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Sample records for power line corridor

  1. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  2. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  3. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas. PMID:26565700

  4. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas. PMID:26565700

  5. Mapping threats to power line corridors for Connecticut rights-of-way management.

    PubMed

    Poulos, H M; Camp, A E

    2011-02-01

    Trees are a major threat to power line security across forested regions of the world. We developed a decision support system for identifying locations in Connecticut, USA where trees have grown tall enough to make contact with transmission lines during storms. We used the Random Forest algorithm, danger tree presence/absence data, and 25 raster environmental datasets to develop (1) an understanding of the abiotic environmental settings that host danger trees and (2) a spatially explicit map of danger tree distributions across Connecticut power line corridors. Danger trees were prevalent in locations (1) with an infrequent history of storms; (2) forested and residential land uses; and (3) low to middle elevations. Products from this research can be transferred to adaptive right-of-way management because they present managers with key information on where danger trees are likely to occur, and the methods presented herein have great potential for future application to other regions managers seek to identify high priority areas for danger tree removal.

  6. Reclamation and revegetation along a 250-mile 500 kV power line corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, E.F.

    1990-12-31

    Reclamation and revegetation success along the Montana Power Company Colstrip to Deepdale 500 kV powerline was monitored from 1985 through 1989. Followup revegetation was hampered by inadequate road and tower site earth work as a result of premature release of the reclamation bond. Drought conditions in 1985 and 1988 seriously affected revegetation efforts, especially on difficult sites. Weed control improved markedly, and all ROW areas are weed free except those next to infested range and cropland where a major cooperative effort is needed to control weeds. Access roads in previously unroaded areas resulted in changes of access, management practices, and cattle grazing behavior, all of which adversely affected revegetation success. Erosion, exacerbated by undersized culverts, the presence of very erodible soils, the occasional untrained contractor, is now the major ROW maintenance concern. Observation of the revegetation efforts clearly shows the need for adequate and appropriate reclamation by qualified equipment operators up front, and a patient, measured effort of continued revegetation, weed control and erosion control over the long term. The bond period of 5 years may not be long enough to achieve the 90 percent revegetation success required by the permit. Future projects guidelines should consider look to a flexible timeframe and more realistic vegetation requirements to account for the effects of non-construction related impacts.

  7. Privatization contractor transfer/feed line corridor obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-05-20

    One of the issues that came out of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Interface Control Document (ICD) effort was the need to identify below grade obstructions that exist where the TWRS Privatization Phase 1 transfer/feed corridors pass through the former Grout complex (ICD Issue 9C). Due to the numerous phases of construction at the complex, and the lack of consolidated facility configuration drawings, as-built (or as-recorded) information on the area is difficult to find, let alone decipher. To resolve the issue, this study was commissioned to identify and consolidate the as-recorded information available (drawings and Engineering Change Notices, ECNS).

  8. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  9. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  10. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  11. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  12. Metro Rail Red Line MOS-2 corridor land-use analysis and joint-development potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, I.N.

    1992-04-17

    Land use patterns and opportunities to reshape land use intensities in areas surrounding the nine transit stations in the Minimum Operating Segment, Phase 2 (MOS-2) of the Metro Red Line Rail Transit Project was studied. The primary objective of the study was to identify sites where private investment is likely to occur once the transit system is operational and to identify the scope of public policy intervention necessary to encourage transit usage and to reduce automobile dependence in the transit corridor.

  13. Citizens protest high power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.

    1980-04-01

    Survey report:Following an extensive public hearing in New York State concerning the health effects and safety of high voltage power lines, negotiations to establish a research program on the biological effects of the power lines' 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields have been concluded. The aim will be to determine the potential health risks to people who live and work along high voltage rights-of-way. The $5,000,000 program will be designed and administered by three New York State agencies: the Public Service Commission, the Dept. of Health, and the Power Authority. (3 photos)

  14. Engineering analysis of electrical effects for the COTP 500KV transmission line and EBMUD aqueduct corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, O.C.; Bell, G.K.; Ma, J.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to determine AC electrical interference effects arising in the East Bay Municipal Utility District`s (EBMUD) Mokelumne Aqueducts due to their proximity to the Olinda-Tracy 500 kilovolt (kV) transmission line operated by the Western Area Power Administration (WESTERN). A six-wire gradient control wire mitigation system selected by EBMUD was modeled and evaluated. The study shows that the mitigation system performs satisfactorily under all conditions examined. During steady state conditions, touch voltages are maintained below 15 volts throughout the entire length of the three aqueducts. During fault conditions, touch voltages are maintained below 263 volts, the design limit calculated according to ANSI/IEEE Standard 80. The currents flowing through the isolator/surge protectors do not exceed the ratings of these devices, during steady state and fault conditions.

  15. Prediction of corridor effect from the launching of the satellite power system. [air pollutant concentration into narrow band of latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Whitten, R. C.; Woodward, H. T.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A diagnostic model is developed to define the parameters which control the corridor effect of contaminants deposited in a narrow latitudinal band of the earth's atmosphere by numerous launches of the STS and heavy lift launch vehicles for construction of satellite solar power systems. Identified factors included the pollution injection rate, the ambient background levels of the pollutant species, and the transport properties related to the dilution rate of the chemicals. If the chemical life of the pollutant was shorter or the same length of time as the transport time, alterations in the chemical production and loss rates were found to be parameters necessarily added to the model. A comparison with NASA Ames Research Center two-dimensional model results indicate that the corridor effect was possile with operations above 60 km in the case of H2O, H2, and NO production.

  16. 78 FR 32165 - Broadband Over Power Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 15 Broadband Over Power Lines AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Power Line (Access BPL) systems. The Commission concludes that its previous decisions in this proceeding... relating to Access Broadband over Power Line (Access BPL) systems. The Commission concludes that...

  17. Ames Lab 101: Next Generation Power Lines

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Alan

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Alan Russell discusses the need to develop new power lines that are stronger and more conductive as a way to address the problem of the nation's aging and inadequate power grid.

  18. 24. View looking north up corridor from Charles Street Bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View looking north up corridor from Charles Street Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-221) Project #: V-O-04/10 - Paul-Allston No 1 and 2 - 500 kV Transmission Line Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Elaine S.

    2004-07-26

    The project activities will be conducted along the Right-of-Way (ROW) of the Paul-Allston No 1 and 2 - 500 kV transmission line corridor between towers 45/4 and the Allston substation. This corridor includes portions of the Longview-Allston No 1 and 2 and the Longview-Allston No 3 and 4 - 230 kV transmission lines. The corridor along this section of the proposed project varies between 125 and 150 feet in width and crosses approximately 4 miles of terrain from Longview, Washington crossing the Columbia River and passing through rural forestland and pasture lands to the Allston Substation in Oregon. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, along access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor that may impede the operation and maintenance of the identified transmission lines. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  20. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  1. Automatic 3D power line reconstruction of multi-angular imaging power line inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wuming; Yan, Guangjian; Wang, Ning; Li, Qiaozhi; Zhao, Wei

    2007-06-01

    We develop a multi-angular imaging power line inspection system. Its main objective is to monitor the relative distance between high voltage power line and around objects, and alert if the warning threshold is exceeded. Our multi-angular imaging power line inspection system generates DSM of the power line passage, which comprises ground surface and ground objects, for example trees and houses, etc. For the purpose of revealing the dangerous regions, where ground objects are too close to the power line, 3D power line information should be extracted at the same time. In order to improve the automation level of extraction, reduce labour costs and human errors, an automatic 3D power line reconstruction method is proposed and implemented. It can be achieved by using epipolar constraint and prior knowledge of pole tower's height. After that, the proper 3D power line information can be obtained by space intersection using found homologous projections. The flight experiment result shows that the proposed method can successfully reconstruct 3D power line, and the measurement accuracy of the relative distance satisfies the user requirement of 0.5m.

  2. Circuit for Communication Over Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Normal F.; Greer, Lawrence C., III; Nappier, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many distributed systems share common sensors and instruments along with a common power line supplying current to the system. A communication technique and circuit has been developed that allows for the simple inclusion of an instrument, sensor, or actuator node within any system containing a common power bus. Wherever power is available, a node can be added, which can then draw power for itself, its associated sensors, and actuators from the power bus all while communicating with other nodes on the power bus. The technique modulates a DC power bus through capacitive coupling using on-off keying (OOK), and receives and demodulates the signal from the DC power bus through the same capacitive coupling. The circuit acts as serial modem for the physical power line communication. The circuit and technique can be made of commercially available components or included in an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design, which allows for the circuit to be included in current designs with additional circuitry or embedded into new designs. This device and technique moves computational, sensing, and actuation abilities closer to the source, and allows for the networking of multiple similar nodes to each other and to a central processor. This technique also allows for reconfigurable systems by adding or removing nodes at any time. It can do so using nothing more than the in situ power wiring of the system.

  3. Power lines and the geomagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Liboff, A.R.; McLeod, B.R.

    1995-09-01

    The metric of prime interest in power line epidemiological studies has been AC magnetic intensity. To consider also possible geomagnetic involvement, the orientation of a long straight power line is examined relative to a uniform geomagnetic field (GMF) with dip angle {alpha}. An expression is derived for the component of the total GMF that is parallel, at an elevation {beta}, to the circular magnetic field that surrounds the line. This component is a function of the angles {alpha} and {beta}, the total geomagnetic intensity B{sub T}, and the angle {theta} between the axis of the power line and magnetic north. Plotting these geomagnetic parameters for known leukemia residences allows one to test for possible ion cyclotron resonance or other GMF interactions. This approach, in principle, is an easy addition to existing or planned studies, because residential access is not required to obtain local values for {alpha}, {beta}, {theta}, and B{sub T}. The authors recommend including these parameters in the design of epidemiological studies examining power line fields and childhood leukemia.

  4. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  5. Generation mechanism of power line harmonic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrov, Alexander; Gushchin, Mikhail; Korobkov, Sergei

    The questions concerning the generation of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) and magne-tospheric line radiation (MLR) are discussed, including the effective source of high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and fine dynamic structure of the frequency spectrum of PLHR and MLR. It is shown, that thyristor-based power regulators used by large electrical power consumers produce the periodic sequences of current pulses with duration of about 10 microseconds in a power line. The repetition rate of these pulses is typically 100/120 Hz; the bandwidth is as broad as 100 kHz. For high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, the power line represents an effective traveling-wave (or Beverage) antenna, especially in a frequency range of several kHz corresponding to VLF whistler band in Earth ionosphere and magnetosphere. For the fixed length of the power line, which acts as antenna, radiation directivity diagram in relation to horizon depends of frequency. Hence the spatial separation of whistlers emitted at various frequencies (1-10 kHz in a consid-ered case) is possible, with subsequent propagation of whistlers with different frequencies along different L-shells. Estimations show that the efficiency of power line as travelling-wave antenna can be changed by variations of its load, but not more than twice ("weekend effect"). Since the PLHR can represent the sequence of short electromagnetic bursts, then careful se-lection of frequency-time resolution of the data acquisition equipment is needed. Typically, the time constant of the data recording and processing is too large, and the spectra of PLHR or MLR are characterized by a well-known line structure. At the same time, original bursty structure of PLHR can not be defined. Fine structure of MLR is also discussed. Frequency drift of MLR can be explained by the perturbations of the magnetospheric plasma by intense ULF waves and particle flows affecting the propagation of PLHR. Hence the physical nature of PLHR and MLR is the same, excepting the

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1411 - Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines with no load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution). ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1411 Power line safety—while traveling under or...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1411 - Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines with no load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution). ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1411 Power line safety—while traveling under or...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1411 - Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines with no load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution). ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1411 Power line safety—while traveling under or...

  9. U. H. F. Power Transistors and Lecher Line Oscillators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of transistors instead of valves for Lecher line and radiation demonstrations. Two oscillator circuits which provide power for Lecher line use are described. Impedance of Lecher line is also discussed. (HM)

  10. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, Lawrence C., III (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  11. Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of Power Line Transmission Parameters for Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, P.; Misurec, J.; Koutny, M.; Fujdiak, R.; Jedlicka, T.

    2015-04-01

    The article describes a way of evaluating the power line channel frequency response and input impedance by means of the linear time-invariant (LTI) power line generator. Two possible methods are introduced for the calculation of primary parameters: the first method depends on the physical realization and physical dimension of the cable, and the second method is derived from the data provided by typical electrical cable manufacturers. Based on these methods, a comparison of transfer functions was made. This is followed by measurement evaluation and numerical verification on a simple topology

  12. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  13. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  14. General view looking SE at corridor and Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking SE at corridor and Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 93.23. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Automatic Railway Power Line Extraction Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Zhuang; Chen, Yiping; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis) combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  16. 13. I95 bridge crossing corridor with Providence Station in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. I-95 bridge crossing corridor with Providence Station in background. Providence, Providence County, RI. sec. 4116, mp 185.15. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  17. 2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ITS WAY TOWARD THE CEMENT MILL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, November 19, 1907 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  18. Coupling an induction motor type generator to ac power lines. [making windmill generators compatible with public power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for coupling an induction motor type generator to an A.C. power line includes an electronic switch means that is controlled by a control system and is regulated to turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation. The energizing power supplied by the line to the induction motor type generator is decreased and the net power delivered to the line is increased.

  19. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  20. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  1. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  2. The system of power on line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Zhen; Yang, Xu; Chen, Qiu Fu

    2004-04-01

    As the digital network is expanding so quickly, many applications are widely used in the social living, especially wireless LAN and IP telephone. The DTE(Data Terminal Equipment) based on Ethernet are also used in many place, these equipments have low power cost, but commonly they have very high requirements in stability and reliability of power supply. This article brings forward a system solution project of long-distance centralize power supply, which can be controlled by network, according to the 802.3af standard. And also presents the key technology in this solution.

  3. Power Line Integrity Monitor and Repeater

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, John

    2005-09-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a power system integrity monitor and repeater that provide real time status of the integrity of the physical structure of power poles and transmission towers. It may be applied to other structures, such as pipelines or cell towers, which have multiple segments that can cover hundreds of miles. Sensors and on-board processing provide indication of tampering or impending damage to the structure with information provided to the central operations center or supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) for mitigative actions. This software runs on a series of small, inexpensive, low power electronic sensor platforms that are mounted on each tower of an electric power transmission or distribution system for the purpose of communicating system integrity to a central location. The software allows each platform to: 1) interface with sensors that monitor tower integrity, 2) record and analyze events, 3) communicate sensor information to other sensor platforms located on adjacent towers or to a central monitoring location, and 4) derive, conserve, and store platform power from the transmission of electric power.

  4. Power Line Integrity Monitor and Repeater

    2005-09-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a power system integrity monitor and repeater that provide real time status of the integrity of the physical structure of power poles and transmission towers. It may be applied to other structures, such as pipelines or cell towers, which have multiple segments that can cover hundreds of miles. Sensors and on-board processing provide indication of tampering or impending damage to the structure with information provided to the centralmore » operations center or supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) for mitigative actions. This software runs on a series of small, inexpensive, low power electronic sensor platforms that are mounted on each tower of an electric power transmission or distribution system for the purpose of communicating system integrity to a central location. The software allows each platform to: 1) interface with sensors that monitor tower integrity, 2) record and analyze events, 3) communicate sensor information to other sensor platforms located on adjacent towers or to a central monitoring location, and 4) derive, conserve, and store platform power from the transmission of electric power.« less

  5. Extraction of power lines from mobile laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Qing; Li, Jonathan; Wen, Chenglu; Huang, Pengdi

    2016-03-01

    Modern urban life is becoming increasingly more dependent on reliable electric power supply. Since power outages cause substantial financial losses to producers, distributors and consumers of electric power, it is in the common interest to minimize failures of power lines. In order to detect defects as early as possible and to plan efficiently the maintenance activities, distribution networks are regularly inspected. Carrying out foot patrols or climbing the structures to visually inspect transmission lines and aerial surveys (e.g., digital imaging or most recent airborne laser scanning (ALS) are the two most commonly used methods of power line inspection. Although much faster in comparison to the foot patrol inspection, aerial inspection is more expensive and usually less accurate, in complex urban areas particularly. This paper presents a scientific work that is done in the use of mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds for automated extraction of power lines. In the proposed method, 2D power lines are extracted using Hough transform in the projected XOY plane and the 3D power line points are visualized after the point searching. Filtering based on an elevation threshold is applied, which is combined with the vehicle's trajectory in the horizontal section.

  6. Wireless power transfer and fault diagnosis of high-voltage power line via robotic bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Zhang, Zhen; Qiu, Chun; Li, Wenlong; Ching, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new idea of wireless power transfer (WPT) and fault diagnosis (FD) of high-voltage power line via robotic bird. The key is to present the conceptual robotic bird with WPT coupling coil for detecting and capturing the energy from the high-voltage power line. If the power line works in normal condition, the robotic bird is able to stand on the power line and extract energy from it. If fault occurs on the power line, the corresponding magnetic field distribution will become different from that in the normal situation. By analyzing the magnetic field distribution of the power line, the WPT to the robotic bird and the FD by the robotic bird are performed and verified.

  7. Accelerator power concepts using isolated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1981-05-01

    This report outlines the rationale and the advantages of using multiple transmission-line sections isolated by transit time and inductance in accelerating high-current (approx. = 10 -kA), short-pulse (less than or equal to 100-ns) particle beams to the multimegavolt level. The main advantages of this system include reducing the number of output switches required per output pulse by nearly an order of magnitude over conventional systems and increasing the system capability for repetition-rate operation. The isolated transmission-line concept is developed, and possible modes of operation are outlined. In addition, a point design of a 10-kA short-pulse accelerator is presented.

  8. Integrating Residential Photovoltaics With Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report finds rooftop solar-cell arrays feed excess power to electric-utility grid for fee are potentially attractive large-scale application of photovoltaic technology. Presents assessment of breakeven costs of these arrays under variety of technological and economic assumptions.

  9. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Phil

    1994-05-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  10. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  11. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  12. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  13. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  14. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  15. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the frequency band 9 kHz to 490 kHz. A power line carrier system shall operate on an unprotected,...

  16. 29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Living and Working Safely Around High-Voltage Power Lines.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2001-06-01

    High-voltage transmission lines can be just as safe as the electrical wiring in the homes--or just as dangerous. The crucial factor is ourselves: they must learn to behave safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live and work around power lines. It deals primarily with nuisance shocks due to induced voltages, and with potential electric shock hazards from contact with high-voltage lines. References on possible long-term biological effects of transmission lines are shown. In preparing this booklet, the Bonneville Power Administration has drawn on more than 50 years of experience with high-voltage transmission. BPA operates one of the world`s largest networks of long-distance, high-voltage lines. This system has more than 400 substations and about 15,000 miles of transmission lines, almost 4,400 miles of which are operated at 500,000 volts.

  18. Five Mass Power Transmission Line of a Ship Computer Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff; Marinov, Boycho Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    The work, presented in this paper, appears to be a natural continuation of the work presented and reported before, on the design of power transmission line of a ship, but with different multi-mass model. Some data from the previous investigations are used as a reference data, mainly from the analytical investigations, for the developed in the previ- ous study, frequency and modal analysis of a five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship. In the paper, a profound dynamic analysis of a concrete five mass dynamic model of the power transmission line of a ship is performed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), based on the previously recommended model, investigated in the previous research and reported before. Thus, the partially validated by frequency analysis five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship is subjected to dynamic analysis. The objective of the work presented in this paper is dynamic modelling of a five mass transmission line of a ship, partial validation of the model and von Mises stress analysis calculation with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and comparison of the derived results with the analytically calculated values. The partially validated five mass power transmission line of a ship can be used for definition of many dy- namic parameters, particularly amplitude of displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively in time and frequency domain. The frequency behaviour of the model parameters is investigated in frequency domain and it corresponds to the predicted one.

  19. Energy harvesting from electric power lines employing the Halbach arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Zhang, Jitao; Lu, Caijiang; Yang, Aichao

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes non-invasive energy harvesters to scavenge alternating magnetic field energy from electric power lines. The core body of a non-invasive energy harvester is a linear Halbach array, which is mounted on the free end of a piezoelectric cantilever beam. The Halbach array augments the magnetic flux density on the side of the array where the power line is placed and significantly lowers the magnetic field on the other side. Consequently, the magnetic coupling strength is enhanced and more alternating magnetic field energy from the current-carrying power line is converted into electrical energy. An analytical model is developed and the theoretical results verify the experimental results. A power of 566 μW across a 196 kΩ resistor is generated from a single wire, and a power of 897 μW across a 212 kΩ resistor is produced from a two-wire power cord carrying opposite currents at 10 A. The harvesters employing Halbach arrays for a single wire and a two-wire power cord, respectively, exhibit 3.9 and 3.2 times higher power densities than those of the harvesters employing conventional layouts of magnets. The proposed devices with strong response to the alternating currents are promising to be applied to electricity end-use environment in electric power systems. PMID:24182155

  20. Signal pulses superimposed on power supply lines improve electrical control

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    To manipulate or monitor the operation of cranes and hoists, control engineers typically create control schemes that add numerous conductors, festoon systems, bulky dedicated conductor rails, radio and infrared controls. With modern power line communication equipment, power and intelligence can be combined to: add an unlimited number of control circuits without adding a single wire; have data communication without special cables; and eliminate bulky festoon systems and heavy cable track. Available from US Safety Trolley Corp., a SmartRail system superimposes data and control information on the power line to create a fully functional Local Area Network (LAN). The system network is based on the CEBus protocol EIA/IS-60 and uses a spread spectrum power line carrier technology. The heart of this system is the controller which manages all communication and control tasks. A power line coupling circuit couples the data signal from the controller to the a-c power conductors. These power conductors are often TRI-BAR/FOUR-BAR continuous conductor bar systems or existing conductor bar systems. The combination results in a secure data communications and control system for moving equipment.

  1. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Tarao, Hiroo; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Elovaara, Jarmo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements.

  2. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Mui, Ming

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  3. Corridor use by diverse taxa.

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Nick, M.; Browne, David, R.; Cunningham, Alan; Danielson, Brent, J.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Sargent, Sarah; Spira, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Haddad, N.M., D.R. Browne, A. Cunningham, B.J. Danielson, D.J. Levey, S. Sargent, and T. Spira. 2003. Corridor use by diverse taxa. Ecology, 84(3):609-615. One of the most popular approaches for maintaining populations and conserving biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is to retain or create corridors that connect otherwise isolated habitat patches. Working in large-scale, experimental landscapes in which open-habitat patches and corridors were created by harvesting pine forest, we showed that corridors direct movements of different types of species, including butterflies, small mammals, and bird dispersed plants, causing higher movement between connected than between unconnected patches. Corridors directed the movement of all 10 species studied, with all corridor effect sizes >68%. However, this corridor effect was significant for five species, not significant for one species, and inconclusive for four species because of small sample sizes. Although we found no evidence that corridors increase emigration from a patch, our results show that movements of disparate taxa with broadly different life histories and functional roles are directed by corridors.

  4. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  5. Development of on-line laser power monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Li, Kuan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Since the laser was invented, laser has been applied in many fields such as material processing, communication, measurement, biomedical engineering, defense industries and etc. Laser power is an important parameter in laser material processing, i.e. laser cutting, and laser drilling. However, the laser power is easily affected by the environment temperature, we tend to monitor the laser power status, ensuring there is an effective material processing. Besides, the response time of current laser power meters is too long, they cannot measure laser power accurately in a short time. To be more precisely, we can know the status of laser power and help us to achieve an effective material processing at the same time. To monitor the laser power, this study utilize a CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) camera to develop an on-line laser power monitoring system. The CMOS camera captures images of incident laser beam after it is split and attenuated by beam splitter and neutral density filter. By comparing the average brightness of the beam spots and measurement results from laser power meter, laser power can be estimated. Under continuous measuring mode, the average measuring error is about 3%, and the response time is at least 3.6 second shorter than thermopile power meters; under trigger measuring mode which enables the CMOS camera to synchronize with intermittent laser output, the average measuring error is less than 3%, and the shortest response time is 20 millisecond.

  6. 24. Interior view of entrance corridor looking down east corridor; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Interior view of entrance corridor looking down east corridor; showing unoccupied corner office space and stairs going down to lower floor; center of main section of building on main floor; view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Group Administration & Secure Storage Building, 2372 Westover Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  7. Low-power digital communication with unterminated transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, Michael; Sieber, Richard W.; Moolenbeek, Rob

    1988-06-01

    Conventional telecommunication techniques are optimized to communicate over long distances (greater than 1 mi), subject to high attenuation, high crosstalk, and other deteriorations in transmission. A trend in telecommunication system architectures is to disperse the previously centralized switching centers, thereby providing switching within a few hundred feet of the subscriber. This creates an opportunity for great improvements in cost and performance for short distance communication links. A technique for low-power digital communication over short transmission lines that exploits this possibility is described. The typical power is more than an order of magnitude lower than the power required with conventional circuits. Associated with this technique are a tenfold reduction in the chip area occupied by the transmission line drivers and the elimination of coupling transformers. The power and chip-area reductions result from terminating the line at the transmitter and maintaining an open circuit at the receiver. These advantages make this line-driving technique particularly suitable for single-chip VLSI systems.

  8. Fracture corridors in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelée, Sébastien; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.

    2015-04-01

    Among fractures, Fracture Corridors (FC) are anomalous structures made of highly persistent fracture clusters having a strong effect on multi-phase fluid flow in the subsurface. While mechanical and geological conditions for diffuse fracture systems are well constrained, FC genetic conditions remain a matter of questioning. FC can be localized in larger structures such as folds and fault zones but recent studies suggest that a large amount of fractures and FC also arise as distributed in the host rock and formed in tabular layers during burial with early rock mechanical differentiation. In addition, while the mechanical stratigraphy is of prime importance for fracture stratigraphy, it is still unknown which factor prevails on FC genesis among the local versus regional stress-state, the host rock mechanical stratigraphy or the sedimentary facies. We present a study of fractures in a 400×300 m wide quarry (Calvisson, SE France) dug in homogeneous marly limestones of Hauterivian age. The quarry exhibits diffuse fractures as well as 16 FC. The aim of this study is to reveal the genetics factor for FC development, their global geometry and internal morphologic variations, but also to clear the impact of fracture corridors on diffuse fracture. For that, we measured >2500 fractures (strike, dip, spacing, filling, aperture, etc.) and studied microstructures in 80 thin sections. We calculated fracture density and acquired LiDAR data with >90 million points with a resolution of 4 to 15mm. Diffuse fractures are organized as two perpendicular sets, a main set NE-SW-trending and minor set NW-SE-trending. The FC have the same trend, but the NW-SE trend prevail on the NE-SW one. The LiDAR acquisition allows to visualize the 3D lateral continuity with corridors with a minimal extension of 30m. We distinguish 4 internal morphologic types in FC, depending on fracture morphology, occurrence of breccia and number of zones. The types may occur in a single FC with a lateral transition

  9. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  10. Power line carrier interference from HVDC converter terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Tatro, P.J.; Adamson, K.A. ); Eitzmann, M.A.; Smead, M. . Power Systems Engineering Dept.)

    1993-07-01

    Power line carrier (PLC) equipment typically operates in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 300 kHz. Interference studies for HVDC converters usually concentrate on interference from noise sources within this frequency range. However, operating experience at the Sandy Pond converter terminal has indicated that PLC equipment is also susceptible to interference from sources of power system harmonics below the PLC frequency range. Extensive field testing and analytical studies have shown that each PLC circuit has a resonant frequency below the operating frequency. If excited at this resonant frequency, high voltages may exist within the PLC circuit. The resulting saturation of PLC components leads to local generation of radio frequency (RF) noise that interferes with proper operation of PLC circuits. Sources of power system harmonics in the 3-10 kHz range, such as line commutated dc converters, are potential sources of this type of interference.

  11. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths. PMID:24573710

  12. Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, May 1992-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Feero, W.E.; Papas, P.N.; Steiner, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system, and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 1 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

  13. Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, May 1993-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Robertson, D.C.; Steiner, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 2 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

  14. Raptor electrocution on power lines: Current issues and outlook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Electrocution on power lines is one of many human-caused mortality factors that affect raptors. Cost-effective and relatively simple raptor-safe standards for power line modification and construction have been available for over 25 years. During the 1970s and early 1980s, electric industry efforts to reduce raptor electrocutions were very coordinated and proactive, but predictions about resolving the problem were overly optimistic. Today, raptors continue to be electrocuted, possibly in large numbers. The electrocution problem has not been resolved, partly because of the sheer number of potentially lethal power poles in use and partly because electrocution risks may be more pervasive and sometimes less conspicuous than once believed. Also, responses to the problem by individual utilities have not been uniform, and deregulation of the electric industry during the 1990s may have deflected attention from electrocution issues. To control raptor electrocutions in the future, the industry must increase information sharing and technology transfer, increase efforts to retrofit lethal power poles, and above all ensure that every new and replacement line constructed incorporates raptor-safe standards at all phases of development. Finally, responsibility for the electrocution problem must be shared. Federal, state, and local governments, academic institutions, the conservation community, and the consumer all can play critical roles in an effort that will, by necessity, extend well into the new century.

  15. Power Line Carrier Techniques Applied to Spacecraft Data Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedu, J.-Y.; Morisse, J.; Auvergne, X.; Plancke, P.

