above that predicted from power law creep. If subgrains do not form then PLB is not observed. In solid solution alloys, in which the dominant deformation resistance results from the interaction of solute atoms with moving dislocations, excess vacancies influence the diffusion of these solute atoms. PLB is not observed in many systems. This is attributed either to the presence of a high equilibrium vacancy concentration (because of a low activation energy for vacancy formation) or to the inability to form subgrains.

  17. Effects of diversity and procrastination in priority queuing theory: The different power law regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical analyses show that after the update of a browser, or the publication of the vulnerability of a software, or the discovery of a cyber worm, the fraction of computers still using the older browser or software version, or not yet patched, or exhibiting worm activity decays as a power law ˜1/tα with 0<α≤1 over a time scale of years. We present a simple model for this persistence phenomenon, framed within the standard priority queuing theory, of a target task which has the lowest priority compared to all other tasks that flow on the computer of an individual. We identify a “time deficit” control parameter β and a bifurcation to a regime where there is a nonzero probability for the target task to never be completed. The distribution of waiting time T until the completion of the target task has the power law tail ˜1/t1/2 , resulting from a first-passage solution of an equivalent Wiener process. Taking into account a diversity of time deficit parameters in a population of individuals, the power law tail is changed into 1/tα , with αɛ(0.5,∞) , including the well-known case 1/t . We also study the effect of “procrastination,” defined as the situation in which the target task may be postponed or delayed even after the individual has solved all other pending tasks. This regime provides an explanation for even slower apparent decay and longer persistence.

  18. Effects of diversity and procrastination in priority queuing theory: the different power law regimes.

    PubMed

    Saichev, A; Sornette, D

    2010-01-01

    Empirical analyses show that after the update of a browser, or the publication of the vulnerability of a software, or the discovery of a cyber worm, the fraction of computers still using the older browser or software version, or not yet patched, or exhibiting worm activity decays as a power law approximately 1/t(alpha) with 0power law tail approximately 1/t(1/2), resulting from a first-passage solution of an equivalent Wiener process. Taking into account a diversity of time deficit parameters in a population of individuals, the power law tail is changed into 1/t(alpha), with alpha is an element of (0.5,infinity), including the well-known case 1/t. We also study the effect of "procrastination," defined as the situation in which the target task may be postponed or delayed even after the individual has solved all other pending tasks. This regime provides an explanation for even slower apparent decay and longer persistence.

  19. Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.-M.; Lin, C.-Y.; Guenther, A.; Tribbia, J. J.; Liu, S. C.

    2011-03-01

    With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, SO2, and O3) and aerosol (PM10) measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with a mixed combination of geographic settings, and include urban/rural, coastal/inland, and plain/hill locations. In addition to the well-known semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations, weekly, intermediate (20 ~ 30 days) and intraseasonal (30 ~ 100 days) peaks are also identified with the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The spectra indicate power-law scaling regions for the frequencies higher than the diurnal and those lower than the diurnal with the average exponents of -5/3 and -1, respectively. These dual-exponents are corroborated with those with the detrended fluctuation analysis in the corresponding time-lag regions. After spectral coefficients from the CWT decomposition are grouped according to the spectral bands, and inverted separately, the PDFs of the reconstructed time series for the high-frequency band demonstrate the interesting statistical regularity, -3 power-law scaling for the heavy tails, consistently. Such spectral peaks, dual-exponent structures, and power-law scaling in heavy tails are intriguingly interesting, but their relations to turbulence and mesoscale variability require further investigations. This could lead to a better understanding of the processes controlling air quality.

  20. Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.-M.; Lin, C.-Y.; Guenther, A.; Tribbia, J. J.; Liu, S. C.

    2011-08-01

    With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, SO2, and O3) and aerosol (PM10) measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with a mixed combination of geographic settings, and include urban/rural, coastal/inland, plain/hill, and industrial/agricultural locations. In addition to the well-known semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations, weekly, and intermediate (20 ~ 30 days) peaks are also identified with the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The spectra indicate power-law scaling regions for the frequencies higher than the diurnal and those lower than the diurnal with the average exponents of -5/3 and -1, respectively. These dual-exponents are corroborated with those with the detrended fluctuation analysis in the corresponding time-lag regions. These exponents are mostly independent of the averages and standard deviations of time series measured at various geographic settings, i.e., the spatial inhomogeneities. In other words, they possess dominant universal structures. After spectral coefficients from the CWT decomposition are grouped according to the spectral bands, and inverted separately, the PDFs of the reconstructed time series for the high-frequency band demonstrate the interesting statistical regularity, -3 power-law scaling for the heavy tails, consistently. Such spectral peaks, dual-exponent structures, and power-law scaling in heavy tails are important structural information, but their relations to turbulence and mesoscale variability require further investigations. This could lead to a better understanding of the processes controlling air quality.

