Science.gov

Sample records for power plant stations

  1. Power plant of high safety for underground nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    An ecologically pure, reliable, and economic nuclear power station is based on the use of nuclear power plants with the liquid-metal coolant. This plant with the inherent safety is protected from external influences due to the underground accommodations in geologically stable formations such as granites, cambrian clays, and salt deposits. The design features of this underground plant are described.

  2. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  3. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  4. Central-station solar hydrogen power plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2005-04-01

    Solar power towers can be used to make hydrogen on a large scale. Electrolyzers could be used to convert solar electricity produced by the power tower to hydrogen, but this process is relatively inefficient. Rather, efficiency can be much improved if solar heat is directly converted to hydrogen via a thermochemical process. In the research summarized here, the marriage of a high-temperature ({approx}1000 C) power tower with a sulfuric acid/hybrid thermochemical cycle was studied. The concept combines a solar power tower, a solid-particle receiver, a particle thermal energy storage system, and a hybrid-sulfuric-acid cycle. The cycle is 'hybrid' because it produces hydrogen with a combination of thermal input and an electrolyzer. This solar thermochemical plant is predicted to produce hydrogen at a much lower cost than a solar-electrolyzer plant of similar size. To date, only small lab-scale tests have been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of a few of the subsystems and a key immediate issue is demonstration of flow stability within the solid-particle receiver. The paper describes the systems analysis that led to the favorable economic conclusions and discusses the future development path.

  5. Power plant V - Thek generating station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.

    The design and operating features of a 10 MWe parabolic dish concentrator steam-cycle generating plant are described. The dishes which have 75 sq m area with a concentration factor of 265, were proved in the Themis project. The total field for the 10 MWe would cover 63,100 sq m and require 842 units. Using a water-steam cycle at 50 bars, temperature would never surpass 264 C, with an after-generator condition of 33 bars at 204 C. Preheating the water is intended with a fused salt reservoir containing 570 tons in 350 cu m container, around which condensed water would flow. Maintaining the primary loop at mildly elevated temperatures would permit uninterrupted operation during cloudy periods. A total shutdown would occur if cloudy conditions last more than one hour, and start-up would involve reheating the primary loop, recharging the storage, and then respinning the turbine.

  6. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - Technology and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bulawka, A.

    1985-01-01

    Central-Station (CS) Photovoltaic (PV) systems have the potential of economically displacing significant amounts of centrally generated electricity. However, the technical viability and, to some extent, the economic viability of central-station PV generation technology will depend upon the availability of large power conditioners that are efficient, safe, reliable, and economical. This paper is an overview of the technical and cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for central-station power plants. The paper also examines various already commercially available PCS hardware that may be suitable for use in today's central PV power stations.

  7. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Power Plant Upgrade, Construct Fuel Farm, Cavalier Air Force Station, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Air Force) conducted an assessment of the potential environmental consequences of upgrading the Power Plant and constructing a Fuel Farm . This...Environmental Assessment (EA), Upgrade Power Plant and Construct Fuel Farm , Cavalier Air Force Station, North Dakota, incorporated by reference in this

  9. Common station system for voltage and reactive power regulation at the Mosenergo TETs-27 heating and electric power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnova, M. E.

    2009-05-15

    The system for common station regulation of the voltage and reactive power at the Mosenergo TETs-27 heating and electric power plant is described briefly. Features of the algorithms for this system, which uses programs and instrumentation from the automatic control system for the electrical equipment in the 450 MW power generation unit No. 3, are examined.

  10. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  11. [Risk of electromagnetic fields in electric power stations and substations of a petrochemical plant].

    PubMed

    Castagnoli, A; Fabri, G; Romeo, A

    2003-01-01

    Authors evaluate electromagnetic field exposure in the low-frequency range (5-30,000 Hz) in electric power stations and substations of petroleum processing plant. According to the measured values and the reference exposure limits considered, they conclude that operators should be exposed without adverse effects.

  12. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  13. Comparison and evaluation of power plant options for geosynchronous power stations. Part 1: Synchronous solar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The present state-of-the-art is described for the development of solar power generators in far out synchronous orbit for power generation. Concepts of geosynchronous solar power satellites are discussed including photovoltaic arrays for power satellites, solar-thermal power satellites, and power transmission to earth.

  14. The AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L.

    2012-07-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  15. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  16. Comparison and evaluation of nuclear power plant options for geosynchronous power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of eleven types of nuclear fission reactors in combination with five potential energy conversion systems for use in geosynchronous power plants is evaluated. Gas turbine, potassium Rankine liquid metal MHD, and thermionic energy conversion systems are considered. The existing technology of reactors in near-term, intermediate-term, and long-term classes is discussed, together with modifications for use in large-scale power production in space. Unless the temperature is high enough for MHD, reactors which heat gases are generally more suitable for use with gas turbines. Those which heat liquid metals will be more useful for potassium Rankine or liquid metal MHD conversion systems.

  17. Comparison and evaluation of nuclear power plant options for geosynchronous power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of eleven types of nuclear fission reactors in combination with five potential energy conversion systems for use in geosynchronous power plants is evaluated. Gas turbine, potassium Rankine liquid metal MHD, and thermionic energy conversion systems are considered. The existing technology of reactors in near-term, intermediate-term, and long-term classes is discussed, together with modifications for use in large-scale power production in space. Unless the temperature is high enough for MHD, reactors which heat gases are generally more suitable for use with gas turbines. Those which heat liquid metals will be more useful for potassium Rankine or liquid metal MHD conversion systems.

  18. [Radiation injury of the plants in the zone of influence of the accident on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (NPS)].

    PubMed

    Grodzinskiĭ, D M; Gudkov, I N

    2006-01-01

    Were considered the radiobiological effects in some species of agricultural and wild growing plants in 30-kilometer zone of alienation of Chernobyl nuclear power station and other radionuclide contaminated territories. The particular attention was given to the distance plant reactions: immunity decreasing, genetic consequences, changes in phytocenosis. Was discussed the question of possibility of plant adaptation to conditions of high radiation influence.

  19. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  20. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  2. Concentration of (3)H in plants around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Yamada, Masatoshi; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Noda, Kaori; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) following the damage caused by the tsunami due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Although many radionuclides in various environmental samples around the FDNPS have been measured, (3)H in the terrestrial environment has not yet been reported. We present here the first survey results of (3)H concentrations in plant samples collected around the FDNPS in 2011 from shortly after the accident. The free-water (3)H concentrations in herbaceous plant shoots and evergreen tree leaves were considerably higher than the previous background concentration, and diminished with distance from the FDNPS. Although reconstruction of atmospheric (3)H concentrations after the accident is difficult, a rough estimate of the radiation dose due to (3)H inhalation about 20 km from the FDNPS is on the order of a few microsieverts (μSv).

  3. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - State-of-the-art and advanced technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical and near-term cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for large-scale, central photovoltaic power stations. Various commercially available PCS hardware suitable for use in today's central photovoltaic power stations are also surveyed. Federal and industrial activities in the research and development of advanced PCSs that will contribute to the attainment of fully competitive, large-scale photovoltaic power stations are reviewed. The status of the DOE central station PCS program is discussed.

  4. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  5. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power station: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  6. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

  7. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

  8. Photocatalytic treatment of IGCC power station effluents in a UV-pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Sánchez-Romero, R

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this work is to improve the quality of water effluents coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study has been made using an homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/Fe(II)/H(2)O(2)) in a pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was determined from the analysis of the following parameters: cyanides, formates and TOC content. In the first stage, a factorial experimental design allowed to determine the influence of operation variables (initial concentration of H(2)O(2) and Fe(II), pH and temperature) on the degradation kinetics. pH was always kept in a value >9.5 during cyanides destruction to avoid gaseous HCN formation and lowered later to enhance formates degradation. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). Under the optimum conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=1700 ppm, [Fe(II)]=2 ppm, pH 2 after cyanides destruction, and T=30 degrees C), it is possible to degrade 100% of cyanides in 15 min and 76% of formates in 120 min. The use of an homogeneous process with UV light can offer an economical and practical alternative to heterogeneous photocatalysis for the destruction of environmental pollutants present in thermoelectric power stations effluents, since it can treat very high flowrates using a lower H(2)O(2) concentration. Furthermore, it does not require additional operations to recover the solid catalyst and regenerate it due to deactivation as occurs in heterogeneous catalysis.

  9. 35. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CONTROL ROOM OF ELECTRIC POWER STATION WITH DIESEL ENGINE POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATION EQUIPMENT IN BACKGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  11. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored. PMID:28117709

  12. [Cytogenetic characteristics of seed offspring of leafy tree plants from one-kilometer zone of Novovoronezh nuclear power station].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, V G; Kalaev, V N; Sen'kevich, E V; Vakhtel', V M; Savko, A D

    2004-01-01

    Cytogenetic characteristics (mitotic activity, level and spectrum of pathological mitoses, nucleoly characteristics) of seed offspring of Quercus robur L. and Betula pendula Roth from Novovoronezh nuclear power station's 1-kilometer zone have been studied. It has been shown the change of time of passing though mitotic stages by cells, the increasing of bridges frequency occur in spectrum of mitotic aberrations (that shows activation of reparation systems), the change in nucleoly characteristics (the part of polynucleolaris cells increase in case of oak and decrease in case of birch, the rase of surface square of single nucleolies). The phenomena, mean above, probably, induced by synergic effects of Novovoronezh nuclear power station and environment pollutants. The most contaminated territories of 1-kilometer zone of Novovoronezh nuclear power station have been discovered by means of methods of cluster analysis of total cytogenetic characteristics of tree plants seed offspring.

  13. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  14. Solar power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  15. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.; Jones, T.S.

    1998-11-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  16. Simultaneous transient operation of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station in the same hydraulic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cervantes, M. J.; Cǎlinoiu, C.; Isbǎşoiu, E. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an on-site experimental analysis of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station, in an interconnected complex hydraulic scheme during simultaneous transient operation. The investigated hydropower site has a unique structure as the pumping station discharges the water into the hydropower plant penstock. The operation regimes were chosen for critical scenarios such as sudden load rejections of the turbines as well as start-ups and stops with different combinations of the hydraulic turbines and pumps operation. Several parameters were simultaneously measured such as the pumped water discharge, the pressure at the inlet pump section, at the outlet of the pumps and at the vane house of the hydraulic power plant surge tank. The results showed the dependence of the turbines and the pumps operation. Simultaneous operation of the turbines and the pumps is possible in safe conditions, without endangering the machines or the structures. Furthermore, simultaneous operation of the pumping station together with the hydropower plant increases the overall hydraulic efficiency of the site since shortening the discharge circuit of the pumps.

  17. Engineering and economic evaluation of central-station photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J. )

    1992-12-01

    This report describes the conceptual design, design optimization, and estimated cost and performance of three 50 MW photovoltaic power plants. The first design uses Fresnel lens/glass silo modules mounted on two-axis tracking arrays. The second design has all of the cells mounted on a central receiver on top of a single tower, with heliostats concentrating sunlight onto the receiver. Both designs are based on a similar advanced back-contact silicon concentrator cell developed under EPRI sponsorship. The third design uses thin-film copper indium diselenide flat-plate modules mounted on fixed-tilt array structures. The design and manufacture of the photovoltaic cells and modules are described, along with selection of the photovoltaic technologies, generating and cell manufacturing plant sites. Power system simulation and revenue requirement analyses are included for all of the plant designs.

  18. Engineering and economic evaluation of central-station photovoltaic power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes the conceptual design, design optimization, and estimated cost and performance of three 50 MW photovoltaic power plants. The first design uses Fresnel lens/glass silo modules mounted on two-axis tracking arrays. The second design has all of the cells mounted on a central receiver on top of a single tower, with heliostats concentrating sunlight onto the receiver. Both designs are based on a similar advanced back-contact silicon concentrator cell developed under EPRI sponsorship. The third design uses thin-film copper indium diselenide flat-plate modules mounted on fixed-tilt array structures. The design and manufacture of the photovoltaic cells and modules are described, along with selection of the photovoltaic technologies, generating and cell manufacturing plant sites. Power system simulation and revenue requirement analyses are included for all of the plant designs.

  19. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  20. 36. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CLOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CLOSE UP VIEW OF 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. 37. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - ELEVATED VIEW OF FIVE (5) 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY - POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  2. Impact of air pollution on vegetation near the Columbia Generating Station - Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Will-Wolf, S.; Karnowsky, D.F.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was undertaken before and after initiation of generating station operations. Controlled environmental exposures were undertaken with separate cultivars of crop species grown in the vicinity of the generating station. Alfalfa, carrots, mint, peas, beans, and trembling aspen were exposed to SO2 and O3 to establish minimum threshold pollutant levels for injury from these pollutants.

  3. Station blackout at nuclear power plants: Radiological implications for nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-12-01

    Recent work on station blackout is reviewed its radiological implications for a nuclear war scenario is explored. The major conclusion is that the effects of radiation from many nuclear weapon detonations in a nuclear war would swamp those from possible reactor accidents that result from station blackout.

  4. Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife island, the Canarian archipelago, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.E.; Fernandez, M.; Iglesias, E. ); Perez, N. Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge ); Snelling, R. )

    1993-02-01

    Heavy metal analysis have been carried out in wild plants around a Power Station located at the southeastern area of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The concentrations of Fe, Ni, and V in the leaves and terminal stems of three wild plants (Euphorbia obtusifolia, Kleinia neriifolia, and Plocama pendula) which were collected during the spring of 1988 are reported from four different allotments. These sampling sites were located at distances of 0.4, 1, 1, 25, and 34 km from the Electric Generating Facility, and at elevations of 60, 120, 180 and 60 m, respectively. Results show a potential contamination of vanadium in E. obtusifolia and P. pendula plants located close to the Power Station, probably due to dry deposition on fly ash in the surrounding area. The levels of iron and nickel concentrations in the same type of plants did not show any geographical relationship with respect to the location of the Power Station. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Characterization of PAHs within PM 10 fraction for ashes from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant stacks in Liaoning Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Shi, Jianwu; Lu, Bing; Qiu, Weiguang; Zhang, Baosheng; Peng, Yue; Zhang, Bowen; Bai, Zhipeng

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within PM 10 fraction of ashes from two coke production plants, one iron smelt plant, one heating station and one power plant were analyzed with GC-MS technique in 2009. The sum of 17 selected PAHs varied from 290.20 to 7055.72 μg/g and the amounts of carcinogenic PAHs were between 140.33 and 3345.46 μg/g. The most toxic ash was from the coke production plants and then from the iron smelt plant, coal-fired power plant and heating station according to BaP-based toxic equivalent factor (BaPeq) and BaP-based equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE). PAHs profile of the iron smelt ash was significantly different from others with coefficient of divergence value higher than 0.40. Indicatory PAHs for coke production plants, heating station and coal-fired power plant were mainly 3-ring species such as Acy, Fl and Ace. While for iron smelt plant, they were Chr and BbF. Diagnostic ratios including Ant/(Ant + Phe), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaA/Chr, BbF/BkF, Ind/BghiP, IND/(IND + BghiP), BaP/BghiP, BaP/COR, Pyr/BaP, BaA/(BaA + Chr), BaA/BaP and BaP/(BaP + Chr) were calculated which were mostly different from other stacks for the iron smelt plant.

  6. An epidemiological study of the risk factors of occupational diseases in coal handling plant of a thermal power station.

    PubMed

    Manna, A; Bisoi, S; Mandal, N C; Mandal, A

    2003-01-01

    Anthropometry and morbidity profile of fifty randomly selected workers of coal handling plant at a thermal power station of West Bengal having at least five years experience were studied. The mean value of their age, duration of present job and Body Mass Index (BMI) were 34.8 years, 7.86 years and 19.24 respectively. As they were exposed to coal dust (Av. concentration 300-350 mg/M3 of air), warmth (Ambient temperature 40 +/- 5 degrees C), humidity (Relative humidity 80 +/- 5%) and noise [Av. 80 dB(A)], respiratory system was most commonly (72%) effected followed by greying of hair (5.6%), Cloth dusters used by some could not render any discernable protective effect. Addiction was also prevent (62%). Use of proper protective equipments (PPE) supplemented by adequate preplacement and periodic medical examination followed by successful rehabilitation were suggested.

  7. 38. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR - OBLIQUE VIEW AT FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SET NUMBER 5. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 14. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 70 EAST AT SW CORNER OF BUILDING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  10. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  11. Concept development for a space solar power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysoev, V. K.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Feldman, L. I.; Arapov, E. A.; Luzyanin, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    This paper introduces a concept for the development of a space solar power station, starting from the manufacture of a photoemissive panel to the creation of a prototype of an industrial power plant. Balloon systems play a special role both in the testing of the power plant and in the operation of prototypes of solar power stations.

  12. Space Station Power System issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of attractive options are available for the Space Station Power System. These include a photovoltaic system or solar dynamic system for power generation, batteries or fuel cells for energy storage and ac or dc for power management and distribution. These options are being explored during the present preliminary design and definition phase of the Space Station Program. Final selections are presently targeted for January 1986.

  13. Conceptual design of A 50 MW central station photovoltaic power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranix, A. J.; Firester, A. H.