    Power Line Carrier (PLC) data transmission coupled with spread spectrum technique is evaluated for onboard satellite purpose. Power Line Carrier present a great advantage in terms of mass saving and integration cost by suppressing the data bus harness. Spread Spectrum techniques allows data transmission inside the power supply noise. This paper will address the major functionality keys of this transmission method and will define the main trades off to conduct. INTRODUCTION A major trend for the next satellite generation stands in the increase of the equipment unit's quantity, of their complexity and of their communication needs. A first approach to reduce the number of links and also the overall mass stands in multiplexing Acq/Ctr on data bus. ALCATEL SPACE with its so-called new avionics 4000 has made a significant step with an intensive use of the data bus : round 140 units on its proprietary OBDH-485 bus and round 10 units on the MIL-STD-1553 data bus for Telecom Geostationnary satellite class. According to this state of the art, the following step is the suppression of the data bus harness by means of Wireless or Power Line Carrier (PLC) techniques that has been identified as a development axis. Many PLC components are available for domestic/industry applications. Nevertheless, transmission levels, operating frequencies, radiation hardening performances of these parts are usually not compatible with space environment constraints. 2/12

  16. 40Ar/39Ar dating of basaltic dykes swarm in Western Cameroon: Evidence of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic magmatism in the corridor of the Cameroon Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Simeni Wambo, Nicole Armelle; Kagou Dongmo, Armand; Li, Xian-Hua

    2014-05-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages of three basalt dykes that intrude the Precambrian basement in the southern continental part of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line are presented. Specimen were sampled at Dschang, Maham and Kendem (Cameroon). The ages obtained are 421.3 ± 3.5 Ma (Dschang), 404.22 ± 3.51 Ma (Maham), and 192.10 ± 7.45 Ma (Kendem). The Dschang and Maham samples yield a relatively undisturbed spectrum while the Kendem sample shows an excess of argon but with plateau ages in the frame of the Mesozoic. Plateau ages at Dschang, Maham and Kendem represent more than 80% of the total 39Ar released and are interpreted as emplacement ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating results confirm Devonian and Jurassic K/Ar ages obtained from similar dykes of the same region. Geochemically, the basalt dykes are subalkaline in composition with 45-50 wt.% SiO2. Incompatible trace elements and rare earth elements are lower than that of the Cameroon Line basalts. Overall geochemical characteristics of the basalt dykes much more closely resemble those of tholeiites of the Benue Through in Nigeria that are interpreted as related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The combination of 40Ar/39Ar ages, major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry data demonstrate a magmatic phase that is significantly older and different of that of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line and younger than the dominantly granitic Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the region. These findings offer new clues for a better understanding of the tectonic history of the region, particularly the origin of the Cameroon Line and Africa-South America pre-drift reconstitutions.

  17. Estimating Magnetic Fields of Homes Near Transmission Lines in the California Power Line Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Ximena P.; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M.; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J. Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-01-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk. PMID:26005950

  18. HIGH FREQUENCY POWER TRANSMISSION LINE FOR CYCLOTRONS AND THE LIKE

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, W.J.

    1954-04-20

    High-frequency power transmission systems, particularly a stacked capacitance alternating power current transmission line wherein maximum utilization of the effective conductios skin of the line conductors is achieved while enabling a low impedance to be obtained are reported. The transmission line consists of a number of flat metal strips with interleaved dielectric strips. The metal dielectric strips are coiled spirally with the axis of the spiral extending along the length of the strips, and the alternating metal strips at the output end have outwardly extending aligned lugs which are directly strapped together and connected to the respective terminals on the load. At the input end of the transmission line, similarly, the alternate metal strips are directly strapped together and connected to an altereating current source. With the arrangement described each metal strip conducts on both sides, so that the metal strips are designed to have a thickness corresponding to twice the depth of the "skin effect" conducting lamina of each conductor at the source frequency.

  19. Power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NěMec, F.; SantolíK, O.; Parrot, M.; Berthelier, J. J.

    2006-04-01

    Results of a systematic survey of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) observed by a recently (June 2004) launched French spacecraft DEMETER are presented. In order to obtain a statistically significant number of events, an automatic identification procedure has been developed and all the available high-resolution data have been processed. Altogether, 58 events have been found in 865 hours of data recorded during the first year of operation. These events form three different classes: with frequency spacing of spectral lines of 50/100 Hz (10 events), with frequency spacing of 60/120 Hz (13 events), with other spacings/not clear cases (35 events). The first two classes of events are discussed in detail, showing that their origin is most probably connected with the radiation from the electric power systems which are magnetically conjugated with the place of observation. Additionally, in more than one half of the cases, the frequencies of PLHR lines well corresponded to the multiples of the power system frequency. The frequency drift of all the observed events was very slow, if observable. The events occurred without any significant preference for low or high geomagnetic activity, although more intense events were observed during disturbed times. Simultaneous observations of electric and magnetic components of PLHR suggest that the waves propagate in the electromagnetic right-hand polarized whistler mode.

  20. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  1. Investigation into the Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients on Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, K.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage ratings needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations. and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  2. Investigation Into The Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients On Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, Ken

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage rating needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  3. Predicting ice accretion and alleviating galloping on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingliang

    2002-04-01

    Both the static and dynamic effects of an ice storm on an overhead power line are investigated fairly comprehensively in this thesis. To determine the static, extreme ice load as well as the combined ice and wind load, a systematic procedure is established based on extensive freezing rain experiments and a Monte Carlo simulation. On the other hand, a dynamic effect---galloping---is examined quite extensively with the objective of better understanding its behavior. A novel add-on device---the hybrid nutation damper (HND)---is proposed to control galloping. Its effectiveness is assessed numerically by using a modified, 3DOF based, galloping software. The present investigations lead to the following findings. (i) Goodwin's simple theoretical model surprisingly predicts, quite accurately, the temporally changing weight of not only a dry ice growth but also a wet ice growth for a fixed, unheated conductor sample. (ii) The maximum ice loading may vary significantly over a power line's planned lifetime because of the randomness of an ice storm and its characteristics as well as the uncertainty involved in identifying the extreme probability distribution of the ice loading. Consequently, backup protection is presently essential for a power line in an ice prone area. (iii) A conductor's torsional flexibility does not appear to affect the growth of the accreted ice weight but it modifies the ice shape significantly. (iv) Three representative ice shapes (a crescent, D-like and icicle pendant) can initiate galloping so that galloping may occur in any icing condition. (v) A noticeable swingback or twist appears to develop only when their respective natural frequencies coincide with the plunge's natural frequency. (vi) A hydraulic jump is the major source of energy dissipation in a nutation damper. A properly induced rotation can significantly enhance a nutation damper's performance. (vii) A hybrid nutation damper has been demonstrated to be a promising means of alleviating

  4. PCF based high power narrow line width pulsed fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Yan, P.; Xiao, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gong, M.

    2012-09-01

    Based on semiconductor diode seeded multi-stage cascaded fiber amplifiers, we have obtained 88-W average power of a 1063-nm laser with high repetition rate of up to 1.5 MHz and a constant 2-ns pulse duration. No stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse or optical damage occurred although the maximum pulse peak power has exceeded 112 kW. The output laser exhibits excellent beam quality (M2x = 1.24 and M2y = 1.18), associated with a spectral line width as narrow as 0.065 nm (FWHM). Additionally, we demonstrate high polarization extinction ratio of 18.4 dB and good pulse stabilities superior to 1.6 % (RMS).

  5. Power line field sensing to support autonomous navigation of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

    2013-06-01

    Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.

  6. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    analyze the proposed energy corridors in the WECC report in five topic areas: Federal land jurisdiction, Existing Section 368 corridors, Existing transmission lines, Previously studied corridor locations, and Protected areas. Analysis methods are explained and tables and maps are provided to describe the results of the analyses in all five topic areas. WECC used a rational approach to connecting the hubs it identified, although there may be opportunities for adapting some of the proposed WECC routes to previously designated Section 368 corridors, for example: The WECC proposed energy corridors are in fact centerlines of proposed routes connecting hubs of various descriptions related to electric energy transmission. Although the centerlines were sited to avoid sensitive areas, infrastructure proposed within actual pathways or corridors defined by the centerlines would sometimes affect lands where such development would not normally be allowed, such as National Parks and Monuments, National Wildlife Refuges, and Wilderness Areas. Many WECC proposed energy corridors are sited along centerlines of existing roads, including Interstate Highways, where in some cases additional width to accommodate energy transmission infrastructure may not be available. Examples include the WECC Proposed Corridor along Interstate 70 through Glenwood Canyon in Colorado, and along U.S. Highway 89 across Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. Several WECC proposed energy corridors are parallel to designated Section 368 corridors that have already cleared the preliminary steps to right-of-way approval. In many of these cases, the WECC hub connection objectives can be met more efficiently by routing on the designated Section 368 corridors.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1409 - Power line safety (over 350 kV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power line safety (over 350 kV). 1926.1409 Section 1926... Construction § 1926.1409 Power line safety (over 350 kV). The requirements of § 1926.1407 and § 1926.1408 apply to power lines over 350 kV except: (a) For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1409 - Power line safety (over 350 kV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety (over 350 kV). 1926.1409 Section 1926... Construction § 1926.1409 Power line safety (over 350 kV). The requirements of § 1926.1407 and § 1926.1408 apply to power lines over 350 kV except: (a) For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1409 - Power line safety (over 350 kV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power line safety (over 350 kV). 1926.1409 Section 1926... Construction § 1926.1409 Power line safety (over 350 kV). The requirements of § 1926.1407 and § 1926.1408 apply to power lines over 350 kV except: (a) For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1409 - Power line safety (over 350 kV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety (over 350 kV). 1926.1409 Section 1926... Construction § 1926.1409 Power line safety (over 350 kV). The requirements of § 1926.1407 and § 1926.1408 apply to power lines over 350 kV except: (a) For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance...

  11. Research of on-line detection system for power capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junda; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    The hidden danger exists in the power capacitor of power system due to long-time operation under the environment of high voltage. Thus, it is possible to induce serious fault, and the on-line detection system is urgently required. In this paper, two methods of the on-line detection system are compared in order to realize the better real-time condition detection. The first method is based on the STM microprocessor with an internal 12 bit A/D converter, which converts analog signals which is arrived from the sample circuit into digital signals, and then the FFT algorithm is used to accomplish the measurement of the voltage and current values of the capacitor. The second method is based on the special electric energy metering IC, which can obtain RMS (Root Mean Square) of voltage and current by processing the sampled data of the voltage and current, and store RMS of voltage and current in its certain registers. The operating condition of the capacitor can be obtained after getting the values of voltage and current. By comparing the measuring results of two methods, the second method could achieve a higher measurement accuracy and more simple construction.

  12. A Line Weighted Frequency Droop Controller for Decentralized Enforcement of Transmission Line Power Flow Constraints in Inverter-Based Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Nathan G; Grijalva, Prof. Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Recent works have shown that networks of voltagesource inverters implementing frequency droop control may be analyzed as consensus-like networks. Based on this understanding, we show that enforcement of network line power flows can be viewed as an edge-preservation problem in a -disk dynamic interaction graph. Inspired by other works solving similar problems in other domains, we propose a line weighted frequency droop controller such that a network of all active buses implementing this controller enforces the specified line power flow constraints without need for communication. We provide simulation results verifying that our proposed controller limits line power to enforce constraints, and otherwise acts as a traditional droop controller.

  13. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive utility corridor (CUC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The strategy established the process for which the Campus Development Office will evaluate land management issues. It is a process that uses geographical information system geospatial technology to layer critical INL mission information in a way that thorough evaluations can be conducted and strategies developed. The objective of the CUC Project was to develop a process that could be implemented to identify potential utility corridor options for consideration. The process had to take into account all the missions occurring on the INL and other land-related issues. The process for developing a CUC strategy consists of the following four basic elements using geographical information system capabilities: 1. Development of an INL base layer map; this base layer map geospatially references all stationary geographical features on INL and sitewide information. 2. Development of current and future mission land-use need maps; this involved working with each directorate to identify current mission land use needs and future land use needs that project 30 years into the future. 3. Development of restricted and potential constraint maps; this included geospatially mapping areas such as wells, contaminated areas, firing ranges, cultural areas, ecological areas, hunting areas, easement, and grazing areas. 4. Development of state highway and power line rights of way map; this included geospatially mapping rights-of-way along existing state highways and power lines running through the INL that support INL operations. It was determined after completing and evaluating the geospatial information that the area with the least impact to INL missions was around the perimeter of the INL Site. Option 1, in this document, identifies this perimeter; however, it does not mean the entire perimeter is viable. Many places along the perimeter corridor cannot

  14. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  15. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  16. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  17. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  18. Protection against lightning surge voltages on communication lines and power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Haseborg, J.L.t.; Trinks, H.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive electronic systems are shielded against electromagnetic interferences (lightning, EMP). The shielding efficiency is reduced by field coupling through apertures and particularly by feeding of interfering currents through cable entries. In case these cables are connected to the inputs of electronic devices, the surge voltages may disturb or even destroy these devices or single electronic components, particularly semiconductors. Special passive protection circuits for communication and power lines against lightning- and EMP-induced surge voltages are developed. The edge steepnesses of the applying surge voltages show values of 2kV/us (lightning) up to 2kV/ns (EMP).

  19. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  20. New live line tester for porcelain suspension insulators on high-voltage power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, G.H.; St-Jean, M. ); Bellerive, J.P. ); Jean, C. )

    1994-01-01

    Suspension insulator assemblies known as insulator strings are used in overhead power transmission lines to mechanically support high-voltage conductors while providing adequate insulation to withstand switching and lightning overvoltages. Since the useful life in service of the individual insulator elements making up these strings is hard to predict, they must be verified periodically to insure that adequate line reliability is maintained at all times. Over the years many testing methods have been used for this purpose, each one with its own advantages and disadvantages. Until now at Hydro-Quebec, porcelain insulators had been tested by the buzz method which simply consists of applying a short-circuit to each insulator in a string and listening for a buzz-like sound indicating a good insulator. However, safety considerations that preclude short-circuiting insulators and other disadvantages of that method have led Hydro-Quebec to undertake and complete the development of a new insulator tester. The working principle of this new device is based on the automatic measurement and recording of the electric field along the insulator string which decreases considerably in front of an internally-shorted insulator. The tester is slid along the string while the insulators are counted automatically. The information from tests on up to 200 strings can be stored in the device to be later transferred in a host computer for interpretation and/or permanent storage. The new tester also gives information on voltage distribution along the insulator strings which can be useful for the design of future power transmission lines.

  1. 1. Operating Floor Front (east) Corridor, view to the north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Operating Floor Front (east) Corridor, view to the north. The wall of turbine Unit 1 is visible in left foreground of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  2. Biological effects of power line fields: New York State Power Lines Project Scientific Advisory Panel: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbom, A.; Albert, E.N.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Grodzinsky, A.J.; Marron, M.T.; Martin, A.O.; Persinger, M.A.; Shelanski, M.L.; Wolpow, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    The New York State Power Lines Project was established to conduct research and to review the scientific literature to determine whether health hazards of electric and magnetic fields are possible. Particular attention was directed to the fields generated by 765-kV overhead transmission lines. The research program provided support to 16 research groups studying human, animal and isolated cell sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields. No effects were found on reproduction, growth or development. Several studies showed no evidence of genetic or chromosomal damage that might lead to inherited effects or cause cancer. While most measurements of behavior and brain function did not demonstrate changes, some did show changes that were small but consistent. Some of these appear to result from changes in body rhythms, and might interfere with normal sleep patterns. There were also changes in pain responses and in the ability of rats to learn. A more serious concern comes from a study of cancer in children suggesting that children with leukemia and brain cancer are more likely to live in homes where there are elevated 60-Hz magnetic field levels. Although much more research is needed before the question whether the magnetic fields actually cause or promote cancer can be resolved, the basis for such an hypothesis is now established. 159 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Power Line Communication for Automatic Guided Vehicle Using ZigBee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Sugiura, Akihiko

    There is an attempt to operate automatic guided vehicles by power line communication(PLC). But, the PLC system has a problem to be disconnected. Then, this paper proposes power line communicatin using ZigBee. We verified that the separated ZigBee PLC line is able to communicate.

  4. Power Lines and Crops Can Be Good Neighbors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-01

    Two of the Pacific Northwest’s greatest economic assets are its wealth of agriculture and its clean and reliable electricity fueled largely by hydropower. Sometimes the two intersect. Transmission lines carrying electricity to the region’s farms, businesses and homes must, of necessity, span large areas where people grow crops and orchards. To ensure a safe and reliable flow of electricity across these expanses, trees and other vegetation must be managed to certain standards. At the same time, the Bonneville Power Administration — which owns and operates three-quarters of the region’s high-voltage transmission — recognizes the importance of our region’s agricultural bounty. We are committed to working with individuals and agricultural communities to facilitate ongoing land-use activities in transmission rights-of-way as long as those uses are compatible with transmission safety and reliability standards. Our goal with vegetation management is to keep you and your property safe while protecting the reliability of our region’s electricity system. By working together, BPA and landowners can protect the system and public safety.

  5. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Byambasuren, Bat-erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-01-01

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results. PMID:26907274

  6. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Byambasuren, Bat-Erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-02-19

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results.

  7. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Byambasuren, Bat-Erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-01-01

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results. PMID:26907274

  8. Design and realization of the low voltage power line carrier channel simulation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Liyong; Zou, Bing; Zhang, Xuhai

    2006-11-01

    Proposed a visualized modeling and simulating scheme on the basis of object-oriented software for the power line communication channels. Combined with the research on the theories about transmitting lines, applies a equivalent concentrated parameter model to replace the traditional distributed parameter model of the transmitting lines, and studied the realizing process of the simulation. Constructed the network topology model database, noise model database, typical load model database aiming at the low-voltage power line features. And developed a visual, easy-to-operate power line communication simulation platform under Windows operation system.

  9. a Meteorological Risk Assessment Method for Power Lines Based on GIS and Multi-Sensor Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-01

    Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  10. Control Quality of a Feedback Control System under Cyclostationary Noise in Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrizo, Cesar; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Okada, Hiraku; Katayama, Masaaki

    This paper discusses a control system that employs a power line to transfer signals to control the motion of a single machine, and explores the influence of packet losses on the quality of the control. As an example of a controlled system, a controller with a rotary inverted pendulum as a controlled object, is considered. The feedback loop in between is the power line. The control performance is evaluated in the power line cyclostationary noise environment and compared against the performance in a stationary noise environment. As a result, it is confirmed that the power line and its cyclostationary noise features present an advantage against transmission in a channel with stationary noise.

  11. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  12. Fast Power Line Detection and Localization Using Steerable Filter for Active Uav Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Mejias, L.; Li, Z.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a fast power line detection and localisation algorithm as well as propose a high-level guidance architecture for active vision-based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) guidance. The detection stage is based on steerable filters for edge ridge detection, followed by a line fitting algorithm to refine candidate power lines in images. The guidance architecture assumes an UAV with an onboard Gimbal camera. We first control the position of the Gimbal such that the power line is in the field of view of the camera. Then its pose is used to generate the appropriate control commands such that the aircraft moves and flies above the lines. We present initial experimental results for the detection stage which shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms two state-of-the-art line detection algorithms for power line detection from aerial imagery.

  13. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  14. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  15. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  16. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  17. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  18. Parametric analysis of EMP induced overvoltages on power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, D.P.; Meliopoulos, A.P. ); Cokkinides, G.J. )

    1988-07-01

    This paper presents parametric results of EMP induced overvoltages on overhead transmission lines. The results have been obtained with an analytical model of an overhead transmission line which accounts for (1) frequency dependent characteristics of lines, (2) EMP coupling to the line conductors, (3) EMP coupling to tower structures, and (4) the grounding structures of the transmission towers. The results indicate that shield or neutral conductors and transmission tower grounding drastically reduce the EMP induced overvoltages on transmission towers. For distribution overhead circuits, the EMP induced overvoltages may be above the basic insulation level. For transmission circuits, it is possible to select design parameters such as to assure that EMP induced overvoltages are below the insulation level of the line.

  19. How Corridors Reduce Indigo Bunting Nest Success.

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Aimee, J.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract: Corridors are a popular strategy to conserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes. Corridor effectiveness has been bolstered by the fact that no empirical field studies have shown negative effects on populations or communities. I tested the hypothesis that corridors increase nest predation in connected habitat fragments relative to unconnected fragments. I evaluated this hypothesis in a large-scale experimental system of open-habitat fragments that varied in shape and connectivity. Corridors increased nest predation rates in connected fragments relative to unconnected fragments with lower edge:area ratios. Nest predation rates were similar between connected and unconnected fragments with higher edge:area ratios. These results suggest that the increase in predator activity is largely attributable to edge effects incurred through the addition of a corridor. This is the first field study to demonstrate that corridors can negatively impact animal populations occupying connected fragments.

  20. Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Stoltzfus, Brian S.; Fowler, William E.; LeChien, Keith R.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Moore, James K.; Mulville, Thomas D.; Savage, Mark E.; Stygar, William A.; McKenney, John L.; Jones, Peter A.; MacRunnels, Diego J.; Long, Finis W.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations. 1926... Derricks in Construction § 1926.1408 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—equipment operations. (a) Hazard... for use and conditions of use. Table A—Minimum Clearance Distances Voltage(nominal, kV,...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations. 1926... Derricks in Construction § 1926.1408 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—equipment operations. (a) Hazard... for use and conditions of use. Table A—Minimum Clearance Distances Voltage(nominal, kV,...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations. 1926... Derricks in Construction § 1926.1408 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—equipment operations. (a) Hazard... for use and conditions of use. Table A—Minimum Clearance Distances Voltage(nominal, kV,...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations. 1926... Derricks in Construction § 1926.1408 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—equipment operations. (a) Hazard... for use and conditions of use. Table A—Minimum Clearance Distances Voltage(nominal, kV,...

  5. 78 FR 55249 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Holy Cross Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Holy Cross Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc. v. Public Service.... 824, 824(e) and 825(e) 2013, Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Holy Cross Electric...

  6. 78 FR 77550 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... is extending the application period for the Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants... Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants. The purpose of this notice was to invite...

  7. 2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. Note the cooling and service water take-off pipes for Unit 4 visible in left foreground of photograph. The deck plating that covers the oil pipes is also visible in the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  8. 2. Pipe Floor Front Corridor, view to the northwest, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Pipe Floor Front Corridor, view to the northwest, with Unit 4 turbine pit visible in right foreground of photograph. One of the governor compressors, originally used as an air blast circuit breaker compressor, is visible in the left foreground with one of the station sump and unwatering pump clusters located just beyond the compressor. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  9. ELF field in the proximity of complex power line configuration measurement procedures.

    PubMed

    Benes, M; Comelli, M; Villalta, R

    2006-01-01

    The issue of how to measure magnetic induction fields generated by various power line configurations, when there are several power lines that run across the same exposure area, has become a matter of interest and study within the Regional Environment Protection Agency of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In classifying the various power line typologies the definition of double circuit line was given: in this instance the magnetic field is determined by knowing the electrical and geometric parameters of the line. In the case of independent lines instead, the field is undetermined. It is therefore pointed out how, in the latter case, extracting previsional information from a set of measurements of the magnetic field alone is impossible. Making measurements throughout the territory of service has in several cases offered the opportunity to define standard operational procedures. PMID:16410292

  10. Design of T-Split Power Divider Using Double Ended Spur-Line DMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyra, Tamasi; Parui, Susanta Kumar; Das, Santanu

    2016-09-01

    Power dividers and power combiners are passive microwave components for power dividing and power combining. In this article one T-split equal power divider has been designed by using conventional 50 Ω microstrip line and double ended spur line renamed as defected microstrip structures (DMS). Introducing DMS provides one stop band characteristics, changes the effective inductance and capacitance of the line by increasing effective dielectric constant, reduces the phase velocity and supports slow-wave propagation. Thus, increases the effective line impedance of the microstrip line. Consequently, all passive and active components that are implemented using DMS have a miniaturized size compared to conventional components. In this paper one 3 dB or equal power divider has been designed at 1.6 GHz in the first step. Where, 100 Ω output line is implemented using double ended spur type DMS on conventional 50 Ω microstrip line. In the second step each output port power has been divided equally into 6 dB in the next level of the branch. Design of those dividers are very simple and have wide applications in microwave circuits and feeds of array antennas.

  11. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  12. Gain Purchasing Power the Newfangled Way--On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Examines how San Diego State University uses computers to cut purchasing costs and boost efficiency and whether their solution can work for other business-to-business needs. How the school developed the totally self-sustaining, on-line and on-time purchasing system is discussed, including solutions to start-up problems. (GR)

  13. Rail transportation corridor analysis report: Deaf Smith County location in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    An environmental data base was developed for the purpose of preliminary siting of potential rail access corridors between existing rail lines and the potential repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The categories of the data base were environmental conditions considered significant in rail line construction and operation. These included land cover, population areas, slope, surface hydrology, cultivated prime agricultural lands, cultural features, and utility rights-of-way. The categories were divided into avoidance, constraint, and opportunity features, and the constraint features were then weighted for environmental impact potential. An environmental screening analysis using the computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was then performed. The analysis involved applying the GIS overlay process to the various constraint data categories to produce a composite constraint map of the study area. The composite constraint map, color coded for various levels of constraint to corridor siting, was subsequently used as a guide for the selection of a series of alternative corridors. By means of a further application of GIS procedures, the corridor alternatives were statistically analyzed for adherence to corridor selection guidelines. In addition, a supplementary analysis was performed to compare the alternatives in terms of four impact categories: road crossings, construction costs, degree of land disruption, and population impact. The statistical and supplementary impact analyses led to a preliminary selection of a preferred corridor. The corridor assessment process indicated the importance of analyzing alternative trade-offs, as well as the need for more detailed investigation of certain conditions and a detailed comparison of alternatives prior to final corridor siting.

  14. An algorithm for power line detection and warning based on a millimeter-wave radar video.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qirong; Goshi, Darren S; Shih, Yi-Chi; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2011-12-01

    Power-line-strike accident is a major safety threat for low-flying aircrafts such as helicopters, thus an automatic warning system to power lines is highly desirable. In this paper we propose an algorithm for detecting power lines from radar videos from an active millimeter-wave sensor. Hough Transform is employed to detect candidate lines. The major challenge is that the radar videos are very noisy due to ground return. The noise points could fall on the same line which results in signal peaks after Hough Transform similar to the actual cable lines. To differentiate the cable lines from the noise lines, we train a Support Vector Machine to perform the classification. We exploit the Bragg pattern, which is due to the diffraction of electromagnetic wave on the periodic surface of power lines. We propose a set of features to represent the Bragg pattern for the classifier. We also propose a slice-processing algorithm which supports parallel processing, and improves the detection of cables in a cluttered background. Lastly, an adaptive algorithm is proposed to integrate the detection results from individual frames into a reliable video detection decision, in which temporal correlation of the cable pattern across frames is used to make the detection more robust. Extensive experiments with real-world data validated the effectiveness of our cable detection algorithm.

  15. Uncertainty evaluation in the measurement of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from AC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Ztoupis, I N; Gonos, I F; Stathopulos, I A

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from alternating current power lines are carried out in order to evaluate the exposure levels of the human body on the general public. For any electromagnetic field measurement, it is necessary to define the sources of measurement uncertainty and determine the total measurement uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the problems of measurement uncertainty estimation, as the measurement uncertainty budget calculation techniques recommended in standardising documents and research studies are barely described. In this work the total uncertainty of power frequency field measurements near power lines in various measurement sites is assessed by considering not only all available equipment data, but also contributions that depend on the measurement procedures, environmental conditions and characteristics of the field source, which are considered to increase the error of measurement. A detailed application example for power frequency field measurements is presented here by accredited laboratory.

  16. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, and Tri-State Generation and...

  17. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  18. Noise control in the transportation corridor.

    PubMed

    Manning, C J; Harris, G J

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the opportunities for noise control within the route corridor required for construction of road, rail and other guided transport schemes. It deals with control of noise generation at source, and in the transmission path close to the point of generation. In this way it is possible to control the amount of acoustic power generated, and to absorb part of the radiated power at points of reflection. Purely reflective wayside barriers do little to absorb acoustic energy, merely reflecting it in a different direction. Whilst this has selfish benefits to the receptor in the shadow zone of the barrier, it makes things worse for others on the reflective side of the geometry. The paper therefore considers the options available to the engineer in the design of rolling and sliding interfaces and the use of acoustically absorptive finishes on all surfaces close to the point of noise generation. This includes the running surface itself, structural components, retaining walls, over and under passes, and the inner surfaces of track and wayside barriers. PMID:12631436

  19. Avian behavior and mortality at power lines in coastal South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savereno, A.J.; Savereno, L.A.; Boettcher, R.; Haig, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    We compared avian behavior and mortality associated with two 115-kV transmission lines on the central South Carolina coast during 3,392 hours of observation from May 1991 through May 1994. One line was marked with 30-cm-diameter yellow aviation markers. The second line was unmarked, but was similar in most other aspects. We conducted ground searches (n = 445) beneath each line year-round to document avian mortality due to power-line collisions. At marked lines, birds that approached at line height changed behavior more at unmarked lines (P< 0.001), and fewer crossed between static and conductor wires. Collision rate was 53% lower at marked than unmarked lines. Among collisions at both sites, 82% of birds collided with static wires. Based on observed collisions and carcass recoveries, wading birds particularly appeared to be at risk. We concluded that aviation markers were effective at increasing line visibility and reducing collisions and recommend marking static wires of power lines in potentially sensitive areas.

  20. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  1. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  2. Circuit and Method for Communication Over DC Power Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit and method for transmitting and receiving on-off-keyed (OOK) signals with fractional signal-to-noise ratios uses available high-temperature silicon- on-insulator (SOI) components to move computational, sensing, and actuation abilities closer to high-temperature or high-ionizing radiation environments such as vehicle engine compartments, deep-hole drilling environments, industrial control and monitoring of processes like smelting, and operations near nuclear reactors and in space. This device allows for the networking of multiple, like nodes to each other and to a central processor. It can do this with nothing more than the already in-situ power wiring of the system. The device s microprocessor allows it to make intelligent decisions within the vehicle operational loop and to effect control outputs to its associated actuators. The figure illustrates how each node converts digital serial data to OOK 18-kHz in transmit mode and vice-versa in receive mode; though operations at lower frequencies or up to a megahertz are within reason using this method and these parts. This innovation s technique modulates a DC power bus with millivolt-level signals through a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) and resistor by OOK. It receives and demodulates this signal from the DC power bus through capacitive coupling at high temperature and in high ionizing radiation environments. The demodulation of the OOK signal is accomplished by using an asynchronous quadrature detection technique realized by a quasi-discrete Fourier transform through use of the quadrature components (0 and 90 phases) of the carrier frequency as generated by the microcontroller and as a function of the selected crystal frequency driving its oscillator. The detected signal is rectified using an absolute-value circuit containing no diodes (diodes being non-operational at high temperatures), and only operational amplifiers. The absolute values of the two phases of the received signal

  3. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  4. 1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The wall of Unit 2 turbine pit is visible in the right foreground. The pipe and valve cluster in the right foreground is part of the blow down valve for Unit 2. This valve allows the water in the draft chest to be lowered (i.e., 'blown down') so that the unit can be motored (i.e., run like an electric motor rather than an electric power generator). - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  5. Modeling and optimization of the line-driver power consumption in xDSL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkerstorfer, Martin; Trautmann, Steffen; Nordström, Tomas; Putra, Bakti D.