  1. Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.

  2. Heterogeneous 'proportionality constants' - A challenge to Taylor's Power Law for temporal fluctuations in abundance.

    PubMed

    Kiflawi, Moshe; Mann, Ofri; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-10-21

    Taylor's Power Law for the temporal fluctuation in population size (TL) posits that the variance in abundance scales according to aM(b); where M is the mean abundance and a and b are the 'proportionality' and 'scaling' coefficients. As one of the few empirical rules in population ecology, TL has attracted substantial theoretical and empirical attention. Much of this attention focused on the scaling coefficient; particularly its ubiquitous deviation from the null value of 2. Here we present a line of reasoning that challenges the power-law interpretation of the empirical log-linear relationship between the mean and variance of population size. At the core of our reasoning is the proposition that populations vary not only with respect to M but also with respect to a; which leaves the log-linear relationship intact but forfeits its power-law interpretation. Using the stochastic logistic-growth model as an example, we show that ignoring among-population variation in a is akin to ignoring the variation in the intrinsic rate of growth (r). Accordingly, we show that the slope of the log-linear relationship (b) is a function of the among-population (co)variation in r and the carrying-capacity. We further demonstrate that local environmental stochasticity is sufficient to generate the full range of observed values of b, and that b can in fact be insensitive to substantial differences in the balance between variance-generating and stabilizing processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictions of Taylor's power law, density dependence and pink noise from a neutrally modeled time series.

    PubMed

    Keil, Petr; Herben, Tomás; Rosindell, James; Storch, David

    2010-07-07

    There has recently been increasing interest in neutral models of biodiversity and their ability to reproduce the patterns observed in nature, such as species abundance distributions. Here we investigate the ability of a neutral model to predict phenomena observed in single-population time series, a study complementary to most existing work that concentrates on snapshots in time of the whole community. We consider tests for density dependence, the dominant frequencies of population fluctuation (spectral density) and a relationship between the mean and variance of a fluctuating population (Taylor's power law). We simulated an archipelago model of a set of interconnected local communities with variable mortality rate, migration rate, speciation rate, size of local community and number of local communities. Our spectral analysis showed 'pink noise': a departure from a standard random walk dynamics in favor of the higher frequency fluctuations which is partly consistent with empirical data. We detected density dependence in local community time series but not in metacommunity time series. The slope of the Taylor's power law in the model was similar to the slopes observed in natural populations, but the fit to the power law was worse. Our observations of pink noise and density dependence can be attributed to the presence of an upper limit to community sizes and to the effect of migration which distorts temporal autocorrelation in local time series. We conclude that some of the phenomena observed in natural time series can emerge from neutral processes, as a result of random zero-sum birth, death and migration. This suggests the neutral model would be a parsimonious null model for future studies of time series data. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrating connectivity, power law, and alternative stable state paradigms of dryland ecosystem structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okin, Gregory; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Drylands are important ecosystems that cover about 40% of the Earth's land surface and provide goods and services for about 30% of the Earth's inhabitants. Dryland vegetation is almost universally patchy reflecting the resource limitation endemic to these areas and this patchiness unquestionably results from some type of self-organization. Understanding the function of these ecosystems is critical for their effective management and for understanding how they will be affected by changes in climate and land use as well as by invasion of non-native species. There are three main paradigms that have emerged in the literature to explain dryland ecosystem structure and dynamics. The connectivity paradigm posits that spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation observed in drylands are a result of the lateral movement of resources and disturbance along connected pathways. Other authors have examined the impact of local-scale interactions that give rise to large-scale patterns in the form of power law distributions of vegetation patches. Deviation from power law distributions as a sign of imminent, catastrophic change has been a common thread in this line of research. The sudden and often irreversible change observed in dryland ecosystems has led others to emphasize the importance of feedbacks that lead to the existence of alternative stable states and hysteresis in drylands. This latter view is closely aligned with the state-and-transition model approach. Here we show, through a series of conceptual and mathematical model arguments, that these three approaches - connectivity, power law distributions, and alternative stable states - can in many circumstances be considered equivalent. They are, in essence, different facets of a common set underlying processes. This transdisciplinary, integrated perspective should help understand how spatial processes interact to create pattern and patchiness in dryalnds as well as other ecosystems worldwide.