    1983-09-01

    The conceptual design of a 50 MW photovoltaic powerplant based on thin film amorphous silicon panels is presented, in a context of installation, operation and maintenance at a site in central New Jersey which allows the evaluation of performance on the basis of actual insolation data. The design criterion employed minimizes the installed plant cost/annual kW-hr of electricity generated. The cost performance values obtained are compared with a value analysis conducted for the present design in conjunction with the utility company operating in the region of the study.

  14. Studies of aerosol formation in power plant plumes—II. Secondary aerosol formation in the Navajo generating station plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. C.; McMurry, P. H.

    Aerosol and gas measurements were made with the University of Minnesota Mobile Laboratory (UMML) during the VISTTA program (26 June, 1979 to 13 July, 1979) near Page, Arizona. The UMML was stationed on Zilnez Mesa (36.79°N, 110.63°W, elevation 2,200 m) approx. 65 km east of the Navajo coal-hred power plant. Measurements were made both in and out of the power plant plume and were made during the day and night. Measured parameters included aerosol size distributions, Aitken nuclei count, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentrations, the aerosol light scattering coefficient and meteorological parameters including ultraviolet radiation intensity. Concentrations of NO and NO x were occasionally measured. Data show clear evidence of gas-to-particle conversion in the plume with aerosol volume being added in the 0.01 μm-0.32 μm dia. range and new particles being formed. The observed excess aerosol volume depends strongly upon the SO 2 concentrations and the time of day with none observed in plume parcels which were not exposed to sunlight. This implies that the excess aerosol in the plume was secondary and was not due to primary particulate emissions from the stack. The fraction of sulfur appearing in the aerosol was inferred from the measurements of SO 2 concentrations and excess aerosol volume concentrations in the plume and was found to correlate with the time integral of the UV flux density received by the plume parcels since pollutant emission. The observed rate of SO 2 conversion was found to be 1.9 ± 0.8% h-1 at noon, with a diurnal average of 0.9 ± 0.4 % h-1.

  15. Space Station Photovoltaic power modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Silicon cell Photovoltaic (PV) power modules are key components of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) scheduled to begin deployment in 1994. Four PV power modules, providing 75 KWe of user ac power, form the cornerstone of the EPS; which is comprised of Photovoltaic (PV) power modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) power modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system. The PV modules are located on rotating outboard sections of the Space Station (SS) structure and each module incorporates its own nickel-hydrogen energy storage batteries, its own thermal control system, and some autonomous control features. The PV modules are a cost-effective and technologically mature approach for providing reliable SS electrical power and are a solid base for EPS growth, which is expected to reach 300 KWe by the end of the Space Station's 30-year design lifetime.

  16. A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Priebe, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.

  17. Space Station power system selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station power system selection process is described with attention given to management organization and technical considerations. A hybrid power system was chosen because of the large life cycle cost savings. The power management and distribution system that was chosen was the 400 Hz system.

  18. Metal phytoremediation potential of naturally growing plants on fly ash dumpsite of Patratu thermal power station, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shikha Kumari; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Chakraborty, Sukalyan

    2016-01-01

    Three naturally growing plants Ipomoea carnea, Lantana camara, and Solanum surattense were found in fly ash dumpsite of Patratu thermal power station, Jharkhand, India. They were assessed for their metal uptake potential. The fly ash was slightly alkaline with very less nitrogen and organic carbon but enriched with phosphorus and heavy metals. Lantana camara and Ipomoea carnea showed good translocation from root to shoot for most of the metals except Mn and Pb. The order of metal accumulation in stem of both the plants were Fe(205mg/kg)>Mn(65mg/kg)>Cu(22.35mg/kg)>Pb(6.6mg/kg)>Cr(3.05mg/kg)>Ni(1 mg/kg)>Cd(0.5 mg/kg) and Fe(741 mg/kg)>Mn(154.05 mg/kg)>Cu(20.75 mg/kg)>Pb(6.75 mg/kg)>Ni(4.0 mg/kg)>Cr(3.3mg/kg)>Cd(0.05mg/kg), respectively. But Solanum surattense accumulated most of the metals in roots. The order was in the following order, Mn (382.2mg/kg) >Fe (264.1mg/kg) > Cu (25.35mg/kg) >Pb (5.95 mg/kg) > Ni (1.9 mg/kg) > Cr (1.8mg/kg) > Cd (0.55 mg/kg). The order of Bioconcentration factor (BCF) in root and shoot followed almost the same order as, Mn>Fe>Ni>Pb>Cu>Cr≈ Cd in all the three species. ANOVA showed significant variation in metal accumulation by root and stem between the species. Finally, it can be concluded that Solanum surattense can be used as phytostabilizer and other two species as phytoextractor of metal for fly ash dumpsite reclamation.

  19. Identification and evaluation of air-pollution-tolerant plants around lignite-based thermal power station for greenbelt development.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, M; Ganeshkumar, R S; Muthukumaran, V R; Visvanathan, P

    2012-05-01

    Thermal power plants emit various gaseous and particulate pollutants into the atmosphere. It is well known that trees help to reduce air pollution. Development of a greenbelt with suitable plant species around the source of emission will mitigate the air pollution. Selection of suitable plant species for a greenbelt is very important. Present study evaluates different plant species around Neyveli thermal power plant by calculating the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) which is based on their significant biochemical parameters. Also Anticipated Performance Index (API) was calculated for these plant species by combining APTI values with other socio-economic and biological parameters. Based on these indices, the most appropriate plant species were identified for the development of a greenbelt around the thermal power plant to mitigate air pollution. Among the 30 different plant species evaluated, Mangifere indica L. was identified as keystone species which is coming under the excellent category. Ambient air quality parameters were correlated with the biochemical characteristics of plant leaves and significant changes were observed in the plants biochemical characteristics due to the air pollution stress.

  20. Definitional-mission report: Combined-cycle power plant, Sultan Iskandar Power Station Phase 2-B, Tenaga Nasional BHD, Malaysia. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Kadagathur, G.

    1990-12-10

    Tenaga Nasional BHD (TEN) formerly known as National Electricity Board of Malaysia is proposing to construct a Combined Cycle Power Plant at Pasir Gudang. The project is known as Sultan Iskandar Power Station Phase 2 (SIPS-2). U.S. engineering companies and U.S. equipment manufacturers are having difficulty in procuring contracts from the Malaysian Power Industry. To date, the industry is dominated by consortia with British and Swiss participation. Several U.S. engineering companies have approached the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) to assist them in breaking into the Malaysian utility market by supporting their effort on their current proposals for SIPS-2 project. It is recommended that TDP should approve a grant to TEN that would provide funds for engineering upto the preparation of equipment specifications and associated technology transfer. The grant along with the weak dollar should be attractive enough for TEN to strongly consider consortia with U.S. companies very favorably. The project also offers a potential for the export of U.S. manufactured equipment in the range of $170 million.

  1. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  2. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  3. Space Station power system issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite.

  4. Clear Air Force Station: Air Force Reviewed Costs and Benefits of Several Options before Deciding to Close the Power Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Study Clear Air Force Station, located in the interior of Alaska where temperatures can drop as low as -60o This report addresses (1) the extent to...temperatures can drop to as low as -60o Fahrenheit, and it currently generates its own heat and power from a coal-fired combined heat and power...testimony, and correspondence. To have GAO e-mail you a list of newly posted products, go to http://www.gao.gov and select “E-mail Updates.” The price

  5. Emission and profile characteristic of volatile organic compounds emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant in Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwu; Deng, Hao; Bai, Zhipeng; Kong, Shaofei; Wang, Xiuyan; Hao, Jiming; Han, Xinyu; Ning, Ping

    2015-05-15

    107 kinds of C₂-C₁₂ volatile organic compound (VOC) mass concentrations and profiles for four types of coal-fired stationary sources in Liaoning Province were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method, which are of significant importance with regard to VOC emissions in northeast of China. The results showed that there were some differences among these VOC source profiles. The total mass concentrations of analyzed 107 VOC species varied from 10,917 to 19,652 μg m(-3). Halogenated hydrocarbons exhibited higher mass percentages for the VOC source profiles of iron smelt (48.8%) and coke production plant (37.7%). Aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant in heating station plant (69.1%). Ketones, alcohols and acetates held 45.0% of total VOCs in thermal power plant. For non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), which are demanded for photochemical assessment in the USA, toluene and n-hexane were the most abundant species in the iron smelt, coke production and thermal power plant, with the mass percentages of 64.8%, 52.7% and 38.6%, respectively. Trimethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene and o,m-ethyltoluene approximately accounted for 70.0% in heating station plant. NMHCs emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant listed above presented different chemical reactivities. The average OH loss rate of NMHCs from heating station, was 4 to 5.6 times higher than that of NMHCs from iron smelt, coke production and power plant, which implies that VOCs emitted from heating station in northeast of China should be controlled firstly to avoid photochemical ozone pollution and protect human health. There are significant variations in the ratios of benzene/toluene and m, p-xylene/ethylbenzene of these coal-fired source profiles. The representativeness of the coal-fired sources studied and the VOC samples collected should be more closely examined. The accuracy of VOC source profiles related to coal-fired processes is highly dependent on

  6. BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION

    SciTech Connect

    John McDaniel

    2002-05-01

    Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

  7. Power station oil spill risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a simple evaluation method to prioritize oil spill risk in a fossil power station. The method was developed and tested on several units. This method is based on the oil reservoir size, number of drain paths and a reasonability factor. The prioritized list can assist a plant in determining the risk of an oil spill and the most likely source. This efforts and capital for prevention measures can be directed toward the area of highest risk.

  8. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  9. Power plants to go

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-05-01

    Simple-cycle portable power stations have been used to increase the electrical capacity in developing countries and in emergency situations. This article describes the first power barge using combined-cycle technology which has began operation in the Dominican Republic. The construction of a new mobile power plant in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, marks the first time a power barge has been coupled with the efficiency of combined-cycle generation. The 185-megawatt plant, which became fully operational in January, provides 25% of the power required by the Dominican state-owned utility, the Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE). The new plant is designed to end the power shortages and blackouts that have traditionally plagued the Caribbean nation. The Puerto Plata plant consists of two barges that were built in the US, transported to the Dominican Republic, installed, and backfilled into place. One barge, delivered in May 1994, contains a 76-megawatt gas turbine. The second barge, installed in April 1995, contains a 45-megawatt heat-recovery steam generator to recover heat energy from the turbine exhaust, two auxiliary boilers to produce additional steam, and a 118-megawatt steam-turbine generator.

  10. 15. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 55° EAST AT FIVE DIESEL ENGINE/ GENERATOR SILENCER SYSTEM EXHAUST STACKS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. Peak exposures to main components of ash and gaseous diesel exhausts in closed and open ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled power plants.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha; Koponen, Hanna; Sippula, Olli; Korpijärvi, Kirsi; Jumpponen, Mika; Laitinen, Sirpa; Aatamila, Marjaleena; Tissari, Jarkko; Karhunen, Tommi; Ojanen, Kari; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-10-01

    Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders' peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in open and closed ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled combined heat and power plants. We also carried out chemical and morphological analyses of the ashes to evaluate their health hazard potential in order to find practical technical measures to reduce workers' exposure. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analyses, the main respirable crystalline ash compounds were SiO2, CaSO4, CaO, Ca2Al2SiO7, NaCl and Ca3Al2O6 in the fly ashes and SiO2, KAlSi3O8, NaAlSi3O8 and Ca2Al2SiO7 in the bottom ashes. The short-term exposure levels of respirable crystalline silica, inhalable inorganic dust, Cr, Mn, Ni and nitric oxide exceeded their Finnish eight hours occupational exposure limit values in the closed ash loading station. According to our observations, more attention should be paid to the ash-moistening process, the use of tank trucks instead of open cassette flatbed trucks, and the sealing of the loading line from the silo to the truck which would prevent spreading the ash into the air. The idling time of diesel trucks should also be limited, and ash loading stations should be equipped with exhaust gas ventilators. If working conditions make it impossible to keep to the OEL values, workers must use respirators and protect their eyes and skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-23

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  14. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  15. ORIGINAL 1912 STATION POWER TRANSFORMERS IN HIGHTENSION ROOM, SW CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORIGINAL 1912 STATION POWER TRANSFORMERS IN HIGH-TENSION ROOM, SW CORNER OF THE POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  16. Numerical flow analysis of hydro power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    For the hydraulic engineering and design of hydro power stations and their hydraulic optimisation, mainly experimental studies of the physical submodel or of the full model at the hydraulics laboratory are carried out. Partially, the flow analysis is done by means of computational fluid dynamics based on 2D and 3D methods and is a useful supplement to experimental studies. For the optimisation of hydro power stations, fast numerical methods would be appropriate to study the influence of a wide field of optimisation parameters and flow states. Among the 2D methods, especially the methods based on the shallow water equations are suitable for this field of application, since a lot of experience verified by in-situ measurements exists because of the widely used application of this method for the problems in hydraulic engineering. As necessary, a 3D model may supplement subsequently the optimisation of the hydro power station. The quality of the results of the 2D method for the optimisation of hydro power plants is investigated by means of the results of the optimisation of the hydraulic dividing pier compared to the results of the 3D flow analysis.

  17. Method and algorithm of ranking boiler plants at block electric power stations by the criterion of operation reliability and profitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadzadeh, E. M.; Muradaliyev, A. Z.; Farzaliyev, Y. Z.

    2015-10-01

    A method and an algorithm of ranking of boiler installations based on their technical and economic indicators are proposed. One of the basic conditions for ranking is the independence of technical and economic indicators. The assessment of their interrelation was carried out with respect to the correlation rate. The analysis of calculation data has shown that the interrelation stability with respect to the value and sign persists only for those indicators that have an evident relationship between each other. One of the calculation steps is the normalization of quantitative estimates of technical and economic indicators, which makes it possible to eliminate differences in dimensions and indicator units. The analysis of the known methods of normalization has allowed one to recommend the relative deviation from the average value as a normalized value and to use the arithmetic mean of the normalized values of independent indicators of each boiler installation as an integrated index of performance reliability and profitability. The fundamental differences from the existing approach to assess the "weak components" of a boiler installation and the quality of monitoring of its operating regimes are that the given approach takes into account the reliability and profitability of the operation of all other analogous boiler installations of an electric power station; it also implements competing elements with respect to the quality of control among the operating personnel of separate boiler installations and is aimed at encouraging an increased quality of maintenance and repairs.

  18. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  19. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  20. DOE/EA-1498: Environmental Assessment for the Advanced Coal Utilization Byproduct Beneficiation Processing Plant Ghent Power Station, Carroll County, Kentucky (January 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-01-01

    The Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) is a cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to demonstrate advanced coal-based power generation technologies. Through the CCPI, candidate technologies are demonstrated at commercial-scale facilities to foster widespread application. The goals of the program are to realize environmental and economic benefits through DOE and industry partnerships, as well as to move promising, yet commercially risky, advanced coal energy systems to market. DOE proposes to provide funding, through a cooperative agreement with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation (UKRF), Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), for the design, construction, and operation of an advanced coal ash beneficiation processing plant at Kentucky Utilities (KU) Ghent Power Station in Carroll County, Kentucky. The proposed project would contribute to CCPI program goals by demonstrating a means to reduce the net costs of particulate control technologies through the conversion of ash into salable products. DOE would provide $4,492,008, approximately 50 percent of total project cost. The proposed demonstration plant would process 200,000 tons per year of fly ash generated at the Ghent Power Station into: 156,000 tons per year of pozzolan for concrete; 16,000 tons per year of high-quality block sand; 16,000 tons per year of graded fill sand; 1,500 tons per year of high-quality polymer filler; and 8,000 tons of carbon fuel. Because the proposed project would utilize an existing waste to produce concrete and masonry materials, which could replace Portland cement, overall CO2 emissions resulting from concrete manufacturing could be reduced. Furthermore, the need for additional storage areas for fly ash would be reduced. The findings of this Environmental are that no significant impacts to human health and safety or the environment from construction and operation of the proposed demonstration plant are anticipated. Because the

  1. Radiological characterization of Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, F.X.; Cumming, E.R.; Hollenbeck, P. )

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee nuclear power station located in Rowe, Massachusetts, permanently ceased power operations on February 26, 1992, after 31 yr of operation. Yankee has since initiated decommissioning planning activities. A significant component of these activities is the determination of the extent of radiological contamination of the Yankee site. This paper describes the site radiological characterization program that has been implemented for decommissioning the Yankee plant. Radiological scoping surveys were completed to support submittal of a decommissioning plan to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by October 1, 1993. These surveys were designed to provide sufficient detail to estimate the extent of contamination, volume of radiological waste, activity of radiological waste, and personnel dose estimates for removal activities. Surveys were conducted both inside and on the grounds outside of the Yankee plant buildings. Survey results were combined with analytical evaluations to characterize the Yankee site.