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of the power spectrum alleviates the crosstalk noise in digital subscriber lines (DSL) and thereby reduces their power consumption at present. In order to truly assess the DSL system power consumption, this article presents realistic line driver (LD) power consumption models. These are applicable to any DSL system and extend previous models by parameterizing various circuit-level non-idealities. Based on the model of a class-AB LD we analyze the multi-user power spectrum optimization problem and propose novel algorithms for its global or approximate solution. The thereby obtained simulation results support our claim that this problem can be simplified with negligible performance loss by neglecting the LD model. This motivates the usage of established spectral optimization algorithms, which are shown to significantly reduce the LD power consumption compared to static spectrum management.

  6. Inductive energy harvesting from variable frequency and amplitude aircraft power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, T. T.; Wright, S. W.; Kiziroglou, M. E.; Mueller, J.; Sessinghaus, M.; Yeatman, E. M.; Mitcheson, P. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a non-contact method of harvesting energy from an aircraft power line that has an AC current of variable amplitude and a frequency range of 360-800 Hz. The current and frequency characteristics of the aircraft power line are dependent on the rotation speed of the electrical generators and will therefore change during a flight. The harvester consists of an inductive coil with a ferrite core, which is interfaced to a rectifier, step-down regulator and supercapacitor. A prototype system was constructed to demonstrate reliable output voltage regulation across a supercapacitor that will supply a peak power of 100 mW under duty cycled load conditions. The system could fully charge a 40 mF supercapacitor to 3.3 V in 78 s from a power line current of 1.5 Arms at 650 Hz.

  7. A bee in the corridor: centering and wall-following

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serres, Julien R.; Masson, Guillaume P.; Ruffier, Franck; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    In an attempt to better understand the mechanism underlying lateral collision avoidance in flying insects, we trained honeybees ( Apis mellifera) to fly through a large (95-cm wide) flight tunnel. We found that, depending on the entrance and feeder positions, honeybees would either center along the corridor midline or fly along one wall. Bees kept following one wall even when a major (150-cm long) part of the opposite wall was removed. These findings cannot be accounted for by the “optic flow balance” hypothesis that has been put forward to explain the typical bees’ “centering response” observed in narrower corridors. Both centering and wall-following behaviors are well accounted for, however, by a control scheme called the lateral optic flow regulator, i.e., a feedback system that strives to maintain the unilateral optic flow constant. The power of this control scheme is that it would allow the bee to guide itself visually in a corridor without having to measure its speed or distance from the walls.

  8. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  9. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa.

  10. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity

    PubMed Central

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-01-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  11. Bird behavior and mortality in relation to power lines in prairie habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the magnitude of avian mortality caused by power transmission lines in prairie habitats during the two spring and two fall migration periods between July 1980 and May 1982. Searches for dead birds were made at least twice weekly during each migration period. Study sites were selected to include 'worst-case' situations involving potentially large concentrations of birds.In total, 633 dead birds were found beneath 9.6 km of power lines. About 81% of the birds were found during fall migration. Removal of birds by scavengers was of minor, although local, importance, and observer error in finding birds was greatest in areas of dense vegetation. Total kill was estimated at 1,332 birds.Data were gathered on more than 7,000 bird flights observed in the vicinity of the power lines. Sixty-eight percent of the birds did not respond to the presence of the power lines. Flaring and climbing over the conductor or overhead ground wire occurred in about 25% of the flights. One hundred nine birds in 82 flocks were observed to collide with a power line. Of these birds, 87% flared to climb over the power line before colliding. The overhead ground wire was responsible for most deaths, as 102 of 109 birds collided with it.Whereas none of the mortality observed was considered to be biologically significant at the particular sites examined, the cumulative effect of mortality sustained from collisions with power lines may be important, particularly to populations of rare or endangered birds.

  12. Do Power Lines and Protected Areas Present a Catch-22 Situation for Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D.; MacTavish, Lynne M.; Yarnell, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  121,655±90,845 km2) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  492,300±259,427 km2) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  13. REDD+ Policy: Corridors of carbon and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Oscar

    2014-02-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation has huge potential for mitigating climate change and saving the Earth's most biologically diverse biome. Corridors connecting existing protected areas represent an elegant means of attaining both goals.

  14. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, N.

    1999-01-22

    Study hypothesized that corridors increase patch colonization by Junonia coenia regardless of insects initial distance from patch, as the butterfly is known to move between patches preferentially through corridors. Neither corridor nor distance had significant effect on patch colonization, but significant interaction between presence or absence of corridors and distance. One critical factor is interpatch distance which may determine the relative effectiveness of corridors and other landscape configurations.

  15. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting. PMID:24033371

  16. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting.

  17. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  18. Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high-voltage power line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Tomas; Peltola, Pasi

    2009-12-01

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations.

  19. A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

  20. Childhood cancer and exposure to corona ions from power lines: an epidemiological test.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Bunch, K J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported an association between childhood leukaemia in Britain and proximity of the child's address at birth to high-voltage power lines that declines from the 1960s to the 2000s. We test here whether a 'corona-ion hypothesis' could explain these results. This hypothesis proposes that corona ions, atmospheric ions produced by power lines and blown away from them by the wind, increase the retention of airborne pollutants in the airways when breathed in and hence cause disease. We develop an improved model for calculating exposure to corona ions, using data on winds from meteorological stations and considering the whole length of power line within 600 m of each subject's address. Corona-ion exposure is highly correlated with proximity to power lines, and hence the results parallel the elevations in leukaemia risk seen with distance analyses. But our model explains the observed pattern of leukaemia rates around power lines less well than straightforward distance measurements, and ecological considerations also argue against the hypothesis. This does not disprove the corona-ion hypothesis as the explanation for our previous results, but nor does it provide support for it, or, by extension, any other hypothesis dependent on wind direction.

  1. Childhood cancer and exposure to corona ions from power lines: an epidemiological test.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Bunch, K J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported an association between childhood leukaemia in Britain and proximity of the child's address at birth to high-voltage power lines that declines from the 1960s to the 2000s. We test here whether a 'corona-ion hypothesis' could explain these results. This hypothesis proposes that corona ions, atmospheric ions produced by power lines and blown away from them by the wind, increase the retention of airborne pollutants in the airways when breathed in and hence cause disease. We develop an improved model for calculating exposure to corona ions, using data on winds from meteorological stations and considering the whole length of power line within 600 m of each subject's address. Corona-ion exposure is highly correlated with proximity to power lines, and hence the results parallel the elevations in leukaemia risk seen with distance analyses. But our model explains the observed pattern of leukaemia rates around power lines less well than straightforward distance measurements, and ecological considerations also argue against the hypothesis. This does not disprove the corona-ion hypothesis as the explanation for our previous results, but nor does it provide support for it, or, by extension, any other hypothesis dependent on wind direction. PMID:25356811

  2. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  3. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  4. Nonlinear femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy using a power-encoded soliton delay line.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jalm, Sarah; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    We show femtosecond time-resolved nonlinear pump-probe spectroscopy using a fiber soliton as the probe pulse. Furthermore, we exploit soliton dynamics to record an entire transient trace with a power-encoded delay sweep. The power-encoded delay line takes advantage of the dependency of the soliton trajectory in the (λ,z) space upon input power; the difference in accumulated group delay between trajectories converts a fast power sweep into a fast delay sweep. We demonstrate the concept by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a test sample and validate it against a conventional pump-probe setup.

  5. A system for tranmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, S.P.; Durall, R.L.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-07-30

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an ac power line. The modulation signal frequency range is selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the ac power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal. 4 figs.

  6. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-09-05

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  7. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-01-01

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  8. Refining Estimates of Bird Collision and Electrocution Mortality at Power Lines in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Loss, Scott R.; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Collisions and electrocutions at power lines are thought to kill large numbers of birds in the United States annually. However, existing estimates of mortality are either speculative (for electrocution) or based on extrapolation of results from one study to all U.S. power lines (for collision). Because national-scale estimates of mortality and comparisons among threats are likely to be used for prioritizing policy and management strategies and for identifying major research needs, these estimates should be based on systematic and transparent assessment of rigorously collected data. We conducted a quantitative review that incorporated data from 14 studies meeting our inclusion criteria to estimate that between 12 and 64 million birds are killed each year at U.S. power lines, with between 8 and 57 million birds killed by collision and between 0.9 and 11.6 million birds killed by electrocution. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the majority of uncertainty in our estimates arises from variation in mortality rates across studies; this variation is due in part to the small sample of rigorously conducted studies that can be used to estimate mortality. Little information is available to quantify species-specific vulnerability to mortality at power lines; the available literature over-represents particular bird groups and habitats, and most studies only sample and present data for one or a few species. Furthermore, additional research is needed to clarify whether, to what degree, and in what regions populations of different bird species are affected by power line-related mortality. Nonetheless, our data-driven analysis suggests that the amount of bird mortality at U.S. power lines is substantial and that conservation management and policy is necessary to reduce this mortality. PMID:24991997

  9. Refining estimates of bird collision and electrocution mortality at power lines in the United States.

    PubMed

    Loss, Scott R; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Collisions and electrocutions at power lines are thought to kill large numbers of birds in the United States annually. However, existing estimates of mortality are either speculative (for electrocution) or based on extrapolation of results from one study to all U.S. power lines (for collision). Because national-scale estimates of mortality and comparisons among threats are likely to be used for prioritizing policy and management strategies and for identifying major research needs, these estimates should be based on systematic and transparent assessment of rigorously collected data. We conducted a quantitative review that incorporated data from 14 studies meeting our inclusion criteria to estimate that between 12 and 64 million birds are killed each year at U.S. power lines, with between 8 and 57 million birds killed by collision and between 0.9 and 11.6 million birds killed by electrocution. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the majority of uncertainty in our estimates arises from variation in mortality rates across studies; this variation is due in part to the small sample of rigorously conducted studies that can be used to estimate mortality. Little information is available to quantify species-specific vulnerability to mortality at power lines; the available literature over-represents particular bird groups and habitats, and most studies only sample and present data for one or a few species. Furthermore, additional research is needed to clarify whether, to what degree, and in what regions populations of different bird species are affected by power line-related mortality. Nonetheless, our data-driven analysis suggests that the amount of bird mortality at U.S. power lines is substantial and that conservation management and policy is necessary to reduce this mortality.

  10. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates.

  11. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates. PMID:25917858

  12. Theory and simulation of high-power microwave generation in a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Raymond W.; Clark, Collins M.

    1987-10-01

    The magnetically insulated transmission line (MITE-LINE) oscillator is an electron beam diode comprised of a field emitting cathode and a corrugated anode. The device is similar to a linear magnetron except that the insulating magnetic field is self-generated. The self-insulating property makes this device a robust high-power microwave tube. Using the thin-beam approximation a dispersion relation for a cylindrical MITE-LINE oscillator is derived. The dispersion relation is used to predict frequency and growth rate of the microwave generating instability. Analytical results are compared with CCUBE particle simulations.

  13. Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M.; Srivastava, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Where the risk of accidental power-frequency energization is concerned, the safety ground has a short-circuit discharge duty determined by the configuration and parameters of the power system. Safety is thus assured by selecting a safety ground having a short-circuit safety rating which matches the duty imposed by the power system. Up to now, a similar matching for lightning currents has not been possible. This paper addresses this problem by: 1. Determining the lightning current rating of typical safety grounds. 2. Calculating the lightning current discharge duty of safety grounds in terms of the insulatuon level of the line and the distance from the location of the thunderstorm. The analysis shows that special precautions are needed when working on power lines of voltage classes above 360 kV.

  14. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramiadantsoa, Tanjona; Ovaskainen, Otso; Rybicki, Joel; Hanski, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2) in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity. PMID:26200351

  15. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Ramiadantsoa, Tanjona; Ovaskainen, Otso; Rybicki, Joel; Hanski, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2) in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  16. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  17. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  18. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  19. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Reale, D. V. Bragg, J.-W. B.; Gonsalves, N. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2014-05-15

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  20. Lifelines and Earthquake Hazards in the Interstate 5 Urban Corridor: Cottage Grove to Woodburn, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, E.A.; Weaver, C.S.; Meagher, K.L.; Wang, Z.; Madin, I.P.; Wang, M.; Haugerud, R.A.; Wells, R.E.; Ballantyne, D.B.; Darienzo, M.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The Interstate 5 highway corridor, stretching from Mexico to Canada, is not only the economic artery of the Pacific Northwest, but is also home to the majority of Oregonians and Washingtonians. Accordingly, most regional utility and transportation systems, such as railroads and electrical transmission lines, have major components in the I-5 corridor. The section of I-5 from Cottage Grove, Oregon, to Blaine, Washington, is rapidly urbanizing, with population growth and economic development centered around the cities of Eugene, Salem, Portland, Olympia, Tacoma, Seattle, Everett, and Bellingham. For the purposes of this map, we refer to this area as the I-5 Urban Corridor. This publicaton consists of two large sheets: A map and a text-and-figures poster.

  1. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume II. Systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. The parabolic trough concept (BDM) was found to provide a low temperature technology alternative to the central receiver concept with promising performance and cost potential. Its continued development is recommended, with special emphasis on lower temperature (< 700/sup 0/F) applications. Finally, a variety of new promising line focus power system configurations were identified for a range of utility and industrial applications and recommendations were made on their implementation. This volume contains the detailed report. (WHK)

  2. 76 FR 76044 - Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of West Bay Creek and West Bay, to include all waters between the Highway 79 Fixed Bridge and the mouth of West Bay Creek out to buoy markers 27 and 28 of...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than trolley... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movement or operation of equipment near...

  4. Power Line Technician. Second Edition. Module G. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module is the seventh in a series that is designed to help students achieve greater professional and personal success as power line technicians. Each module represents one or more complete units of instruction with components organized into one instructor and one student "package": the instructor's manual and the student workbook. The…

  5. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than trolley... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Movement or operation of equipment near...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than trolley... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Movement or operation of equipment near...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. 56.12071 Section 56.12071 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than trolley... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Movement or operation of equipment near...

  9. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-12-15

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities.

  10. Power line characterization from an airborne data collection with a millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshi, Darren S.; Bui, Long Q.

    2014-05-01

    Enhancing the operational safety of small, maneuverable rotorcraft has been a critical consideration in the development of next generation situational awareness sensor suites. From landing assistance to target detection and obstacle avoidance, millimeter wave radars have become the leading candidate for such solutions due to their ability to operate in degraded visual environments, whether it is weather, induced debris, or night conditions that must be dealt with. Power lines pose arguably the largest safety risk for helicopter operation due to their difficulty in detection and proper identification to support avoidance maneuvering, where even under perfect conditions they can be nearly invisible to the naked eye. The backscatter phenomenology from braided power lines has been well-studied and formulated in previous literature, albeit mainly in controlled laboratory settings or limited field trials. Subsequently, the ability to simply detect power lines at operational distances up to around 2 km has been demonstrated. In this work, an analysis is performed on the measureable characteristics of power lines captured in a representative operational environment for helicopters. The test location included a diverse set of power line configurations with surrounding ground and tower clutter, representing a realistic scenario. A radiometrically calibrated w-band real-beam FMCW sensor allows the study and estimation of target RCS, as well as evaluation against the developed theory. All analysis is performed on dynamically captured data from a helicopter, where platform dynamics and system stability also play a significant role in a processed result. Results from this work will aid the effective development of next generation situational awareness systems.

  11. Voltages induced on a power distribution line by overhead cloud lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yacoub, Ziad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Uman, Martin A.; Thomson, Ewen M.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1991-01-01

    Voltages induced by overhead cloud lightning on a 448 m open circuited power distribution line and the corresponding north-south component of the lightning magnetic field were simultaneously measured at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1986. The incident electric field was calculated from the measured magnetic field. The electric field was then used as an input to the computer program, EMPLIN, that calculated the voltages at the two ends of the power line. EMPLIN models the frequency domain field/power coupling theory found, for example, in Ianoz et al. The direction of the source, which is also one of the inputs to EMPLIN, was crudely determined from a three station time delay technique. The authors found reasonably good agreement between calculated and measured waveforms.

  12. A Bayesian Prediction Framework of Weather Based Power Line Damages in the Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    frediani, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Wanik, D.; Scerbo, D.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictability of damages to overhead power distribution lines from severe weather events in the New England area. During storms, trees and branches can come down and interact with power lines that results in significant interruptions to electricity distribution, causing major interruptions to residents and monetary losses to the utility company. In Connecticut, a densely forested state, severe winds and precipitation (in the form of rain and snow) from storms are key weather factors that challenge the power grid infrastructure vulnerability. Evaluating the local predictability of these impacts may aid local power utilities with crew allocation and preparedness during an event. A probabilistic approach to damage prediction caused by trees subjected to severe weather is being investigated in the region. This study specifically, explores the feasibility of applying Bayesian inversion technique to weather parameters by developing a damage decision tree composed of various meteorological and static parameters, like wind gust, precipitation (rain and snow accumulation and rates), high canopy forest density and tree trimming history for the power distribution lines. The resulting decision tree can be used as a Bayesian inversion database to predict the probability distribution of damages given a storm forecast. The Bayesian database is based on a historical data source provided by The Connecticut Light & Power Company (Connecticut's primary power utility) containing geographical information of trouble spots caused by thunderstorm and winter/snow-storm events; power line specifications and trimming history; and high-resolution model analysis of those storms. The analysis is based on a 2-sqkm model grid cropped over the state of Connecticut comprising a database of 3,307 pixels per storm. Each storm pixel is flagged to contain power line damages or no-damages. A total of 50 storm simulations is used to build the database. Pairs of

  13. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... activities located within the proposed right-of-way corridor; (7) Social and economic impacts of the right-of...) Transportation and utility corridor studies previously developed by user groups; and (9) Engineering...

  14. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... activities located within the proposed right-of-way corridor; (7) Social and economic impacts of the right-of...) Transportation and utility corridor studies previously developed by user groups; and (9) Engineering...

  15. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  16. Multivariable time series prediction for the icing process on overhead power transmission line.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters. PMID:25136653

  17. INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

  18. Multivariable Time Series Prediction for the Icing Process on Overhead Power Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters. PMID:25136653

  19. Extensive Sampling of Forest Carbon using High Density Power Line Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, H. M.; Chen, Q.; Dye, D. G.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    unmanaged areas, using high point density lidar collected over transmission line corridors. The lidar metric of quadratic mean height guided our selection of field plots spanning the full range from low to high levels of aboveground biomass across the study region. Before model selection, we minimized two of the major sources of errors in lidar calibration: variance in tree allometry across landscapes and plot edge effects (spatial mismatch between field measurements and lidar points). We tested an assortment of model selection techniques and goodness of fit measures for deriving forest structural metrics of interest. For example, we obtained an R-squared value for aboveground biomass (Mg/ha) of 0.9 using stepwise regression. The forest metrics obtained are being used in the next stage of the project to parameterize biogeochemical models linking terrestrial carbon pools and atmospheric greenhouse gas exchanges.

  20. Research of on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Yao, Junda; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    As the main electrical component for the reactive power compensation, the power capacitors are widely applied in many fields. And since the insulation condition of power capacitor could be identified accurately by using the on-line monitoring system, it attracts more and more attentions in recent years. In this paper, a novel on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network is presented. The operation data which includes the current and voltage of every capacitor is collected at first, and then the FFT is utilized to calculate the amplitude and phase of every signal, thus the insulation condition and the fault symptom could all be diagnosed accurately by analyzing the FFT results. In order to realize the effective isolation and the reliable communication between the sensing part and the merging unit, the wireless sensor network is adopted. The high reliability and transmission rate could be realized by using 2.4GHz UHF and 5GHz ISM radio bands. Thus the on-line monitoring system could be manufactured, and the lab test is carried at last. The testing results illustrate that this system could satisfy the requirement of on-site real-time measurement.

  1. A high fraction of double-peaked narrow emission lines in powerful active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Yang; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-01

    1 per cent of redshift z ˜ 0.1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show velocity splitting of a few hundred km s-1 in the narrow emission lines in spatially integrated spectra. Such line profiles have been found to arise from the bulk motion of ionized gas clouds associated with galactic-scale outflows, merging pairs of galaxies each harbouring a supermassive black hole (SMBH), and/or galactic-scale disc rotation. It remains unclear, however, how the frequency of narrow-line velocity splitting may depend on AGN luminosity. Here we study the correlation between the fraction of Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked narrow emission lines and AGN luminosity as indicated by [O III] λ5007 emission-line luminosity L_[O III]. We combine the sample of Liu et al. at z ˜ 0.1 with a new sample of 178 Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked [O III] emission lines at z ˜ 0.5. We select the new sample from a parent sample of 2089 Type 2 AGNs from the SDSS-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a statistically significant (˜4.2σ) correlation between L_[O III] and the fraction of objects that exhibit double-peaked narrow emission lines among all Type 2 AGNs, corrected for selection bias and incompleteness due to [O III] line width, equivalent width, splitting velocity, and/or equivalent width ratio between the two velocity components. Our result suggests that galactic-scale outflows and/or merging pairs of SMBHs are more prevalent in more powerful AGNs, although spatially resolved follow-up observations are needed to resolve the origin(s) for the narrow-line velocity splitting for individual AGNs.

  2. Fluor Hanford (FH) River Corridor Transition Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCBRIDE, D.J.

    2002-08-28

    This Transition Plan defines the scope and schedule for actions that are critical for a smooth transition of the River Corridor scope of work and to ensure the achievement of transition as planned, with minimal or no impact to ongoing baseline activities.

  3. A Corridor Microcomputer for Physics Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    A college physics department has been operating a "computer games station" in a corridor, with unrestricted access. The design of this station and summary of programs used are described. Program focuses on acceleration, rotating vectors, Maxwell's demonstration, wave display, and Fourier synthesis. (JN)

  4. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  5. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  6. K-Band Power Enbedded Transmission Line (ETL) MMIC Amplifiers for Satellite Communication Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tserng, Hua-Quen; Ketterson, Andrew; Saunier, Paul; McCarty, Larry; Davis, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of K-band high-efficiency, linear power pHEMT amplifiers implemented in Embedded Transmission Line (ETL) MMIC configuration with unthinned GaAs substrate and topside grounding are reported. A three-stage amplifier achieved a power-added efficiency of 40.5% with 264 mW output at 20.2 GHz. The linear gain is 28.5 dB with 1-dB gain compression output power of 200 mW and 31% power-added efficiency. The carrier-to-third-order intermodulation ratio is approx. 20 dBc at the 1-dB compression point. A RF functional yield of more than 90% has been achieved.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly. 1926.1407 Section 1926.1407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly. 1926.1407 Section 1926.1407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly. 1926.1407 Section 1926.1407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and...

  10. A Tesla-pulse forming line-plasma opening switch pulsed power generator.

    PubMed

    Novac, B M; Kumar, R; Smith, I R

    2010-10-01

    A pulsed power generator based on a high-voltage Tesla transformer which charges a 3.85 Ω/55 ns water-filled pulse forming line to 300 kV has been developed at Loughborough University as a training tool for pulsed power students. The generator uses all forms of insulation specific to pulsed power technology, liquid (oil and water), gas (SF(6)), and magnetic insulation in vacuum, and a number of fast voltage and current sensors are implemented for diagnostic purposes. A miniature (centimeter-size) plasma opening switch has recently been coupled to the output of the pulse forming line, with the overall system comprising the first phase of a program aimed at the development of a novel repetitive, table-top generator capable of producing 15 GW pulses for high power microwave loads. Technical details of all the generator components and the main experimental results obtained during the program and demonstrations of their performance are presented in the paper, together with a description of the various diagnostic tools involved. In particular, it is shown that the miniature plasma opening switch is capable of reducing the rise time of the input current while significantly increasing the load power. Future plans are outlined in the conclusions.

  11. Experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and MgB2-based superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, V. V.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Blagov, E. V.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Firsov, V. P.

    2012-03-01

    Results of developing and testing an experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and superconducting power (SCP) cable based on magnesium diboride (MgB2) are presented. Critical currents of the MgB2 based prototype SCP cable have been determined for the first time at the forced flow of liquid hydrogen in a temperature interval of 20-26 K. Various regimes of SCP cable cryostatting with both subcooled saturated liquid hydrogen have been tested in a broad range of supply rates (7-220 g/s) and pressures (0.15-0.4 MPa).

  12. Characteristics of low frequency electic and magnetic fields in the vicinity of electric power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.G. ); Wong, P.S. )

    1992-10-01

    Power engineers are often asked questions about the characteristics of low frequency electric and magnetic fields in the vicinity of power lines. Is it reasonable to use a quasi-static theory to calculate these fields Is it or is it not correct to describe these fields as radiation How can Poyntings theorem be used to address this question Why are electric and magnetic fields calculated independently when it is known that the fields satisfy the coupled Maxwells equations Under what conditions is the ratio of the electric and magnetic fields equal to the free space wave impedance Answers to these commonly asked questions are developed in this paper.

  13. Power Losses in the ILC 20-Mrad Extraction Line at 1-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, Arnaud; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2007-07-02

    The authors have performed a detailed study of the power losses in the post-collision extraction line of a TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a crossing angle of 20 mrad at the interaction point. Five cases were considered: four luminosity configurations for ILC and one for CLIC. For all of them, the strong beam-beam effects at the interaction point lead to an emittance growth for the outgoing beam, as well as to the production of beamstrahlung photons and e{sup +}e{sup -} coherent pairs. The power losses along the extraction line, which are due to energy deposition by a fraction of the disrupted beam, of the beamstrahlung photons and of the coherent pairs, were estimated in the case of ideal collisions, as well as with a vertical position or angular offset at the interaction point.

  14. A simple packet retransmission strategy for throughput and delay enhancement on power line communication channels

    SciTech Connect

    Onunga, J.O. ); Donaldson, R.W. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    A new, simple, and effective communication protocol is developed and evaluated for use on power line distribution networks. The protocol involves retransmission of unacknowledged packets, which are sent in either single or multiple (N) copies in accordance with estimates of communication link quality. Multiple packet copies can be code combined at the receiver, using majority voting on each bit position, to reduce packet error rates. Adaptive link quality estimates are based on the receipt or absence of positive acknowledgements. Information throughput efficiency is calculated and N optimized in terms of system variables. Performance benefits of code combining are clearly demonstrated. The algorithm was implemented and tested using a five-station intrabuilding power line communications network operating at 1.2, 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 kbit/s data rate. Substantial throughput and delay improvement occurred on poor quality links, without degrading performance on good links.

  15. Development of an electrical current sensor prototype for applications in high-power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, I. M.; Brígida, A. C. S.; Baptista, J. M.; Costa, J. C. W. A.; Martinez, M. A. G.; Jorge, P. A. S.

    2013-11-01

    A magneto-optical current sensor, based on a low birefringence SF57 glass prism, using a dual quadrature polarimetric configuration was implemented and tested aiming its application in high voltage power lines. Sensor operation is characterized and compared using distinct Super Luminescent Diodes as optical sources, with emission at 650 nm, 830 nm and 1550 nm. Calibration and resolution are obtained in the different operating conditions using a DAQ board and full digital control for signal acquisition and processing. In particular, the sensor was tested in the range from 0 to 1 kA at 50 Hz. Also, operation at different frequencies from 50 Hz to 400 Hz was compared. A robust casing was fabricated in Nylon material enabling the portability of the sensor and its application in different types of conductors. Preliminary results indicate the feasibility of using the sensor both for metering and protection applications in high-power lines with interrogation via the OPGW cable.

  16. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  17. Performance enhancement using forward error correction on power line communication channels

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.H.L. ); Friedman, D.; Donaldson, R.W. )

    1994-04-01

    The use of forward error correction (FEC) coding is investigated, to enhance communication throughput and reliability on noisy power line networks. Rate one-half self-orthogonal convolutional codes are considered. These codes are known to be effective in other environments, and can be decoded inexpensively in real-time using majority logic decoders. Extensive bit and packet error rate tests were conducted on actual, noisy in-building power line links. Coding gains of 15 dB were observed at 10[sup [minus]3] decoded bit error rates. A self-orthogonal (2, 1, 6) convolutional code with interleaving to degree 7 was particularly effective, and was implemented as a VLSI microelectronic chip. Its use improved data throughput and packet error rates substantially, at data transmission rates of 9,600 bits/s.

  18. Reducing The Risk Of Abrupt Climate Change: Emission Corridors Preserving The Thermohaline Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, K.

    Paleo-reconstructions have shown that large and abrupt climate changes have occurred throughout the last ice-age cycles. This evidence, supplemented by insights into the complex and nonlinear nature of the climate system, gives raise to the concern that anthropogenic forcing may trigger such events in the future. A prominent example for such a potential climatic shift is the collapse of the North Atlantic thermohaline circu- lation (THC), which would cause a major cooling of the northern North Atlantic and north-western Europe and considerable regional sea level rise, with possibly severe consequences on, e.g., fisheries, agriculture and ecosystems. In this paper we present emission corridors for the 21st century preserving the THC. Emission corridors embrace the range of future emissions beyond which either the THC collapses or the mitigation burden becomes intolerable. They are calculated along the conceptual and methodological lines of the tolerable windows approach. We investigate the sensitivity of the emission corridors to the main uncertain parame- ters (climate and North Atlantic hydrological sensitivities as well as emissions of non CO_2 greenhouse gases). Results show a high dependence of the size of the emis- sion corridors on hydrological and climate sensitivities. For the best-guess values of both parameters we find that the emission corridors are wider than the range spanned by the SRES emissions scenarios. Thus, no immediate mitigation seems necessary in order to preserve the THC. For high but still realistic values of the sensitivities, however, even the low SRES emissions scenarios transgress the corridor boundaries. These findings imply that under 'business as usual' a non-negligible risk of either a THC collapse or an intolerable mitigation burden exists.