  5. Maximum likelihood estimators for truncated and censored power-law distributions show how neuronal avalanches may be misevaluated.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Dominic; Cousineau, Denis; Thivierge, J P

    2014-01-01

    The coordination of activity amongst populations of neurons in the brain is critical to cognition and behavior. One form of coordinated activity that has been widely studied in recent years is the so-called neuronal avalanche, whereby ongoing bursts of activity follow a power-law distribution. Avalanches that follow a power law are not unique to neuroscience, but arise in a broad range of natural systems, including earthquakes, magnetic fields, biological extinctions, fluid dynamics, and superconductors. Here, we show that common techniques that estimate this distribution fail to take into account important characteristics of the data and may lead to a sizable misestimation of the slope of power laws. We develop an alternative series of maximum likelihood estimators for discrete, continuous, bounded, and censored data. Using numerical simulations, we show that these estimators lead to accurate evaluations of power-law distributions, improving on common approaches. Next, we apply these estimators to recordings of in vitro rat neocortical activity. We show that different estimators lead to marked discrepancies in the evaluation of power-law distributions. These results call into question a broad range of findings that may misestimate the slope of power laws by failing to take into account key aspects of the observed data.

  6. On the power-law distributions of X-ray fluxes from solar flares observed with GOES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You-Ping; Feng, Li; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Si-Ming; Gan, Wei-Qun

    2016-10-01

    The power-law frequency distributions of the peak flux of solar flare X-ray emission have been studied extensively and attributed to a system having self-organized criticality (SOC). In this paper, we first show that, so long as the shape of the normalized light curve is not correlated with the peak flux, the flux histogram of solar flares also follows a power-law distribution with the same spectral index as the power-law frequency distribution of the peak flux, which may partially explain why power-law distributions are ubiquitous in the Universe. We then show that the spectral indexes of the histograms of soft X-ray fluxes observed by GOES satellites in two different energy channels are different: the higher energy channel has a harder distribution than the lower energy channel, which challenges the universal power-law distribution predicted by SOC models and implies a very soft distribution of thermal energy content of plasmas probed by the GOES satellites. The temperature (T) distribution, on the other hand, approaches a power-law distribution with an index of 2 for high values of T. Hence the application of SOC models to the statistical properties of solar flares needs to be revisited.

  7. Maximum likelihood estimators for truncated and censored power-law distributions show how neuronal avalanches may be misevaluated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, Dominic; Cousineau, Denis; Thivierge, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The coordination of activity amongst populations of neurons in the brain is critical to cognition and behavior. One form of coordinated activity that has been widely studied in recent years is the so-called neuronal avalanche, whereby ongoing bursts of activity follow a power-law distribution. Avalanches that follow a power law are not unique to neuroscience, but arise in a broad range of natural systems, including earthquakes, magnetic fields, biological extinctions, fluid dynamics, and superconductors. Here, we show that common techniques that estimate this distribution fail to take into account important characteristics of the data and may lead to a sizable misestimation of the slope of power laws. We develop an alternative series of maximum likelihood estimators for discrete, continuous, bounded, and censored data. Using numerical simulations, we show that these estimators lead to accurate evaluations of power-law distributions, improving on common approaches. Next, we apply these estimators to recordings of in vitro rat neocortical activity. We show that different estimators lead to marked discrepancies in the evaluation of power-law distributions. These results call into question a broad range of findings that may misestimate the slope of power laws by failing to take into account key aspects of the observed data.