  2. Determining Yankee Nuclear Power Station neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heider, K.J.; Morrissey, K.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee nuclear power station located in Rowe, Massachusetts, permanently ceased power operations on February 26, 1992, after 31 yr of operation. Yankee has since initiated decommissioning planning activities. A significant component of these activities is a determination of the extent of radiological contamination of the Yankee site. Included in this effort was determination of the extent of neutron activation of plant components. This paper describes the determination of the neutron activation of the Yankee reactor vessel, associated internals, and surrounding structures. The Yankee reactor vessel is a 600-MW(thermal) stainless steel-lined, carbon steel vessel with stainless steel internal components designed by Westinghouse. The reactor vessel is surrounded and supported by a carbon steel neutron shield tank that was filled with chromated water during plant operation. A 5-ft-thick concrete biological shield wall surrounds the neutron shield tank. A project is under way to remove the reactor vessel internals from the reactor vessel.

  3. An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Pavle; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola

    2004-05-01

    This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn).

  4. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  5. Status of space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.; Sheibley, Dean W.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the manned space station configuration and the power systems are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. The recently completed phase B tradeoff study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described. The present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems are also summarized for completeness.

  6. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  7. Configuration management; Operating power station electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, R.R.; Sumiec, K.F. )

    1989-01-01

    Increasing regulatory and industry attention has been focused on properly controlling electrical design changes. These changes can be controlled by using configuration management techniques. Typically, there are ongoing modifications to various process systems or additions due to new requirements at every power plant. Proper control of these changes requires that an organized method be used to ensure that all important parameters of the electrical auxiliary systems are analyzed and that these parameters are evaluated accurately. This process, commonly referred to as configuration management, is becoming more important on both fossil and nuclear plants. Recent NRC- and utility-initiated inspections have identified problems due to incomplete analysis of changes to electrical auxiliary systems at nuclear stations.

  8. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  9. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  10. Space station electrical power system technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, A.A.

    1984-08-01

    NASA is beginning the development of both a permanently manned space station and of unmanned space platforms. Although the exact requirements have not been defined, the initial space station will likely require a considerable amount of electrical power. There are many options available for the source, storage and distribution of power/energy. Some of these technologies are better developed and more likely to be applied to the initial systems. This paper describes the results of power system technology studies as applied to manned space stations, and includes tradeoffs for power distribution selection. Sizing and cost factors are provided for the more probable combinations of power sources, storage and distribution approaches.

  11. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part II: Plant Simulation and Optimisation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    After having described the models for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipment in the first part of this paper, this second part provides an example that demonstrates the performance of different ORC systems in the energy recovery application in a gas compressor station. The application shows certain specific characteristics, i.e. relatively large scale of the system, high exhaust gas temperature, low ambient temperature operation, and incorporation of an air-cooled condenser, as an effect of the localization in a compressor station plant. Screening of 17 organic fluids, mostly alkanes, was carried out and resulted in a selection of best performing fluids for each cycle configuration, among which benzene, acetone and heptane showed highest energy recovery potential in supercritical cycles, while benzene, toluene and cyclohexane in subcritical cycles. Calculation results indicate that a maximum of 10.4 MW of shaft power can be obtained from the exhaust gases of a 25 MW compressor driver by the use of benzene as a working fluid in the supercritical cycle with heat recuperation. In relation to the particular transmission system analysed in the study, it appears that the regenerative subcritical cycle with toluene as a working fluid presents the best thermodynamic characteristics, however, require some attention insofar as operational conditions are concerned.

  12. Efficient ways for setting up the operation of nuclear power stations in power systems in the base load mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Burdenkova, E. Yu.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2011-05-01

    The results obtained from studies of efficient ways and methods for organizing the operation of developing nuclear power stations in the base load mode are presented. We also show comparative efficiency of different scenarios for unloading condensing thermal power stations, cogeneration stations, combined-cycle power plants, nuclear power stations, and using off-peak electric energy for electricity-intensive loads: pumped-hydroelectric storage, electric-powered heat supply, and electrolysis of water for producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  14. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is a listing of 221 baseload power plant units currently in the planning stage. The list shows the plant owner, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, major equipment suppliers (steam generator, turbogenerator, and flue gas desulfurization system), partner, and date the plant is to be online. This data is a result of a survey by the journal of power plant owners.

  15. A new Space Station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for a Space Station power system is proposed which reduces the drag effect of the solar panels and eliminates eclipsing by the Earth. The solar generator is physically separated from the Space Station, and power transmitted to the station by a microwave beam. The power station can thus be placed high enough that drag is not a significant factor. For a resonant orbit where the ratio of periods s:p is a ratio of odd integers, and the orbital planes nearly perpendicular, an orbit can be chosen such that the line of sight is never blocked if the lower orbit has an altitude greater than calculatable mininum. For the 1:3 resonance, this minimum altitude is 0.5 r(e). Finally, by placing the power station into a sun-synchronous orbit, it can be made to avoid shadowing by the Earth, thus providing continuous power.

  16. 78 FR 784 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). The license provides, among... with the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant and Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, on February 9, 2011...

  17. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    SciTech Connect

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S. )

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews.

  18. Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor

    1990-01-01

    NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

  19. World electric power plants database

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This global database provides records for 104,000 generating units in over 220 countries. These units include installed and projected facilities, central stations and distributed plants operated by utilities, independent power companies and commercial and self-generators. Each record includes information on: geographic location and operating company; technology, fuel and boiler; generator manufacturers; steam conditions; unit capacity and age; turbine/engine; architect/engineer and constructor; and pollution control equipment. The database is issued quarterly.

  20. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  1. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  2. Power plant profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Jakansi, J.

    1997-03-01

    The facilities described here represent the rich variety of technologies being applied at new and existing powerplants in the US. While new capacity additions are at an all-time low in this country, the plants and projects that are completed generally represent new highs in regulatory compliance, technical savvy, and management ingenuity. They range from a 4-MW landfill-gas-fired turbine to a 2,500-MW nuclear plant. Several gas-turbine projects are included, confirming the current dominance of this technology. The projects are: Fort St. Vrain, Pinon Pine, Cleburne cogeneration plant, Gilbert station, Hanes Mill Rd, El Dorado, Wolf Creek, South Texas Project, Stanton Energy Center Unit 2, Milliken station and Northampton plant.

  3. Amistad Power Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Worh District AMISTAD POWEI PLANT DEL RIO, TEXAS DTICS LECTE DEC 2 11983 OCTOBER 1063 88 11 281 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved fca public relea...A I I I 1 1 ... CORPS OF ENGINEERS FORT WORTH DISTRICT, TEXAS FINAL FOUNDATION REPORT AMISTAD POWER PLANT NTIS G- xi DTI’. T" Jus! if - Distr ’. Avai...Wayne E. McIntosh. Colonel Donald Palladino and Colonel Theodore Stroup served as District Engineers during construction of the Amistad Power Plant

  4. 9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels in place in center of photograph, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  5. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  6. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. Themis - A solar power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, J.

    The organization, goals, equipment, costs, and performance of the French Themis (Thermo-helio-electric-MW) project are outlined. The program was begun for both the domestic energy market and for export. The installation comprises a molten eutectic salt loop which receives heat from radiators situated in a central tower. The salt transfers the heat to water for steam generation of electricity. A storage tank holds enough molten salt to supply one day's reserve of power, 40 MWh. A field of heliostats directs the suns rays for an estimated 2400 hr/yr onto the central receiver aperture, while 11 additional parabolic concentrators provide sufficient heat to keep the salt reservoir at temperatures exceeding 200 C. In a test run of several months during the spring of 1982 the heliostats directed the sun's rays with an average efficiency of 75 percent, yielding 2.3 MW of power at a system efficiency of 20.5 percent in completely automatic operation.

  8. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  9. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  10. Photovoltaic Power Station with Ultracapacitors for Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Soltis, Richard F.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power station in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy is discussed. Developments in the semiconductor industry have reduced the cost and increased the attainable efficiency of commercially available photovoltaic panels; as a result, photovoltaic generation of power for diverse applications has become practical. Photovoltaic generation can provide electric power in remote locations where electric power would otherwise not be available. Photovoltaic generation can also afford independence from utility systems. Applications include supplying power to scientific instruments and medical equipment in isolated geographical regions.

  11. Space Station Power System Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.; Valgora, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Space Station Advanced Development Program are related to the development of a set of design options and/or new capabilities to support Space Station development and operation, taking into account also a quantification of the performance and risk of key state-of-the-art technologies, and a reduction of the cost and schedule risk in Space Station development. Attention is given to the photovoltaic power system, a solar dynamic system, and aspects of power management and distribution. A major issue will be the selection of the power generation system. In view of the advantages of the solar dynamic system, it is attempted to resolve issues associated with this system.

  12. Operations research investigations of satellite power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. W.; Ballard, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A systems model reflecting the design concepts of Satellite Power Stations (SPS) was developed. The model is of sufficient scope to include the interrelationships of the following major design parameters: the transportation to and between orbits; assembly of the SPS; and maintenance of the SPS. The systems model is composed of a set of equations that are nonlinear with respect to the system parameters and decision variables. The model determines a figure of merit from which alternative concepts concerning transportation, assembly, and maintenance of satellite power stations are studied. A hybrid optimization model was developed to optimize the system's decision variables. The optimization model consists of a random search procedure and the optimal-steepest descent method. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to enable the user to optimize nonlinear functions using the model. Specifically, the computer program was used to optimize Satellite Power Station system components.

  13. Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  14. Tethered nuclear power for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  15. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  16. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  17. First results from operation of the Adler thermal power station equipped with two PGU-180 combined-cycle power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radin, Yu. A.; Lenev, S. N.; Nikandrov, O. N.; Rudenko, D. V.

    2013-09-01

    We present technical characteristics of the equipment used in the PGU-180 power units of the Adler thermal power station (a branch of OGK-2) commissioned in November 2012 after the entire power plant had successfully passed an integrated test, including qualification of the entire power plant's capacity and tests aimed at determining the guaranteed characteristics.

  18. Focus on coal power station installations and population health.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Marco; Masedu, Francesco; Tiberti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence.

  19. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of

  20. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  1. Advanced stellarator power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  2. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station... (Surry) for Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-32 and DPR-37, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of NAPS and Surry located in Louisa County, Virginia, and...

  3. Space Station power requirements and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Huckins, E.; Ahlf, P.

    1994-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the space station configuration and summarizes the requirements, architecture, and significant challenges associated with the Electrical Power System (EPS). The space station configuration was baselined during the Systems Design Review (SDR) process in March, 1994. The current configuration includes the addition of Russia as an international partner, resulting in major changes to the assembly sequence, pressurized module complement, and overall power architecture. The Russian contributions to the power system architecture, as well as an overview and development status of the US provided elements is presented. Finally, a planned flight demonstration of solar dynamic power system on the Mir as part of the first phase of US/Russian cooperation in human space flight is described.

  4. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  5. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  6. Space Station Freedom growth power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Ahlf, P. R.; Saucillo, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Options and scenarios for the evolution of Space Station Freedom beyond the current baseline have been established and analyzed at NASA Langley Research Center to identify growth requirements for the program's Preliminary Requirements Review (PRR). Time-phase requirements for electrical power and other critical resources were determined based upon the future needs of the science, technology and commercial users. In addition, impacts and resource growth were determined for the utilization of station as a transportation node in support of human exploration initiatives to the moon and/or Mars. The set of requirements chosen for the PRR were selected on the basis of their adequacy in accommodating each of the evolution options and scenarios within each option, thereby maximizing future flexibility. In the case of electrical power, growth to 275 kW (average) was determined to be adequate for evolutionary missions and station housekeeping growth, given projections of future earth-to-orbit transportation capabilities.

  7. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  8. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  9. The Power Station Game: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, J. W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description of the power station game as a simulation exercise topic in physics and society, namely the making of a decision which involves many aspects of technical knowledge. Discusses the results of evaluation of students' attitudes toward the game, and attributes that make simulation an attractive teaching option. (GA)

  10. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  11. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  12. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  13. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  14. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  15. Space station electrical power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.; Twombly, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    ARINC Research Corporation performed a preliminary reliability, and maintainability (RAM) anlaysis of the NASA space station Electric Power Station (EPS). The analysis was performed using the ARINC Research developed UNIRAM RAM assessment methodology and software program. The analysis was performed in two phases: EPS modeling and EPS RAM assessment. The EPS was modeled in four parts: the insolar power generation system, the eclipse power generation system, the power management and distribution system (both ring and radial power distribution control unit (PDCU) architectures), and the power distribution to the inner keel PDCUs. The EPS RAM assessment was conducted in five steps: the use of UNIRAM to perform baseline EPS model analyses and to determine the orbital replacement unit (ORU) criticalities; the determination of EPS sensitivity to on-orbit spared of ORUs and the provision of an indication of which ORUs may need to be spared on-orbit; the determination of EPS sensitivity to changes in ORU reliability; the determination of the expected annual number of ORU failures; and the integration of the power generator system model results with the distribution system model results to assess the full EPS. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

  16. Solar dynamic power for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on Earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  17. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  18. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  19. Yankee nuclear power station license renewal assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, W.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are initially licensed to operate for 40 years. Recent changes to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations allow licenses to be renewed for up to 20 additional years. The new regulations require a comprehensive plant assessment to ensure continued effective aging management of equipment important to license renewal (ILR). Under the industry's lead plant program, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has assisted with development and demonstration of a generic license renewal assessment process. The generic assessment process developed under the lead plant program is the Nuclear Management and Resources Council methodology.

  20. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  1. Thermodynamic power stations at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, J.; Ployart, R.; Alleau, T.; Bandelier, P.; Lauro, F.

    The development of low-temperature thermodynamic power stations using solar energy is considered, with special attention given to the choice of the thermodynamic cycle (Rankine), working fluids (frigorific halogen compounds), and heat exchangers. Thermomechanical conversion machines, such as ac motors and rotating volumetric motors are discussed. A system is recommended for the use of solar energy for irrigation and pumping in remote areas. Other applications include the production of cold of fresh water from brackish waters, and energy recovery from hot springs.

  2. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  3. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  4. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  5. Yankee Nuclear Power Station - analysis of decommissioning costs

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    The preparation of decommissioning cost estimates for nuclear power generating stations has received a great deal of interest in the last few years. Owners are required by regulation to ensure that adequate funds are collected for the timely decommissioning of their facilities. The unexpected premature shutdown of several facilities and uncertainties associated with radioactive waste disposal and long-term spent-fuel storage, when viewed in the light of a deregulated electric utility industry, has caused many companies to reevaluate their decommissioning cost estimates. The decommissioning of the Yankee Nuclear Power Station represents the first large-scale project involving the complete decontamination and dismantlement of a commercial light water nuclear power generation facility in the United States. Since this pressurized water reactor operated for 32 yr at a respectable 74% lifetime capacity factor, the actual costs and resources required to decommission the plant, when compared with decommissioning estimates, will yield valuable benchmarking data.

  6. System for a displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A system for displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station is presented. A power signal is generated at the central station and time multiplexed with the data and then transmitted to the remote station. An energy storage device at the remote station is responsive to the transmitted power signal to provide energizing power for the circuits at the remote station during the time interval data is being transmitted to the remote station. Energizing power for the circuits at the remote station is provided by the power signal itself during the time this signal is transmitted. Preferably the energy storage device is a capacitor which is charged by the power signal during the time the power is transmitted and is slightly discharged during the time the data is transmitted to energize the circuits at the remote station.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  9. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  10. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  11. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  12. 7. VIEW NORTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing windows on east and north elevations - Bay City Traction & Electric Company, Power Station, 301 Washington Street, Bay City, Bay County, MI

  13. 9. VIEW SOUTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing windows on east and south elevations - Bay City Traction & Electric Company, Power Station, 301 Washington Street, Bay City, Bay County, MI

  14. Comparative analyses of space-to-space central power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The technological and economical impact of a large central power station in Earth orbit on the performance and cost of future spacecraft and their orbital transfer systems are examined. It is shown that beaming power to remote users cannot be cost effective if the central power station uses the same power generation system that is readily available for provision of onboard power and microwave transmission and reception of power through space for use in space is not cost competitive with onboard power or propulsion systems. Laser and receivers are required to make central power stations feasible. Remote power transmission for propulsion of orbital transfer vehicles promises major cost benefits. Direct nuclear pumped or solar pumped laser power station concepts are attractive with laser thermal and laser electric propulsion systems. These power stations are also competitive, on a mass and cost basis, with a photovoltaic power station.

  15. 75 FR 9618 - Virginia Electric and Power Company Surry Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company Surry Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Environmental...-37, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of the Surry Power... involve any physical changes to the reactor, fuel, plant structures, support structures, water, or land at...