  19. Remote sensing impact on corridor selection and placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Sellman, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-aided corridor selection techniques, utilizing digitized data bases of socio-economic, census, and cadastral data, and developed for highway corridor routing are considered. Land resource data generated from various remote sensing data sources were successfully merged with the ancillary data files of a corridor selection model and prototype highway corridors were designed using the combined data set. Remote sensing derived information considered useful for highway corridor location, special considerations in geometric correction of remote sensing data to facilitate merging it with ancillary data files, and special interface requirements are briefly discussed.

  20. Corridors Increase Plant Species Richness at Large Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Damschen, Ellen I.; Haddad, Nick M.; Orrock,John L.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2006-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the largest threats to biodiversity. Landscape corridors, which are hypothesized to reduce the negative consequences of fragmentation, have become common features of ecological management plans worldwide. Despite their popularity, there is little evidence documenting the effectiveness of corridors in preserving biodiversity at large scales. Using a large-scale replicated experiment, we showed that habitat patches connected by corridors retain more native plant species than do isolated patches, that this difference increases over time, and that corridors do not promote invasion by exotic species. Our results support the use of corridors in biodiversity conservation.

  1. Radiatively driven winds for different power law spectra. [for explaining narrow and broad quasar absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltrametti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The analytic solutions for radiatively driven winds are given for the case in which the winds are driven by absorption of line and continuum radiation. The wind solutions are analytically estimated for different parameters of the central source and for different power law spectra. For flat spectra, three sonic points can exist; it is shown, however, that only one of these sonic points is physically realistic. Parameters of the central source are given which generate winds of further interest for explaining the narrow and broad absorption lines in quasars. For the quasar model presented here, winds which could give rise to the narrow absorption lines are generated by central sources with parameters which are not realistic for quasars.

  2. Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

    1982-07-29

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  3. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    DOEpatents

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  4. High-average-power narrow-line-width sum frequency generation 589 nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanhua; Fan, Guobin; Ren, Huaijin; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xiafei; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Min

    2015-10-01

    An 81 W average-power all-solid-state sodium beacon laser at 589 nm with a repetition rate of 250 Hz is introduced, which is based on a novel sum frequency generation idea between two high-energy, different line widths, different beam quality infrared lasers (a 1064 nm laser and a 1319 nm laser). The 1064 nm laser, which features an external modulated CW single frequency seed source and two stages of amplifiers, can provide average-power of 150 W, beam quality M2 of ~1.8 with ultra-narrow line width (< 100 kHz). The 1319 nm laser can deliver average-power of 100 W, beam quality M2 of ~3.0 with a narrow line width of ~0.3 GHz. By sum frequency mixing in a LBO slab crystal (3 mm x 12 mm x 50 mm), pulse energy of 325 mJ is achieved at 589 nm with a conversion efficiency of 32.5 %. Tuning the center wavelength of 1064 nm laser by a PZT PID controller, the target beam's central wavelength is accurately locked to 589.15910 nm with a line width of ~0.3 GHz, which is dominated mainly by the 1319 nm laser. The beam quality is measured to be M2 < 1.3. The pulse duration is measured to be 150 μs in full-width. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest average-power for all-solid-state sodium beacon laser ever reported.

  5. Analysis of the grounding system for a mobile communication site placed on HV power line mast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bîrsan, I.; Munteanu, C.; Horgoș, M.; Ilut, T.

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential distribution on the soil surface or potential variation on the main directions inside computing mobile site. I want to study a system made the earth a mobile communications site, antennas operator and the system of which the earth is placed on a High Voltage Power Line Mast (LEA 110 KV). I made direct measurements and I use a 3D software for analyze the results and simulating some possible solutions.

  6. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. 29.21-8 Section 29.21-8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT Rights-of-Way General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric...

  7. Fiber-optic sensor for real-time monitoring of temperature on high voltage (400KV) power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Tarun K.; Paul, Mukul C.; Bjerkan, Leif

    2009-10-01

    On-line monitoring of temperature and sag in 400KV power transmission line has successfully been implemented by a novel device using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The complete device has been fabricated with aluminum mount connected via fibre-optic cable and installed on ACSR power conductor for continuous two years measurement. This paper presents the excellent results and experience of the tests in controlled indoor environments conducted in Norway and real-field application on installed power conductor in India. Thus, better surveillance of the thermal and mechanical loads on power lines can be possible using this FBG sensor system.

  8. The most powerful quasar outflows as revealed by the Civ λ1549 resonance line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Martínez Carballo, M. A.; Sulentic, J. W.; Del Olmo, A.; Stirpe, G. M.; Dultzin, D.

    2016-01-01

    Outflows from quasars may be almost ubiquitous, but there are significant differences on a source- by-source basis. These differences can be organized along the 4D Eigenvector 1 sequence: at low z, only the Population A sources radiating at relatively high Eddington ratio show evidences of prominent high- velocity outflows from the Civλ1549 line profiles. Here we discuss, starting from recent observations of high-luminosity sample of Hamburg-ESO quasars, the Civλ1549 emission line profiles and how they are affected by outflow motion as a function of the quasar luminosity. Our high-luminosity sample has the notable advantage that the rest frame has been set by previous Hβ observations in the J, H, and K band, therefore making measurements of inter-line shift accurate and free of systemic biases. As the redshift increases and the luminosity of the brightest quasars grows, powerful, high-velocity outflows may become more frequent. We then discuss the outflow contextualisation following the 4DE1 approach as a tool for unveiling the nature of the so-called Weak Lined Quasars (WLQs) that have emerged in recent years as a new, poorly understood class of quasars. We estimate the kinetic power associated with the Civλ1549 emitting gas in outflow, and we suggest that the host galaxies of the most luminous sources may experience a significant feedback effect.

  9. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-01-01

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:25051035

  10. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-01-01

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  11. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  12. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  13. Low-Power Testing of Losses in Millimeter-Wave Transmission Lines for High-Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Han, S T; Comfoltey, E N; Shapiro, M A; Sirigiri, J R; Tax, D S; Temkin, R J; Woskov, P P; Rasmussen, D A

    2008-11-01

    We report the measurement of small losses in transmission line (TL) components intended for high-power millimeter-wave applications. Measurements were made using two different low-power techniques: a coherent technique using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and an incoherent technique using a radiometer. The measured loss in a 140 GHz 12.7 mm diameter TL system, consisting of 1.7 m of circular corrugated waveguide and three miter bends, is dominated by the miter bend loss. The measured loss was 0.3±0.1 dB per miter bend using a VNA; and 0.22±0.1 dB per miter bend using a radiometer. Good agreement between the two measurement techniques implies that both are useful for measuring small losses. To verify the methodology, the VNA technique was employed to measure the extremely small transmission loss in a 170 GHz ITER prototype TL system consisting of three lengths of 1 m, 63.5 mm diameter, circular corrugated waveguide and two miter bends. The measured loss of 0.05±0.02 dB per miter bend may be compared with the theoretical loss of 0.027 dB per miter bend. These results suggest that low-power testing of TL losses, utilizing a small, simple TL system and a VNA, is a reliable method for evaluating performance of low-loss millimeter-wave TL components intended for use in high-power applications.

  14. Low-Power Testing of Losses in Millimeter-Wave Transmission Lines for High-Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S. T.; Comfoltey, E. N.; Shapiro, Michael; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Tax, David; Temkin, Richard J; Woskov, P. P.; Chang, Won; Rasmussen, David A

    2008-08-01

    We report the measurement of small losses in transmission line (TL) components intended for high-power millimeter-wave applications. Measurements were made using two different low-power techniques: a coherent technique using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and an incoherent technique using a radiometer. The measured loss in a 140 GHz 12.7 mm diameter TL system, consisting of 1.7 m of circular corrugated waveguide and three miter bends, is dominated by the miter bend loss. The measured loss was 0.3 {+-} 0.1 dB per miter bend using a VNA; and 0.22 {+-} 0.1 dB per miter bend using a radiometer. Good agreement between the two measurement techniques implies that both are useful for measuring small losses. To verify the methodology, the VNA technique was employed to measure the extremely small transmission loss in a 170 GHz ITER prototype TL system consisting of three lengths of 1 m, 63.5 mm diameter, circular corrugated waveguide and two miter bends. The measured loss of 0.05 {+-} 0.02 dB per miter bend may be compared with the theoretical loss of 0.027 dB per miter bend. These results suggest that low-power testing of TL losses, utilizing a small, simple TL system and a VNA, is a reliable method for evaluating performance of low-loss millimeter-wave TL components intended for use in high-power applications.

  15. River-Corridor Habitat Dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies. Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets. While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  16. A Novel Uniform Discrete Multitone Transceiver with Power-Allocation for Digital Subscriber Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Sobia; Junaid Mughal, Muhammad

    A novel Uniform Discrete Multitone (DMT) transceiver is proposed, utilizing a wavelet packet based filter bank transmultiplexer in conjunction with a DMT transceiver. The proposed transceiver decomposes the channel spectrum into subbands of equal bandwidth. The objective is to minimize the bit error rate (BER), which is increased by channel-noise amplification. This noise amplification is due to the Zero-Forcing equalization (ZFE) technique. Quantization of the channel-noise amplification is presented, based on post-equalization signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and probability of error in all subbands of the Uniform DMT system. A modified power loading algorithm is applied to allocate variable power according to subband gains. A BER performance comparison of the Uniform DMT with variable and uniform power-loading and with a conventional DMT system in a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) channel is presented.

  17. The effects of lightning and high altitude electromagnetic pulse on power distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Uman, M.A.; Rubinstein, M.; Yacoub, Z.

    1995-01-01

    We simultaneously recorded the voltages induced by lightning on both ends of an unenergized 448-meter long unenergized electric power line and the lightning vertical electric and horizontal magnetic fields at ground level near the line. The lightning data studied and presented here were due both to cloud lightning and to very close (about 20 m from the line) artificially initiated lightning. For cloud sources, a frequency-domain computer program called EMPLIN was used to calculate induced line voltages as a function of source elevation, angle of incidence, and wave polarization of the radiated cloud discharge pulses in order to compare with the measurements. For very-close lightning, the measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories, those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which we call oscillatory, and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which we call impulsive. The amplitude of the induced voltage ranged from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages. A new technique is derived for the calculation of the electromagnetic fields from nearby lightning to ground above an imperfectly conducting ground. This technique was used in conjunction with an existing time domain coupling theory and lightning return stroke model to calculate voltages at either end of the line. The results show fair agreement with the measured oscillatory voltage waveforms if corona is ignored and improved results when corona effects are modeled. The modeling of the impulsive voltage, for which local flashover probably successful. In an attempt to understand better the sources of the line voltages for very close lightning, measurements of the horizontal and vertical electric fields 30 m from triggered lightning were obtained.

  18. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  19. THE JET POWER AND EMISSION-LINE CORRELATIONS OF RADIO-LOUD OPTICALLY SELECTED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Zhang Shaohua E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2011-07-01

    In this Letter, the properties of the extended radio emission form Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars with 0.4 < z < 0.8 is studied. This low-redshift sample is useful since any corresponding FIRST radio observations are sensitive enough to detect extended flux in even the weakest Fanaroff-Riley II (FR II) radio sources. In the sample, 2.7% of the sources have detectable extended emission on larger than galactic scales (>20-30 kpc). The frequency of quasars with FR II level extended radio emission is {approx}2.3% and >0.4% of quasars have FR I level extended radio emission. The lower limit simply reflects the flux density limit of the survey. The distribution of the long-term time-averaged jet powers of these quasars, Q-bar , has a broad peak {approx}3 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} that turns over below 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and sources above 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} are extremely rare. It is found that the correlation between the bolometric (total thermal) luminosity of the accretion flow, L{sub bol}, and Q-bar is not strong. The correlation of Q-bar with narrow line luminosity is stronger than the correlation with broad line luminosity and the continuum luminosity. It is therefore concluded that previous interpretations of correlations of Q-bar with narrow line strengths in radio galaxies as a direct correlation of jet power and accretion power have been overstated. It is explained why this interpretation mistakenly overlooks the sizeable fraction of sources with weak accretion luminosity and powerful jets discovered by Ogle et al.

  20. Lumped-element model of a tapered transmission line for impedance matching in a pulsed power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kun-A.; Ko, Kwang-Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In a pulsed power system, impedance matching is one of the significant factors for increasing the efficiency of the system. One of the most general methods for impedance matching is to use a tapered transmission line. Because the characteristics of a tapered transmission line are changed continuously according to its position, modeling the tapered transmission line by using lumped elements is difficult. In this study, we investigated a tapered transmission line to match the impedance of power supply to that of a load by using lumped elements especially in a pulsed power system. In modeling the tapered transmission line, we used the concept of a transmission, and we introduced an efficient modeling method. We propose a simulation model based on the investigation results. The results of the study will be useful for research on tapered transmission lines.

  1. Site mitigation issues along the Alameda Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Ripaldi, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Alameda Corridor is a consolidated railroad link between the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach and the regional and national rail systems linking the nation. A joint Environmental Impacts Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) was prepared for the project. The Final EIS was issued in February 1996, and a record of decision was issued in May, 1996. Various Phase 1 and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments have provided extensive historical documentation of environmental contamination in the vicinity of the Alameda Corridor Transportation Project. A Site Mitigation Master Plan provides guidance and direction for the clean-up activities. Samples will be analyzed for metals, PCB`s TRPH, BTEX, and VOCs.

  2. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  3. Narrow-line, tunable, high-power diode laser pump for DPAL applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Rajiv; Merchen, David; Stapleton, Dean; Irwin, David; Humble, Chuck; Patterson, Steve; Kissel, Heiko; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-05-01

    We report on a high-power diode laser pump source for diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPAL), specifically rubidium alkali vapor lasers at 780nm, delivering up to 100W/bar with FWHM spectral line width of 0.06nm (~30GHz). This pump is based on a micro-channel water-cooled stack with collimation in both-axes. Wavelength-locking of the output spectrum allows absorption in one of the very narrow resonance lines of the atomic rubidium alkali vapor. To achieve these results, research was conducted to deliver the highest performance on all key components of the product from the diode laser bar which produces the optical power at 780nm to the external Bragg gratings which narrow the spectrum line width. We highlight the advancements in the epitaxy, device design, beam collimation, grating selection, alignment, tunability and thermal control that enable realization of this novel pump-source for DPALs. Design trade-offs will be presented.

  4. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tewksbury, Joshua, J.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Haddad, Nick, M.; Sargent, Sarah; Orrock, John, L.; Weldon, Aimee; Danielson, Brent, J.; Brinkerhoff, Jory; Damschen, Ellen, I.; Townsend, Patricia

    2002-10-01

    Tewksbury, J.J., D.J. Levey, N.M. Haddad, S. Sargent, J.L. Orrock, A. Weldon, B.J. Danielson, J. Brinkerhoff, E.I. Damschen, and P. Townsend. 2002. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes. PNAS 99(20):12923-12926. Among the most popular strategies for maintaining populations of both plants and animals in fragmented landscapes is to connect isolated patches with thin strips of habitat, called corridors. Corridors are thought to increase the exchange of individuals between habitat patches, promoting genetic exchange and reducing population fluctuations. Empirical studies addressing the effects of corridors have either been small in scale or have ignored confounding effects of increased habitat area created by the presence of a corridor. These methodological difficulties, coupled with a paucity of studies examining the effects of corridors on plants and plant-animal interactions, have sparked debate over the purported value of corridors in conservation planning. We report results of a large-scale experiment that directly address this debate. We demonstrate that corridors not only increase the exchange of animals between patches, but also facilitate two key plant-animal interactions: pollination and seed dispersal. Our results show that the beneficial effects of corridors extend beyond the area they add, and suggest that increased plant and animal movement through corridors will have positive impacts on plant populations and community interactions in fragmented landscapes.

  5. Plasma evolution and dynamics in high-power vacuum-transmission-line post-hole convolutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Hughes, T. P.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2008-06-01

    Vacuum-post-hole convolutes are used in pulsed high-power generators to join several magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) in parallel. Such convolutes add the output currents of the MITLs, and deliver the combined current to a single MITL that, in turn, delivers the current to a load. Magnetic insulation of electron flow, established upstream of the convolute region, is lost at the convolute due to symmetry breaking and the formation of magnetic nulls, resulting in some current losses. At very high-power operating levels and long pulse durations, the expansion of electrode plasmas into the MITL of such devices is considered likely. This work examines the evolution and dynamics of cathode plasmas in the double-post-hole convolutes used on the Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman , Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.872881]. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations that model the entire radial extent of the Z accelerator convolute—from the parallel-plate transmission-line power feeds to the z-pinch load region—are used to determine electron losses in the convolute. The results of the simulations demonstrate that significant current losses (1.5 MA out of a total system current of 18.5 MA), which are comparable to the losses observed experimentally, could be caused by the expansion of cathode plasmas in the convolute regions.

  6. Mutual design: Overhead transmission lines and railroad facilities: Susceptibility program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.J.; Little, D.R.

    1989-07-01

    The sharing of common corridors by electric power transmission lines and railroad facilities can result in the coupling of unwanted electromagnetic energy from the power lines into nearby railroad systems. The coupling can result in voltage being induced onto the railroad system conductors that may compromise the inherent safety and reliability of the railroad signalling system. This broad-scoped research program, which is co-sponsored by EPRI and the AAR, is addressing the problem from two directions. This two volume report describes a Phase 1 effort to develop the methods and techniques for quantifying the signal system response to interference. 54 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  8. A nonlinear adaptive method of elimination of power line interference in ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Ziarani, Alireza K; Konrad, Adalbert

    2002-06-01

    A new method of elimination of power line noise in electrocardiogram signals is presented. The proposed method employs, as its main building block, a recently developed signal processing algorithm capable of extracting a specified component of a signal and tracking its variations over time. Design considerations and performance of the proposed method are presented with the aid of computer simulations. Superior performance is observed in terms of effective elimination of noise under conditions of varying powerline interference frequency. The proposed method presents a simple and robust structure which complies with practical constraints involved in the problem such as low computational resource availability and low sampling frequency.

  9. Statistical evaluation of telephone noise interference caused by AC power line harmonic currents

    SciTech Connect

    Kuussaari, M. )

    1993-04-01

    A statistical approach is applied for the evaluation of the limits for harmonic currents in AC power lines, the goal being to prevent excessive telephone noise interference voltages in subscriber cables in rural areas. The analysis is based on Monte-Carlo simulation which takes into account the effect of the experiental probability distributions of the relevant parameters. In the Finnish conditions, the properties of communication cables permit equivalent disturbing phase currents of 8 to 10 A. The digital exchanges permit approximately the same currents. Some new telephone types that have a low balance may make it necessary to limit the currents to a level that is somewhat lower.

  10. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Reale, D. V.; Krile, J. T.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  11. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Reale, D V; Krile, J T; Garcia, R S; Cravey, W H; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed. PMID:27250448

  12. Learning Rate Updating Methods Applied to Adaptive Fuzzy Equalizers for Broadband Power Line Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Moisés V.

    2004-12-01

    This paper introduces adaptive fuzzy equalizers with variable step size for broadband power line (PL) communications. Based on delta-bar-delta and local Lipschitz estimation updating rules, feedforward, and decision feedback approaches, we propose singleton and nonsingleton fuzzy equalizers with variable step size to cope with the intersymbol interference (ISI) effects of PL channels and the hardness of the impulse noises generated by appliances and nonlinear loads connected to low-voltage power grids. The computed results show that the convergence rates of the proposed equalizers are higher than the ones attained by the traditional adaptive fuzzy equalizers introduced by J. M. Mendel and his students. Additionally, some interesting BER curves reveal that the proposed techniques are efficient for mitigating the above-mentioned impairments.

  13. Transmission line pulse system for avalanche characterization of high power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Michele; Ascione, Giovanni; De Falco, Giuseppe; Maresca, Luca; De Laurentis, Martina; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Because of the increasing in power density of electronic devices for medium and high power application, reliabilty of these devices is of great interest. Understanding the avalanche behaviour of a power device has become very important in these last years because it gives an indication of the maximum energy ratings which can be seen as an index of the device ruggedness. A good description of this behaviour is given by the static IV blocking characteristc. In order to avoid self heating, very relevant in high power devices, very short pulses of current have to be used, whose value can change from few milliamps up to tens of amps. The most used method to generate short pulses is the TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) test, which is based on charging the equivalent capacitance of a transmission line to high value of voltage and subsequently discharging it onto a load. This circuit let to obtain very short square pulses but it is mostly used for evaluate the ESD capability of semiconductor and, in this environment, it generates pulses of low amplitude which are not high enough to characterize the avalanche behaviour of high power devices . Advanced TLP circuit able to generate high current are usually very expensive and often suffer of distorption of the output pulse. In this article is proposed a simple, low cost circuit, based on a boosted-TLP configuration, which is capable to produce very square pulses of about one hundreds of nanosecond with amplitude up to some tens of amps. A prototype is implemented which can produce pulses up to 20A of amplitude with 200 ns of duration which can characterize power devices up to 1600V of breakdown voltage. Usage of microcontroller based logic make the circuit very flexible. Results of SPICE simulation are provided, together with experimental results. To prove the effectiveness of the circuit, the I-V blocking characteristics of two commercial devices, namely a 600V PowerMOS and a 1200V Trench-IGBT, are measured at different

  14. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Romanchenko, I. V. Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  15. Response variables for evaluation of the effectiveness of conservation corridors.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew J; Beier, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have evaluated effectiveness of corridors by measuring species presence in and movement through small structural corridors. However, few studies have assessed whether these response variables are adequate for assessing whether the conservation goals of the corridors have been achieved or considered the costs or lag times involved in measuring the response variables. We examined 4 response variables-presence of the focal species in the corridor, interpatch movement via the corridor, gene flow, and patch occupancy--with respect to 3 criteria--relevance to conservation goals, lag time (fewest generations at which a positive response to the corridor might be evident with a particular variable), and the cost of a study when applying a particular variable. The presence variable had the least relevance to conservation goals, no lag time advantage compared with interpatch movement, and only a moderate cost advantage over interpatch movement or gene flow. Movement of individual animals between patches was the most appropriate response variable for a corridor intended to provide seasonal migration, but it was not an appropriate response variable for corridor dwellers, and for passage species it was only moderately relevant to the goals of gene flow, demographic rescue, and recolonization. Response variables related to gene flow provided a good trade-off among cost, relevance to conservation goals, and lag time. Nonetheless, the lag time of 10-20 generations means that evaluation of conservation corridors cannot occur until a few decades after a corridor has been established. Response variables related to occupancy were most relevant to conservation goals, but the lag time and costs to detect corridor effects on occupancy were much greater than the lag time and costs to detect corridor effects on gene flow. PMID:24606549

  16. Complexity Analysis of Traffic in Corridors-in-the-Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2010-01-01

    The corridors-in-the-sky concept imitates the highway system in ground transportation. The benefit expected from a corridor relies on its capability of handling high density traffic with negligible controller workload, the acceptance of extra fuel or distance, and the complexity reduction in underlying sectors. This work evaluates a selected corridor from these perspectives through simulations. To examine traffic inside the corridor, a corridor traffic simulation tool that can resolve conflicts is developed using C language. Prescribed conflict resolution maneuvers mimic corridor users behaviors and conflict resolution counts measure complexity. Different lane options and operational policies are proposed to examine their impacts on complexity. Fuel consumption is calculated and compared for corridor traffic. On the other hand, to investigate the complexity of non-corridor traffic in underlying sectors, the existing Airspace Concept Evaluation System tool is utilized along with the Automated Airspace Concept tool. The number of conflict resolutions is examined and treated as the complexity measurement. The results show heavy traffic can be managed with low complexity for a historical traffic schedule simulated with appropriate operational policies and lane options. For instance, with 608 flights and peak aircraft count of 100, only 84 actions need to be taken in a 24-hour period to resolve the conflicts for an 8-lane corridor. Compared with the fuel consumptions with great circle trajectories, the simulation of corridor traffic shows that the total extra fuel for corridor flights is 26,373 gallons, or 2.76%, which is 0.38% less than flying filed flight plans. Without taking climb and descent portions of corridor traffic, the complexity of underlying sectors is reduced by 17.71%. However the climb and descent portions will eliminate the reduction and the overall complexity of sectors is actually increased by 9.14%.

  17. WEST CORRIDOR (ORIGINALLY KNOWN AS LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CARD CATALOG) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST CORRIDOR (ORIGINALLY KNOWN AS LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CARD CATALOG) ON FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING EAST - Free Library of Philadelphia, Central Library, 1901 Vine Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Secondary entrance corridor (room 120, representing room 121), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Secondary entrance corridor (room 120, representing room 121), looking west (bearing 270) from elevator lobby - California State Office Building No. 1, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  20. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  1. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  2. 6. INTERIOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, FROM SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, FROM SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administrative Offices, On Seventh Street East of Maritime Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. A power line data communication interface using spread spectrum technology in home automation

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Khan, A.Z.

    1996-07-01

    Building automation technology is rapidly developing towards more reliable communication systems, devices that control electronic equipments. These equipment if controlled leads to efficient energy management, and savings on the monthly electricity bill. Power Line communication (PLC) has been one of the dreams of the electronics industry for decades, especially for building automation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate communication methods among electronic control devices through an AC power line carrier within the buildings for more efficient energy control. The paper outlines methods of communication over a powerline, namely the X-10 and CE bus. It also introduces the spread spectrum technology as to increase speed to 100--150 times faster than the X-10 system. The powerline carrier has tremendous applications in the field of building automation. The paper presents an attempt to realize a smart house concept, so called, in which all home electronic devices from a coffee maker to a water heater microwave to chaos robots will be utilized by an intelligent network whenever one wishes to do so. The designed system may be applied very profitably to help in energy management for both customer and utility.

  4. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts: Power-law and annihilation-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.; Sturrock, P. A.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1988-01-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  5. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  6. Use of power-line interference for adaptive motion artifact removal in biopotential measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Rooijakkers, Michael J; Rabotti, Chiara; Peuscher, Jan; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Motion artifacts (MA) have long been a problem in biopotential measurements. Adaptive filtering is widely used for optimal noise removal in many biomedical applications. However, the existing adaptive filtering methods involve the use of additional sensors, limiting the applicability of adaptive filtering for MA reduction. In the present study, a novel adaptive filtering method without need for additional sensors is proposed. In biopotential measurements, movement of the electrodes and their leads may cause variations not only in the skin and half-cell potential (motion artifacts), but also in the electrode-skin impedance. Such impedance variations may also cause power-line interference modulation (PLIM), resulting in additional spectral components around the power-line interference (PLI) in the frequency domain. Demodulation of the PLI may reflect the movement-induced electrode-skin impedance variation, and can therefore represent a reference signal for the adaptive filter. Preliminary validation on ECG measurements with seven volunteers showed a high correlation coefficient (R  =  0.97) between MA and PLIM, and excellent MA removal by the proposed adaptive filter, possibly leading to improved analysis of biopotential signals. PMID:26641265

  7. Wire Marking Results in a Small but Significant Reduction in Avian Mortality at Power Lines: A BACI Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Rafael; Ponce, Carlos; Palacín, Carlos; Martín, Carlos A.; Martín, Beatriz; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background Collision with electric power lines is a conservation problem for many bird species. Although the implementation of flight diverters is rapidly increasing, few well-designed studies supporting the effectiveness of this costly conservation measure have been published. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information on the largest worldwide marking experiment to date, including carcass searches at 35 (15 experimental, 20 control) power lines totalling 72.5 km, at both transmission (220 kV) and distribution (15 kV–45 kV) lines. We found carcasses of 45 species, 19 of conservation concern. Numbers of carcasses found were corrected to account for carcass losses due to removal by scavengers or being overlooked by researchers, resulting in an estimated collision rate of 8.2 collisions per km per month. We observed a small (9.6%) but significant decrease in the number of casualties after line marking compared to before line marking in experimental lines. This was not observed in control lines. We found no influence of either marker size (large vs. small spirals, sample of distribution lines only) or power line type (transmission vs. distribution, sample of large spirals only) on the collision rate when we analyzed all species together. However, great bustard mortality was slightly lower when lines were marked with large spirals and in transmission lines after marking. Conclusions Our results confirm the overall effectiveness of wire marking as a way to reduce, but not eliminate, bird collisions with power lines. If raw field data are not corrected by carcass losses due to scavengers and missed observations, findings may be biased. The high cost of this conservation measure suggests a need for more studies to improve its application, including wire marking with non-visual devices. Our findings suggest that different species may respond differently to marking, implying that species-specific patterns should be explored, at least for species of conservation

  8. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  9. Health monitoring of electric power communication line using a distributed optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lidong; Liang, Yun; Li, Binglin; Guo, Jinghong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xuping

    2014-11-01

    Optical fiber ground wire (OPGW) is used for both the earth line and communication line in electric power systems. It is important to find an effective to monitor the status of OPGW and diagnose some possible damages. Fault location of the optical fiber transmission line, lightning stroke location and early-warning of ice covering of OPGW are common tasks for OPGW health monitoring and maintenance. As to these issues, Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) is employed for the health monitoring of OPGW. In experiment, a positive electrode with high pulsed current and a negative electrode are adopted to form a lightning impulse system with duration time of 200ms for simulation of the lightning stroke process, and a tensile force loading apparatus is also constructed to simulate the strain influence of the ice covering on the OPGW. Experimental results demonstrate that the BOTDR can sensitively locate the lightning stroke incidents with the quantity of electric discharging larger than 100C and the strain component has little interference on temperature monitoring as the fiber contained in the OPGW is generally free of strain, and in the ice covering condition the strain feature appears only when the extra tensile force on the OPGW is over 30kN. In addition, the vibration of OPGW does not disturb both the temperature and strain monitoring. As to further applications of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) for the OPGW health monitoring, it is important to enhance its spatial resolution.