  8. Learning curves in highly skilled chess players: a test of the generality of the power law of practice.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2014-09-01

    The power law of practice holds that a power function best interrelates skill performance and amount of practice. However, the law's validity and generality are moot. Some researchers argue that it is an artifact of averaging individual exponential curves while others question whether the law generalizes to complex skills and to performance measures other than response time. The present study tested the power law's generality to development over many years of a very complex cognitive skill, chess playing, with 387 skilled participants, most of whom were grandmasters. A power or logarithmic function best fit grouped data but individuals showed much variability. An exponential function usually was the worst fit to individual data. Groups differing in chess talent were compared and a power function best fit the group curve for the more talented players while a quadratic function best fit that for the less talented. After extreme amounts of practice, a logarithmic function best fit grouped data but a quadratic function best fit most individual curves. Individual variability is great and the power law or an exponential law are not the best descriptions of individual chess skill development.

  9. Rationalization of Creep Data of Creep-Resistant Steels on the Basis of the New Power Law Creep Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Yang, M.; Song, X. L.; Jia, J.; Xiang, Z. D.

    2016-07-01

    The conventional power law creep equation (Norton equation) relating the minimum creep rate to creep stress and temperature cannot be used to predict the long-term creep strengths of creep-resistant steels if its parameters are determined only from short-term measurements. This is because the stress exponent and activation energy of creep determined on the basis of this equation depend on creep temperature and stress and these dependences cannot be predicted using this equation. In this work, it is shown that these problems associated with the conventional power law creep equation can be resolved if the new power law equation is used to rationalize the creep data. The new power law creep equation takes a form similar to the conventional power law creep equation but has a radically different capability not only in rationalizing creep data but also in predicting the long-term creep strengths from short-term test data. These capabilities of the new power law creep equation are demonstrated using the tensile strength and creep test data measured for both pipe and tube grades of the creep-resistant steel 9Cr-1.8W-0.5Mo-V-Nb-B (P92 and T92).

  10. Origins of Taylor's power law for fluctuation scaling in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2010-06-01

    Taylor’s fluctuation scaling (FS) has been observed in many natural and man-made systems revealing an amazing universality of the law. Here, we give a reliable explanation for the origins and abundance of Taylor’s FS in different complex systems. The universality of our approach is validated against real world data ranging from bird and insect populations through human chromosomes and traffic intensity in transportation networks to stock market dynamics. Using fundamental principles of statistical physics (both equilibrium and nonequilibrium) we prove that Taylor’s law results from the well-defined number of states of a system characterized by the same value of a macroscopic parameter (i.e., the number of birds observed in a given area, traffic intensity measured as a number of cars passing trough a given observation point or daily activity in the stock market measured in millions of dollars).

  11. Steady thermal explosion with power-law thermal absorptivity in microannuli: wavy-roughness effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotin Kwang-Hua, Chu

    2009-07-01

    We obtain the approximate solutions for the steady temperature profiles of materials with a temperature-dependent thermal absorptivity inside a microannulus with wavy-rough surfaces considering a quasilinear partial differential equation by the boundary perturbation approach. Our numerical results show that the wave number as well as the small amplitude of the wavy roughness will influence the net temperature significantly especially near the inner wall of a microannulus. Meanwhile we observed that the critical Frank-Kamanestkii parameter depends on the small-amplitude wavy-roughness for specific power-law of thermal absorptivity. Our results could be applied to the relevant fields in MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS).

  12. Additivity property and emergence of power laws in nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Das, Arghya; Chatterjee, Sayani; Pradhan, Punyabrata; Mohanty, P K

    2015-11-01

    We show that an equilibriumlike additivity property can remarkably lead to power-law distributions observed frequently in a wide class of out-of-equilibrium systems. The additivity property can determine the full scaling form of the distribution functions and the associated exponents. The asymptotic behavior of these distributions is solely governed by branch-cut singularity in the variance of subsystem mass. To substantiate these claims, we explicitly calculate, using the additivity property, subsystem mass distributions in a wide class of previously studied mass aggregation models as well as in their variants. These results could help in the thermodynamic characterization of nonequilibrium critical phenomena.

  13. Spin-coating process evolution and reproducibility for power-law fluids.

    PubMed

    Jardim, P L G; Michels, A F; Horowitz, F

    2014-03-20

    A distinct development of an exact analytical solution for power-law fluids during the spin-coating process is presented for temporal and spatial thickness evolution, after steady state conditions are attained. This solution leads to the definition of a characteristic time, related to the memory of the initial thickness profile. Previously obtained experimental data, for several rotation speeds and carboxymetilcellulose concentrations in water, are quantitatively analyzed through the evaluation of their characteristic times and compared with theoretical predictions, thus allowing better understanding of thickness profile evolution and of process reproducibility.