  16. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  17. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  18. Fossil power plant rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the papers presented at the conference on the subject of fossil power plants management. Some of the topics discussed were: Creep cavitation assessment using field replication; a remnant life assessment technique based on local strain measurements; a new lease on life for turbine rotors subject to low-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature; creep-fatigue crack growth behaviour of a 1CrMoV Rotor steel; data collection and monitoring; detection of high temperature fossil boiler tube degradation; metallographic studies of degenerative mechanism in fossil fuel fired boiler tubes; eddy current inspection of ferromagnetic materials using pulsed magnetic saturation; cause and prevention of fatigue failures in boiler tubing; design/operator feedback; and on-line monitors for creep and fatigue damage in fossil power plants.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  20. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  1. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  2. Electrical Power Station Theory. A Course of Technical Information for Electrical Power Station Wireman Apprentices. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This third-year course for electrical power station wirer apprentices is a foundation for the study of all aspects of installation and maintenance of power station equipment. It also provides a good technical background as well as the general knowledge essential to power station operator trainees. The course is intended to be equivalent to a…

  3. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  4. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  5. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made. PMID:19775438

  6. Carbonate fuel cell power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstrom, R. M.

    1981-12-01

    Carbonate fuel cells are an attractive means of developing highly efficient power plants capable of achieving low atmospheric emissions. Because carbonate fuel cells can be used with coal derived fuel gases and their operating temperatures allow the use of turbomachinery bottoming cycles, they are well suited for large installations like central utility stations. Presently, system development activity is directed toward evaluating the readiness of gasifier and fuel processor technology, defining candidate cycle configurations, and calculating projected plant efficiencies.

  7. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zagorski, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station was operating with the 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops in service. During the quarter, the Station was operated for Duquesne Light Company System grid including base load and swing load operation. Twelve (12) planned swing load operations were performed on the LWBR Core this quarter to complete the LWBR operating plan of fifty (50) during this operating phase. The Station was shutdown on September 12 for the Fall 1980 Shutdown and remained in this mode through the end of the quarter. The LWBR Core has generated 18,297.98 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. The radioactive liquid waste effluent line to the river remained blanked off to prevent inadvertent radioactive liquid waste discharges. During the quarter, approximately 0.001 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. The radioactivity released from Shippingport Station is far too small to have any measurable effect on the general background environmental radioactivity outside the plant.

  8. Delano Biomass Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.; Hendershaw, W.K.; Corbin, H.R.; Taylor, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Delano Biomass Power Plant utilizes orchard prunings, urban wood waste, almond shells, and cotton stalks to fuel a boiler for steam generation. The steam is condensed in a steam turbine/generator to produce 31.8 MW of power. The electrical power generated (27 MW net) is then sold to Southern California Edison Co. for distribution. By incorporating a cooling tower, demineralizer, brine concentration tower, and evaporation ponds this system is able to achieve zero discharge. Steam at 97{degrees}F is condensed with cooling water. The cooling water is recirculated through an evaporator tower. Due to the temperature of the water entering the tower (83{degrees}F), evaporation occurs leaving behind concentrated salts. A blowdown is used to remove these salts from the tower. Losses from evaporation or leaks require make up to the tower. Wastewater from various processes in the plant are passed to a brine concentration tower. This concentrate is then taken to the evaporation ponds. Concentrated blowdown of small volumes (approximately 2-4 gpm) from the brine tower is disposed of in evaporation ponds.

  9. Baseline Testing of the Ultracapacitor Enhanced Photovoltaic Power Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing an advanced ultracapacitor enhanced photovoltaic power station. Goals of this effort include maximizing photovoltaic power generation efficiency and extending the life of photovoltaic energy storage systems. Unique aspects of the power station include the use of a solar tracker, and ultracapacitors for energy storage. The photovoltaic power station is seen as a way to provide electric power in remote locations that would otherwise not have electric power, provide independence form utility systems, reduce pollution, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB), and the E-Bike. The power station complements the E-Bike extremely well in that it permits the charging of the vehicle batteries in remote locations. Other applications include scientific research and medical power sources in isolated regions. The power station is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in power technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the ultracapacitor enhanced power station, the results of performance testing and future power station development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the ultracapacitor enhanced power station provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  10. 9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #214, control room; showing central monitoring station console in foreground. Well and booster control panel in left background and electric power management panel on far right - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. 47 CFR 25.204 - Power limits for earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power limits for earth stations. 25.204 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.204 Power limits for earth stations. (a) In bands shared... transmitted in any direction towards the horizon by an earth station, other than an ESV, operating...

  12. Utility and technology for a space central power station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technological and economical impacts of a large central power station in Earth orbit on the performance and cost of future spacecraft and their orbital-transfer systems are examined. It is shown that beaming power to remote users cannot be cost-effective if the central power station uses the same power generation system that would be readily available for provision of on-board power. Laser transmitters/receivers to make central power stations feasible are considered. The cost-effectiveness of meeting Earth-orbiting spacecraft electrical demands from a central power station was analyzed, indicating that this application cannot justify the investment required for the central station. Key technology needs which must be met to enable a viable central power station in the future are identified.

  13. Data acquisition system for sorbent injection test program at Virginia Power Yorktown Power Station Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.; Scharpf, G.H. Jr.

    1995-06-01

    Virginia Power has installed an ABB Boiler Performance Optimization System (BPOS) at their Yorktown Power Station Unit 2, in conjunction with an in-furnace, sorbent injection, sulfur dioxide emissions reduction test program., This system was selected as offering lower cost and long-term benefits to the station than using dedicated test equipment and personnel for the test program. In addition to providing data acquisition and storage functions for characterization of the effect of sorbent injection on boiler performance, sorbent injection equipment performance, and emissions reduction, the system performs on-line plant heat rate and controllable losses calculations. The BPOS included the following advanced features: (1) Access to test and operating results for station operators, station engineering staff and sorbent injection project staff at their own work spaces at the station and at remote locations. (2) Boiler section surface cleanliness models to aid the boiler operators with soot blowing and to assess the impact of sorbent injection on individual boiler surfaces. (3) Interfaces to the station`s distributed control system (DCS), the sorbent injection system`s programmable logic controller (PLC), and to a data logger used for test instrumentation. (4) Model-based calculations for sorbent injection system control setpoints implemented in BPOS computer system. (5) On-line continuous calculation of sorbent injection system performance indices.

  14. Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domeniconi, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage are presented. Topics covered include: system requirements evolution; Space Station Freedom timeline; development of technologies selection criteria; and candidate technologies.

  15. 75 FR 10517 - Nebraska Public Power District, Cooper Nuclear Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide... COMMISSION Nebraska Public Power District, Cooper Nuclear Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Nebraska Public... licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published in the Federal...

  16. Financing Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Lee

    1980-12-01

    The reservoir companies are risk takers. They will explore. They will test and measure. They will conduct reservoir engineering. They will conduct reservoir modeling. Their managements will commit funds to develop. Reservoir companies tend to be advocates of their product. They should be more candid. We have heard at this conference of hydrogen sulfide gas problems at The Geysers, injection system and injection well plugging at the SDG&E/DOE Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility, inadequate well production at the East Mesa Reservoir, high injection pressures at the Brawley Reservoir and other real reservoir difficulties. These must be addressed factually and solutions sought. The utilities and/or plant constructors and operators are not risk takers. Under current regulatory structure, they have no incentive to take any risk. They are troubled by perceived risks which may be real or imagined. To put these perceived risks into perspective, the utilities or plant constructors and operators should be involved in exploration and development at an early date. They need a better understanding of the downhole environment. Before they make significant investments on any reservoir, they want to see the reservoir work. To accomplish this, as we have heard at this conference, they are building 10 MW facilities and no one is taking the commercial size step without outside help. The utilities on the panel indicated they would buy geothermal heat if the reservoir operator would guarantee the reservoir for the life of the power plant. Some reservoir operators do not want to do this and those who will want the plant's operation guaranteed via fixed payments for heat or a long-term take-or-pay contract.

  17. Space power facility readiness for Space Station power system testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roger L.

    1995-02-01

    This document provides information which shows that the NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Power Facility (SPF) will be ready to execute the Space Station electric power system thermal vacuum chamber testing. The SPF is located at LeRC West (formerly the Plum Brook Station), Sandusky, Ohio. The SPF is the largest space environmental chamber in the world, having an inside horizontal diameter of 100 ft. and an inside height at the top of the hemisphere of 122 ft. The vacuum system can achieve a pressure lower than 1 x 10(exp -5) Torr. The cryoshroud, cooled by gaseous nitrogen, can reach a temperature of -250 F, and is 80 ft. long x 40 ft. wide x 22 ft. high. There is access to the chamber through two 50 ft. x 50 ft. doors. Each door opens into an assembly area about 150 ft. long x 70 ft. wide x 80 ft. high. Other available facilities are offices, shop area, data acquisition system with 930 pairs of hard lines, 7 megawatts of power to chamber, 245K gal. liquid nitrogen storage, cooling tower, natural gas, service air, and cranes up to 25 tons.

  18. Space Power Facility Readiness for Space Station Power System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Roger L.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides information which shows that the NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Power Facility (SPF) will be ready to execute the Space Station electric power system thermal vacuum chamber testing. The SPF is located at LeRC West (formerly the Plum Brook Station), Sandusky, Ohio. The SPF is the largest space environmental chamber in the world, having an inside horizontal diameter of 100 ft. and an inside height at the top of the hemisphere of 122 ft. The vacuum system can achieve a pressure lower than 1 x 10(exp -5) Torr. The cryoshroud, cooled by gaseous nitrogen, can reach a temperature of -250 F, and is 80 ft. long x 40 ft. wide x 22 ft. high. There is access to the chamber through two 50 ft. x 50 ft. doors. Each door opens into an assembly area about 150 ft. long x 70 ft. wide x 80 ft. high. Other available facilities are offices, shop area, data acquisition system with 930 pairs of hard lines, 7 megawatts of power to chamber, 245K gal. liquid nitrogen storage, cooling tower, natural gas, service air, and cranes up to 25 tons.

  19. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date will...

  20. Planting for power in central New York

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.

    1997-12-31

    The Salix consortium has joined forces with the US DOE and USDA to grow dedicated plantations of willows strategically located within a 50 mile radius (or easy hauling distance) of coal-burning power plants. At harvest time, the energy farmers could have as much as 7.5 tonnes of oven dry wood per acre per year. This article describes this project, covering the following areas: biomass power for rural development; energy farming; the Salix plan; New York State`s utilities; commercializing a new crop; the SUNY ESF team; biomass test field station; planting and harvesting; what lies ahead. 2 figs.

  1. ATOMIC POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-11-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactor power plants and discloses a design of a reactor utilizing a mixture of discrete units of a fissionable material, such as uranium carbide, a neutron moderator material, such as graphite, to carry out the chain reaction. A liquid metal, such as bismuth, is used as the coolant and is placed in the reactor chamber with the fissionable and moderator material so that it is boiled by the heat of the reaction, the boiling liquid and vapors passing up through the interstices between the discrete units. The vapor and flue gases coming off the top of the chamber are passed through heat exchangers, to produce steam, for example, and thence through condensers, the condensed coolant being returned to the chamber by gravity and the non- condensible gases being carried off through a stack at the top of the structure.

  2. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  5. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  6. Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Elliot

    1986-11-01

    To demonstrate technical viability of photovoltaic modules in central, grid connected energy systems, ARCO Solar, Inc. has designed, installed and is operating two photovoltaic power plants on the megawatt scale. These systems use two-axis tracking. The first generation plant in Lugo (Hesperia), California, with a nominal rating of one MWpk (DC)" was installed in 1982 in the Southern California Edison Company grid. The second system, rated at 6.4 MWDk (DC), is located in the Carrisa Plain in California and connected to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company grid. Based on the cost and performance data from these installations, an assessment of the current status and future needs of large scale photovoltaic energy systems is made. With each new system, improved techniques of design, installation and system integration have been developed. Expectations have been confirmed as to the performance and adaptability of solar cells, especially the ease of incremental increases in capacity when needed. Modular photovoltaic systems have been found to be easy to build and operate, and to be highly reliable. Prologue: Technological advancement usually requires good science and logical engineering. In the main, faith, persistence and feel are also required. Rule: The balance-of-system costs for photovoltaic energy systems equal photovoltaic module costs. Photovoltaic systems have progressed to their current stage of high promise because of faith, persistence, feel and belief in this rule.

  7. 8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, sheet 93 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Fuel Tanks, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  8. 52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING EAST. CURRENT LOCATION OF THE REAL-TIME WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATION Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  10. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Morrow, R. C.; Levine, H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The 'Veggie' vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nm), blue, (455 nm) and green (530 nm) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows/baseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  11. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  12. 10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases in foreground, electrical panels and fuel tanks in background looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  13. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  14. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  15. The year 2000 power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies.

  16. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  17. 1. RUINS OF THE ELECTRIC POWER STATION (NOTE PART OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RUINS OF THE ELECTRIC POWER STATION (NOTE PART OF THE CONTROL PANEL VISIBLE THROUGH THE DOORWAY), VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST). - Foster Gulch Mine, Electric Power Station Ruins, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  18. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  19. Space station power management and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, F.

    1985-01-01

    The power system architecture is presented by a series of schematics which illustrate the power management and distribution (PMAD) system at the component level, including converters, controllers, switchgear, rotary power transfer devices, power and data cables, remote power controllers, and load converters. Power distribution options, reference power management, and control strategy are also outlined. A summary of advanced development status and plans and an overview of system test plans are presented.

  20. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1991--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1991 through 1994 and is the fifth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at PBAPS in 1979.

  1. Electric power management for the International Space Station experiment racks

    SciTech Connect

    Burcham, M.; Darty, M.A.; Thibodeau, P.E.; Coe, R.; Dunn, M.

    1995-12-31

    An intelligent, all solid state, electric power management system for International Space Station experiment racks is described. This power system is implemented via redundant internal microcomputers, controlling hybridized solid state power controllers in response to 1553B data bus commands. The solid state power controllers are programmable for current trip level and for normally-open or normally-closed operation.

  2. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station - An option for future power generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept in nuclear power generation is being explored which essentially eliminates major objections to nuclear power. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station, remotely operated in synchronous orbit, would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space and no radioactive materials would ever be returned to earth. Even the worst possible accident to such a plant should have negligible effect on the earth. An exploratory study of a satellite nuclear power station to provide 10,000 MWe to the earth has shown that the system could weigh about 20 million pounds and cost less than $1000/KWe. An advanced breeder reactor operating with an MHD power cycle could achieve an efficiency of about 50% with a 1100 K radiator temperature. If a hydrogen moderated gas core reactor is used, its breeding ratio of 1.10 would result in a fuel doubling time of a few years. A rotating fluidized bed or NERVA type reactor might also be used. The efficiency of power transmission from synchronous orbit would range from 70% to 80%.

  3. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station - An option for future power generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept in nuclear power generation is being explored which essentially eliminates major objections to nuclear power. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station, remotely operated in synchronous orbit, would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space and no radioactive materials would ever be returned to earth. Even the worst possible accident to such a plant should have negligible effect on the earth. An exploratory study of a satellite nuclear power station to provide 10,000 MWe to the earth has shown that the system could weigh about 20 million pounds and cost less than $1000/KWe. An advanced breeder reactor operating with an MHD power cycle could achieve an efficiency of about 50% with a 1100 K radiator temperature. If a hydrogen moderated gas core reactor is used, its breeding ratio of 1.10 would result in a fuel doubling time of a few years. A rotating fluidized bed or NERVA type reactor might also be used. The efficiency of power transmission from synchronous orbit would range from 70% to 80%.

  4. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  5. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  6. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  7. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  8. Rotary air preheaters on power-station boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    Rotary air heaters on fossil-fuel power stations perform the important tasks of recovering low-grade heat from the combustion gases and preheating the air supplied for combustion. The paper describes main aspects of the operation and performance of Ljungstrom type heaters on coal-fired plant, covering the areas of thermal performance, pressure losses of the air and gas streams and leakage of air into the gas stream. The degradation of thermal performance due to fluid by-passing the heat exchange elements and flow maldistribution is discussed, and means of improving thermal performance are referred to. A major incidence of severe fouling is described, together with measures adopted to overcome the problem. Reference is made to a new method for off-load cleaning of air heaters. Engineering developments and theoretical approaches aimed at reducing air cross leakage are outlined.

  9. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations. (a) An application to construct a new digital low...

  10. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations. (a) An application to construct a new digital low...

  11. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations. (a) An application to construct a new digital low...

  12. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations. (a) An application to construct a new digital low...

  13. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  14. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  15. Asbury power plant, Asbury, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The Asbury power plant in rural southwest Missouri is off the beaten path in more ways than one. Three years ago, Empire District Electric Co., the plant's owner/operator, began mixing pieces of discarded tires into its coal fuel supply. Each ensuing year, without compromising local air quality, the plant has rid the area of millions of tires that otherwise would have ended up in a landfill. For demonstrating that a blight can be made right, Asbury is one of Power's 2005 top plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  17. Analysis of the Use of Wind Energy to Supplement the Power Needs at McMurdo Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.; Robichaud, R.; McLain, K.

    2005-05-01

    This poster summarizes the analysis of the inclusion of wind-driven power generation technology into the existing diesel power plants at two U.S. Antarctic research stations, McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the analysis. Available data were obtained on the wind resources, power plant conditions, load, and component cost. We then used NREL's Hybrid2 power system modeling software to analyze the potential and cost of using wind turbine generators at the two aforementioned facilities.