  10. High power coatings for line beam laser optics of up to 2-meter in length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Mathias; Kohlhaas, Jürgen; Ebert, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Laser material processing plays an important role in the fabrication of the crucial parts for state-of-the-art smartphones and tablets. With industrial line beam systems a line shaped beam with a length above one meter and an average power of several thousand watts can be realized. To ensure excellent long axis beam homogeneity, demanding specifications regarding the substrate surface form tolerances and the coating uniformity have to be achieved for each line beam optic. In addition, a high laser damage threshold and a low defect density are required for the coatings. In order to meet these requirements, the MAXIMA ion beam sputtering machine was developed and built by LASEROPTIK. This contribution describes the functional principle of MAXIMA deposition machine, which adapts the ion beam sputtering technology with its highest coating quality to the field of large area deposition. Furthermore, recent developments regarding the process control by optical broadband monitoring are discussed. Finally experimental results on different thin film characteristics as for example the coating uniformity, the microstructure and the laser damage resistance of multilayers are presented.

  11. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Pointon, T.D.; Savage, M.E.; Seidel, D.B.; Magne, I.; Vezinet, R.

    2006-04-15

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds.

  12. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Magne, I.; Savage, Mark Edward; Seidel, David Bruce; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David; Vezinet, R.

    2004-08-01

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds.

  13. A fast, robust algorithm for power line interference cancellation in neural recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Power line interference may severely corrupt neural recordings at 50/60 Hz and harmonic frequencies. The interference is usually non-stationary and can vary in frequency, amplitude and phase. To retrieve the gamma-band oscillations at the contaminated frequencies, it is desired to remove the interference without compromising the actual neural signals at the interference frequency bands. In this paper, we present a robust and computationally efficient algorithm for removing power line interference from neural recordings. Approach. The algorithm includes four steps. First, an adaptive notch filter is used to estimate the fundamental frequency of the interference. Subsequently, based on the estimated frequency, harmonics are generated by using discrete-time oscillators, and then the amplitude and phase of each harmonic are estimated by using a modified recursive least squares algorithm. Finally, the estimated interference is subtracted from the recorded data. Main results. The algorithm does not require any reference signal, and can track the frequency, phase and amplitude of each harmonic. When benchmarked with other popular approaches, our algorithm performs better in terms of noise immunity, convergence speed and output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While minimally affecting the signal bands of interest, the algorithm consistently yields fast convergence (<100 ms) and substantial interference rejection (output SNR >30 dB) in different conditions of interference strengths (input SNR from -30 to 30 dB), power line frequencies (45-65 Hz) and phase and amplitude drifts. In addition, the algorithm features a straightforward parameter adjustment since the parameters are independent of the input SNR, input signal power and the sampling rate. A hardware prototype was fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process and tested. Software implementation of the algorithm has been made available for open access at https://github.com/mrezak/removePLI. Significance. The proposed

  14. Power lines: Urban space, energy development and the making of the modern Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Todd Andrew

    "Power Lines: Urban Space, Energy Development, and the Making of the Modern Southwest" explores the social and environmental transformation of the postwar Southwest and the resulting disputes between urban boosters, federal officials, Native Americans, and environmental activists. The dissertation focuses on the infrastructure built to provide the burgeoning populations of Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other Southwestern cities with electricity. This infrastructure allowed metropolitan boosters in the Southwest to attract Cold War defense manufacturing and to build a new suburban landscape even as industrialization on Indian lands provided electricity for those landscapes. Tracing the transition of electrical generation from a dispersed geography relying on local resources to a centralized geography utilizing primarily coal from Navajo land, "Power Lines" demonstrates the increasing centrality of Indian lands and labor to the metropolitan Southwest. Paying close attention to these networks reveals the far-reaching changes caused by postwar metropolitan growth. "Power Lines" challenges understandings of urban space that neglect the material resources that allow cities to "live." As the nation's cities and suburbs became increasingly energy-intensive, electrical utilities reached deep into the metropolitan periphery, transforming landscapes hundreds of miles from city centers into urban space. The construction of the new "geography of power" in the Southwest also reflects the impact of growth liberalism on postwar growth, as federal money funded suburban, manufacturing, and infrastructure developments. This pursuit of growth produced new political struggles, both as the development of energy resources conflicted with emerging environmentalist sensibilities and as American Indians increasingly resented the industrialization of their land for the benefit of others. By the 1970s, the simultaneous pursuit and criticism of growth came to define the modern Southwest. The

  15. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Hill, David E

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor

  16. Environmental Survey Report for the ETTP: Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Haul Road Corridor, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-12-20

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveys conducted within the corridor of a temporary haul road (''Haul Road'') to be constructed from East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located just west of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). ORNL assistance to the Haul Road Project included environmental assessments necessary to determine the best route for minimizing impacts to sensitive resources such as wetlands or rare plants. Once the final route was chosen, environmental surveys were conducted within the corridor to evaluate the impacts to sensitive resources that could not be avoided. The final Haul Road route follows established roads and a power-line corridor to the extent possible (Fig. 1). Detailed explanation regarding the purpose of the Haul Road and the regulatory context associated with its construction is provided in at least two major documents and consequently is not presented here: (1) Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January 2005, DOE/OR/01-2194&D2), and (2) Environmental Monitoring Plan for The ETTP to EMWMF Haul Road for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (April 2005, BJC/OR-2152). The focus of this report is a description of the sensitive resources to be impacted by Haul Road construction. Following a short description of the methods used for the environmental surveys, results and observations are presented in the following subsections: (1) General description of the affected

  17. Effects of Vegetation, Corridor Width and Regional Land Use on Early Successional Birds on Powerline Corridors

    PubMed Central

    Askins, Robert A.; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M.; Hardy, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management. PMID:22363660

  18. Application of offset-CT scanning to the inspection of high power feeder lines and connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, Daniel; Maziuk, Robert; Soyfer, Boris; Shashishekhar, N.; Alreja, Rahul

    2016-02-01

    VJT is developing techniques and scanning methods for the in-situ Radiographic and Computed Tomographic inspection of underground high-power feeder cables. The goals for the inspection are to measure the 3D state of the cables and the cable-connections. Recent in-situ Digital Radiographic inspections performed by VJT have demonstrated the value of NDE inspection information for buried power lines. These NDE data have raised further questions as to the exact state of the cables and connections and pointed to the need for more 3D information of the type provided by volumetric CT scanning. VJT is pursuing a three phased approach to address the many issues involved in this type of inspection: 1) develop a high-power feeder-cable test-bed CT scanner, 2) acquire scans on underground feeder pipes that have been removed from service, and 3) from the work in 1) and 2) develop limited-angle CT scanning methods for extending in-situ Digital Radiography to volumetric CT measurements. To this end, VJT has developed and fielded a high-energy test-bed Gantry-type CT scanner (the source and detector move around the object) with a number of important properties. First, the geometry of the gantry-scans can be configured to match the techniques used in the in-situ radiographic inspection. The same X-ray source is employed as in portable Radiographic inspections, a 7.5 MeV Betatron coupled to a Perkin-Elmer Amorphous Silicon detector. Offset-CT scanning is employed as the high-power feeder line assembly is larger than the detector. A description of this scanner and the scan geometry will be presented showing the connection to in-situ radiography. Results from the CT scans of high-power feeder-cable specimens removed from service will be presented with a focus on the inspection potential of volumetric CT data on these assemblies. An evaluation of the scan performance properties of these data compared to the spectrum of life-cycle inspection issues will be presented. Continuing and

  19. Angular power spectrum of sterile neutrino decay lines: the role of eROSITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandanel, Fabio; Weniger, Christoph; Ando, Shin’ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We study the potential of the angular auto and cross-correlation power spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in identifying sterile neutrino dark matter taking as reference the performances of the soon-to-be-launched eROSITA satellite. The main astrophysical background sources in this case are active galactic nuclei, galaxies powered by X-ray binaries, and clusters of galaxies. We show that while sterile neutrino decays are always subdominant in the autocorrelation power spectra, they can be efficiently enhanced when cross-correlating with tracers of the dark matter distribution. We estimate that the four-years eROSITA all-sky survey will potentially provide very stringent constraints on the sterile neutrino decay lifetime by cross-correlating the cosmic X-ray background with the 2MASS galaxy catalogue. This will allow to firmly test the recently claimed 3.56-keV X-ray line found towards several clusters and galaxies and its decaying dark matter interpretation. We finally stress that the main limitation of this approach is due to the shot noise of the galaxy catalogues used as tracers for the dark matter distribution, a limitation that we need to overcome to fully exploit the potential of the eROSITA satellite in this context.

  20. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; McShea, William J; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Hao; Lu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda movements caused by

  1. Evaluating Landscape Options for Corridor Restoration between Giant Panda Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; McShea, William J.; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Hao; Lu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda movements caused by

  2. Population dynamics of Microtus pennsylvanicus in corridor-linked patches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffman, C.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Corridors have become a key issue in the discussion of conservation planning: however, few empirical data exist on the use of corridors and their effects on population dynamics. The objective of this replicated, population level, capture-re-capture experiment on meadow voles was to estimate and compare population characteristics of voles between (1) corridor-linked fragments, (2) isolated or non-linked fragments, and (3) unfragmented areas. We conducted two field experiments involving 22600 captures of 5700 individuals. In the first, the maintained corridor study, corridors were maintained at the time of fragmentation, and in the second, the constructed corridor study, we constructed corridors between patches that had been fragmented for some period of time. We applied multistate capture-recapture models with the robust design to estimate adult movement and survival rates, population size, temporal variation in population size, recruitment, and juvenile survival rates. Movement rates increased to a greater extent on constructed corridor-linked grids than on the unfragmented or non-linked fragmented grids between the pre- and post-treatment periods. We found significant differences in local survival on the treated (corridor-linked) grids compared to survival on the fragmented and unfragmented grids between the pre- and post-treatment periods. We found no clear pattern of treatment effects on population size or recruitment in either study. However, in both studies, we found that unfragmented grids were more stable than the fragmented grids based on lower temporal variability in population size. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental study demonstrating that corridors constructed between existing fragmented populations can indeed cause increases in movement and associated changes in demography, supporting the use of constructed corridors for this purpose in conservation biology.

  3. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; McShea, William J; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Hao; Lu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda movements caused by

  4. Estimating the Environmental Costs of Africa's Massive "Development Corridors".

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Sloan, Sean; Weng, Lingfei; Sayer, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-21

    In sub-Saharan Africa, dozens of major "development corridors" have been proposed or are being created to increase agricultural production [1-4], mineral exports [5-7], and economic integration. The corridors involve large-scale expansion of infrastructure such as roads, railroads, pipelines, and port facilities and will open up extensive areas of land to new environmental pressures [1, 4, 8]. We assessed the potential environmental impacts of 33 planned or existing corridors that, if completed, would total over 53,000 km in length and crisscross much of the African continent. We mapped each corridor and estimated human occupancy (using the distribution of persistent night-lights) and environmental values (endangered and endemic vertebrates, plant diversity, critical habitats, carbon storage, and climate-regulation services) inside a 50-km-wide band overlaid onto each corridor. We also assessed the potential for each corridor to facilitate increases in agricultural production. The corridors varied considerably in their environmental values, and many were only sparsely populated. Because of marginal soils or climates, some corridors appear to have only modest agricultural potential. Collectively, the corridors would bisect over 400 existing protected areas and could degrade a further ~1,800 by promoting habitat disruption near or inside the reserves. We conclude that many of the development corridors will promote serious and largely irreversible environmental changes and should proceed only if rigorous mitigation and protection measures can be employed. Some planned corridors with high environmental values and limited agricultural benefits should possibly be cancelled altogether. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  5. Estimating the Environmental Costs of Africa's Massive "Development Corridors".

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Sloan, Sean; Weng, Lingfei; Sayer, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-21

    In sub-Saharan Africa, dozens of major "development corridors" have been proposed or are being created to increase agricultural production [1-4], mineral exports [5-7], and economic integration. The corridors involve large-scale expansion of infrastructure such as roads, railroads, pipelines, and port facilities and will open up extensive areas of land to new environmental pressures [1, 4, 8]. We assessed the potential environmental impacts of 33 planned or existing corridors that, if completed, would total over 53,000 km in length and crisscross much of the African continent. We mapped each corridor and estimated human occupancy (using the distribution of persistent night-lights) and environmental values (endangered and endemic vertebrates, plant diversity, critical habitats, carbon storage, and climate-regulation services) inside a 50-km-wide band overlaid onto each corridor. We also assessed the potential for each corridor to facilitate increases in agricultural production. The corridors varied considerably in their environmental values, and many were only sparsely populated. Because of marginal soils or climates, some corridors appear to have only modest agricultural potential. Collectively, the corridors would bisect over 400 existing protected areas and could degrade a further ~1,800 by promoting habitat disruption near or inside the reserves. We conclude that many of the development corridors will promote serious and largely irreversible environmental changes and should proceed only if rigorous mitigation and protection measures can be employed. Some planned corridors with high environmental values and limited agricultural benefits should possibly be cancelled altogether. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26628009

  6. Ergonomics hazards analysis of linemen's power line fixing work in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Sun, Linyan; Du, Jianhua; Wu, Fengge

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative methods, such as OWAS (Ovako working posture analysis system) and behavior observation, to analyze musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors of power line fixing work in China. Video-based sampling was used to record and analyze the frequency and posture of on-pole activities. Those key subtasks showed ergonomics characteristics of on-pole fixing tasks. Insulator-fixing was the longest subtask (33% of total working time). Bar-installing was the second longest (26% of total working time). It was evident that bar-installing and insulator-fixing were full of hazardous risks. The action categories of the 2 subtasks were higher than of the other ones. The 2 subtasks were also time-consuming, difficult and induced MSDs. Assistant linemen faced more hazardous factors than chief linemen.

  7. Unsupervised learning technique for surface electromyogram denoising from power line interference and baseline wander.

    PubMed

    Niegowski, Maciej; Zivanovic, Miroslav; Gomez, Marisol; Lecumberri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel approach to single-channel power line interference (PLI) and baseline wander (BW) removal from surface electromyograms (EMG). It is based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) using a priori knowledge about the interferences. It performs a linear decomposition of the input signal spectrogram into non-negative components, which represent the PLI, BW and EMG spectrogram estimates. They all exhibit very different time-frequency patterns: PLI and BW are both sparse whereas EMG is noise-like. Initialization of the classical NMF algorithm with accurately designed PLI, BW and EMG structures and a carefully adjusted matrix decomposition rank increases the separation performance. The comparative study suggests that the proposed method outperforms two state-of-the-art reference methods. PMID:26737971

  8. Line-focus solar central power system, phase I. Subsystem experiment: receiver heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    Wind-tunnel tests confirmed that heat losses due to natural convection are negligible in the line-focus, solar-powered receiver. Anomalies in the forced-convection tests prevented definitive conclusions regarding the more important forced convection. Flow-visualization tests using a water table show much lower velocities inside the receiver cavity than outside, supporting the supposition that the forced-heat transfer should be less than that from a standard exposed cylinder. Furthermore, the water-table tests showed ways to decrease the low velocities in the cavity should this be desired. Further wind-tunnel testing should be done to confirm estimates and to support advanced design. This testing can be done in standard wind tunnels since only the forced convection is of concern.

  9. Power system distributed on-line fault section estimation using decision tree based neural nets approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.T.; Chang, W.Y.; Huang, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed neural nets decision approach to on-line estimation of the fault section of a transmission and distribution (T and D) system. The distributed processing alleviates the burden of communication between the control center and local substations, and increases the reliability and flexibility of the diagnosis system. Besides, by using the algorithms of data-driven decision tree induction and direct mapping from the decision tree into neural net, the proposed diagnosis system features parallel processing and easy implementation, overcoming the limitations of overly large and complex system. The approach has been practically tested on a typical Taiwan Power (Taipower) T and D system. The feasibility of such a diagnosis system is presented.

  10. Robust suppression of nonstationary power-line interference in electrocardiogram signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Guojun; Zeng, Xiaopin; Zhou, Xiaona; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Guojin; Zhou, Xichuan

    2012-07-01

    It is a challenge to suppress time-varying power-line interference (PLI) with various levels in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Most previous attempts of tracking and suppressing the nonstationary PLI signal are based on the least-squares (LS) algorithm. This makes these methods susceptible to QRS complex in suppressing a low-level PLI signal which is frequently coupled in battery-operated ECG equipment. To address the limitation of LS-based methods, this study presents a robust PLI suppression system based on a robust extension of the Kalman filter. In addition, we used an improved version of empirical mode decomposition to further attenuate the QRS complex. Experiments show that our system could effectively suppress the PLI while preserving meaningful ECG components at various interference levels.

  11. Measurements of induced voltages and currents in a distribution power line and associated atmospheric parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Perez, Julio

    1988-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of thunderstorms around the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has affected scheduled launch, landing, and other ground operations for many years. In order to protect against and provide safe working facilities, KSC has performed and hosted several studies on lightning phenomena. For the reasons mentioned above, KSC has established the Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (ASFL). At these facilities KSC launches wire-towing rockets into thunderstorms to trigger natural lightning to the launch site. A program named Rocket Triggered Lightning Program (RTLP) is being conducted at the ASFL. This report calls for two of the experiments conducted in the summer 1988 Rocket Triggered Lightning Program. One experiment suspended an electric field mill over the launching areas from a balloon about 500 meters high to measure the space charges over the launching area. The other was to connect a waveform recorder to a nearby distribution power line to record currents and voltages wave forms induced by natural and triggered lightning.

  12. Survey of ELF magnetic field levels in households near overhead power lines in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vulevic, B; Osmokrovic, P

    2011-06-01

    During the last eight years, 'VINČA' Institute--Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory has performed environmental 'spot' broadband measurements of extremely low frequency (ELF-50 Hz) electric and magnetic fields and RF (100 kHz-3 GHz) electromagnetic fields in over 35 municipalities in Serbia. These investigations were motivated by the local population requesting information about levels of general public exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields in living spaces. This paper presents a summary of values measured in households under overhead power lines. These measurements will be useful in determining the exposure levels of the general public, which in turn determines whether the exposure levels are within reference levels recommended by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines. It has turned out that measured values are far below the recommended safe levels. PMID:21273197

  13. Abort-once-around entry corridor analysis program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The abort once around entry target corridor analysis program (ABECAP) was studied. The allowable range of flight path angles at entry interface for acceptable entry trajectories from a shuttle abort once around (AOA) situation was established. The solutions thus determined may be shown as corridor plots of entry interface flight path angle versus range from entry interface (EI) to the target.

  14. 45 CFR 153.530 - Risk corridors data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACT Health Insurance Issuer Standards Related to the Risk Corridors Program § 153.530 Risk corridors... 153.530 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE... of benefit and payment parameters. (b) Allowable costs. A QHP issuer must submit to HHS data on...

  15. Can dispersal mode predict corridor effects on plant parasites?

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Lauren, L.; Johnson, Brenda, L.; Brudvig, Lars, A.; Haddad, Nick, M.

    2011-08-01

    Habitat corridors, a common management strategy for increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes, have experimentally validated positive influences on species movement and diversity. However, long-standing concerns that corridors could negatively impact native species by spreading antagonists, such as disease, remain largely untested. Using a large-scale, replicated experiment, we evaluated whether corridors increase the incidence of plant parasites. We found that corridor impacts varied with parasite dispersal mode. Connectivity provided by corridors increased incidence of biotically dispersed parasites (galls on Solidago odora) but not of abiotically dispersed parasites (foliar fungi on S. odora and three Lespedeza spp.). Both biotically and abiotically dispersed parasites responded to edge effects, but the direction of responses varied across species. Although our results require additional tests for generality to other species and landscapes, they suggest that, when establishing conservation corridors, managers should focus on mitigating two potential negative effects: the indirect effects of narrow corridors in creating edges and direct effects of corridors in enhancing connectivity of biotically dispersed parasites.

  16. 45 CFR 153.530 - Risk corridors data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 153.530 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Health Insurance Issuer Standards Related to the Risk Corridors Program § 153.530 Risk...

  17. Courtyard. Left wall is corridor from 511 to 515. Right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Courtyard. Left wall is corridor from 511 to 515. Right wall is the south side of 517. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Physiotherapy & Electrocardiograph Department Building, North of Building No. 516, East of corridor connecting Building No. 511 to Building No. 515, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Soil quality and the solar corridor crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  19. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  20. Staff corridor (room 206, representing rooms 301, 305, 401, 405, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Staff corridor (room 206, representing rooms 301, 305, 401, 405, 501, and 505), looking south towards the staff corridor vestibule (room 206A, representing rooms 305A, 405A, and 505A). - California State Office Building No. 1, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. A corridor on the first floor of the building, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A corridor on the first floor of the building, looking west, shows some of the typical interior finishes in this section. At the end of the hallway, the corridor turns right after entering the next adjacent structure - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  2. On-line mechanical tube cleaning for steam electric power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    In July 1991, Superior I.D. Tube Cleaners, Inc. (SIDTEC{trademark}) received a grant through the Department of Energy and the Energy Related Invention Program to conduct a long term demonstration of a proprietary technology for on-line mechanical condenser tube cleaning in thermal Power plants on open or once-through cooling water systems where the warmed condenser cooling water is discharged through a canal. The purpose of the demonstration was to confirm and establish the use of this mechanical method as an alternative to the application of chemical biocides in condenser cooling water for the control of biofouling, the growth of micro-organisms which can reduce a unit`s operating efficiency. The SIDTEC on-line mechanical tube cleaner, the Rocket{trademark}, is used to physically remove accumulated deposits on the water side of the main steam condenser, and the non-intrusive tube cleaner recovery system, the Skimmer{trademark}, is used to recover and recirculate tube cleaners. The periodic circulation of tube cleaners can maintain optimum condenser cleanliness and improve unit heat rate. Thermal power plants which discharge condenser cooling water through a canal now have a viable alternative to the chemical treatment of condenser cooling water, whether the principal foulant is biofouling, chemical scaling, silting, or a combination of the three. At prices competitive with scale inhibitors, and a fraction of competing mechanical systems, this technology is provided as a service requiring no capital investment; minimal retrofit modifications to plant structures or equipment; can be installed and maintained without a unit shutdown; does not add any restrictions in the cooling water system; and is environmentally benign.

  3. An experimental test of whether habitat corridors affect pollen transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Patricia A.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2005-02-01

    Abstract. Negative effects of habitat fragmentation are thought to be diminished when habitat patches are joined by a corridor. A key assumption is that corridors facilitate exchange rates of organisms between otherwise isolated patches. If the organisms are pollinators, corridors may be important for maintaining genetically viable populations of the plants that they pollinate. We tested the hypothesis that corridors increase the movement of insect pollinators into patches of habitat and thereby increase pollen transfer for two species of plants, one pollinated by butterflies (Lantana camara) and the other by bees and wasps (Rudbeckia hirta). We worked in an experimental landscape consisting of 40 greater than or equal to 1-ha patches of early-successional habitat in a matrix of forest. Within each of eight experimental units, two patches were connected by a corridor (150 X 25 m), and three were not. Patch shape varied to control for the area added by the presence of a corridor. Differences in patch shape also allowed us to test alternative hypotheses of how corridors might function. The Traditional Corridor Hypothesis posits that corridors increase immigration and emigration by functioning as movement conduits between patches. The Drift Fence Hypothesis posits that corridors function by ‘‘capturing’’ organisms dispersing through the matrix, redirecting them into associated habitat patches. Using fluorescent powder to track pollen, we found that pollen transfer by butterflies between patches connected by a corridor was significantly higher than between unconnected patches (all values mean plus or minus 1 SE: 59% plus or minus 9.2% vs. 25% plus or minus 5.2% of flowers receiving pollen). Likewise, pollen transfer by bees and wasps was significantly higher between connected patches than between unconnected patches (30% plus or minus 4.2% vs. 14.5% plus or minus 2.2%). These results support the Traditional Corridor Hypothesis. There was little support, however

  4. Overhead electric power transmission line jumpering system for bundles of five or more subconductors

    DOEpatents

    Winkelman, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Jumpering of electric power transmission lines at a dead end tower. Two transmission line conductor bundles each contain five or more spaced apart subconductors (5) arranged in the shape of a cylinder having a circular cross section. The ends of each bundle of subconductors are attached with insulators to a dead end tower (1). Jumpering allows the electric current to flow between the two bundles of subconductors using jumper buses, internal jumper conductors, and external jumper conductors. One or more current collecting jumper buses (37) are located inside each bundle of subconductors with each jumper bus being attached to the end of a subconductor. Small-diameter internal jumper conductors (33) are located in the inherently electrically shielded area inside each bundle of subconductors with each subconductor (except ones having an attached jumper bus) having one internal jumper conductor connected between that subconductor's end and a jumper bus. Large-diameter external jumper conductors (9) are located outside each bundle of subconductors with one or more external jumper conductors being connected between the jumper buses in one bundle of subconductors and the jumper buses in the other bundle.

  5. Geometric Context and Orientation Map Combination for Indoor Corridor Modeling Using a Single Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baligh Jahromi, Ali; Sohn, Gunho

    2016-06-01

    Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected and converted to a 3D

  6. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.

    2010-12-01

    Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

  7. Implementation of an on-line monitoring system for transmitters in a CANDU nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, A.; Abdul-Nour, G.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.

    2012-05-01

    Many transmitters (pressure, level and flow) are used in a nuclear power plant. It is necessary to calibrate them periodically to ensure that their measurements are accurate. These calibration tasks are time consuming and often contribute to worker radiation exposure. Human errors can also sometimes degrade their performance since the calibration involves intrusive techniques. More importantly, experience has shown that the majority of current calibration efforts are not necessary. These facts motivated the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments. These technologies, well known as on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques, are non-intrusive and allow focusing the maintenance efforts on the instruments that really need a calibration. Although few OLM systems have been implemented in some PWR and BWR plants, these technologies are not commonly used and have not been permanently implemented in a CANDU plant. This paper presents the results of a research project that has been performed in a CANDU plant in order to validate the implementation of an OLM system. An application project, based on the ICMP algorithm developed by EPRI, has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of an OLM system. The results demonstrated that the OLM system was able to detect the drift of an instrument in the majority of the studied cases. A feasibility study has also been completed and has demonstrated that the implementation of an OLM system at a CANDU nuclear power plant could be advantageous under certain conditions.

  8. A novel modular approach to active power-line harmonic filtering in distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shatshat, Ramadan A.

    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient and reliable modular active harmonic filter system to realize a cost-effective solution to the harmonic problem. The proposed filter system consists of a number CSC modules, each dedicated to filter a specific harmonic of choice (Frequency-Splitting Approach). The power rating of the modules will decrease and their switching frequency will increase as the order of the harmonic to be filtered is increased. The overall switching losses are minimized due to the selected harmonic elimination and balanced a "power rating"-"switching frequency" product. Two ADALINEs are proposed as a part of the filter controller for processing the signals obtained from the power-line. One ADALINE (the Current ADALINE) extracts the fundamental and harmonic components of the distorted current. The other ADALINE (the Voltage ADALINE) estimates the line voltage. The outputs of both ADALINEs are used to construct the modulating signals of the filter modules. The proposed controller decides which CSC filter module(s) is connected to the electric grid. The automated connection of the corresponding filter module(s) is based on decision-making rules in such a way that the IEEE 519-1992 limits are not violated. The information available on the magnitude of each harmonic component allows us to select the active filter bandwidth (i.e., the highest harmonic to be suppressed). This will result in more efficiency and higher performance. The proposed controller adjusts the I dc in each CSC module according to the present magnitude of the corresponding harmonic current. This results in optimum dc-side current value and minimal converter losses. The comparison of the proposed modular active filter scheme and the conventional one converter scheme on practical use in industry is presented. This comparison shows that the proposed solution is more economical, reliable and flexible compared to conventional one. High speed and accuracy of ADALINE, self

  9. Solving the 56Ni Puzzle of Magnetar-powered Broad-lined Type IC Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Han, Yan-Hui; Xu, Dong; Wang, Shan-Qin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are of great importance because their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) holds the key to deciphering the central engine of LGRBs, which refrains from being unveiled despite decades of investigation. Among the two popularly hypothesized types of central engine, i.e., black holes and strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars), there is mounting evidence that the central engine of GRB-associated SNe (GRB-SNe) is rapidly rotating magnetars. Theoretical analysis also suggests that magnetars could be the central engine of SNe Ic-BL. What puzzled the researchers is the fact that light-curve modeling indicates that as much as 0.2{--}0.5 {M}ȯ of 56Ni was synthesized during the explosion of the SNe Ic-BL, which is unfortunately in direct conflict with current state-of-the-art understanding of magnetar-powered 56Ni synthesis. Here we propose a dynamic model of magnetar-powered SNe to take into account the acceleration of the ejecta by the magnetar, as well as the thermalization of the injected energy. Assuming that the SN kinetic energy comes exclusively from the magnetar acceleration, we find that although a major fraction of the rotational energy of the magnetar is to accelerate the SN ejecta, a tiny fraction of this energy deposited as thermal energy of the ejecta is enough to reduce the needed 56Ni to 0.06 M ⊙ for both SN 1997ef and SN 2007ru. We therefore suggest that magnetars could power SNe Ic-BL in aspects both of energetics and of 56Ni synthesis.

  10. Comparative analysis of wireless systems as alternative to high-voltage power lines for global terrestrial power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Smakhtin, A.P.; Rybakov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the problem of creating the global terrestrial power transmission system, the method to analyze alternative systems including such non traditional systems as wireless power transmission systems. From the above discussion it appears that using microwave beam power transmission with an orbital reflector may be more effective in the case of power transportation between two very distant regions on the Earth, right up to the power transportation between two continents.

  11. Meander dynamics in a changing river corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdaleno, Fernando; Fernández-Yuste, José A.