  14. Apparent Power Law Scaling of Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Carbonized Polymer Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kang, Hojin; He, Hans; Eklӧf, Johnas; Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Kubatkin, Sergey; Park, Yung Woo

    2016-01-01

    We induce dramatic changes in the structure of conducting polymer nanofibers by carbonization at 800 °C and compare charge transport properties between carbonized and pristine nanofibers. Despite the profound structural differences, both types of systems display power law dependence of current with voltage and temperature, and all measurements can be scaled into a single universal curve. We analyze our experimental data in the framework of variable range hopping and argue that this mechanism can explain transport properties of pristine polymer nanofibers as well. PMID:27886233

  15. Onset of power-law scaling behavior in idiotypic random and scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudino, Elder S.; Lyra, M. L.; Gleria, Iram; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Bertrand, Delvis

    2012-10-01

    We numerically study the dynamics of model immune networks with random and scale-free topologies. We observe that a memory state is reached when the antigen is attached to the most connected sites of the network, whereas a percolation state may occur when the antigen attaches to the less connected sites. For increasing values of the connectivity of the antibody directly binded to the antigen, its population converges exponentially to the asymptotic value of the memory state. On the other hand, the next-nearest populations evolve slowly as power-laws towards the virgin-like state.

  16. Jell-O Optics: Edibly Exploring Snell's Law and Optical Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendryx, Jennifer; Reynolds, Mathias

    2012-03-01

    This presentation details a laboratory exercise and/or demonstration of refraction with an inexpensive, simple set-up: a pan of Jell-O, protractors, and laser pointers. This activity is presented from the perspective of an optical sciences graduate student who has spent the school year team-teaching high school math and physics (through Academic Decathlon). The goal is to present some of the fundamentals of optics with an enjoyable and affordable approach. The concepts include Snell's law, index of refraction, and optical power/focal length as they relate to the curvature of a lens.

  17. Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; Baumbaugh, Al; Chou, Aaron S.; Mazur, Peter O.; Tomlin, Ray; Weltman, Amanda; Wester, William; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    We report results from the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search - a search for chameleon particles created via photon/chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of chameleon power-law models and dark energy models not previously explored. These results exclude five orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of four orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual chameleon models, exclude between 4 and 12 orders of magnitude in chameleon couplings to matter.

  18. Densification forming of alumina powder -- Effects of power law creep and friction

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.S.; Kim, K.T.

    1996-10-01

    High temperature forming processes of alumina powder compacts were analyzed by using constitutive equations which are capable of predicting densification and grain growth under diffusional creep and power law creep. Experimental results for alumina powder compacts were compared with finite element calculations by using the constitutive equations. The effects of friction between alumina powder compact and punches during sinter forging of alumina powder compacts were also investigated. Densification mechanism maps of alumina powder, which can be used for the optimization of various process variables, were constructed under hot pressing and general states of stresses.

  19. Langevin equation for a free particle driven by power law type of noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandev, Trifce; Tomovski, Živorad

    2014-01-01

    We study a generalized Langevin equation for a free particle driven by N internal noises. The mean square displacement and velocity autocorrelation function are derived in case of a mixture of Dirac delta, power law and Mittag-Leffler noises. Additionally, a frictional memory kernel of distributed order is considered. The long time limit and short time limit are analyzed, and the dominant contributions of noises on particle dynamics is discussed. Various different diffusive behaviors (subdiffusion, superdiffusion, normal diffusion, ultraslow diffusion) are obtained. The considered problem may be used in the theory of anomalous diffusion in complex environment.

  20. Transition in the Flow of Power-Law Fluids through Isotropic Porous Media.

    PubMed

    Zami-Pierre, F; de Loubens, R; Quintard, M; Davit, Y

    2016-08-12

    We use computational fluid dynamics to explore the creeping flow of power-law fluids through isotropic porous media. We find that the flow pattern is primarily controlled by the geometry of the porous structure rather than by the nonlinear effects in the rheology of the fluid. We further highlight a macroscale transition between a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian regime, which is the signature of a coupling between the viscosity of the fluid and the structure of the porous medium. These complex features of the flow can be condensed into an effective length scale, which defines both the non-Newtonian transition and the Newtonian permeability.