  18. The US space station and its electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald L.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has embarked on a major development program to have a space station operating in low earth orbit by the mid-1990s. This endeavor draws on the talents of NASA and most of the aerospace firms in the U.S. Plans are being pursued to include the participation of Canada, Japan, and the European Space Agency in the space station. From the start of the program these was a focus on the utilization of the space station for science, technology, and commercial endeavors. These requirements were utilized in the design of the station and manifest themselves in: pressurized volume; crew time; power availability and level of power; external payload accommodations; microgravity levels; servicing facilities; and the ability to grow and evolve the space station to meet future needs. President Reagan directed NASA to develop a permanently manned space station in his 1984 State of the Union message. Since then the definition phase was completed and the development phase initiated. A major subsystem of the space station is its 75 kW electric power system. The electric power system has characteristics similar to those of terrestrial power systems. Routine maintenance and replacement of failed equipment must be accomplished safely and easily and in a minimum time while providing reliable power to users. Because of the very high value placed on crew time it is essential that the power system operate in an autonomous mode to minimize crew time required. The power system design must also easily accommodate growth as the power demands by users are expected to grow. An overview of the U.S. space station is provided with special emphasis on its electrical power system.

  19. NCERA-101 STATION REPORT - KENNEDY SPACE CENTER: Large Plant Growth Hardware for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2013-01-01

    This is the station report for the national controlled environments meeting. Topics to be discussed will include the Veggie and Advanced Plant Habitat ISS hardware. The goal is to introduce this hardware to a potential user community.

  20. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  2. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  4. 28. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 229 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 229 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION) IN ASSEMBLY AREA WITH BUILDING 227 (FIRE STATION) IMMEDIATELY TO THE LEFT. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  5. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Matthew F.; Mclallin, Kerry L.; Zernic, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased space station user requirements and advancing technologies. The space station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial space station systems such as guidance navigation and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage which must be planned-in in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  6. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Matthew Fisk; Mclallin, Kerry; Zernic, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased Space Station user requirements and advancing technologies. The Space Station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial Space Station systems such as guidance, navigation, and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage, which must be planned-in, in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  7. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    At the beginning of the first quarter of 1982, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the planned 1981 to 1982 Winter Shutdown, initiated December 11, 1981. The station was in a cooldown condition at approximately 150/sup 0/F and 280 psig with a steam bubble maintained in the pressurizer and the reactor coolant pumps in slow speed. The reactor plant cooldown heat exchanger was in service to maintain coolant temperature. The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 18D purification loops remained in service. The 1A, 1B, and 1C 991 psig self-actuated steam relief valves remained gagged during the quarter to prevent leakage through the valve seats. The 1D steam relief valve was removed during the Spring 1980 Shutdown for repairs and a blind flange was installed in its place. Gagging and/or removing of redundant relief valves is permitted by ASME Code and approved operating procedures. During the first quarter of 1982, a total of 1028 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. The shipments contained 0.032 curies of radioactivity.

  8. Pipeline transport of power station ash as a high mass concentration slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, T.F.; Chambers, A.J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the results of continuing operation of the Dense Phase Ash Slurry (DPAS) Plant located at Vales Point Power Station in N.S.W. Australia. The DPAS plant was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of hydraulically conveying, in a dense phase mode, power station ash over long distances. The intention was to pump a mixture of fly ash and water at the highest possible concentration. The fly ash is conveyed to a mechanical mixer using an air slide. The fly ash is conveyed to a mechanical mixer using an air slide. The fly ash is mixed with water in a twin screw mixer, mounted directly to the pump sunction. The pump is a twin screw mixer, mounted directly to the pump suction. The pump is a twin cylinder hydraulically driven positive displacement Putzmeister with a {open_quotes}S transfer tube{close_quotes} discharge system, capable of delivering 46 m{sup 3}h{sup -1} at a pressure of 10 MPa. The pump discharge into a 150 mm diameter 1740 m long pipeline which discharges to the ash dam Vales Point Power Station. Approximately 15,000 tonnes of ash slurry from Vales Point Power Station and 1,270 tonnes of ash slurry from ash trucked from Bayswater Power Station have been hydraulically conveyed using the DPAS plant.

  9. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wilding; D. Bramwell

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG&E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California.

  10. 30. EAST CORNER OF BUILDING 229 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. EAST CORNER OF BUILDING 229 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION) IN ASSEMBLY AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  11. 29. SOUTHEAST FRONT ELEVATION OF BUILDING 229 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SOUTHEAST FRONT ELEVATION OF BUILDING 229 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION) IN ASSEMBLY AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  12. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, LOOKING TOWARD ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, LOOKING TOWARD ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING (BUILDING 3583), STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3584)NIGHT AND SECURITY POLICE ENTRY CONTROL (BUILDING 3582)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. Space Station Freedom power management and distribution system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, Fred

    1989-01-01

    The design is described of the Space Station Freedom Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. In addition, the significant trade studies which were conducted are described, which led to the current PMAD system configuration.

  14. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  15. The Plant Research Unit: An International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Robert; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Schaefer, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Research Unit (PRU) is one of six life science habitats being developed as part of the Space Station Biological Research Program. The PRU is designed for experiments in microgravity and will utilize the ISS Centrifuge Facility to provide gravity levels between microgravity and 29. The PRU will provide and control all aspects of a plant s needs in a nearly closed system. In other words, the shoot and root environments will not be open to the astronaut s environment except for experiment maintenance such as planting, harvesting and plant sampling. This also means that all lighting, temperature and humidity control, "watering," and air filtering and cleaning .must be done within strict limitations of volume, weight, power, and crew time while at the same time providing a very high level of reliability and a service life in excess of 10 years. The PRU will contain two plant chambers 31.5 cm tall, each with independent control of temperature, humidity, light level and photoperiod, CO2 level, nutrient and water delivery, and video and data acquisition. The PRU is currently in the preliminary design phase and a number of subsystem components have been prototyped for testing, including the temperature and humidity control systems, the plant chambers, the LED lighting system, the atmospheric control system and a variety of nutrient delivery systems. The LED prototype provides independent feedback control of 5 separate spectral bands and variable output between 0 and 1000 micro-mol sq m/sec. The water and nutrient delivery system (WNDS) prototypes have been used to test particulate based, thin film, and gel-based WNDS configurations.

  16. The Plant Research Unit: An International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Robert; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Schaefer, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Research Unit (PRU) is one of six life science habitats being developed as part of the Space Station Biological Research Program. The PRU is designed for experiments in microgravity and will utilize the ISS Centrifuge Facility to provide gravity levels between microgravity and 29. The PRU will provide and control all aspects of a plant s needs in a nearly closed system. In other words, the shoot and root environments will not be open to the astronaut s environment except for experiment maintenance such as planting, harvesting and plant sampling. This also means that all lighting, temperature and humidity control, "watering," and air filtering and cleaning .must be done within strict limitations of volume, weight, power, and crew time while at the same time providing a very high level of reliability and a service life in excess of 10 years. The PRU will contain two plant chambers 31.5 cm tall, each with independent control of temperature, humidity, light level and photoperiod, CO2 level, nutrient and water delivery, and video and data acquisition. The PRU is currently in the preliminary design phase and a number of subsystem components have been prototyped for testing, including the temperature and humidity control systems, the plant chambers, the LED lighting system, the atmospheric control system and a variety of nutrient delivery systems. The LED prototype provides independent feedback control of 5 separate spectral bands and variable output between 0 and 1000 micro-mol sq m/sec. The water and nutrient delivery system (WNDS) prototypes have been used to test particulate based, thin film, and gel-based WNDS configurations.

  17. 84. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  19. Tracy Power Station -- Unit No. 4, Pinon Pine Power Project Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This Public Design Report describes the Pinon Pine Project which will be located at the Sierra Pacific Power Company`s (SPPCO) Tracy Station near Reno, Nevada. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant is designed to process 880 tones per day (TPD) of bituminous coal producing approximately 107 gross megawatts of electric power (MWe). This project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2192MC29309. The plant incorporates the Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) fluidized bed gasification technology which produces a low-Btu gas which is used as fuel in a combined cycle power plant which has been modified to accommodate the fuel gas produced by an air-blown gasifier. The gasification system also includes hot gas removal of particulates and sulfur compounds from the fuel gas resulting in a plant with exceptionally low atmospheric emissions. Desulfurization is accomplished by a combination of limestone injection into the KRW fluidized bed gasifier and by a transport reactor system. Particulate removal is accomplished by high efficiency cyclones and a barrier filter. The Pinon Pine Project Schedule is divided into three phases. Phase I includes permitting and preliminary design. Phase II, which overlaps Phase I, covers detailed design, procurement, and construction. Phase III will cover the initial operation and demonstration portion of the project.

  20. Electrical power system design for the US space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, Donald L.; Bernatowicz, Daniel T.

    1986-01-01

    The multipurpose, manned, permanent space station will be our next step toward utilization of space. A multikilowatt electrical power system will be critical to its success. The power systems for the space station manned core and platforms that have been selected in definition studies are described. The system selected for the platforms uses silicon arrays and Ni-H2 batteries. The power system for the manned core is a hybrid employing arrays and batteries identical to those on the platform along with solar dynamic modules using either Brayton or organic Rankine engines. The power system requirements, candidate technologies, and configurations that were considered, and the basis for selection, are discussed.

  1. Solar dynamic power system on the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Wanhainen, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program Office has requested that initial studies be conducted to assess the feasibility of using a solar dynamic (SD) power system on ISS. This effort will include analyses to determine technical and cost benefits of using solar dynamic power systems on the station. Final products from this activity will be presented to the International Space Station Program Office in 1997. This paper provides a brief description of the solar dynamic technology, ISS and project chronology of events, a description of the products and major work elements, project schedule, and a summary of up-to-date findings.

  2. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of...

  3. Hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at monitoring stations for suspended particulate matter in and south of Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    No data has been found of continuous monitoring of radioactive materials in the atmosphere in Fukushima area after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident on March 11, 2011, although it greatly contributes to accurate evaluation of the internal exposure dose, to reconstruction of emission time series of released radionuclides, and to validation of numerical simulations by atmospheric transport models. Then, we have challenged to retrieve the radioactivity in atmospheric aerosols collected every hour on a filter tape of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitoring system with beta ray attenuation method used at air pollution monitoring stations in east Japan. A test measurement for hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was successfully performed with a Ge detector for the used filter tapes during March 15-23, 2011, at three stations in Fukushima City 60 km northwest of the FD1NPP and four stations in southwest Ibaraki prefecture more than 150 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The data in Fukushima City revealed high Cs-137 concentrations of 10-30 Bq m-3 from the evening of March 15 to the early morning of March 16, when a large amount of radioactive materials was simultaneously deposited on the land surface by precipitation according to the measurement of radiation dose rate. Higher Cs-137 concentrations of 10-50 Bq m-3 were also found from the afternoon of March 20 to the morning of March 21, and which could not be detected by the radiation dose rate due to no precipitation. In contrast, much higher concentrations with the maximum of 320 Bq m-3 in southwest Ibaraki than in Fukushima City were found on the morning of March 15 and 21 under strong temperature inversion near the surface. The polluted air masses with high radioactive materials were passed away within a few hours as a plume in southwest Ibaraki, while the high Cs-137 concentrations lasted for 10-16 hours in Fukushima City where the polluted air masses after their transport

  4. Utility of and technology for a space central power station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The technological and economic impact of a large central power station in earth orbit on the cost and performance of future spacecraft and their orbital-transfer systems are examined. The three systems considered for the space central power station are a photovoltaic array, a direct nuclear-pumped laser and a direct solar-pumped laser. It is noted that laser transmitters/receivers will be required to make central power stations feasible. While the remote transmission of power solely to meet the needs of earth orbiting satellites will not be cost-effective in the near future, the remote-power transmission for propulsion of orbital-transfer vehicles promises many cost benefits.

  5. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kistner, Rainer; Price, Henry W.

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  7. Starting the water treatment system of the 410-MW combined-cycle plant at the Krasnodar cogeneration station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, A. A.; Zhadan, A. V.; Gromov, S. L.; Tropina, D. V.; Arkhipova, O. V.

    2012-07-01

    The process diagram of a water treatment plant constructed on the basis of integrated membrane technologies with the use of two-stage reverse osmosis for the PGU-410 power unit at the Krasnodar cogeneration station is presented.

  8. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  9. Photovoltaic power modules for NASA's manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The capability and the safety of manned spacecraft are largely dependent upon reliable electric power systems. Two similar space power systems able to survive the low Earth orbit environment, are being considered for NASA's Manned Space Station (SS), scheduled to begin operation in the mid 1990's. The Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is composed of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) Power Modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. One EPS configuration will deliver 37.5 kW of PV based, utility grade, ac power to SS users. A second 75 kWe PV based EPS option is also being considered for SS deployment. The two EPS options utilize common modules and differ only in the total number of PV Power Modules used. Each PV Power Module supplies 18.75 kWe of ac power and incorporates its own energy storage and thermal control. The general requirements and the current preliminary design configuration of the Space Station PV Power Modules are examined.

  10. Photovoltaic power modules for NASA's manned Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The capability and the safety of manned spacecraft are largely dependent upon reliable electric power systems. Two similar space power systems able to survive the low earth orbit environment, are being considered for NASA's Manned Space Station (SS), scheduled to begin operation in the mid 1990's. The Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is composed of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) Power Modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. One EPS configuration will deliver 37.5 kW of PV based, utility grade, ac power to SS users. A second 75 kWe PV based EPS option is also being considered for SS deployment. The two EPS options utilize common modules and differ only in the total number of PV Power Modules used. Each PV Power Module supplies 18.75 kWe of ac power and incorporates its own energy storage and thermal control. The general requirements and the current preliminary design configuration of the Space Station PV Power Modules are examined.

  11. Modeling of Space Station electric power system with EMTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Yang, Lifeng; Dravid, Narayan V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors provide an introduction to using the electromagnetic transients (EMTP) program to model aerospace power system components. A brief general overview of EMTP is presented. The modeling of the dc/dc converter unit in the space station electric power system is described as an illustration.

  12. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western... Office, 314 6th Avenue, Brookings, SD. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's proposed Project is to...

  13. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric...: (202) 690-0649, or e-mail: lauren.mcgee @wdc.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's...

  14. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for...://www.usda.gov/rus/water/ees/eis.htm . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's proposed Project is...

  15. Space Station Freedom power - A reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, S. R.; Twombly, M.; Hoffman, D.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) was performed using the unit reliability, availability, and maintainability (UNIRAM) analysis methodology. Orbital replacement units (ORUs) having the most significant impact on EPS availability measures were identified. Also, the sensitivity of the EPS to variations in ORU RAM data was evaluated for each ORU. Estimates were made of average EPS power output levels and availability of power to the core area of the space station. The results of assessments of the availability of EPS power and power to load distribution points in the space stations are given. Some highlights of continuing studies being performed to understand EPS availability considerations are presented.

  16. The bouillante geothermal power-plant, Guadeloupe

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Lamethe, D.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal exploration work carried out in Guadeloupe until 1977 by EURAFREP revealed the existence of an underground hot water field at a temperature of 240C. Four drillings were made, two of which produced superheated water that flashes to steam, and after several testing programs. Electricite de France (EDF) decided to build a geothermal power station with a net output of 4.2 MWe. This installation is a double flash cycle unit with a condensing turbine and sea water-cooled direct contact condenser equipped with a barometer pipe. The operation of this power-plant will be mainly automatic and the electric output will meet 6% of the Guadeloupe electric power demand at a cost lower than the one obtained with diesel generators.

  17. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations. 74.793 Section 74.793 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and...

  18. Continuous Source Monitoring: the Hyatt Power Plant Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrhammer, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    We explore using the generators at the Hyatt Hydroelectric Power Plant at Oroville Dam, California as a continuous source. The generators rotate at 200 rpm and they produce a coherent signal which is observed at the Oroville (BK.ORV) broadband seismic station. The observed signal, when averaged over an hour, is typically 20+ dB at 3.33326±0.001235 Hz. The Hyatt Power Plant is constructed in a cavern the size of two football fields dug in solid bedrock in the left abutment near the axis of Oroville Dam and the BK.ORV seismic station is sited on the bedrock surface approximately 1 km northwest of the power plant. The propagation path is granite. Several data processing methodologies are explored to characterize the temporal variation in the signal from the power plant.

  19. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  20. 75 FR 53984 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    .... DPR-32 and DPR-37, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of NAPS... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339, Docket Nos. 50-280 and 50-281, NRC- 2010-0283] Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  1. Solar dynamic power for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. S.; Diamant, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a computer code which provides a significant advance in the systems analysis capabilities of solar dynamic power modules. While the code can be used to advantage in the preliminary analysis of terrestrial solar dynamic modules its real value lies in the adaptions which make it particularly useful for the conceptualization of optimized power modules for space applications. In particular, as illustrated in the paper, the code can be used to establish optimum values of concentrator diameter, concentrator surface roughness, concentrator rim angle and receiver aperture corresponding to the main heat cycle options - Organic Rankine and Brayton - and for certain receiver design options. The code can also be used to establish system sizing margins to account for the loss of reflectivity in orbit or the seasonal variation of insolation. By the simulation of the interactions among the major components of a solar dynamic module and through simplified formulations of the major thermal-optic-thermodynamic interactions the code adds a powerful, efficient and economic analytical tool to the repertory of techniques available for the design of advanced space power systems.