    2011-07-01

    In the first decades of the twentieth century, the Ebro River was the Iberian channel with the most active fluvial dynamics and the most remarkable spatial-temporal evolution. Its meandering typology, the dimensions of its floodplain (with an average width > 3.0 km), and the singularities of its flow regime produced a especially interesting set of river functions from the perspective of the fluvial geomorphology of the largest Mediterranean channels. The largest dynamics of the Ebro River are concentrated along the meandering profile of the central sector. During the twentieth century, this sector experienced a large alteration of its geomorphological structure. We present here an analysis of this evolution through the cartographic study of a long segment of the river (~ 250 km) in 1927, 1956, and 2003. The study is focused on a wide set of geomorphic parameters and indicators that represent the forms of the meander belt, its lateral dynamics, and the overall mobility of the river corridor. The results of the analysis show a large transformation of the meander dynamics, as well as a massive loss of the river lateral activity, most of which occurred in the second half of the twentieth century. This intense geomorphological transformation becomes visible in (i) the large reduction of the bankfull width and the active channel area; (ii) the decrease in the rate of lateral channel migration; (iii) the loss of channel activity; and (iv) the large reduction of coincidence of the active channel areas. However, the most traditional form parameters (i.e., wavelength, amplitude, radius of curvature, and meander length) do not show significant differences throughout the time interval analysed. The study reinforces the necessity of integrating a wide range of dynamic indicators, which may complement the classical form parameters and represent the real functioning of the river corridor, in the geomorphological analyses of meander dynamics. This work also shows the most

  12. Lifelines and Earthquake Hazards Along the Interstate 5 Urban Corridor: Cottage Grove, Oregon, to Vancouver, B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, E. A.; Weaver, C. S.; Haugerud, R. A.; Ballantyne, D. B.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Madin, I. P.; Wells, R. E.; Darienzo, M.; Meagher, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    A new map series provides basic graphical representations of lifeline systems in relation to earthquake hazards along the economic and residential artery of the Pacific Northwest: the I-5 corridor from Cottage Grove, Oregon, to Vancouver, B.C. The lifeline systems that support the communities as well as local and regional commerce form a complex web of highways, railroads, pipelines, electrical power facilities, and ports, that cross areas of varying levels of earthquake hazards. This web depends on many components working together to make a functional system. Failure of one critical system component due to a large earthquake or other natural disaster can disable the system. Earthquakes tend to affect many systems at once, and the failure of one system, such as a highway, can impede the recovery of another system, such as an electrical power line. Therefore, understanding the geographical relationships between the lifeline systems, local communities, and earthquake hazards is an important element in the process of not only determining recovery priorities and strategies after an earthquake, but also for future planning purposes. The lifeline maps have a shaded-relief topographic background with integrated regional geology categorized as ground relatively susceptible or not susceptible to ground amplification, liquefaction and/or landslides in the event of an earthquake. The maps also show recent and historically important earthquakes estimated to be greater than magnitude 5. Lifeline systems superimposed on the geologic base are: major electrical transmission lines, water supply pipelines, major sewer pipelines and treatment plants, liquid fuel pipelines, natural gas pipelines, and major ports and airports. Map data are generalized in order to suit the needs of map users, ranging from the specialist to non-specialist. Accordingly, the maps do not provide site-specific information. The map presentation stresses the system nature of lifelines, as opposed to

  13. The Power Behind the Controversy: Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High Voltage Power Line Installation in the State of Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Rachael M.

    Following a proposal for the installation of high voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas, a controversial policy debate emerged. Proponents of the transmission line argue that such an installation is inevitable and necessary to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region. Opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. This study seeks to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with proposed transmission lines, which is a critical step in comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. First, based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. Next, this study focuses more specifically on the role of value predispositions, specific emotional dimensions of affect heuristics, and perceptions pertaining to high voltage power line risks and benefits. Using original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, other factors claimed by previous literature, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics are considered. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly -- through affective feelings -- shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high voltage power lines. Recognizing that risk perceptions factor into policy decisions, some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues

  14. Mutual design: Overhead Transmission Lines and Railroad Facilities Susceptibility Program, Phase 2: Volume 1, Railroad track interference-susceptibility tester design and testing; Volume 2, Set-up and LFETC test plan; Volume 3, Fabrication information. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.J.; Little, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    The sharing of corridors by electric power-transmission lines and railroad facilities results in coupling of electromagnetic energy from the power lines into nearby railroad systems. This electromagnetic coupling can induce voltage levels onto the railroad signaling system that can adversely affect the operation of these systems. The development and rapid deployment of sophisticated solid-state electronic track-signaling systems and the continued increase in demand for power will make this problem more serious, as additional joint railroad/electricutility common corridors will be needed and as power-system upgrades for existing corridors will be initiated. This three-volume report describes the development of a laboratory railroad-track simulator/interference-susceptibility tester. This simulator permits track-circuit signaling and grade-crossing systems to be tested in the laboratory to determine their susceptibility to power-line interference that is coupled to the rails for a wide range of realistic normal and abnormal signal-system operating conditions, block-length arrangements, and interference conditions. The simulator provides an accurate electrical analogue of the track system, including frequency-dependent rail skin-effect impedance, signal attenuation, and controlled-ballast variation. The simulator can be used to investigate the effects of both longitudinal and differential interference excitation of the rails.

  15. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Grace C.; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  16. Adaptive settings of distance relay for MOV-protected series compensated line with distributed capacitance considering wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivov, Oleg Viktorovich

    Series compensated lines are protected from overvoltage by metal-oxide-varistors (MOVs) connected in parallel with the capacitor bank. The nonlinear characteristics of MOV devices add complexity to fault analysis and distance protection operation. During faults, the impedance of the line is modified by an equivalent impedance of the parallel MOV/capacitor circuit, which affects the distance protection. The intermittent wind generation introduces additional complexity to the system performance and distance protection. Wind variation affects the fault current level and equivalent MOV/capacitor impedance during a fault, and hence the distance relay operation. This thesis studies the impact of the intermittent wind power generation on the operation of MOV during faults. For the purpose of simulation, an equivalent wind farm model is proposed to generate a wind generation profile using wind farm generation from California independent system operator (ISO) as a guide for wind power variation to perform the study. The IEEE 12-bus test system is modified to include MOV-protected series capacitor and the equivalent wind farm model. The modified test system is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The study has been achieved considering three phase and single line to ground (SLG) faults on the series compensated line to show the effect of wind variation on the MOV operation. This thesis proposes an adaptive setting method for the mho relay distance protection of series compensated line considering effects of wind power variation and MOV operation. The distributed parameters of a transmission line are taken into account to avoid overreaching and underreaching of distance relays. The study shows that variable wind power affects system power flow and fault current in the compensated line during a fault which affects the operation of MOVs for different fault conditions. The equivalent per-phase impedance of the MOV/capacitor circuit has an effect on the system operation

  17. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Smith, Cyrus M; DeNap, Frank A; White, James D; Gross, Ian G; Gorman, Bryan L; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  18. Corridors and some ecological and evolutionary consequences of connectivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L

    2004-07-01

    Abstract - By connecting disjunct patches, corridors may offset the effects of fragmentation by promoting gene flow and population persistence. However, the ultimate effect of corridors on a focal species may hinge upon two considerations: how corridors may affect ecological interactions that impinge upon that species, and how corridors might affect the fixation of novel alleles that ultimately determine fitness and persistence. Using an experimental landscape, I show that corridor-mediated changes in patch shape change seed predation in connected and unconnected patches, and shift the behavior, abundance, and distribution of seed predators. Rodent seed predators removed more seeds in connected patches, arthropod seed predators removed more seeds in rectangular patches, and avian seed predation did not differ due to patch type. Rodent foraging was greater in the interior of connected patches because changes in patch shape influenced risk perceived by rodents while foraging. Ant communities were also affected by changes in patch shape caused by corridors, rather than corridor effects per se. The distribution and abundance of ants differed among edge-rich areas (corridors and wings), edges, and the patch interior. In rectangular patches, fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) had negative impacts on other ant species. By changing the activity of rodents, and the composition of ant communities, corridors may have important impacts on seeds. Bird-dispersed seeds may benefit from increased dispersal among connected patches, but connected patches also have greater predation risk. Using a simulation model, I demonstrate that gene flow between a stable population and a population that experiences local extinction or a reduction in size (e.g. due to natural or anthropogenic disturbance) can dramatically affect fixation of alleles in the stable population. Alone or in concert, frequent disturbance, high rates of movement, and low habitat quality make it more likely that connectivity

  19. Why arguments based on photon energy may be highly misleading for power line frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Vistnes, A I; Gjötterud, K

    2001-04-01

    When evaluating possible mechanisms by which low frequency electromagnetic fields may have a biological effect, arguments based on photon energy have often been used in a misleading way. For visible light the concept of photons has proved to be very useful in explaining experimental findings. However, the concept of photons cannot be used without major modifications in describing phenomena related to near field problems at power frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields. For this regime, the photon description is very complex. A very high number of highly coherent photons must be used in a quantum electrodynamic description of low frequency electromagnetic field phenomena. Thus, one-photon interaction descriptions must be replaced by multiple-photon interaction formalism. However, at low frequencies, a classical electromagnetic field description is far more useful than quantum electrodynamics. There is in principle no difference in how much energy an electron can pick up from a low frequency electric field as compared to from a high frequency photon. Thus, the total gain in energy is not limited to the energy carried by a single photon, which is E = hv, where h is Planck's constant and (v) is the frequency of the radiation. However, the time scale of the primary event in a mechanism of action is very different for ionizing radiation compared to power line frequency fields. The advice is to consider the time scale given by the inverse of the frequency of the fields, rather than photon energy, when one use physics as a guidance in evaluating possible mechanisms for biological effects from low frequency electromagnetic fields.

  20. 140 W high power all-fiber laser at 1940 nm with narrow spectral line-width by MOPA configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Ju, Y. L.; Yao, B. Q.; Dai, T. Y.; Duan, X. M.; Zhang, Z. G.; Liu, W.

    2016-08-01

    We report a diode-pumped Tm3+-doped double-clad all-fiber laser operating at 1940 nm with a master oscillator power amplifier configuration; 50 W of seed was generated in master oscillator with 144 W pump power, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 40.1 %. With 212 W pump power, the seed was amplified to 140.9 W in power amplifier, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 47.1 %. The peak wavelength was 1939.57 nm with a narrow spectral line-width of 0.09 nm. The beam quality factor of M 2 was 1.29. Neither amplified spontaneous emission nor parasitic lasing was observed during the amplification process. The output power was only limited by the pump power.

  1. An On-Chip Noise Canceller with High Voltage Supply Lines for Nanosecond-Range Power Supply Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasumi; Takamiya, Makoto; Sakurai, Takayasu

    An on-chip power supply noise canceller with higher voltage supply and switching transistor is proposed and the effectiveness of the canceller is experimentally verified. The noise canceller is effective for nano-second order noise caused by circuit wakeup or step increase of frequency in frequency hopping. The principle of the noise canceller is to reduce the current flowing through the supply line of VDD by injecting additional current from the higher voltage supply, so that the voltage drop across the VDD supply line is reduced. As additional current flow from higher supply, switching transistor has to be turned off not to increase the power consumption. With turn-off time of 2L/R, this current can be turned off without inducting another droop due to the increase of current flowing through the power supply line. The measurement shows the canceller reduces 68% of the noise with load circuit equivalent to 530k logic gates in 90-nm CMOS with 9% wire overhead, 1.5% area overhead, and 3% power overhead at 50k wake-ups/s. Compared to passive noise reduction, proposed noise canceller reduces power supply noise by 64% without wire overhead and to achieve same noise reduction with passive method, 77 times more C or 45 times less L is required. Too large switching transistor results in saturated noise reduction effect and higher power consumption. A rule-of-thumb is to set the on-resistance to supply 100% of load current when turned-on.

  2. Electrocution of Raptors on Power Lines: A Review of Necropsy Methods and Findings.

    PubMed

    Kagan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution. A combination of gross, subgross, and radiographic examinations can aid in identification of subtle injury. Diagnosis is made based on the presence of skin and/or feather burns. Other necropsy findings may include skin lacerations, subcutaneous burns, bruising, limb avulsion, hemopericardium, and vascular rupture. At the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Forensics Laboratory, from 2000 to 2015, 417 raptor deaths were determined to have been caused by electrocution. Bald eagles and golden eagles were the most commonly submitted species. In a retrospective review of 377 cases, for which whole bodies were submitted, 18% of the electrocuted birds had only a single, small (less than 3 cm in diameter) external burn. Small, isolated burns tended to occur on the undersides of the wings at and distal to the elbow and on the lower legs and feet. These areas should be most carefully examined in cases where electrocution injury is not immediately apparent.

  3. Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2011-09-30

    Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

  4. Electrocution of Raptors on Power Lines: A Review of Necropsy Methods and Findings.

    PubMed

    Kagan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution. A combination of gross, subgross, and radiographic examinations can aid in identification of subtle injury. Diagnosis is made based on the presence of skin and/or feather burns. Other necropsy findings may include skin lacerations, subcutaneous burns, bruising, limb avulsion, hemopericardium, and vascular rupture. At the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Forensics Laboratory, from 2000 to 2015, 417 raptor deaths were determined to have been caused by electrocution. Bald eagles and golden eagles were the most commonly submitted species. In a retrospective review of 377 cases, for which whole bodies were submitted, 18% of the electrocuted birds had only a single, small (less than 3 cm in diameter) external burn. Small, isolated burns tended to occur on the undersides of the wings at and distal to the elbow and on the lower legs and feet. These areas should be most carefully examined in cases where electrocution injury is not immediately apparent. PMID:27154543

  5. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology.

  6. Practice and power: a review and interpretive synthesis focused on the exercise of discretionary power in policy implementation by front-line providers and managers.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Lucy; Schneider, Helen; Orgill, Marsha

    2014-12-01

    Tackling the implementation gap is a health policy concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited attention has so far been paid to the influence of power relations over this gap. This article presents, therefore, an interpretive synthesis of qualitative health policy articles addressing the question: how do actors at the front line of health policy implementation exercise discretionary power, with what consequences and why? The article also demonstrates the particular approach of thematic synthesis and contributes to discussion of how such work can inform future health policy research. The synthesis drew from a broader review of published research on any aspect of policy implementation in LMICs for the period 1994-2009. From an initial set of 50 articles identified as relevant to the specific review question, a sample of 16 articles were included in this review. Nine report experience around decentralization, a system-level change, and seven present experience of implementing a range of reproductive health (RH) policies (new forms of service delivery). Three reviewers were involved in a systematic process of data extraction, coding, analysis, synthesis and article writing. The review findings identify: the practices of power exercised by front-line health workers and their managers; their consequences for policy implementation and health system performance; the sources of this power and health workers' reasons for exercising power. These findings also provide the basis for an overarching synthesis of experience, highlighting the importance of actors, power relations and multiple, embedded contextual elements as dimensions of health system complexity. The significance of this synthesis lies in its insights about: the micropractices of power exercised by front-line providers; how to manage this power through local level strategies both to influence and empower providers to act in support of policy goals; and the focus and nature of future research on

  7. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  8. Effects of dietary green tea polyphenol supplementation on the health of workers exposed to high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Dan; Zhu, Baoyu; Zhang, He; Sun, Ye; Sun, Chengxun

    2016-09-01

    Although it has been several decades since the focus on the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of high-voltage power lines on human health, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. The present study aimed to investigate the change in oxidative stress after exposure to ELF-EMFs, and potential protective effects of green tea polyphenol supplementation (GTPS) on ELF-EMFs induced oxidative stress. A total of 867 subjects, including workers with or without exposure to ELF-EMFs of 110-420kV power lines, participated and were randomized into GTPS and placebo treatment groups. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were assessed by urinary tests of 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG. Significant increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG were observed in workers with ELF-EMFs exposure, which were diminished after 12 months of GTPS. No protective effects of GTPS on oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were observed after three months of GTPS withdraw. We found a negative impact of high-voltage power lines on the health of workers. Long-term GTPS could be an efficient protection against the health issues induced by high-voltage power lines. PMID:27490209

  9. Assessment of electromagnetic field levels from surrounding high-tension overhead power lines for proposed land use.

    PubMed

    Al-Bassam, E; Elumalai, A; Khan, A; Al-Awadi, L

    2016-05-01

    The surrounding outdoor environment for new development has a big effect on the indoor quality of life. The main aim of this work was to determine the suitability of the area for building new schools with reference to electromagnetic field (EMF) effects. The specific objective of this study was to detect the safe distance from the EMF posed by the high-tension overhead power lines in the vicinity of the specified area. The measurements were taken for both the electric and magnetic fields in different months in order to detect the highest EMF levels during the peak power load season. EMDEX II with E-probe and EMDEX II with Linda were used for the measurements. These instruments were all calibrated by ENERTECH Company in USA. The EMF associated with high tension transmission lines that surrounded the proposed site has to be below 0.2 μT (Italian EMF regulations are the most suitable regulations for the establishment of schools in Kuwait). The safety clearance distance from the existing 300-kV high-tension power line has been assigned as 200 m and from other existing 132-kV high-tension power line was 50 m. The proposed site with its predefined boundaries has a magnetic field below the Italian EMF regulations for the establishment of new schools.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... video equipment), equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings, to prevent electrical contact... November 8, 2013, the following procedure may be substituted for the requirement in (d)(4)(i) of...

  11. Effects of dietary green tea polyphenol supplementation on the health of workers exposed to high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Dan; Zhu, Baoyu; Zhang, He; Sun, Ye; Sun, Chengxun

    2016-09-01

    Although it has been several decades since the focus on the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of high-voltage power lines on human health, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. The present study aimed to investigate the change in oxidative stress after exposure to ELF-EMFs, and potential protective effects of green tea polyphenol supplementation (GTPS) on ELF-EMFs induced oxidative stress. A total of 867 subjects, including workers with or without exposure to ELF-EMFs of 110-420kV power lines, participated and were randomized into GTPS and placebo treatment groups. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were assessed by urinary tests of 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG. Significant increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG were observed in workers with ELF-EMFs exposure, which were diminished after 12 months of GTPS. No protective effects of GTPS on oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were observed after three months of GTPS withdraw. We found a negative impact of high-voltage power lines on the health of workers. Long-term GTPS could be an efficient protection against the health issues induced by high-voltage power lines.

  12. 77 FR 41369 - Dairyland Power Cooperative: CapX 2020 Hampton-Rochester-La Crosse Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Rural Utilities Service Dairyland Power Cooperative: CapX 2020 Hampton-Rochester-La Crosse Transmission Line Project AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Rural Utilities Service (RUS)...

  13. High-Harmonic Fast-Wave Power Flow Along Magnetic Field Lines in the Scrape-Off Layer of NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R. J.; Hosea, J.; Kramer, G.; Ahn, Joonwook; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Gray, T. K.; Green, David L; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B; McLean, Adam G; Maingi, Rajesh; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Sabbagh, S. A.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) power applied to NSTX can be lost to the scrape-off layer (SOL) and deposited in bright and hot spirals on the divertor rather than in the core plasma. We show that the HHFW power flows to these spirals along magnetic field lines passing through the SOL in front of the antenna, implying that the HHFW power couples across the entire width of the SOL rather than mostly at the antenna face. This result will help guide future efforts to understand and minimize these edge losses in order to maximize fast-wave heating and current drive.

  14. High-harmonic fast-wave power flow along magnetic field lines in the scrape-off layer of NSTX.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R J; Hosea, J C; Kramer, G J; Ahn, J-W; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S; Gray, T K; Green, D L; Jaeger, E F; Jaworski, M A; LeBlanc, B P; McLean, A; Maingi, R; Phillips, C K; Roquemore, L; Ryan, P M; Sabbagh, S; Taylor, G; Wilson, J R

    2012-07-27

    A significant fraction of high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) power applied to NSTX can be lost to the scrape-off layer (SOL) and deposited in bright and hot spirals on the divertor rather than in the core plasma. We show that the HHFW power flows to these spirals along magnetic field lines passing through the SOL in front of the antenna, implying that the HHFW power couples across the entire width of the SOL rather than mostly at the antenna face. This result will help guide future efforts to understand and minimize these edge losses in order to maximize fast-wave heating and current drive.

  15. Cryogenic-temperature profiling of high-power superconducting lines using local and distributed optical-fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Palmieri, Luca; Consales, Marco; Giordano, Michele; Borriello, Anna; Bajas, Hugues; Galtarossa, Andrea; Bajko, Marta; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents distributed and multipoint fiber-optic monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting power transmission line down to 30 K and over 20 m distance. Multipoint measurements were conducted using fiber Bragg gratings sensors coated with two different functional overlays (epoxy and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) demonstrating cryogenic operation in the range 300-4.2 K. Distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimide). The integrated system has been placed along the 20 m long cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Cool-down events from 300-30 K have been successfully measured in space and time, confirming the viability of these approaches to the monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line. PMID:26421547

  16. 15. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  17. 14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator Building, general view VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  18. 41. OPERATING CORRIDOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, INCLUDING SOME ISOMETRIC DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OPERATING CORRIDOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, INCLUDING SOME ISOMETRIC DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106455. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-P-60 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... air, water, soil, fish, wildlife, and vegetation; (3) Physical effects and constraints on corridor... further review. (d) The resource management plan or plan amendment may also identify areas where BLM...

  20. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... 2008 (PRIIA). The NECSC is made up of stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the... will include: Positive Train Control update presentations from NEC railroads, Transportation Security Administration NEC security initiatives, aging electric traction infrastructure, the Americans with...

  1. 77 FR 73734 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... (PRIIA). The Committee is made up of stakeholders operating on the ] Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the... Transportation, impacts of Hurricane Sandy on NEC infrastructure and lessons learned, and a general discussion...

  2. Ego-Vehicle Corridors for Vision-Based Driver Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard; Vaudrey, Tobi; Wang, Shigang

    Improving or generalizing lane detection solutions on curved roads with possibly broken lane marks is still a challenging task. This paper proposes a concept of a (virtual) corridor for modeling the space an ego-vehicle is able to drive through, using available (but often incomplete, e.g., due to occlusion, road conditions, or road intersections) information about the lane marks but also about the motion and relative position (with respect to the road) of the ego-vehicle. A corridor is defined in this paper by special features, such as two fixed starting points, a constant width, and a unique relationship with visible lane marks. Robust corridor detection is possible by hypothesis testing based on maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation, followed by boundary selection, and road patch extension. Obstacles are explicitly considered. A corridor tracking method is also discussed. Experimental results are provided.

  3. 76 FR 21790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Public Transportation, for potential transportation improvements in the Interstate 66 corridor in... cooperation with the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) and Virginia Department of Rail and Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 22. Axial view along north cell corridor, cells at right; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Axial view along north cell corridor, cells at right; view to southwest, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  5. 32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  6. 13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. 31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing inside surface of outer door - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... and performance. (3) Involved Parties. Provide the organizational structure of the parties... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  11. 23. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR CORRIDOR ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR CORRIDOR ABOVE THE THEATER LOBBY, BUILDING 746, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 32. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, DETAIL OF LIGHT COFFER, PILASTER CAPITAL, AND MOULDING - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 35. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR AND SOUTH FOYER, DETAIL OF BRONZE BUILDING DIRECTORY (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 38. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY 4, WEST WALL, AMERICAN MOOSE MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 49. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF DECORATIVE BEAM, CORBEL, AND CEILING - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, SOUTH WALL, DEER STALKING MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY 4, EAST WALL, AMERICAN BISON MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 22. Interior second level view of central corridor between crew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Interior second level view of central corridor between crew mess and galley, showing representative hallway treatment. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, looking up flue - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, view west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. 1-9 - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 7. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH HALF OF EAST CORRIDOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH HALF OF EAST CORRIDOR, RANGE 5, WITH CENTRAL ROOF SUPPORTS, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 50. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF TIN LIGHTING SCONCE - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  6. 7. INTERIOR, KITCHEN SOUTH OF CENTRAL EASTWEST CORRIDOR, FROM ENTRY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, KITCHEN SOUTH OF CENTRAL EAST-WEST CORRIDOR, FROM ENTRY, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. Monumental corridor (room 503), looking westsouthwest (bearing 240), elevators to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monumental corridor (room 503), looking west-southwest (bearing 240), elevators to left of frame not visible. - California State Library & Courts Building, 914 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. Facility No. 175, interior overview from secondfloor corridor on northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 175, interior overview from second-floor corridor on northwest side - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 12. VIEW OF CONNECTING CORRIDOR BETWEEN BUILDINGS 130 AND 131, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF CONNECTING CORRIDOR BETWEEN BUILDINGS 130 AND 131, FACING SOUTH FROM HOWE STREET. - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. Corridor in west wing Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corridor in west wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Corridor in north wing Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corridor in north wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. 138. INTERIOR, SEVENTH FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR NUMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. INTERIOR, SEVENTH FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR NUMBER 1, WEST WALL, SALT RIVER IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA PAINTING - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Corridors and olfactory predator cues affect small mammal behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Haddad, Nick M.; Orrock, John L.

    2005-03-30

    Abstract The behavior of prey individuals is influenced by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, habitat configuration, risk of predation, and availability of resources, and these habitat-dependent factors may have interactive effects. We studied the responses of mice to an increase in perceived predation risk in a patchy environment to understand how habitat corridors might affect interactions among species in a fragmented landscape. We used a replicated experiment to investigate corridor-mediated prey responses to predator cues in a network of open habitat patches surrounded by a matrix of planted pine forest. Some of the patches were connected by corridors. We used mark–recapture techniques and foraging trays to monitor the movement, behavior, and abundance of small mammals. Predation threat was manipulated in one-half of the replicates by applying an olfactory predator cue. Corridors synchronized small mammal foraging activity among connected patches. Foraging also was inhibited in the presence of an olfactory predator cue but apparently increased in adjacent connected patches. Small mammal abundance did not change as a result of the predator manipulation and was not influenced by the presence of corridors. This study is among the 1st to indicate combined effects of landscape configuration and predation risk on prey behavior. These changes in prey behavior may, in turn, have cascading effects on community dynamics where corridors and differential predation risk influence movement and patch use.

  14. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology. PMID:19352413

  15. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Millsap, William J.; Brush, Daniel J.

    2013-11-13

    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using "background makers"; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra.

  16. RIVER CORRIDOR BUILDINGS 324 & 327 CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    BAZZELL, K.D.; SMITH, B.A.

    2006-02-09

    A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D&D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km{sup 2} (1 mi{sup 2})300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D&D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  18. Terawatt power division and combination using self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, J.T.; Peterson, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines are necessary for the efficient transport of the terawatt pulses used in electron and ion accelerators. For some applications it is desirable to divide one transmission line into two, or to combine outputs of two or more lines into one, by means of self-magnetically insulated convolutes. Tests have been made on a coaxial-to-triaxial convolute in which connections between negative inner and outer lines are made by pins passing through holes in the intermediate positive conductor. Measurements in the 2 MV, 400 kA, 40 ns pulse Mite facility indicate virtually 100% current transport through the convolute and the ability to vary the division of current between the inner and outer lines of the triax by choice of inner line impedance. These measurements, and results obtained with this convolute connected to the ion diode for which it was designed, will be presented.

  19. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  20. Application of fiber-optic bragg grating sensors in monitoring environmental loads of overhead power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Bjerkan, L

    2000-02-01

    We demonstrate the capability of using fiber-optic sensors for measurements on environmental loads on a high-power, overhead transmission line. A trial system with three Bragg gratings, including a temperature reference, was installed on a 160-m span of a 60-kV line. An interrogation system with a tunable distributed Bragg reflector laser source was used. Several measurements of the induced loads on a conductor were recorded in various wind conditions. In particular, aeolian vibrations were frequently observed, and several measurements of this phenomenon were made. The results correlate well with simple theoretical predictions and visual observations.

  1. Fast-wave Power Flow Along SOL Field Lines In NSTX nd The Associated Power Deposition Profile Across The SOL In Front Of The Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Roy

    2013-06-21

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS) as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. Advanced RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER.

  2. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clearances required over navigable waters are covered by 33 CFR 322.5(i)(2) and are not affected by this... communication lines over reservoirs. 222.3 Section 222.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... communication lines over reservoirs. (a) Purpose. This regulation prescribes the minimum vertical clearances...

  3. Power Line Noise in Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Data: Identification and Removal in a Practical Field Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the appropriateness of TEM in mapping deep groundwater tables (in Mars analog environmnets), a field study was carried out in the desert ~30 miles SW of Tucson, Arizona. The study was also designed to observe effects of powerline noise on TEM data. The clay-rich soil in the area is quite conductive. The study consisted of 40 in-loop TEM stations, divided into 3 lines, for 4 line-km of data. The survey was carried out by a crew of one person, with square Tx wire loops 100 m on a side, and a ferrite-core magnetic coil Rx antenna in the center of each Tx loop. Maximum useful depth of investigation achieved was ~600 m. TEM DATA: The field area is surrounded by powerlines on all 4 sides: Line 1 has the outside of the first Tx loop under the powerline to the West; Line 2 starts with the powerline to the North passing above just inside its first Tx loop, and ends with the outside of the last station's transmitter loop ~20 m shy of the powerline to the South; finally, Line 3 starts ~50 m East of the powerline to the West, and runs parallel to the powerline to the South along its entire length, at a separation distance of ~70 m. Line 3 was placed largely in an effort to obeserve powerline noise. The decay curve for the first station on Line 1(Line 1/Station 50) is raised above the other curves from Line 1. This is due to the charge (noise) from the adjacent powerline, which is at a distance of ~50 m from the Rx coil. In effect, the transient decay is recorded as being slower than it would be without the presence of the powerline. This also artficially lowers the apparent resistivity, readily observed in Line 1/Station 50 data. These effects are present to a lesser extent (lower magnitude noise) in the data from Line1/Station 150, the second station on Line 1. On the smooth-model inversion cross-section of the data from Line 1, the effects of the powerline noise appears as a pulling up of the low-resistivity water table contact towards the surface

  4. Centaur feedline dynamics study using power spectral methods. [fundamental mode resonant frequencies of RL-10 oxygen and hydrogen feed lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the dynamic characteristics of the Centaur/RL-10 oxygen and hydrogen feedlines. The fundamental-mode resonant frequencies were determined by applying power spectral methods to noise-generated data from hot firings of the RL-10 engine. The effect of net positive suction pressure of the main feed pumps on resonant frequency characteristics was determined to be a straight-line relation. Power spectral methods were also used to determine the dynamic characteristics of the boost pumps.

  5. THROUGH-THE-EARTH (TTE) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-01-01

    Work has progressed on both subsystems: the Through-the-Earth (TTE) Communications system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) Communications system. The TTE system: The system was fabricated and repackaged as an industrial product enclosed in a commercial rugged, waterproof housing suitable for installation in mines. Features were added to the system to appeal to the preferences of different mine managers. Arrangements were made with NIOSH to install the system in the Lake Lynn underground mine for evaluation and demonstration to potential users. The IMPL system: Voice compression was successfully implemented and incorporated into the laboratory model. Compressed voice was transmitted through a power line, expanded at the receiving end, and received with high clarity.

  6. Numerical investigation of the physical model of a high-power electromagnetic wave in a magnetically insulated transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Samokhin, A. A.

    2010-02-15

    An efficient numerical code for simulating the propagation of a high-power electromagnetic pulse in a vacuum transmission line is required to study the physical phenomena occurring in such a line, to analyze the operation of present-day megavolt generators at an {approx}10-TW power level, and to design such new devices. The main physical theoretical principles are presented, and the stability of flows in the near-threshold region at the boundary of the regime of magnetic self-insulation is investigated based on one-dimensional telegraph equations with electron losses. Numerical (difference) methods-specifically, a method of characteristics and a finite-difference scheme-are described and their properties and effectiveness are compared by analyzing the high-frequency modes.

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-120 Hanford-Ostrander Corridor Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ken

    2003-02-10

    Vegetation Management for the Hanford-Ostrander Transmission Line Corridor from Tower 10/4 to Tower 17/2 + 770. The line is a 500kV Single Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 300 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor as referenced on the attached checklist. The work will include the performance of road maintenance and tower pad maintenance along the Hanford-Ostrander transmission line. Maintenance will be performed from Tower 10/1, close to Army Loop road near the northeast corner of 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation to the western edge of the Arid Lands Ecological Reserve (ALE) at Tower 17/2 + 700. Total distance of the work is approximately 7.5 miles. The planned work includes spraying with herbicides to minimize vegetation regrowth along the access roads and removing shrubs from within 50 feet of each transmission tower.

  8. Number of lightning discharges causing damage to lightning arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, E. P.

    2009-07-15

    Damage by lightning discharges to lightning arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of lightning arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a lightning current. The lightning currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a lightning discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the lightning current increases, which greatly reduces the number of lightning discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of lightning arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of lightning discharges per year which damage lightning arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.

  9. Development of An On-Line, Core Power Distribution Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Tunc ALdemir; Don Miller; Peng Wang

    2007-10-02

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop a software package that can construct in three-dimensional core power distributions using the signals from constant temperature power sensors distributed in the reactor core. The software developed uses a mode-based state/parameter estmation technique that is particularly attractive when there are model uncertainties and/or large signal noise. The software yields the expected value of local power at the detector locations and points in between, as well as the probability distribution of the local power density

  10. Test Results From a Simulated High-Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was modified to simulate high-voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high-frequency ac power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  11. Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  12. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Belote, R. Travis; Dietz, Matthew S.; McRae, Brad H.; Theobald, David M.; McClure, Meredith L.; Irwin, G. Hugh; McKinley, Peter S.; Gage, Josh A.; Aplet, Gregory H.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most “natural” (i.e., least human-modified) corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1) among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2) among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs) or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). Corridor values varied substantially among classes of “unprotected” non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas. PMID:27104683

  13. Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2001-01-01

    Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

  14. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belote, R Travis; Dietz, Matthew S; McRae, Brad H; Theobald, David M; McClure, Meredith L; Irwin, G Hugh; McKinley, Peter S; Gage, Josh A; Aplet, Gregory H

    2016-01-01

    Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most "natural" (i.e., least human-modified) corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1) among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2) among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs) or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). Corridor values varied substantially among classes of "unprotected" non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas. PMID:27104683

  15. Experiments with Uas Imagery for Automatic Modeling of Power Line 3d Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźków, G.; Vander Jagt, B.; Toth, C.

    2015-08-01

    The ideal mapping technology for transmission line inspection is the airborne LiDAR executed from helicopter platforms. It allows for full 3D geometry extraction in highly automated manner. Large scale aerial images can be also used for this purpose, however, automation is possible only for finding transmission line positions (2D geometry), and the sag needs to be estimated manually. For longer lines, these techniques are less expensive than ground surveys, yet they are still expensive. UAS technology has the potential to reduce these costs, especially if using inexpensive platforms with consumer grade cameras. This study investigates the potential of using high resolution UAS imagery for automatic modeling of transmission line 3D geometry. The key point of this experiment was to employ dense matching algorithms to appropriately acquired UAS images to have points created also on wires. This allowed to model the 3D geometry of transmission lines similarly to LiDAR acquired point clouds. Results showed that the transmission line modeling is possible with a high internal accuracy for both, horizontal and vertical directions, even when wires were represented by a partial (sparse) point cloud.

  16. Design concepts for a pulse power test facility to simulate EMP surges in overhead power lines. Part I. Fast pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Ramrus, A.

    1986-02-01

    Objective of the study was to create conceptual designs of high voltage pulsers capable of simulating two types of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) caused by a high-altitude nuclear burst; the slow rise time magnetohydrodynamic (MHD-EMP) and the fast rise time high-altitude EMP (HEMP). The pulser design was directed towards facilities capable of performing EMP vulnerability testing of components used in the national electric power system.

  17. On the relation between power and astigmatism near an umbilic line.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2011-05-01

    The relation between the variation of power and astigmatism in a progressive power optical element is considered. The classical Minkwitz identity is revisited. Then, it is shown how to extend this identity, which applies to the geometry of surfaces, to optical parameters that are determined by the geometry of reflected or refracted wavefronts. PMID:21532682

  18. High-power electromagnetic wave in a magnetically insulated transmission line of the ANGARA-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Samokhin, A. A.

    2010-08-15

    Studies of physical phenomena in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) of high-power pulsed current generators, analysis of operation of existing megavolt generators, and designing of new high-current generators with a power of up to {approx}10 TW require creating an efficient numerical code for modeling the propagation of a high-power electromagnetic pulse in an MITL. This paper presents basic theoretical concepts of MITL operation in the framework of telegraph equations with allowance for electron leakage and variations in the electrode emissivity and analyzes propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the MITLs of the ANGARA-5-1 eight-module facility toward a dynamic load installed in the central unit with a matrix inductance.

  19. Health responses to a new high-voltage power line route: design of a quasi-experimental prospective field study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New high-voltage power transmission lines will be introduced due to increasing demand for reliable and renewable energy supplies. Some residents associate non-specific health complaints with exposure to electromagnetic fields from nearby power lines. This study protocol describes the design and rationale of a prospective study investigating whether the introduction of a new power line triggers health responses in residents living nearby. Methods/Design The study is designed as a quasi-experimental field study with two pretests during the construction of a new power line route, and two posttests after it has been put into operation. Key outcomes are self-reported non-specific somatic and cognitive health complaints, and attribution of these health complaints to a power line. The main determinant is proximity to the new power line route. One member of every household (n = 2379) residing in close proximity (0-500 meters) to the overhead parts of a new power line route in the Netherlands is invited to participate, as well as a sample of household members (n = 2382) residing farther away (500-2000 meters). Multilevel analysis will be employed to test whether an increase in key outcome measures is related to proximity to the line. Longitudinal structural equation models will be applied to test to what extent health responses are mediated by psychosocial health mechanisms and moderated by negative oriented personality traits. Discussion This is the first study to investigate health responses to a new power line route in a prospective manner. The results will provide theoretical insight into psychosocial mechanisms operating during the introduction of an environmental health risk, and may offer suggestions to policymakers and other stakeholders for minimizing adverse health responses when introducing new high-voltage power lines. PMID:24606914

  20. Pen Branch stream corridor and Delta Wetlands change assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Blohm, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data from 1987 to 1991 covering the Pen Branch corridor and delta at SRS were utilized to provide a detailed change detection analysis. The multispectral data were geo-referenced to a Universal Transverse Mercator projection using finite element registration. Each year was then classified into eleven different landcover categories, and the yearly changes in each landcover category were analyzed. The decrease in operations of K Reactor in 1988 has resulted in drying of the corridor and delta. This has led to the decline of nonpersistent vegetation and the increase of persistent vegetation. Cattails, willow, and bottomland hardwoods, in particular, have grown to dominate the corridor and most of the delta.

  1. Fixed-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle for Accurate Corridor Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm) mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  2. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds.

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Sargent, Sarah; Haddad, Nick M.

    2005-07-01

    Levey, Douglas, J., Benjamin M. Bolker, Joshua J. Tewksbury, Sarah Sargent, and Nick M. Haddad. 2005. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science 309:146-148. Abstract: Habitat fragmentation threatens biodiversity by disrupting dispersal. The mechanisms and consequences of this disruption are controversial, primarily because most organisms are difficult to track. We examined the effect of habitat corridors on long-distance dispersal of seeds by birds, and tested whether small-scale (G20 meters) movements of birds could be scaled up to predict dispersal of seeds across hundreds of meters in eight experimentally fragmented landscapes. A simulation model accurately predicted the observed pattern of seed rain and revealed that corridors functioned through edge following behavior of birds. Our study shows how models based on easily observed behaviors can be scaled up to predict landscape-level processes.

  3. Optical sensing in high voltage transmission lines using power over fiber and free space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, João Batista; Bassan, Fabio Renato; Penze, Rivael Strobel; Leonardi, Ariovaldo Antonio; Fracarolli, João Paulo Vicentini; Floridia, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we propose the use of power over fiber (PoF) and free space optics (FSO) techniques to powering and receive signals from an electrical current sensor placed at high voltage potential using a pair of optical collimators. The technique evaluation was performed in a laboratorial prototype using 62.5/125 μm multimode fiber to study the sensitivity of the optical alignment and the influence of the collimation process in the sensing system wavelengths: data communication (1310 nm) and powering (830 nm). The collimators were installed in a rigid electric insulator in order to maintain the stability of transmission.

  4. Electric and magnetic field exposures for people living near a 735-Kilovolt power line

    SciTech Connect

    Levallois, P.; Gauvin, D.; St. Laurent, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 735-kV transmission line on the electric and magnetic field exposures of people living at the edge of the line`s right of way. Exposure of 18 adults, mostly white-collar workers, living in different bungalows located 190-240 feet from the line (exposed subjects) was compared to that of 17 adults living in similar residences far away from any transmission line. Each subject carried a Positron meter for 24 hr during 1 workday, which measured 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields every minute. All measurements were carried out in parallel for exposed and unexposed subjects during the same weeks between September and December. During measurements the average loading on the line varied between 600 and 1100 A. The average magnetic field intensity while at home was 4.4 times higher among exposed subjects than unexposed (7.1 versus 1.6 Mg, p=0.0001) and 6.2 times higher when considering only the sleeping period (6.8 versus 1.1 mG, p=0.0001). Based on the 24-hr measurement, average magnetic field exposure was three times higher among the exposed was positively correlated with the loading on the line (r=0.8, p+0.001). Percentage of time above a magnetic field threshold F(2 mG or 7.8 mG) was a good indicator to distinguish the two types of exposure. Percentage of time above 20 V/m was significantly different, but percentage of time above 78 V/m was rare and comparable for the two groups. Variability of exposure was very low. This study demonstrates that a 735-kV line contributes significantly to residential 60-Hz magnetic field exposure and, to a lesser extent, electric fields for people living at the edge of the right way. Because of the limited size of our sample, caution is recommended before generalizing these results. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainty on the risks associated with such an unusual high residential exposure, research is needed on its possible effects. 30 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  5. California HSR corridor evaluation and environmental constraints analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.; Field, K.D.; Leavitt, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    California is studying the feasibility of a statewide, high-speed rail (HSR) transportation system as a link between major cities in the northern and southern portions of the state. This system will complement the state`s existing transportation system and serve as an alternative to air and auto travel. In this paper, the writers provide a condensed description of the findings and conclusions drawn from the 1996 California High Speed Rail Corridor Evaluation and Environmental Constraints Analysis, which they prepared for California`s Intercity High Speed Rail Commission to document and analyze the potential statewide HSR corridors.

  6. A novel high-density power energy harvesting methodology for transmission line online monitoring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen; Liu, Yilu

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-harvesting model which takes the primary current, secondary turns, dimension, the magnitude of magnetic flux density B, and the core loss resistance into consideration systematically. The relationship among the potential maximum output power, the dimension of energy harvesting coil (EHC), the load type of EHC, and the secondary turns is predicted by theoretical analysis and further verified by experiments. A high power density harvester is also developed and tested. It is shown that the power density of this novel harvester is 0.7 mW/g at 10 A, which is more than 2 times powerful than the traditional ones. Hence, it could lighten the half weight of the harvester at the same conditions.

  7. A novel high-density power energy harvesting methodology for transmission line online monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen; Liu, Yilu

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-harvesting model which takes the primary current, secondary turns, dimension, the magnitude of magnetic flux density B, and the core loss resistance into consideration systematically. The relationship among the potential maximum output power, the dimension of energy harvesting coil (EHC), the load type of EHC, and the secondary turns is predicted by theoretical analysis and further verified by experiments. A high power density harvester is also developed and tested. It is shown that the power density of this novel harvester is 0.7 mW/g at 10 A, which is more than 2 times powerful than the traditional ones. Hence, it could lighten the half weight of the harvester at the same conditions. PMID:27475607

  8. 45 CFR 153.510 - Risk corridors establishment and payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Health Insurance Issuer Standards Related to the Risk Corridors Program §...

  9. Exploring the power of rice (O. sativa x O. rufipogon) chromosome segment substitution line libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgressive variation was reported as an increase in grain yield for several rice (Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon) advanced backcross mapping populations. The objective of this study was to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) libraries to further dissect the reported transgressive var...

  10. Power-Laws and the Use of Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Michael; Kobold, Sabine; MacArthur, Ben D.; Schuppert, Andreas; Löser, Peter; Müller, Franz-Josef

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the (now reversed) Bush administration’s decision to restrict federal funding for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research to a few “eligible” hESC lines is responsible for the sustained preferential use of a small subset of hESC lines (principally the H1 and H9 lines) in basic and preclinical research. Yet, international hESC usage patterns, in both permissive and restrictive political environments, do not correlate with a specific type of stem cell policy. Here we conducted a descriptive analysis of hESC line usage and compared the ability of policy-driven processes and collaborative processes inherent to biomedical research to recapitulate global hESC usage patterns. We find that current global hESC usage can be modelled as a cumulative advantage process, independent of restrictive or permissive policy influence, suggesting a primarily innovation-driven (rather than policy-driven) mechanism underlying human pluripotent stem cell usage in preclinical research. PMID:23300961

  11. Combining Data From Multiple Inbred Line Crosses Improves the Power and Resolution of Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Li, Renhua; Lyons, Malcolm A.; Wittenburg, Henning; Paigen, Beverly; Churchill, Gary A.

    2005-01-01

    Rodent inbred line crosses are widely used to map genetic loci associated with complex traits. This approach has proven to be powerful for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, the resolution of QTL locations, typically ∼20 cM, means that hundreds of genes are implicated as potential candidates. We describe analytical methods based on linear models to combine information available in two or more inbred line crosses. Our strategy is motivated by the hypothesis that common inbred strains of the laboratory mouse are derived from a limited ancestral gene pool and thus QTL detected in multiple crosses are likely to represent shared ancestral polymorphisms. We demonstrate that the combined-cross analysis can improve the power to detect weak QTL, can narrow support intervals for QTL regions, and can be used to separate multiple QTL that colocalize by chance. Moreover, combined-cross analysis can establish the allelic states of a QTL among a set of parental lines, thus providing critical information for narrowing QTL regions by haplotype analysis. PMID:15654110

  12. Finite time-Lyapunov based approach for robust adaptive control of wind-induced oscillations in power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Large amplitude oscillation of the power transmission lines, which is also known as galloping phenomenon, has hazardous consequences such as short circuiting and failure of transmission line. In this article, to suppress the undesirable vibrations of the transmission lines, first the governing equations of transmission line are derived via mode summation technique. Then, due to the occurrence of large amplitude vibrations, nonlinear quadratic and cubic terms are included in the derived linear equations. To suppress the vibrations, arbitrary number of the piezoelectric actuators is assumed to exert the actuation forces. Afterwards, a Lyapunov based approach is proposed for the robust adaptive suppression of the undesirable vibrations in the finite time. To compensate the supposed parametric uncertainties with unknown bands, proper adaption laws are introduced. To avoid the vibration devastating consequences as quickly as possible, appropriate control laws are designed. The vibration suppression in the finite time with supposed adaption and control laws is mathematically proved via Lyapunov finite time stability theory. Finally, to illustrate and validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed finite time control scheme, a parametric case study with three piezoelectric actuators is performed. It is observed that the proposed active control strategy is more efficient and robust than the passive control methods.

  13. C IV and He II line emission of Lyman α blobs: powered by shock-heated gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabot, Samuel H. C.; Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Utilizing ab initio ultrahigh resolution hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the properties of the interstellar and circumgalactic medium of Lyα blobs (LABs) at z = 3, focusing on three important emission lines: Lyα 1216 Å, He II 1640 Å and C IV 1549 Å. Their relative strengths provide a powerful probe of the thermodynamic properties of the gas when confronted with observations. By adjusting the dust attenuation effect using one parameter and matching the observed size-luminosity relation of LABs using another parameter, we show that our simulations can reproduce the observed C IV/Lyα and He II/Lyα ratios adequately. This analysis provides the first successful physical model to account for simultaneously the LAB luminosity function, luminosity-size relation and the C IV/Lyα and He II/Lyα ratios, with only two parameters. The physical underpinning for this model is that, in addition to the stellar component for the Lyα emission, the Lyα and C IV emission lines due to shock-heated gas are primarily collisional excitation driven and the He II emission line collisional ionization driven. We find that the density, temperature and metallicity of the gas responsible for each emission line is significantly distinct, in a multiphase interstellar and circumgalactic medium that is shock heated primarily by supernovae and secondarily by gravitational accretion of gas.

  14. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on..., Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One...

  15. 75 FR 48359 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot Square, Woonsocket, RI 02895, Tel.: (401)...

  16. 75 FR 64741 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot Square, Woonsocket, RI 02895, Tel.: (401) 762-0250....

  17. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  18. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  19. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  20. Low-quality habitat corridors as movement conduits for two butterfly species.

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Nick, M.; Tewksbury, Joshua, J.

    2005-01-01

    Haddad, Nick, M, and Joshua J. Tewksbury. Low-quality habitat corridors as movement conduits for two butterfly species. Ecol. Apps. 15(1):250-257. Abstract. Corridors are a primary conservation tool to increase connectivity, promote individual movement, and increase gene flow among populations in fragmented landscapes. The establishment of effective conservation corridors will depend on constructing or pre-serving connecting habitat that attracts dispersing individuals. Yet, it remains unclear whether corridors must necessarily be composed of high-quality habitat to be effective and promote dispersal and gene flow. We address this issue with two mobile, open-habitat butterfly species, Junonia coenia HuÈbner and Euptoieta claudia Cramer. Using experimental landscapes created explicitly to examine the effects of corridors on dispersal rates, we show that open-habitat corridors can serve as dispersal conduits even when corridors do not support resident butterfly populations. Both butterfly species were rare near forest edges and equally rare in narrow corridors, yet both species dispersed more often between patches connected by these corridors than between isolated patches. At least for species that can traverse corridors within a generation, corridor habitat may be lower in quality than larger patches and still increase dispersal and gene flow. For these species, abundance surveys may not accurately represent the conservation value of corridors.

  1. Adaptive on-line classification for EEG-based brain computer interfaces with AAR parameters and band power estimates.

    PubMed

    Vidaurre, C; Schlögl, A; Cabeza, R; Scherer, R; Pfurtscheller, G

    2005-11-01

    We present the result of on-line feedback Brain Computer Interface experiments using adaptive and non-adaptive feature extraction methods with an on-line adaptive classifier based on Quadratic Discriminant Analysis. Experiments were performed with 12 naïve subjects, feedback was provided from the first moment and no training sessions were needed. Experiments run in three different days with each subject. Six of them received feedback with Adaptive Autoregressive parameters and the rest with logarithmic Band Power estimates. The study was done using single trial analysis of each of the sessions and the value of the Error Rate and the Mutual Information of the classification were used to discuss the results. Finally, it was shown that even subjects starting with a low performance were able to control the system in a few hours: and contrary to previous results no differences between AAR and BP estimates were found.

  2. The Nexawatt: A Strategy for Exawatt Peak Power Lasers Based on NIF and NIF-like Beam Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2016-05-01

    An exawatt-scale, short-pulse amplification architecture based upon a novel pulse compressor arrangement and amplification of long-duration chirped beam pulses is described. This architecture is capable of extracting the full, stored energy of a NIF or NIF-like beam line and in doing so produce from one beam line a near-diffraction-limited, laser pulse whose peak power would exceed 0.2 EW. The architecture is well suited to either low-f-number focusing or to multi-beam, dipole focusing concepts that in principle enable focused intensities in the range of 1026 W/cm2 or 5 orders of magnitude beyond that possible from present PW systems based on chirped pulse amplification.

  3. Circuit for Communication over DC Power Line Using High Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A high temperature communications circuit includes a power conductor for concurrently conducting electrical energy for powering circuit components and transmitting a modulated data signal, and a demodulator for demodulating the data signal and generating a serial bit stream based on the data signal. The demodulator includes an absolute value amplifier for conditionally inverting or conditionally passing a signal applied to the absolute value amplifier. The absolute value amplifier utilizes no diodes to control the conditional inversion or passing of the signal applied to the absolute value amplifier.

  4. Environmental studies for a 1100-kV power line in Oregon. A special report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.; Hinds, R.

    1983-01-01

    In the first research project to monitor the effects of 1100-kV transmission on a natural ecosystem, researchers at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories have studied responses of wildlife, native plants, honeybees, and agricultural crops and cattle. No adverse effects were detected on wildlife, crops or cattle. Effects were observed on trees growing within the defined right of way and on honeybee colonies placed beneath the line.

  5. Theory of magnetically insulated electron flows in coaxial pulsed power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawconnell, Robert I.; Neri, Jesse

    1990-03-01

    The Cartesian magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) theory of Mendel et al. [Appl. Phys. 50, 3830 (1979); Phys. Fluids 26, 3628 (1983)] is extended to cylindrical coordinates. A set of equations that describe arbitrary electron flows in cylindrical coordinates is presented. These equations are used to derive a general theory for laminar magnetically insulated electron flows. The laminar theory allows one to specify the potentials, fields, and densities across a coaxial line undergoing explosive electron emission at the cathode. The theory is different from others available in cylindrical coordinates in that the canonical momentum and total energy for each electron may be nonzero across the electron sheath. A nonzero canonical momentum and total energy for the electrons in the sheath allows the model to produce one-dimensional flows that resemble flows from lines with impedance mismatches and perturbing structures. The laminar theory is used to derive two new self-consistent cylindrical flow solutions: (1) for a constant density profile and (2) for a quadratic density profile of the form ρ=ρc[(r2m-r2)/(r2m-r2c)]. This profile is of interest in that it is similar to profiles observed in a long MITL simulation [Appl. Phys. 50, 4996 (1979)]. The theoretical flows are compared to numerical results obtained with two-dimensional (2-D) electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) codes.

  6. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M.

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  7. Image power for size analysis in in-line Fraunhofer holography.

    PubMed

    Vikram, C S

    1996-07-15

    The role of total power contained within the reconstructed image in size analysis has been described. Using an aperture-limited hologram and a circular-cross-section opaque object as an example, we show that very accurate size analysis is possible by this mode of analysis.

  8. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.3 Clearances for power and... reservoir projects. (b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all field operating agencies having Civil... clearances required over navigable waters are covered by 33 CFR 322.5(i)(2) and are not affected by...

  9. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.3 Clearances for power and... reservoir projects. (b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all field operating agencies having Civil... clearances required over navigable waters are covered by 33 CFR 322.5(i)(2) and are not affected by...

  10. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.3 Clearances for power and... reservoir projects. (b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all field operating agencies having Civil... clearances required over navigable waters are covered by 33 CFR 322.5(i)(2) and are not affected by...

  11. Low-power integrated-circuit driver for ferrite-memory word lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, S.

    1970-01-01

    Composite circuit uses both n-p-n bipolar and p-channel MOS transistors /BIMOS/. The BIMOS driver provides 1/ ease of integrated circuit construction, 2/ low standby power consumption, 3/ bidirectional current pulses, and 4/ current-pulse amplitudes and rise times independent of active device parameters.

  12. 1. GENERAL SETTING; LOOKING SOUTHWEST INTO RAILROAD CORRIDOR; BUILDING 92 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL SETTING; LOOKING SOUTHWEST INTO RAILROAD CORRIDOR; BUILDING 92 IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT UPPER RIGHT; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) AT LOWER LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. 16. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor, interior view showing highcapacity venting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor, interior view showing high-capacity venting system and black-out shades on south wall VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  14. 38. SECTIONS OF ACCESS CORRIDOR, INCLUDES SECTION SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECTIONS OF ACCESS CORRIDOR, INCLUDES SECTION SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF NAVY GUN BARRELS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106454. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-P-59. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Interior view, secondstory room located between the main corridor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, second-story room located between the main corridor and the east exterior wall of the central pavilion, looking northeast. The window looks out onto the entrance portico. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. PLAN OF ACCESS CORRIDOR PIPING INCLUDES WASTE HOLD TANK CELL, OFFGAS CELL, ADSORBER CELL, AND OFFGAS FILTER CELL. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106453. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-P-58. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Interior view, east to west corridor from the Fourteenth Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, east to west corridor from the Fourteenth Street lobby to the Fifteenth Street side of the building (168' in length) - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 15. View west of central corridor between filtration beds which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View west of central corridor between filtration beds which are located to the left and right of the photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  19. 29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  20. 30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main flood valves is at left and crossover valve is a right. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  1. 16. View west from center of central corridor between filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View west from center of central corridor between filtration beds which are located to the left and right of the photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. 33. Miter gears located on ceiling of central corridor of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Miter gears located on ceiling of central corridor of filtration building. Gears allow valve wheels above to be offset from location of gate valve on pipes below. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. 78 FR 7477 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... program/project costs. Multiple awards are possible, but not guaranteed. DATES: Formal applications must... practices, procedures, and use of technology to other transportation corridors. 4. Cost-effectiveness... Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Request for applications. SUMMARY: This notice...

  4. 47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, NORTH WALL, BUFFALO HUNT MURAL (LEFT) AND BREAKING CAMP AT WARTIME MURAL (RIGHT) (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 51. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF HANDPAINTED LIGHTING FIXTURE (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing inner set of doors on vault - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops of individual vaults and vent housings - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAIN CORRIDOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; DOORS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAIN CORRIDOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; DOORS TO HALLWAY LEADING TO HYDROTHERAPY ROOM, ELECTRIC LIGHT CABINETS AND DRESSING ROOM ON LEFT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1054, South side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  9. Interior view of the northwest end corridor, showing doors and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the northwest end corridor, showing doors and barred openings to former fan and engine rooms (now garage) and entry to northwest gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. One") - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  11. Interior view, secondfloor corridor looking east. Note the door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, second-floor corridor looking east. Note the door to Egyptian Hall in the center distance and the door to Gothic Hall on the eastern entresol (third floor) at the top of the stairs - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at its center, looking east through the doorway linking the two perpendicular axes. The door at the end of the passage opens onto a passage running under the entrance portico bearing ground floor exterior doors at each end. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 34. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" ENTRANCE CORRIDOR LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" ENTRANCE CORRIDOR LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  14. 9. View northwest of east entry to central corridor between ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View northwest of east entry to central corridor between the filtration beds. Note square chimney at right center of photograph which is a part of the Armory Street Pumping Station. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. 8. INTERIOR, EMERGENCY ROOM, NORTHEAST OF MAIN CORRIDOR INTERSECTION (NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, EMERGENCY ROOM, NORTHEAST OF MAIN CORRIDOR INTERSECTION (NEAR WESTERN, MAIN ENTRY), FROM ENTRY IN NORTHWESTERN CORNER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Strategy to Reduce Congestion that have commercial waterways that parallel or can otherwise benefit them... consideration will be given to Marine Highway Projects that represent the most cost-effective option among other... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  17. 16. DETAIL OF AUTOMATIC DOORS OPENING INTO REFIGERATED CORRIDOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF AUTOMATIC DOORS OPENING INTO REFIGERATED CORRIDOR IN BUILDING 148; CATTLE CARCASSES PASSED THROUGH TALL DOOR ON RIGHT; SHEEP AND VEAL PASSED THROUGH LOWER DOOR ON LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. Interior view, secondstory passage extending westward from main corridor to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, second-story passage extending westward from main corridor to rooms on the north side of the rotunda in the rotunda extension. The roof and third-floor in this area is completely missing. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. This image, looking south, shows a typical corridor in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This image, looking south, shows a typical corridor in the laboratory area of the building, where numerous pipes were required to carry the various utilities needed for procedure and safety equipment - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF NARROW CORRIDOR. NOTE THE ENTRY STAIRWAY (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF NARROW CORRIDOR. NOTE THE ENTRY STAIRWAY (STAIRS COVERED WITH EARTH) LEADING UP TO GROUND LEVEL ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CORRIDOR DOOR TO THE SOUTH ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CORRIDOR DOOR TO THE SOUTH ROOM SHOWING THE STRAP HINGES AND LATCHES. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 31. FLOOR PLANS OF WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY. SHOWS ACCESS CORRIDOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. FLOOR PLANS OF WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY. SHOWS ACCESS CORRIDOR AT MEZZANINE AND LOWER LEVELS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106352. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. A method of lines solution of the transient behavior of the helium cooled power leads for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, J.A.; Schiesser, W.E.; Carcagno, R.; McAshan, M.