  2. Fiberglass plastics in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.

    2007-08-15

    Fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRPs) are replacing metal in FGDs, stacks, tanks, cooling towers, piping and other plant components. The article documents the use of FRP in power plants since the 1970s. The largest volume of FRP in North American power plants is for stack liners and ductwork. Absorber vessel shells and internal components comprise the third largest use. The most common FRP absorber vessels are known as jet bubbling reactors (JBRs). One of the largest JBRs at a plant on the Ohio River removes 99% of sulphur dioxide from high sulphur coal flue gas. FRPs last twice as long as wood structures when used for cooling towers and require less maintenance. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  3. Replacing baseload power plants with wind plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Baseload nuclear power plants supply about 21 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States today, and as these plants are retired over the next 10 to 25 years, they will not be replicated. This will open a vast market for new generating facilities which should, if possible, be non-fossil fueled. Wind energy baseload systems are able to equal or exceed the technical performance of these nuclear plants at a delivered cost of energy of less than $0.05/kWh in wind class 4 regions. However, unless a new externality (the cost of maintaining the security of fossil fuel supply) is factored in to the extremely low market price of fossil fuels, wind and other renewable energy resources will not be able to compete with these fuels on the basis of simple economics over the next 20 to 30 years.

  4. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  5. State power plant productivity programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  6. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  7. Hybrid Power System for Remote Communications Stations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    nuclear isotopes [Ref.8:p.694]. The use of these radioisotopes can result in a generator that is able to be operated for extremely long periods of time ...a backup power supply, thermoelectric generators would remain dormant for long periods of time , thereby minimizing operating costs and fuel...as they are reliable, have the ability to be started automatically, and can be dormant for long periods of time with no detrimental affects to their

  8. Space Station electric power system requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, Fred

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual definition and design of the Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is given. Responsibilities for the design and development of the EPS are defined. The EPS requirements are listed and discussed, including average and peak power requirements, contingency requirements, and fault tolerance. The most significant Phase B trade study results are summarized, and the design selections and rationale are given. Finally, the power management and distribution system architecture is presented.

  9. 17. Station Power Center 1 and Load Center 1, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Station Power Center 1 and Load Center 1, view to the northwest. The power center is the cabinet on the right and the load center is the cabinet on the left of the photograph. A door to the generator barrel of Unit 1 is visible in the background. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  10. Space station electric power system requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, Fred

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual definition and design of the space station Electric Power System (EPS) is given. Responsibilities for the design and development of the EPS are defined. The EPS requirements are listed and discussed, including average and peak power requirements, contingency requirements, and fault tolerance. The most significant Phase B trade study results are summarized, and the design selections and rationale are given. Finally, the power management and distribution system architecture is presented.

  11. The importance of upgrading power stations with numerical protection relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilceanu, Radu-Constantin; Surianu, Flavius-Dan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present the importance of upgrading power stations with numerical protection relays. We will study the gravity and the economic impact of a power system fault when it appears and it is not cleared by old protection devices. Also we will compare how an old protection scheme works when it clears a power fault with how modern numerical protection relays work. The trip decision and the actual circuit breaker open times will be compared and analyzed.

  12. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  13. Regen compressors power Capo Bon trans-med station

    SciTech Connect

    de Biasi, V.

    1981-11-01

    It is expected that Algeria will begin deliveries of natural gas from the Hassi-R'Mel gasfield in the Sahara Desert to Italy by the end of 1981 or early 1982. The main station for the Trans-Med natural gas pipeline, powered by five regenerative M5322R gas turbines, has a design throughput of some 1.6 million m/sup 3//hr and serves as the boost station for the submarine section of the pipeline.

  14. Geothermal Power Plants in China

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    Nine small experimental geothermal power plants are now operating at six sites in the People's Republic of China. These range in capacity from 50 kW to 3MW, and include plants of the flash-steam and binary type. All except two units utilize geofluids at temperatures lower than 100 C. The working fluids for the binary plants include normal- and iso-butane, ethyl chloride, and Freon. The first geothermal plant came on-line in 1970, the most recent ones in 1979. Figure 1 shows the location of the plants. Major cities are also shown for reference. Table 1 contains a listing of the plants and some pertinent characteristics. The total installed capacity is 5,186 kW, of which 4,386 kW is from flash-steam units. In the report, they given an example of the results of exploratory surveys, and show system diagrams, technical specifications, and test results for several of the power plants.

  15. GHG PSD Permit: Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power / Black Hills Power, Inc. – Cheyenne Prairie Generating Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the final PSD permit for the Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power / Black Hills Power, Inc. Cheyenne Prairie Generating Station, located in Laramie, Wyoming, and operated by Black Hills Service Company.

  16. A photovoltaic power system and a low-power satellite earth station for Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Everson, Kent

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system and a low-power, two-way satellite earth station have been installed at Wawotobi, Sulawesi, Indonesia to provide university classroom communications for audio teleconferencing and video graphics. This project is a part of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for development assistance applications. The purpose of the photovoltaic power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic/engine-generator power system for a remote satellite earth station. This paper describes the design, installation and initial operation of the photovoltaic power system and the earth station.

  17. A photovoltaic power system and a low-power satellite earth station for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delombard, Richard; Everson, Kent

    A photovoltaic power system and a low-power, two-way satellite earth station have been installed at Wawotobi, Sulawesi, Indonesia to provide university classroom communications for audio teleconferencing and video graphics. This project is a part of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for development assistance applications. The purpose of the photovoltaic power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic/engine-generator power system for a remote satellite earth station. This paper describes the design, installation and initial operation of the photovoltaic power system and the earth station.

  18. A photovoltaic power system and a low-power satellite earth station for Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Everson, Kent

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system and a low-power, two-way satellite earth station have been installed at Wawotobi, Sulawesi, Indonesia to provide university classroom communications for audio teleconferencing and video graphics. This project is a part of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for development assistance applications. The purpose of the photovoltaic power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic/engine-generator power system for a remote satellite earth station. This paper describes the design, installation and initial operation of the photovoltaic power system and the earth station.

  19. Overview of the regulatory framework applying to nuclear power stations of France

    SciTech Connect

    Astolfi, J.F.

    1993-12-31

    The achievement of French nuclear power plants, because France has not yet issued a specific nuclear law and is tied to a very complex regulatory structure, is submitted to a large number of prior authorizations, which are issued either at a national level or by local authorities according to their goals and importance. This report will outline the regulatory framework applying to nuclear power stations in France.

  20. International Space Station Alpha electric power system performance degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Hague, Lisa; Padhye, Vidya; Hill, Robert

    1995-07-01

    Performance of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) Electric Power System (EPS) will be degraded through the mission life of the station. The power generation photovoltaic array and thermal control radiator will be directly exposed to the natural environment and the environment induced after the station is built. These environmental effects result in lower array current and voltage output as well as lower radiator heat rejection capability. Aging is the major cause for the energy storage nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery performance degradation. Over time, there is an increase in the internal impedance, which results in a decreased efficiency as the battery ages. Design of the ISSA EPS takes into consideration the various equipment degradation modes, to make it compatible with the environments and to meet power, lifetime, and performance requirements.

  1. Modelling of the Installed Capacity of Landfill Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberga, D.; Kuplais, Ģ.; Veidenbergs, I.; Dāce, E.; Gušča, J.

    2009-01-01

    More and more landfills are being developed, in which biogas is produced and accumulated, which can be used for electricity production. Currently, due to technological reasons, electricity generation from biogas has a very low level of efficiency. In order to develop this type of energy production, it is important to find answers to various engineering, economic and ecological issues. The paper outlines the results obtained by creating a model for the calculations of electricity production in landfill power stations and by testing it in the municipal solid waste landfill "Daibe". The algorithm of the mathematical model for the operation of a biogas power station consists of four main modules: • initial data module, • engineering calculation module, • tariff calculation module, and • climate calculation module. As a result, the optimum capacity of the power station in the landfill "Daibe" is determined, as well as the analysis of the landfill's economic data and cost-effectiveness is conducted.

  2. Power Plant Model Validation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-12

    The PPMV is used to validate generator model using disturbance recordings. The PPMV tool contains a collection of power plant models and model validation studies, as well as disturbance recordings from a number of historic grid events. The user can import data from a new disturbance into the database, which converts PMU and SCADA data into GE PSLF format, and then run the tool to validate (or invalidate) the model for a specific power plant against its actual performance. The PNNL PPMV tool enables the automation of the process of power plant model validation using disturbance recordings. The tool uses PMU and SCADA measurements as input information. The tool automatically adjusts all required EPCL scripts and interacts with GE PSLF in the batch mode. The main tool features includes: The tool interacts with GE PSLF; The tool uses GE PSLF Play-In Function for generator model validation; Database of projects (model validation studies); Database of the historic events; Database of the power plant; The tool has advanced visualization capabilities; and The tool automatically generates reports

  3. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  4. Effective method for MHD retrofit of power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.F.; Dennis, C.B.; Johnson, T.R.; Minkov, V.

    1981-10-01

    Retrofitting existing power plants with an open-cycle MHD system has been re-examined in light of recent developments in the heat and seed recovery technology area. A new retrofit cycle configuration has been developed which provides for a direct gas-gas coupling; also, the MHD topping cycle can be decoupled from the existing plant for either separate or joint operation. As an example, the MHD retrofit concept has been applied to Illinois Power Company's Vermilion Station No. 1, a coal-fired power plant presently in operation. Substantial increases in efficiency have been demonstrated and the economic validity of the MHD retrofit approach has been established.

  5. Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    The Ahuachapan geothermal power plant has been the subject of several recent reports and papers (1-7). This article is a condensation of the author's earlier writings (5-7), and incorporates new information on the geothermal activities in El Salvador obtained recently through a telephone conversation with Ing. R. Caceres of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) who has been engaged in the design and engineering of the newest unit at Ahuachapan. El Salvador is the first of the Central American countries to construct and operate a geothermal electric generating station. Exploration began in the mid-1960's at the geothermal field near Ahuachapan in western El Salvador. The first power unit, a separated-steam or so-called ''single-flash'' plant, was started up in June 1975, and was followed a year later by an identical unit. In July 1980, the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) will complete the installation of a third unit, a dual-pressure (or ''double-flash'') unit rated at 35 MW. The full Ahuachapan plant will then constitute about 20% of the total installed electric generating capacity of the country. During 1977, the first two units generated nearly one-third of all the electricity produced in El Salvador. C.E.L. is actively pursuing several other promising sites for additional geothermal plants. There is the possibility that eventually geothermal energy will contribute about 450 MW of electric generating capacity. In any event it appears that by 1985 El Salvador should be able to meet its domestic needs for electricity by means of its indigenous geothermal and hydroelectric power plants, thus eliminating any dependence on imported petroleum for power generation.

  6. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2001-02-01

    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  7. Space station automation of common module power management and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W.; Jones, E.; Ashworth, B.; Riedesel, J.; Myers, C.; Freeman, K.; Steele, D.; Palmer, R.; Walsh, R.; Gohring, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to automate a breadboard level Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system which possesses many functional characteristics of a specified Space Station power system. The automation system was built upon 20 kHz ac source with redundancy of the power buses. There are two power distribution control units which furnish power to six load centers which in turn enable load circuits based upon a system generated schedule. The progress in building this specified autonomous system is described. Automation of Space Station Module PMAD was accomplished by segmenting the complete task in the following four independent tasks: (1) develop a detailed approach for PMAD automation; (2) define the software and hardware elements of automation; (3) develop the automation system for the PMAD breadboard; and (4) select an appropriate host processing environment.

  8. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  9. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations.

  10. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  11. Space station freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.P.; Hoberecht, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  12. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  13. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for the Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during phase I operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units to achieve modularization. The design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  14. Today's central receiver power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, D. J.; Kolb, G. J.; Chavez, J. M.

    1991-04-01

    For 15 years, the United States Department of Energy has worked with industry, both utilities and manufacturers, to develop the technology of solar central receiver power plants. In this type of plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver. The solar energy is collected in the form of a heated fluid, which is used to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. For a number of reasons, molten nitrate salt is now the preferred heat transfer fluid. Commercial plants will be sized between 100 and 200 MW. The impetus for developing central receivers comes from their unique advantages: (1) they produce clean, reliable, low-cost electricity; (2) they have practical energy storage that provides a high degree of dispatchability (annually up to 60 percent) - without fossil fuels; and (3) they are environmentally benign. Development efforts around the world have brought the technology to the brink of commercialization: The technical feasibility has been proven, and cost, performance, and reliability can be confidently predicted. Plans are currently being developed for the final steps toward commercial central receiver power plants.

  15. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  16. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  17. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John

    1994-09-01

    Toroidal magnetic systems offer the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They have, between them, all the features needed; however, no one system yet meets the ideal requirements. The tokamak is the most advanced system, and the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will build upon the existing program to prepare for an advanced tokamak demonstration plant. Complementary toroidal systems such as the spherical torus, stellarator, reversed-field pinch, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak offer, between them, potential advantages in each area and should be studied in a balanced fusion development program.

  18. Nevada Power: Clark Station; Las Vegas, Nevada (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    2006-03-27

    A partnership with the University of Nevada and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  19. Engineering approach to the development of geothermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamizu, T.

    Measurements are studied for a hot-water type geothermal discharge, and the well characteristics are defined. These investigations, it is pointed out, formed the basis for an engineering approach to the development of the world's first 50 MW geothermal power station with a double-flash-cycle system.

  20. System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Follo, Jeffrey C.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed system performance analyses must be performed for early stages as well as for the fully assembled station up to 15 years after beginning of life. Such analyses were repeatedly performed using the FORTRAN code SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over a 10-year period. SPACE combines orbital mechanics routines, station orientation/pointing routines, PV array and battery performance models, and a distribution system load-flow analysis to predict EPS performance. Time-dependent, performance degradation, low earth orbit environmental interactions, and EPS architecture build-up are incorporated in SPACE. Results from two typical SPACE analytical cases are presented: (1) an electric load driven case and (2) a maximum EPS capability case.

  1. 3. DISTANT VIEW (TO THE NORTHEAST) OF THE POWER STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DISTANT VIEW (TO THE NORTHEAST) OF THE POWER STATION (FAR LEFT, WOOD SHED, AND CHANGE HOUSE (CENTER). THE SMALLER ATTACHED SECTION ON THE CHANGE HOUSE SERVED AS THE MINE OFFICE AND RECORDS STORAGE ROOM. - Foster Gulch Mine, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  2. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  3. Prospects for solving environmental problems pertinent to thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Kotler, V. R.

    2007-06-01

    Possible ways to protect the atmosphere and water basin against harmful emissions and effluent waters discharged from thermal power stations are considered. Data on the effectiveness of different methods for removing NO x , SO2, and ash particles, as well as heavy metals and CO2, from these emissions and discharges are presented.

  4. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  5. Communication Studies and the Extended Power Station Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stewart

    1981-01-01

    An engineering case study is used as the focal point of a communications course. Communications theory and practical exercises are structured around the case study described, an adaptation and extension of the power station game developed in the early 1970s. Includes outline of and sample student activities. (JN)

  6. The U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground 900-kVa photovoltaic power station

    SciTech Connect

    Ducey, R.; Chapman, R.; Edwards, S.

    1997-12-31

    In the early spring of 1997, a 900-kVA, utility-tied photovoltaic power station was installed at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), in the southwest corner of Arizona. The system will be used to offset peak demand and serve as an emergency power system for PYG`s water treatment plant. The power station includes 450-kWp of Siemens M-55 modules, 5600-kWh of C and D motive power batteries, and a 900-kVA power processing and control system from Trace Technologies. Enhanced by the battery load leveling system, the power station has the capacity to reliably provide from 450- up to 825-kVA to YPG`s utility grid during the summer peak demand season. The YPG system has three basic operating modes: (1) daytime utility-tied, (2) nighttime utility-tied, and (3) stand-alone. The amount of power delivered to the grid is governed by either available power from the PV array or by a power level defined by the user, whichever is greater.

  7. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Like conventional power plants, wind power plants must provide the power quality required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power system it is connected to and to satisfy the customers connected to the same grid. When wind energy development began, wind power plants were very small, ranging in size from under one megawatt to tens megawatts with less than 100 turbines in each plant. Thus, the impact of wind power plant on the grid was very small, and any disturbance within or created by the plant was considered to be in the noise level. In the past 30 years, the size of wind turbines and the size of wind power plants have increased significantly. Notably, in Tehachapi, California, the amount of wind power generation has surpassed the infrastructure for which it was designed. At the same time, the lack of rules, standards, and regulations during early wind development has proven to be an increasing threat to the stability and power quality of the grid connected to a wind power plant. Fortunately, many new wind power plants are equipped with state of the art technology, which enables them to provide good service while producing clean power for the grid. The advances in power electronics have allowed many power system applications to become more flexible and to accomplish smoother regulation. Applications such as reactive power compensation, static transfer switches, energy storage, and variable-speed generations are commonly found in modern wind power plants. Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper, focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality. In general, the voltage and frequency must be kept as stable as possible. The voltage and current distortions created by harmonics will also be discussed in this paper as will self-excitation, which may occur in a wind power plant due to loss of line.

  8. 2. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Potomac Power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  9. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  10. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  11. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  12. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low...

  13. 85. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. Battersea Power Station and environmental issues 1929-1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    From inception (1920s) to partial demolition (1980s) London's Battersea Power Station provoked public concern over environmental impacts. Adverse reaction during the early stages concerned siting and the effects of air pollutants on the urban surroundings. Potential air pollution problems resulted in a restrictive 'condition' being inserted in the consent for Battersea which required smoke and sulphur dioxide to be controlled. The 'condition' did not reassure either the public or special interest groups who campaigned against the construction of the station. However plans were too advanced to be halted and the official response focused on ensuring successful implementation of flue gas desulphurization. Though the subsequent effectiveness of emission control during the station's working life is arguable, the building itself rapidly became a popular London landmark and an architectural symbol of the fascination that surrounds technology. Objections to its decommissioning and demolition in the 1980s once again placed Battersea Power Station at the centre of public protest. Reactions to the station illustrate the rapidity with which our perception of environmental threats may change.

  15. 77 FR 63342 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2 and North Anna Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2 and North Anna Power....S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) has granted the request of Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee) to withdraw its September 29, 2012, application for proposed...

  16. Space station WP-04 power system. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of the phase B study contract for the definition of the space station Electric Power System (EPS) are presented in detail along with backup information and supporting data. Systems analysis and trades, preliminary design, advanced development, customer accommodations, operations planning, product assurance, and design and development phase planning are addressed. The station design is a hybrid approach which provides user power of 25 kWe from the photovoltaic subsystem and 50 kWe from the solar dynamic subsystem. The electric power is distributed to users as a utility service; single phase at a frequency of 20 kHz and voltage of 440VAC. The solar array NiH2 batteries of the photovoltaic subsystem are based on commonality to those used on the co-orbiting and solar platforms.

  17. Solar Power Stations for Remote Sites: An Economic Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    From Ascension AAF 17 2 Average Daily Extraterrestial Radiation, MJ/m 2 26 3 Capital Cost Breakdown, Annual Capacity Factor = 0.55 29 4 Capital Cost...are costs that recur throughout the system’s life and includes such items as maintenance, operations, and fuel costs. The capital costs can easily be...form of power plant. Or, second, the present power plant has useful life remaining, but it is desirable to reduce the cost of or dependence on fossil

  18. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

    1994-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

  19. Space station WP-04 power system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Major study activities and results of the phase B study contract for the preliminary design of the space station Electrical Power System (EPS) are summarized. The areas addressed include the general system design, man-tended option, automation and robotics, evolutionary growth, software development environment, advanced development, customer accommodations, operations planning, product assurance, and design and development phase planning. The EPS consists of a combination photovoltaic and solar dynamic power generation subsystem and a power management and distribution (PMAD) subsystem. System trade studies and costing activities are also summarized.

  20. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura S.

    1992-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. This paper presents the description and development status of the PVM thermal control system.

  1. Simulation test beds for the Space Station electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, Gerald G.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center and its prime contractor are respnsible for developing the electrical power system on the Space Station. The power system will be controlled by a network of distributed processors. Control software will be verified, validated, and tested in hardware and software test beds. Current plans for the software test bed involve using real time and nonreal time simulations of the power system. This paper will discuss the general simulation objectives and configurations, control architecture, interfaces between simulator and controls, types of tests, and facility configurations.

  2. Simulation test beds for the space station electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, Gerald G.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center and its prime contractor are responsible for developing the electrical power system on the space station. The power system will be controlled by a network of distributed processors. Control software will be verified, validated, and tested in hardware and software test beds. Current plans for the software test bed involve using real time and nonreal time simulations of the power system. This paper will discuss the general simulation objectives and configurations, control architecture, interfaces between simulator and controls, types of tests, and facility configurations.

  3. Space Station Freedom power management and distribution design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javidi, S.; Gholdston, E.; Stroh, P.

    1989-01-01

    The design status of the power management and distribution electric power system for the Space Station Freedom is presented. The current design is a star architecture, which has been found to be the best approach for meeting the requirement to deliver 120 V dc to the user interface. The architecture minimizes mass and power losses while improving element-to-element isolation and system flexibility. The design is partitioned into three elements: energy collection, storage and conversion, system protection and distribution, and management and control.

  4. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  5. Solar photovoltaic power system for a radio station

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B. E.

    1980-12-01

    Under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory has developed a concept for a small photovoltaic power system. Of simple construction, the system uses low-cost, prefabricated, transportable units for easy, fast installation and requires minimal site preparation. The first application of this experimental system began operation in August 1979 at daytime AM radio station WNBO in Bryan, Ohio. The project was jointly undertaken by the Laboratory and the radio station. The photovoltaic system described holds promise for a wide range of applications and economic feasibility by the mid- to late-1980s.

  6. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  7. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom operates in a low earth orbit (LEO) environment. Such operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power System (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are briefly described and the results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in LEO environment.

  8. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power... low power auxiliary stations. Applicants for and licensees of remote pickup broadcast stations, aural broadcast auxiliary stations, television broadcast auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary...

  9. Accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in commercial fish of the Belyarsk nuclear power station cooling supply

    SciTech Connect

    Trapeznikova, V.N.; Kulikov, N.V.; Trapeznikov, A.V.

    1984-07-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in basic species of commercial fish of the Beloyarsk reservoir which is used as the cooling supply for the Beloyarsk nuclear power station. Possible reasons for interspecies differences in accumulation of the radionuclide are indicated, and the increased accumulation of /sup 137/Cs by free-living fish in the zone of heated water effluent from the station and the reduced accumulation of the emitter in carp, which are cultivated on artificial food in cages, are noted. Levels of the content of the radionuclide are compared in roach and farm carp from the cooling supplies of the Beloyarsk station and the Reftinsk power plant in the Urals.

  10. Determining the power performance effect from modernization of power equipment and process systems at a nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenok, L. A.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.; Sokolov, K. V.

    2012-05-01

    The main stages of a calculation and experimental analysis of measures aimed at achieving better power performance of a nuclear power station and a procedure for carrying out such analysis are considered. The results of a calculated and experimental assessment of the power-performance effect from modernization of the moisture separators-steam superheaters used in turbine generators Nos. 7 and 8 of Unit 4 at the Leningrad nuclear power station are presented.

  11. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, M.C.; Thomas, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O&M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of {open_quotes}insurance{close_quotes} plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  12. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  13. Electrical power system for the U.S. space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Hallinan, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Electrical Power System presents many interesting challenges. It will be much larger than previous space power systems, and it must be designed for on-orbit maintenance and replacement, along with having a growth capability. The power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution (PMAD) subsystems comprise the primary elements of the overall system. Each was analyzed by NASA Lewis Research Center and its two contractors -- Rocketdyne and TRW -- in the definition studies of the program to determine the optimum approach to minimize initial costs and life cycle costs. For the PMAD subsystem, a ring bus architecture operating at 440 V, 20 kHz, single phase, was selected. Photovoltaic and solar dynamic power generation subsystems were both studied. Major tradeoffs were made for each subsystem and for the overall system, and a hybrid system (both photovoltaic and solar dynamic) was selected.

  14. Electrical power system for the U.S. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Hallinan, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Electrical Power System presents many interesting challenges. It will be much larger than previous space power systems, and it must be designed for on-orbit maintenance and replacement, along with having a growth capability. The power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution (PMAD) subsystems comprise the primary elements of the overall system. Each was analyzed by NASA Lewis Research Center and its two contractors Rocketdyne and TRW - in the definition studies of the program to determine the optimum approach to minimize initial costs and life cycle costs. For the PMAD subsystem, a ring bus architecture operating at 440 V, 20 kHz, single phase, was selected. Photovoltaic and solar dynamic power generation subsystems were both studied. Major tradeoffs were made for each subsystem and for the overall system, and a hybrid system (both photovoltaic and solar dynamic) was selected.

  15. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1987-1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; McLean, R.I.

    1995-12-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of the monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. The data report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1987 through 1990 and is the fourth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at Peach Bottom in 1978.

  16. A 20 kiloHertz space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.; Wolff, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The space station represents the next major U.S. commitment in space. The efficient delivery of power to multiple user loads is key to that success. In 1969, NASA Lewis Research Center began a series of studies with component and circuit developments that led to the high frequency, bi-directional, four quadrant resonant driven converter. Additional studies and subsequent developments into the early 1980's have shown how the high frequency ac power system could provide overall advantages to many aerospace power systems. Because of its wide versatility, it also has outstanding advantages for the Space Station Program and its wide range of users. High frequency ac power provides higher efficiency, lower cost, and improved safety. The 20 kHz power system has exceptional flexibility, is inherently user friendly, and is compatible with all types of energy sources - photovoltaic, solar dynamic, rotating machines or nuclear. Lewis has recently completed development under contract a 25 kW, 20 kHz ac power distribution system testbed. The testbed demonstrates flexibility, versatility, and transparency to user technology as well as high efficiency, low mass, and reduced volume.

  17. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  18. 10. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant (upper level) room #219E, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant (upper level) room #219E, station services room; showing air compressors which provide diesel generators with internal power kick-on - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. Mathematical modelling of thermal-plume interaction at Waterford Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.Y.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Waldrop plume model was used to analyze the mixing and interaction of thermal effluents in the Mississippi River resulting from heated-water discharges from the Waterford Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 and from two nearby fossil-fueled power stations. The computer program of the model was modified and expanded to accommodate the multiple intake and discharge boundary conditions at the Waterford site. Numerical results of thermal-plume temperatures for individual and combined operation of the three power stations were obtained for typical low river flow (200,000 cfs) and maximum station operating conditions. The predicted temperature distributions indicated that the surface jet discharge from Waterford Unit 3 would interact with the thermal plumes produced by the two fossil-fueled stations. The results also showed that heat recirculation between the discharge of an upstream fossil-fueled plant and the intake of Waterford Unit 3 is to be expected. However, the resulting combined temperature distributions were found to be well within the thermal standards established by the state of Louisiana.

  20. Space station experiment definition: Advanced power system test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, H. E.; Neff, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for an advanced photovoltaic power system test bed was provided and the requirements for advanced photovoltaic power system experiments better defined. Results of this study will be used in the design efforts conducted in phase B and phase C/D of the space station program so that the test bed capabilities will be responsive to user needs. Critical PV and energy storage technologies were identified and inputs were received from the idustry (government and commercial, U.S. and international) which identified experimental requirements. These inputs were used to develop a number of different conceptual designs. Pros and cons of each were discussed and a strawman candidate identified. A preliminary evolutionary plan, which included necessary precursor activities, was established and cost estimates presented which would allow for a successful implementation to the space station in the 1994 time frame.

  1. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  2. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, fourth quarter 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has generated 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the fourth quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.

  3. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  4. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from other...

  5. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from other...

  6. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from other...

  7. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator will be protected...

  8. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV... protect an authorized digital low power TV or TV translator station or an application for such...

  9. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator will be protected...

  10. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV... protect an authorized digital low power TV or TV translator station or an application for such...

  11. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV... protect an authorized digital low power TV or TV translator station or an application for such...

  12. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV... protect an authorized digital low power TV or TV translator station or an application for such...

  13. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator will be protected...

  14. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator will be protected...

  15. Sodium coolant purification systems for a nuclear power station equipped with a BN-1200 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. V.; Kovalev, Yu. P.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Kumaev, V. Ya.; Kondrat'ev, A. S.; Matyukhin, V. V.; Pirogov, E. P.; Sergeev, G. P.; Sorokin, A. P.; Torbenkova, I. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Both traditional coolant purification methods (by means of traps and sorbents for removing cesium), the use of which supported successful operation of nuclear power installations equipped with fast-neutron reactors with a sodium coolant, and the possibility of removing oxygen from sodium through the use of hot traps are analyzed in substantiating the purification system for a nuclear power station equipped with a BN-1200 reactor. It is shown that a cold trap built into the reactor vessel must be a mandatory component of the reactor plant primary coolant circuit's purification system. The use of hot traps allows oxygen to be removed from the sodium coolant down to permissible concentrations when the nuclear power station operates in its rated mode. The main lines of works aimed at improving the performance characteristics of cold traps are suggested based on the results of performed investigations.

  16. 20 kHz Space Station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Wolff, Fredrick J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station represents the next major U.S. commitment in space. The efficient delivery of power to multiple user loads is key to that success. In 1969, NASA Lewis Research Center began a series of studies with component and circuit developments that led to the high frequency bi-directional, four quadrant resonant driven converter. Additional studies and subsequent developments into the early 1980's have shown how the high frequency ac power system could provide overall advantages to many aerospace power systems. Because of its wide versatility, it also has outstanding advantages for the Space Station Program and its wide range of users. High frequency ac power provides higher efficiency, lower cost, and improved safety. The 20 kHz power system has exceptional flexibility, is inherently user friendly, and is compatible with all types of energy sources - photovoltaic, solar dynamic, rotating machines or nuclear Lewis distribution system testbed. The testbed demonstrates flexibility, versatility, and transparency to user technology as well as high efficiency, low mass, and reduced volume.

  17. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  18. Measuring efficiency in modern gas turbine power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, J.; Gilmartin, D.

    1998-07-01

    The United Kingdom Government's decision to put the publicly-owned Electricity Supply Industry into the hands of private investors paved the way for the creation of a competitive electricity market, and encouraged the entry of Independent Power Producers (IPP). Competition in electricity generation has increased as new entrants have taken advantage of the latest Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) technology, which offers rapid build times, low construction cost, and high cycle efficiency, as well as lower environmental emissions. It is of paramount importance that suitable Guarantees are in place before investing in either new build or existing power plant projects. There will be Guarantees within all of the contracts that provide the framework for a viable power project, from the power purchase agreement (PPA), and fuel supply agreement (FSA), to the turnkey contract (Engineer, Procure and Construct). The Plant Performance Guarantees, especially on module power output and heat rate, have a major impact on a project's economic viability, and although they are included within the turnkey construction contract, they may also be passed through to the PPA and FSA. This paper details the Performance Guarantee Tests that are carried out jointly by the Owner-Operator and the Plant Constructor on a large CCGT plant in the UK, though the Tests are as valid for international sites. The methodology of the Performance Test is described, along with the applicable International Standards. On-line efficiency monitoring at one of National Power's CCGT plant is also briefly outlined. A set of typical power and heat rate correction curves is provided in Appendix 1 for reference, while Appendix 2 contains an example calculation of turbine inlet temperature as per DIN 4341. Appendix 3 is a flow diagram for an online efficiency calculation cycle, using the EfficiencyMap{trademark} Performance Monitoring system.

  19. Analysis of the Use of Wind Energy to Supplement the Power Needs at McMurdo Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Robichaud, R.; McLain, K.

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes an analysis of the inclusion of wind-driven power generation technology into the existing diesel power plants at two U.S. Antarctic research stations, McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the analysis. Raytheon Polar Services, which currently holds the private sector support contract for the two research stations, was a major contributor to this report. To conduct the analysis, available data were obtained on the wind resources, power plant conditions, load, and component cost. Whenever possible, we validated the information. We then used NREL's Hybrid2 power system modeling software to analyze the potential and cost of using wind turbine generators at the two aforementioned facilities. Unfortunately, the power systems and energy allocations at McMurdo and South Pole Station are being redeveloped, so it is not possible to validate future fuel use. This report is an initial assessment of the potential use of wind energy and should be followed by further, more detailed analysis if this option is to be considered further.

  20. Solar dynamic power system development for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The development of a solar dynamic electric power generation system as part of the Space Station Freedom Program is documented. The solar dynamic power system includes a solar concentrator, which collects sunlight; a receiver, which accepts and stores the concentrated solar energy and transfers this energy to a gas; a Brayton turbine, alternator, and compressor unit, which generates electric power; and a radiator, which rejects waste heat. Solar dynamic systems have greater efficiency and lower maintenance costs than photovoltaic systems and are being considered for future growth of Space Station Freedom. Solar dynamic development managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1986 to Feb. 1991 is covered. It summarizes technology and hardware development, describes 'lessons learned', and, through an extensive bibliography, serves as a source list of documents that provide details of the design and analytic results achieved. It was prepared by the staff of the Solar Dynamic Power System Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The report includes results from the prime contractor as well as from in-house efforts, university grants, and other contracts. Also included are the writers' opinions on the best way to proceed technically and programmatically with solar dynamic efforts in the future, on the basis of their experiences in this program.