    1995-05-01

    In this study, a detailed numerical thermal mode of a 6.5 kA power lead for the Superconducting Super Collider has been developed, which was adapted from the dynamic model developed by Schiesser. The transient behavior of the power leads was modeled using, a method of lines (MOL) approach. The model was developed to pmvide a tool for analyzing coolant control strategies as well as an understanding of the behavior of the leads under presumed system transients. Results for a current ramp up to 4970 amps are favorably compared with measurements. Also, a loss of cooling situation is predicted to determine the transient temperature distribution under an off-design condition.

  4. Longitudinal variations of very-low-frequency chorus activity in the magnetosphere - Evidence of excitation by electrical power transmission lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luette, J. P.; Park, C. G.; Helliwell, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of VLF chorus in the high-altitude magnetosphere as detected by the Ogo 3 satellite was investigated. Chorus occurrence frequency over 4,668 samples of 5 min of broadband data was computed for Northern Hemisphere bins of 10 deg by 10 deg in dipole invariant latitude and longitude. Peaks in activity were noted over Alaska, the eastern U.S. and Canada, western Europe, and western Siberia, and were shown not to be the result of biased sampling. It is suggested that power line radiation of only about 1 W or less at a given harmonic frequency may be sufficient to stimulate the observed chorus activity and that such power levels can be expected in industrial areas or from large distribution networks. Preliminary results show that chorus starting frequencies are highly correlated with 60 Hz harmonics in the American sector and with 50 Hz harmonics in the European sector.

  5. Rows=Wildlife Corridors: An Urban Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1983-01-01

    Linear strips of land associated with highways, electrical transmission lines, gas/oil pipelines (called right-of-way or ROWs) are inhibited by a variety of wildlife and offer a unique opportunity to study the wildlife in the urban setting. Types of wildlife found in and importance of ROWs are discussed. (JN)

  6. Modelling and optimization of transient processes in line focusing power plants with single-phase heat transfer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noureldin, K.; González-Escalada, L. M.; Hirsch, T.; Nouri, B.; Pitz-Paal, R.

    2016-05-01

    A large number of commercial and research line focusing solar power plants are in operation and under development. Such plants include parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or linear Fresnel using thermal oil or molten salt as the heat transfer medium (HTM). However, the continuously varying and dynamic solar condition represent a big challenge for the plant control in order to optimize its power production and to keep the operation safe. A better understanding of the behaviour of such power plants under transient conditions will help reduce defocusing instances, improve field control, and hence, increase the energy yield and confidence in this new technology. Computational methods are very powerful and cost-effective tools to gain such understanding. However, most simulation models described in literature assume equal mass flow distributions among the parallel loops in the field or totally decouple the flow and thermal conditions. In this paper, a new numerical model to simulate a whole solar field with single-phase HTM is described. The proposed model consists of a hydraulic part and a thermal part that are coupled to account for the effect of the thermal condition of the field on the flow distribution among the parallel loops. The model is specifically designed for large line-focusing solar fields offering a high degree of flexibility in terms of layout, condition of the mirrors, and spatially resolved DNI data. Moreover, the model results have been compared to other simulation tools, as well as experimental and plant data, and the results show very good agreement. The model can provide more precise data to the control algorithms to improve the plant control. In addition, short-term and accurate spatially discretized DNI forecasts can be used as input to predict the field behaviour in-advance. In this paper, the hydraulic and thermal parts, as well as the coupling procedure, are described and some validation results and results of simulating an example field are

  7. Relationship Between Selected Strength and Power Assessments to Peak and Average Velocity of the Drive Block in Offensive Line Play.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Bert H; Conchola, Eric C; Smith, Doug B; Akehi, Kazuma; Glass, Rob G

    2016-08-01

    Jacobson, BH, Conchola, EC, Smith, DB, Akehi, K, and Glass, RG. Relationship between selected strength and power assessments to peak and average velocity of the drive block in offensive line play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2202-2205, 2016-Typical strength training for football includes the squat and power clean (PC) and routinely measured variables include 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat and 1RM PC along with the vertical jump (VJ) for power. However, little research exists regarding the association between the strength exercises and velocity of an actual on-the-field performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of peak velocity (PV) and average velocity (AV) of the offensive line drive block to 1RM squat, 1RM PC, the VJ, body mass (BM), and body composition. One repetition maximum assessments for the squat and PC were recorded along with VJ height, BM, and percent body fat. These data were correlated with PV and AV while performing the drive block. Peal velocity and AV were assessed using a Tendo Power and Speed Analyzer as the linemen fired, from a 3-point stance into a stationary blocking dummy. Pearson product analysis yielded significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between PV and AV and the VJ, the squat, and the PC. A significant inverse association was found for both PV and AV and body fat. These data help to confirm that the typical exercises recommended for American football linemen is positively associated with both PV and AV needed for the drive block effectiveness. It is recommended that these exercises remain the focus of a weight room protocol and that ancillary exercises be built around these exercises. Additionally, efforts to reduce body fat are recommended.

  8. Approach for computing 1D fracture density: application to fracture corridor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viseur, Sophie; Chatelée, Sebastien; Akriche, Clement; Lamarche, Juliette

    2016-04-01

    Fracture density is an important parameter for characterizing fractured reservoirs. Many stochastic simulation algorithms that generate fracture networks indeed rely on the determination of a fracture density on volumes (P30) to populate the reservoir zones with individual fracture surfaces. However, only 1D fracture density (P10) are available from subsurface data and it is then important to be able to accurately estimate this entity. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to estimate fracture density from scan-line or well data. This method relies on regression, hypothesis testing and clustering techniques. The objective of the proposed approach is to highlight zones where fracture density are statistically very different or similar. This technique has been applied on both synthetic and real case studies. These studies concern fracture corridors, which are particular tectonic features that are generally difficult to characterize from subsurface data. These tectonic features are still not well known and studies must be conducted to better understand their internal spatial organization and variability. The presented synthetic cases aim at showing the ability of the approach to extract known features. The real case study illustrates how this approach allows the internal spatial organization of fracture corridors to be characterized.

  9. River Corridor Closure at DOE's Hanford Site - 12503

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Jonathan; Franco, Joe

    2012-07-01

    The discussion of Hanford's River Corridor will cover work that has already been completed plus the work remaining to be done. This includes the buildings, waste sites, and groundwater plumes in the 300 Area; large-scale burial ground remediation in the 600 Area; plutonium production reactor dismantling and 'cocooning' along the river; preservation of the world's first full-scale plutonium production reactor; removal of more than 14 million tons of contaminated soil and debris along the Columbia River shoreline and throughout the River Corridor; and the excavation of buried waste sites in the river shore area. It also includes operating an EPA-permitted low-level waste disposal facility in the central portion of the site. At the completions of cleanup in 2015, Hanford's River Corridor will be the largest closure project ever completed by the Department of Energy. Cleanup of the River Corridor has been one of Hanford's top priorities since the early 1990's. This urgency has been due to the proximity of hundreds of waste sites to the Columbia River. In addition, removal of the sludge from K West Basin, near the river, remains a high priority. This 220-square-mile area of the Hanford Site sits on the edge of the last free-flowing stretch of the Columbia River. The River Corridor portion of the Hanford Site includes the 100 and 300 Areas along the south shore of the Columbia River. The 100 Areas contain nine retired plutonium production reactors. These areas are also the location of numerous support facilities and solid and liquid waste disposal sites that have contaminated groundwater and soil. The 300 Area, located just north of the city of Richland, contains fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear research and development facilities, and their associated solid and liquid waste disposal sites that have contaminated groundwater and soil. In order to ensure that cleanup actions address all threats to human health and the environment, the River Corridor includes the

  10. Joint terminals and relay optimization for two-way power line information exchange systems with QoS constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaolin; Rong, Yue

    2015-12-01

    The quality-of-service (QoS) criteria (measured in terms of the minimum capacity requirement in this paper) are very important to practical indoor power line communication (PLC) applications as they greatly affect the user experience. With a two-way multicarrier relay configuration, in this paper we investigate the joint terminals and relay power optimization for the indoor broadband PLC environment, where the relay node works in the amplify-and-forward (AF) mode. As the QoS-constrained power allocation problem is highly non-convex, the globally optimal solution is computationally intractable to obtain. To overcome this challenge, we propose an alternating optimization (AO) method to decompose this problem into three convex/quasi-convex sub-problems. Simulation results demonstrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm under practical PLC channel conditions. Compared with the conventional bidirectional direct transmission (BDT) system, the relay-assisted two-way information exchange (R2WX) scheme can meet the same QoS requirement with less total power consumption.

  11. Observations of power line harmonic radiation by the low-altitude AUREOL 3 satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Parrot, M.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents observations of very low frequency radiation in the lower part of the ionosphere from a polar orbiting satellite at low latitudes. It was able to record several observation of low frequency radiation which is very close to a harmonic of the 50 Hz line frequency. The frequency is observed to drift in time, from 1 to 8 Hz/sec. They are not sure how to account for this apparent non-linear coupling of these very low frequency waves into the ionosphere.

  12. Impact of Line Width and Power of Laser on Radio over Fiber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Bhatia, Kamaljeet Singh; Kaur, Harsimrat

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the capacity of the existing optical communication networks advanced modulation schemes are utilized. Keeping this in view, an radio-over-fiber subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) employing ASK modulation technique is proposed. Response of the system is analysed by varying the linewidth and the power of the CW Laser and the optimum value is concluded for the same so as to achieve reliable communication.

  13. The HEMP (high altitude electromagnetic pulse) response of an overhead power distribution line

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the HEMP response of a realistic power distribution system was undertaken, and its results are described in this paper. This study involved the following elements: (1) the use of the new HEMP environment, (2) the use of a multiconductor coupling model, and (3) the measurement of the pulse response of an actual distribution transformer to permit the use of this data in the analysis.

  14. Analysis of Iterative Waterfilling Algorithm for Multiuser Power Control in Digital Subscriber Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi-Quan; Pang, Jong-Shi

    2006-12-01

    We present an equivalent linear complementarity problem (LCP) formulation of the noncooperative Nash game resulting from the DSL power control problem. Based on this LCP reformulation, we establish the linear convergence of the popular distributed iterative waterfilling algorithm (IWFA) for arbitrary symmetric interference environment and for certain asymmetric channel conditions with any number of users. In the case of symmetric interference crosstalk coefficients, we show that the users of IWFA in fact, unknowingly but willingly, cooperate to minimize a common quadratic cost function whose gradient measures the received signal power from all users. This is surprising since the DSL users in the IWFA have no intention to cooperate as each maximizes its own rate to reach a Nash equilibrium. In the case of asymmetric coefficients, the convergence of the IWFA is due to a contraction property of the iterates. In addition, the LCP reformulation enables us to solve the DSL power control problem under no restrictions on the interference coefficients using existing LCP algorithms, for example, Lemke's method. Indeed, we use the latter method to benchmark the empirical performance of IWFA in the presence of strong crosstalk interference.

  15. Dash line glass- and sapphire-cutting with high power USP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchik, Konstantin; Chassagne, Bruno; Javaux-Léger, Clémentine; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Kling, Rainer; Lopez, John

    2016-03-01

    Glass cutting is a subject of high interest for flat panel display and consumer electronics industries. Among laser-based, water jet-based and diamond tool-based existing solutions, ultra-short pulses (USP) appear as a promising technology since this laser technology has the unique capacity to produce highly localized bulk modification owing to non-linear absorption. The cutting using USP lasers could be performed either by full ablation which is slow and generates a lot of dust, by controlled fracture propagation which is slow as well and may lead to path deviation, by stealth dicing which produces rough sidewalls, or by self-breaking induced by in-volume laser irradiation. The laser treatment is often continuous which is not necessary to perform glass cutting and may lead to over-exposure. In this paper we report on single pass glass and sapphire cutting using an USP laser (20W @200kHz or 8W@2MHz) using dash line laser treatment along the cutting trajectory. In-volume energy deposition was done along the glass thickness owing to a Bessel beam. The results will be discussed in terms of sidewall profile and roughness, path deviation, rim sharpness, energy dose and feed rate. Dash line treatment enables to tune the energy deposition and to produce the cutting effect but with a narrower heat affected zone, a better sidewall quality and a more accurate trajectory control of the cutting path.

  16. Chemical abundances in high-redshift galaxies: a powerful new emission line diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nicholls, David C.

    2016-02-01

    This Letter presents a new, remarkably simple diagnostic specifically designed to derive chemical abundances for high redshift galaxies. It uses only the Hα, [N ii] and [S ii] emission lines, which can usually be observed in a single grating setting, and is almost linear up to an abundance of 12+log (O/H) = 9.05. It can be used over the full abundance range encountered in high redshift galaxies. By its use of emission lines located close together in wavelength, it is also independent of reddening. Our diagnostic depends critically on the calibration of the N/O ratio. However, by using realistic stellar atmospheres combined with the N/O vs. O/H abundance calibration derived locally from stars and H ii regions, and allowing for the fact that high-redshift H ii regions have both high ionisation parameters and high gas pressures, we find that the observations of high-redshift galaxies can be simply explained by the models without having to invoke arbitrary changes in N/O ratio, or the presence of unusual quantities of Wolf-Rayet stars in these galaxies.

  17. Lessons from the Corridors of College Success Initiative: An Introduction. Corridors of College Success Series. CCRC Research Brief. Number 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Lundy-Wagner, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    "Collective impact" is a new place-based model of educational and social intervention that aims to shift responsibility for improvement in outcomes from individual organizations to entire systems that affect the lives of people in a particular location. CCRC's "Corridors of College Success Series" provides insights into…

  18. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study. PMID:24379132

  19. Current densities and total contact currents for 110 and 220 kV power line tasks.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Elovaara, Jarmo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze all values of electric current from measured periods while performing tasks on 110 and 220 kV power lines. Additionally, the objective was to study the average current densities and average total contact currents caused by electric fields in 110 and 220 kV power line tasks. One worker simulated the following tasks: (A) tested insulation voltage at a 110 kV portal tower, (B) checked the wooden towers for rot at a 110 kV portal tower, (C) tested insulation voltage at a 220 kV portal tower, and (D) checked the wooden towers for rot at a 220 kV portal tower. The highest average current density in the neck was 2.0 mA/m(2) (calculated internal electric field was 19.0-38.0 mV/m), and the highest average contact current was 234 µA. All measured values at 110 and 220 kV towers were lower than the basic restrictions (0.1 and 0.8 V/m) of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection.

  20. Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines: A Powerful Tool for the Introgression of Valuable Genes from Oryza Wild Species into Cultivated Rice (O. sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild species of rice (genus Oryza) contain many useful genes but a vast majority of these genes remain untapped to date because it is often difficult to transfer these genes into cultivated rice (O. sativa L.). Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and backcross inbred lines (BILs) are power...

  1. VLF Radio Field Strength Measurement of power line carrier system in San Diego, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertel, H. K.

    1981-01-01

    The radio frequency interference (RFI) potential was evaluated for a Powerline Carriet (PLC) installed in San Diego which monitors the performance of an electrical power system. The PLC system generated 30 amperes at 5.79 kHz. The RF radiations were measured to be (typically) 120 dBuV/m at the beginning of the 12 kV powerline and 60 dBuV/m at the end of the powerline. The RF fields varied inversely as the distance squared. Measurements were also performed with a 45 kHz PLC system. The RF fields were of similar amplitude.

  2. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  3. Corridor- and stopover-use of the Hawaiian goose (Branta sandvicensis), an intratropical altitudinal migrant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Christina R.; Hess, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    We outfitted six male Hawaiian geese, or nene (Branta sandvicensis), with 45-g solar-powered satellite transmitters and collected four location coordinates d−1 from 2010 to 2012. We used 6193 coordinates to characterize migration corridors, habitat preferences and temporal patterns of displacement for 16 migration events with Brownian bridge utilization distributions (BBUD). We used 1552 coordinates to characterize stopovers from 37 shorter-distance movement events with 25% BBUDs. Two subpopulations used a well-defined common migration corridor spanning a broad gradient of elevation. Use of native-dominated subalpine shrubland was 2.81 times more likely than the availability of this land-cover type. The nene differed from other tropical and temperate-zone migrant birds in that: (1) migration distance and the number of stopovers were unrelated (Mann–Whitney test W = 241, P < 0.006), and; (2) individual movements were not unidirectional suggesting that social interactions may be more important than refuelling en route; but like other species, nene made more direct migrations with fewer stopovers in return to breeding areas (0.58 ± 0.50) than in migration away from breeding areas (1.64 ± 0.48). Our findings, combined with the direction and timing of migration, which is opposite that of most other intratropical migrants, suggest fundamentally different drivers of altitudinal migration.

  4. Power lines: Derrida, discursive psychology and the management of accusations of teacher bullying.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, A

    2000-12-01

    This study connects broad issues of classroom control and the disciplining of pupils by teachers with a detailed examination of the way teachers deal with an implied accusation that they have been bullying. The analysis of interviews develops with reference to discursive psychology and Derrida's development of deconstruction. Billig's (1992) insights into ways that participants' accounts can neutralize threats to established social arrangements are employed in relating detailed analytic points to the broader power relations between teacher and pupil. Interviews were conducted with Scottish secondary school teachers, and subjected to close textual analysis. This resulted in the development of three themes: (1) Subjectivity Construction, in which the functional role of the construction of mental entities is examined; (2) Normalizing Techniques, identifying strategies whereby intimidation can be constructed as normal; and (3) Figuration, examining the utility of figurative language--metaphors, maxims, and so on. These themes display the subtlety and complexity of teachers' strategies for distancing themselves from being held accountable for reported intimidation. To conclude, three broader features of the study are discussed: the contribution to discursive psychology that Derrida's deconstructive philosophy can make; the respecification of psychology and subjectivity as participants' resources for action; and the contribution that this type of detailed study can make to issues of power and social critique. PMID:11190687

  5. Power lines: Derrida, discursive psychology and the management of accusations of teacher bullying.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, A

    2000-12-01

    This study connects broad issues of classroom control and the disciplining of pupils by teachers with a detailed examination of the way teachers deal with an implied accusation that they have been bullying. The analysis of interviews develops with reference to discursive psychology and Derrida's development of deconstruction. Billig's (1992) insights into ways that participants' accounts can neutralize threats to established social arrangements are employed in relating detailed analytic points to the broader power relations between teacher and pupil. Interviews were conducted with Scottish secondary school teachers, and subjected to close textual analysis. This resulted in the development of three themes: (1) Subjectivity Construction, in which the functional role of the construction of mental entities is examined; (2) Normalizing Techniques, identifying strategies whereby intimidation can be constructed as normal; and (3) Figuration, examining the utility of figurative language--metaphors, maxims, and so on. These themes display the subtlety and complexity of teachers' strategies for distancing themselves from being held accountable for reported intimidation. To conclude, three broader features of the study are discussed: the contribution to discursive psychology that Derrida's deconstructive philosophy can make; the respecification of psychology and subjectivity as participants' resources for action; and the contribution that this type of detailed study can make to issues of power and social critique.

  6. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume II. Text

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and a commercial assessment of a 100-MWe high-temperature line-focus central power system are presented. Parametric analyses and conceptual design of the heliostat subsystem, receiver subsystem, heat transport subsystem, energy storage subsystem, electrical power generating subsystem, and master control subsystem are included. A market analysis and development plan are given. (WHK)

  7. Protection relay of phase-shifting device with thyristor switch for high voltage power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachugin, V. F.; Panfilov, D. I.; Akhmetov, I. M.; Astashev, M. G.; Shevelev, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Problems of functioning of differential current protection systems of phase shifting devices (PSD) with mechanically changed coefficient of transformation of shunt transformer are analyzed. Requirements for devices of protection of PSD with thyristor switch are formulated. Based on use of nonlinear models of series-wound and shunt transformers of PSD modes of operation of major protection during PSD, switching to zero load operation and to operation under load and during short circuit operation were studied for testing PSD with failures. Use of the principle of duplicating by devices of differential current protection (with realization of functions of breaking) of failures of separate pares of PSD with thyristor switch was substantiated. To ensure protection sensitivity to the shunt transformer winding short circuit, in particular, to a short circuit that is not implemented in the current differential protection for PSD with mechanical switch, the differential current protection reacting to the amount of primary ampere-turns of high-voltage and low-voltage winding of this transformer was designed. Studies have shown that the use of differential current cutoff instead of overcurrent protection for the shunt transformer wndings allows one to provide the sensitivity during thyristor failure with the formation of a short circuit. The results of simulation mode for the PSD with switch thyristor designed to be installed as switching point of Voskhod-Tatarskaya-Barabinsk 220 kV transmission line point out the efficiency of the developed solutions that ensure reliable functioning of the PSD.

  8. Travel and electricity demand analysis of potential US high-speed rail and maglev corridors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Pitstick, M.E.; Rote, D.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernard, M.J. III

    1994-01-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) and magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles will provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short and medium-length trips between 100 and 600 miles (160 to 960 kilometers). A significant portion of highway and air travel can potentially be diverted to such high-speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Also, electric utilities will have to meet the energy demands of these systems. Because these systems require significant investments and time to construct an extensive network, they need more time for analysis and planning. This study evaluates the patterns of growth for these systems and the factors affecting that growth for the year 2010 to determine the magnitude of intercity travel, the basis for HSGT use and electricity demand. To forecast the number and frequency of intercity trips, a methodology was developed that accounts for the travelers` socioeconomic status and the attractiveness of metropolitan areas. The study revealed that aggregate travel demand relied upon population growth, the employment status of the traveler, their household size, and income. Further, the study projects travel for 78 major metropolitan areas via air and highway, and identifies the 12 highest density corridors, describing the potential for HSGT systems to substitute some of that travel. In addition, the study estimates the energy demand and power requirements for a representative high-speed rail and maglev system for each corridor and the corridor connections.

  9. Distance to high-voltage power lines and risk of childhood leukemia--an analysis of confounding by and interaction with other potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Camilla; Bräuner, Elvira V; Rod, Naja H; Albieri, Vanna; Andersen, Claus E; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged <15, diagnosed with leukemia during 1968-1991, from the Danish Cancer Registry and 2048 controls randomly selected from the Danish childhood population and individually matched by gender and year of birth. We used geographical information systems to determine the distance between residence at birth and the nearest 132-400 kV overhead power line. Concentrations of domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution (NOx at the front door) were estimated using validated models. We found a statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon regarding risk of childhood leukemia (p = 0.01) when using the median radon level as cut-off point but not when using the 75th percentile (p = 0.90). We found no evidence of an interaction between distance to nearest power line and traffic-related air pollution (p = 0.73). We found almost no change in the estimated association between distance to power line and risk of childhood leukemia when adjusting for socioeconomic status of the municipality, urbanization, maternal age, birth order, domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution. The statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon was based on few exposed cases and controls and sensitive to the choice of exposure categorization and might, therefore, be due to chance. PMID:25259740

  10. Building America's energy corridor: Oil & gas development and Louisiana's wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theriot, Jason P.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last half century, Louisiana's coastal wetlands have evolved into an elaborate energy landscape that supports onshore and offshore oil and gas development. Since the 1950s, this region has become a vital part of America's energy security and economic prosperity. Today, roughly one quarter of America's oil and gas resources flow through this energy corridor. The environmental changes as a result of these activities have been substantial, as the vast network of pipeline canals and related infrastructure have radically altered these wetlands. This work explores the intersection between energy and environment in coastal Louisiana and offers a historical view of how this energy system and this environment system evolved together to form America's Energy Corridor.

  11. Air transportation in the California Corridor of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, M.; Mahaffy, K.; Yanagi, G.; Lechmanski, L.; Riddle, T.; Howard, K.; Chan, C.; Gorman, M.; Bauer, B.

    1989-01-01

    The topic of the 1988-1989 NASA/USRA Advanced Design Project at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, was the development of an air transportation system to meet the needs of the California Corridor for the year 2010. As aircraft design is taught by two instructors having different philosophies about the teaching process, the two classes took different approaches to address the problem. The first part of this summary (California Air Transit System) represents the work done by the students of Professor A. E. Andreoli, who followed a systems approach, emphasizing the determination of the proper mission. The second part of the summary (Four Aircraft to Service the California Corridor) contains the four aircraft designed by Dr. D. R. Sandlin's class based on specifications determined from work done in previous years.

  12. Oceanic Situational Awareness over the North Atlantic Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the oceanic domain. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the North Atlantic Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  13. Single and three-phase AC losses in HTS superconducting power transmission line prototype cables

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Fleshler, S.

    1997-11-01

    AC losses in two, one-meter-long lengths of HTS prototype multi-strand conductors (PMC`s) are measured with a temperature-difference calorimeter. Both single-phase and three-phase losses are examined with ac currents up to 1,000 A rms. The calorimeter, designed specifically for these measurements, has a precision of 1 mW. PMC {number_sign}1 has two helically-wound, non-insulated layers of HTS tape (19 tapes per layer), each layer wrapped with opposite pitch. PMC {number_sign}2 is identical except for insulation between the layers. The measured ac losses show no significant effect of interlayer insulation and depend on about the third power of the current--a result in agreement with the Bean-Norris model adapted to the double-helix configuration. The three-phase losses are a factor of two higher than those exhibited by a single isolated conductor, indicating a significant interaction between phases.

  14. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  15. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  16. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  17. Moving beyond science to protect a mammalian migration corridor.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Cain, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    As the discipline of conservation biology evolves and practitioners grow increasingly concerned about how to put results into achievable conservation, it is still unclear the extent to which science drives conservation outcomes, especially across rural landscapes. We addressed this issue by examining the role of science in the protection of a biological corridor. Our focus is on a North American endemic mammal reliant on long distance migration as an adaptive strategy, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The role of science in realizing policy change, while critical as a first step, was surprisingly small relative to the role of other human dimensions. In a case study, we strategically addressed a variety of conservation needs beyond science, first by building a partnership between government and private interests and then by enhancing interest in migratory phenomena across a landscape with divergent political ideologies and economic bases. By developing awareness and even people's pride in the concept of corridor conservation, we achieved local, state, and federal acceptance for protection of a 70 km long, 2 km wide pathway for the longest terrestrial migrant in the contiguous United States. Key steps included conducting and publishing research that defined the migration corridor; fostering a variety of media coverage at local, regional, and national levels; conducting public outreach through stakeholder workshops, meetings, and presentations; and meeting with and gaining the support of elected officials. All these contributed to the eventual policy change that created the first federally protected migration corridor in the United States, which in turn stimulated additional conservation actions. On the basis of our experience, we believe conservation scientists can and should step beyond traditional research roles to assist with on-the-ground conservation by engaging in aspects of conservation that involve local

  18. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Rex, C; Vignesh, R; Javed, M; Balaji, Subba Chandra; Premanand, C; Zakki, Syed Ashfaque

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unstable phalangeal fractures are commonly treated with K-wire fixation. Operative fixation must be used judiciously and with the expectation that the ultimate outcome should be better than the outcome after nonoperative management. It is necessary to achieve a stable fracture fixation and early mobilization. In order to achieve this goal, one should closely understand the safe portals/corridors in hand for K-wire entry for fractures of the phalanges. Safe corridors were defined and tested using a pilot cadaveric and a clinical case study by assessing the outcome. Materials and Methods: In our prospective case series, 50 patients with 64 phalangeal fractures were treated with closed reduction and K-wires were inserted through safe portals identified by a pilot cadaveric study. On table active finger movement test was done and the results were analyed using radiology, disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score and total active motion (TAM). In our study, little finger (n = 28) was the most commonly involved digit. In fracture pattern, transverse (n = 20) and spiral (n = 20) types were common. Proximal phalanx (n = 38) was commonly involved and the common site being the base of the phalanx (n = 28). Results: 47 (95%) patients had excellent TAM and the mean postoperative DASH score was 58.05. All patients achieved excellent and good scores proving the importance of the safe corridor concept. Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing “on-table active finger movement test” at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures. PMID:26229157

  19. Bow-corridor local integrated resource plan: Draft plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This plan presents the Government of Alberta's resource management policy for public lands and resources within the Bow Corridor. Resource potentials and opportunities for development are identified to assist in the economic progress of the province. The plan includes identification of its purpose and scope and the context in which it is presented; and resource management objectives and guidelines for ecological and aesthetic resources, fisheries, forests, historical resources, minerals, range land, settlement, tourism/recreation, water and watersheds and wildlife.

  20. Moving beyond science to protect a mammalian migration corridor.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Cain, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    As the discipline of conservation biology evolves and practitioners grow increasingly concerned about how to put results into achievable conservation, it is still unclear the extent to which science drives conservation outcomes, especially across rural landscapes. We addressed this issue by examining the role of science in the protection of a biological corridor. Our focus is on a North American endemic mammal reliant on long distance migration as an adaptive strategy, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The role of science in realizing policy change, while critical as a first step, was surprisingly small relative to the role of other human dimensions. In a case study, we strategically addressed a variety of conservation needs beyond science, first by building a partnership between government and private interests and then by enhancing interest in migratory phenomena across a landscape with divergent political ideologies and economic bases. By developing awareness and even people's pride in the concept of corridor conservation, we achieved local, state, and federal acceptance for protection of a 70 km long, 2 km wide pathway for the longest terrestrial migrant in the contiguous United States. Key steps included conducting and publishing research that defined the migration corridor; fostering a variety of media coverage at local, regional, and national levels; conducting public outreach through stakeholder workshops, meetings, and presentations; and meeting with and gaining the support of elected officials. All these contributed to the eventual policy change that created the first federally protected migration corridor in the United States, which in turn stimulated additional conservation actions. On the basis of our experience, we believe conservation scientists can and should step beyond traditional research roles to assist with on-the-ground conservation by engaging in aspects of conservation that involve local