  1. Space Power Facility at NASA’s Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-02-21

    Exterior view of the Space Power Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The $28.4-million facility, which began operations in 1969, is the largest high vacuum chamber ever built. The chamber is 100 feet in diameter and 120 feet high. It produces a vacuum deep enough to simulate the conditions at 300 miles altitude. The facility can sustain a high vacuum; simulate solar radiation via a 4-megawatt quartz heat lamp array, solar spectrum by a 400-kilowatt arc lamp, and cold environments. The Space Power Facility was originally designed to test nuclear power sources for spacecraft during long durations in a space atmosphere, but it was never used for that purpose. The facility’s first test in 1970 involved a 15 to 20-kilowatt Brayton Cycle Power System for space applications. Three different methods of simulating solar heat were employed during the Brayton tests. The facility was also used for jettison tests of the Centaur Standard Shroud. The shroud was designed for the new Titan-Centaur rocket that was scheduled to launch the Viking spacecraft to Mars. The new shroud was tested under conditions that simulated the time from launch to the separation of the stages. Test programs at the facility include high-energy experiments, shroud separation tests, Mars Lander system tests, deployable Solar Sail tests and International Space Station hardware tests.

  2. 75 FR 2164 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim), located in Plymouth County, MA. Therefore...

  3. Solid radwaste characterization at surry and North Anna Power Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Lippard, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a characterization of the solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's North Anna and Surry power stations. The primary focus of this characterization was dry active waste (DAW). The characterization, covering the 21-month period from January 1985 through September 1986, was based on information in the station's health physics procurement records, radwaste shipping records, and from interviews with station personnel. The procurement records were the principal source of information for DAW. They were reviewed to determine the quantities of various materials, purchased during the study period, that were expected to become DAW. This provides an upper limit on the quantity in the waste for several major DAW components and a basis for the total amount of other components in the waste. The approach to characterizing DAW discussed in this paper could be implemented and regularly updated by utilizing a computerized procurement records system. If a use code (i.e., contaminated or noncontaminated) is associated with each stock requisition, a characterization could be performed by a computer run. This approach would help track minimization effort effectiveness and would refine the characterization of DAW considerably.

  4. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  5. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; hide

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  6. Dirty kilowatts: America's most polluting power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-15

    In 2006, the US EPA tracked more than 1,400 fossil-fired power plants of varying sizes through its Acid Rain Program. This report ranks each of the 378 largest plants (generating at least 2 million megawatt-hours in 2006) for which both the most recent EPA emissions data and Energy Information Administration (EIA) electric generation data are available. The report ranks each plant based on emission rates, or pounds of pollutant for each megawatt-hour (or million megawatt-hours, in the case of mercury) the plant produced. It ranks the top fifty power plants polluters for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and mercury. A complete listing of all 378 plants is included as Appendix A. Appendix B contains overheads of an NETL presentation: Tracking new coal-fired power plants - coal's resurgence in electric power generation, 24 January 2007. The 12 states with the heaviest concentrations of the dirtiest power plants, in terms of total tons of carbon dioxide emitted, are: Texas (five, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Pennsylvania (four); Indiana (four, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Alabama (three); Georgia (three, including two of the top three dirtiest plants); North Carolina (three); Ohio (three); West Virginia (three); Wyoming (two); Florida (two); Kentucky (two); and New Mexico (two). Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants are now at roughly 2.5 billion tons per year. Power plants are responsible for about 30%-40% of all man-made CO{sub 2} emissions in the USA. Power plants, especially those that burn coal, are by far the largest single contributor of SO{sub 2} pollution in the United States. Power plant mercury emissions remain steady as compared to previous years. A searchable database ranking 378 U.S. power plants on carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and mercury pollution is available online at http://www.dirtykilowatts.org. 22 refs., 8 tabs., 2 apps.

  7. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  8. Mercury emissions from geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D E; Crecelius, E A; Fruchter, J S; Ludwick, J D

    1977-06-03

    Geothermal steam used for power production contains significant quantities of volatile mercury. Much of this mercury escapes to the atmosphere as elemental mercury vapor in cooling tower exhausts. Mercury emissions from geothermal power plants, on a per megawatt (electric) basis, are comparable to releases from coal-fired power plants.

  9. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  10. 75 FR 32516 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Surry Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS) and Surry Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (SPS) located in Lake Anna...% nitrogen at SPS and NAPS. The licensee's letter dated November 24, 2009, contains proprietary information... model Firehawk 7 Air Mask SCBA with a gas mixture of 35% oxygen and 65% nitrogen at SPS and NAPS,...

  11. 75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... Statement for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Docket No. 50-271, dated July 1972, as supplemented...

  12. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this...

  13. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate.

  14. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M. K.; Hardy, G. S.; Hashimoto, P. S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1987-03-01

    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  15. 14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. 4415, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. PA-A-36692, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  17. Contamination effects on Space Station Freedom electric power system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1991-01-01

    One design issue for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is the potential performance decrease of the electric power system (EPS) solar arrays and radiators as a result of contamination on sensitive surfaces. The authors discuss SSF potential contamination sources and contamination effects on the solar array and radiator performance due to these sources. With these contamination consideration, the SSF EPS is designed for the induced contamination environment at an optimal cost. The efforts on contamination protection and control are undergoing continual update because of the changes in the SSF configuration and in the contamination requirements, and observations from recent flight and laboratory test data are continuously being incorporated into the design.

  18. Operational and design strategies to improve PFBC power plant efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Cortes, C.; Martinez, D.

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays the state of the art of PFBC technology lies halfway between the demonstration stage in units of intermediate size (72--79 MWe) and the commercial availability of larger scale plants. The operation of existing power stations has demonstrated that several points remain widely open to improvements. Due to fuel quality effects and the use of retrofitted plants, the PFBC power plant efficiency presently demands significant improvements. Likewise, the high energy efficiencies offered by the PFBC concept had not been completely demonstrated. To overcome these difficulties and further develop the technology a semiempirical model of a pressurized fluidized bed power plant has been developed. The model has been validated with actual plant data, being able to predict the Escatron (Spain) PFBC power plant behavior under different operating conditions. It has been widely tested to study not only the fluidized bed behavior, but also the influence of fluidized bed variables in the rest of the power plant. Good agreement has been found between the computed results and actual plant data at different operational regimes for the most important variables of the power plant. The main aim of this model is to study different strategies to improve the efficiency in the power plant. These strategies include: the improvement of soot blowing schedules of external heat exchangers; air preheating system optimization; selection of operational set-points that bring the highest efficiency; evaluation of the efficiency improvements due to design changes (changes in retrofitted steam turbines and heat exchangers, natural gas reburning, selection of different types of coal). This paper describes the model developed, the strategies to improve efficiency, as well as its results, and as conclusions, point out the improvements and perspectives for future work.

  19. The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

  20. Power plant engineering for overseas market

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Korea`s experience in power plant engineering for the overseas market is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: the Asian electric power market, ordering characteristics, country situations, and overseas market requirements.

  1. 75 FR 16521 - Virginia Electric and Power Company Surry Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company Surry Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background The Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-32 and DPR-37, which authorize operation of the Surry Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  2. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  3. Performance of International Space Station Alpha electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.; Lu, C.Y.; Padhye, V.; Hajela, G.; Hague, L.

    1995-12-31

    The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will be an Earth-orbiting laboratory in space. It will house experimental payloads, distribute resource utilities, and support human habitation for conducting research and science experiments in a microgravity environment. Electrical power is a major utility to support successful achievement of the mission goal. The ISSA United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) Electric Power System (EPS) power generation capability will vary with orbital parameters, natural and induced environment, and hardware aging/replacement throughout the ISSA life. Power capability will be further restricted by various assembly configurations during ISSA buildup, by various flight attitudes, by shadowing on the solar arrays, by EPS operational constraints, such as pointing accuracy, battery charging, as well as operating voltage setpoints, and by ISSA operational constraints either to avoid long-term solar array shadowing from the adjacent solar array or to accommodate ISSA maneuver during proximity operations with other space vehicles, mating, and departing. Design of the ISSA USOS EPS takes into consideration the various equipment degradation modes, operation constraints, and orbital conditions to make it compatible with the environments and to meet power, lifetime, and performance requirements.

  4. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  5. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  6. High-frequency ac power distribution in Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    A utility-type 20-kHz ac power distribution system for the Space Station, employing resonant power-conversion techniques, is presented. The system converts raw dc voltage from photovoltaic cells or three-phase LF ac voltage from a solar dynamic generator into a regulated 20-kHz ac voltage for distribution among various loads. The results of EASY5 computer simulations of the local and global performance show that the system has fast response and good transient behavior. The ac bus voltage is effectively regulated using the phase-control scheme, which is demonstrated with both line and load variations. The feasibility of paralleling the driver-module outputs is illustrated with the driver modules synchronized and sharing a common feedback loop. An HF sinusoidal ac voltage is generated in the three-phase ac input case, when the driver modules are phased 120 deg away from one another and their outputs are connected in series.

  7. TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

  8. Advantages of fieldbus application in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tuetken, T.; Schoch, T.

    1998-07-01

    The fieldbus technology is a technology which will change the way control systems will be implemented in power plants in the future. This paper describes the status of fieldbus technology with a special focus on power plant applications. Two already operational power plant control references with thousands of fieldbus components will serve examples. These are the first reference systems worldwide to make such extensive fieldbus technology in power plants. Obvious changes can be seen in the physical structure of the power plant control system. The intelligence is moving to the process components and the switchgear. The hardware located in the electronic room is reduced drastically compared to a conventional installation. Furthermore, the fieldbus technology also effects maintenance strategies and organizational structures in the plant.

  9. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  10. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County, Georgia... to provide a reliable, long-term supply of renewable and sustainable energy at a reasonable cost...

  11. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities... of renewable and sustainable energy at a reasonable cost to meet part of the electric energy needs...

  12. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant... (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in... renewable and sustainable energy at a reasonable cost to meet part of the electric energy needs...

  13. NASA chooses hybrid power system for Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, D.J.

    1986-06-01

    The hybrid solar power system being developed for the Space Station is characterized. Major components of the 75-kW system required for the initial operational phase of the Station are 25-kW photovoltaic arrays (with Ni-H storage batteries for eclipse-phase power and some means of conversion to ac for distribution) and a 50-kW solar dynamic system comprising a reflecting concentrator, a thermal-energy storage unit, and a heat engine based either on an organic Rankine cycle (described by Holt, 1985) or on a closed Brayton cycle. The design and operating principle of a Brayton-cycle engine using an He-Xe mixture as the working fluid, gas-foil journal bearings, an LiF/MgF2 thermal-storage unit, and a 95-percent-effectiveness plate-fin-type recuperator are described and illustrated with drawings. This engine is designed to operate at 25,000-50,000 rpm with overall day/night cycle efficiency 27.6 percent for 95-min orbits, and to be restartable under zero-g conditions.

  14. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  15. Tower-shaped solar power plants: general design solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepliakov, D. I.; Aparisi, R. R.; Goncharenko, V. M.

    General design characteristics of tower-shaped solar power stations are summarized, and the principal types of design solutions are identified. In particular, attention is given to the requirements for the topography of the construction site, configurations of the heliostat field, the position of the tower relative to the heliostat field and linear dimensions of the heliostat field. The discussion also covers the geometry of the collector and consideration of the geographic latitude of the plant location.

  16. System impacts of solar dynamic and growth power systems on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. T.; Cuddihy, W. F.; Lovelace, U. M.; Badi, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts for the 1990's space station envision an initial operational capability with electrical power output requirements of approximately 75 kW and growth power requirements in the range of 300 kW over a period of a few years. Photovoltaic and solar dynamic power generation techniques are contenders for supplying this power to the space station. A study was performed to identify growth power subsystem impacts on other space station subsystems. Subsystem interactions that might suggest early design changes for the space station were emphasized. Quantitative analyses of the effects of power subsystem mass and projected area on space station controllability and reboost requirements were conducted for a range of growth station configurations. Impacts on space station structural dynamics as a function of power subsystem growth were also considered.

  17. Space Station Freedom electric power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.

    1990-01-01

    The results are detailed of follow-on availability analyses performed on the Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS). The scope includes analyses of several EPS design variations, these are: the 4-photovoltaic (PV) module baseline EPS design, a 6-PV module EPS design, and a 3-solar dynamic module EPS design which included a 10 kW PV module. The analyses performed included: determining the discrete power levels that the EPS will operate at upon various component failures and the availability of each of these operating states; ranking EPS components by the relative contribution each component type gives to the power availability of the EPS; determining the availability impacts of including structural and long-life EPS components in the availability models used in the analyses; determining optimum sparing strategies, for storing space EPS components on-orbit, to maintain high average-power-capability with low lift-mass requirements; and analyses to determine the sensitivity of EPS-availability to uncertainties in the component reliability and maintainability data used.

  18. Space Station module Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    This project consists of several tasks which are unified toward experimentally demonstrating the operation of a highly autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) habitation/laboratory modules. This goal will be extended to a demonstration of autonomous, cooperative power system operation for the whole SSF power system through a joint effort with NASA's Lewis Research Center, using their Autonomous Power System. Short term goals for the space station module power management and distribution include having an operational breadboard reflecting current plans for SSF, improving performance of the system communications, and improving the organization and mutability of the artificial intelligence (AI) systems. In the middle term, intermediate levels of autonomy will be added, user interfaces will be modified, and enhanced modeling capabilities will be integrated in the system. Long term goals involve conversion of all software into Ada, vigorous verification and validation efforts and, finally, seeing an impact of this research on the operation of SSF. Conversion of the system to a DC Star configuration is now in progress, and should be completed by the end of October, 1989. This configuration reflects the latest SSF module architecture. Hardware is now being procured which will improve system communications significantly. The Knowledge-Based Management System (KBMS) is initially developed and the rules from FRAMES have been implemented in the KBMS. Rules in the other two AI systems are also being grouped modularly, making them more tractable, and easier to eventually move into the KBMS. Adding an intermediate level of autonomy will require development of a planning utility, which will also be built using the KBMS. These changes will require having the user interface for the whole system available from one interface. An Enhanced Model will be developed, which will allow exercise of the system through the interface

  19. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  20. Power Transformer Application for Wind Plant Substations

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, M. R.; Bloethe, W.G.; Bradt, M.; Brooks, C.; Camm, E H; Dilling, W.; Goltz, B.; Li, J.; Niemira, J.; Nuckles, K.; Patino, J.; Reza, M; Richardson, B.; Samaan, N.; Schoene, Jens; Smith, Travis M; Snyder, Isabelle B; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.; Zahalka, G.

    2010-01-01

    Wind power plants use power transformers to step plant output from the medium voltage of the collector system to the HV or EHV transmission system voltage. This paper discusses the application of these transformers with regard to the selection of winding configuration, MVA rating, impedance, loss evaluation, on-load tapchanger requirements, and redundancy.

  1. A new method to assess mercury emissions: a study of three coal-fired electric-generating power station configurations.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Helen M; Cain, Randy D; Kingston, H M

    2003-11-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 7473 for the analysis of mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy has proved successful for use in Hg assessment at coal-fired power stations. In an analysis time of approximately 5 min per sample, this instrumental methodology can directly analyze total Hg--with no discrete sample preparation--in the solid matrices associated with a coal-fired power plant, including coal, fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material. This analysis technique was used to investigate Hg capture by coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) in three different coal-fired power plant configurations. Hg capture and associated emissions were estimated by partial mass balance. The station equipped with an FGD system demonstrated 68% capture on FGD material and an emissions estimate of 18% (11 kg/yr) of total Hg input. The power plant equipped with low oxides of nitrogen burners and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) retained 43% on the fly ash and emitted 57% (51 kg/yr). The station equipped with conventional burners and an ESP retained less than 1% on the fly ash, emitting an estimated 99% (88 kg/yr) of Hg. Estimated Hg emissions demonstrate good agreement with EPA data for the power stations investigated.

  2. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  3. Demonstration of 5MW PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Usami, Yutaka; Takae, Toshio

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association, established in May 1991 by Japanese 10 electric power and 4 gas companies, started a new project in 1991 FY, with the object of PAFC realization and aiming the development of 5MW- class PAFC. power plant for urban energy center and 1 MW- class power plant for onsite use. This project is carried out as 6 years plan jointly with New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. The targets of the project are to evaluate and resolve the development task, such as a high reliability, compactness and cost reduction throughout the engineering, manufacturing and field testing of PAFC power plants. PAC tests and power generating test operations of 5MW plant were completed in 1994. Conducting the 2 years continuous operations and studies since 1995, the plant operational performance, system control characteristics, waste heat recovery and environmental advantage will be demonstrated.

  4. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  6. Wind Power Plant SCADA and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Badrzadeh, Babak; Castillo, Nestor; Bradt, M.; Janakiraman, R.; Kennedy, R.; Klein, S.; Smith, Travis M; Vargas, L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern Wind Power Plants (WPPs) contain a variety of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and communication systems. This paper discusses the issues related to a typical WPP's SCADA and Control. Presentation topics are: (1) Wind Turbine Controls; (2) Wind Plant SCADA, OEM SCADA Solutions, Third-Party SCADA Solutions; (3) Wind Plant Control; and (4) Security and Reliability Compliance.

  7. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  9. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  10. Control/structure interaction methods for space station power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blelloch, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Research Corporation and the NASA Lewis Research Center have been working together to develop tools and methods for the analysis of control/structure interaction problems related to the space station power systems. Flexible modes of the solar arrays below 0.1 Hz, suggest that even for relatively slow control systems, the potential for control/structure interaction exists. The emphasis of the effort has been to develop tools which couple NASTRAN's powerful capabilities in structural dynamics with EASY5's powerful capabilities in control systems analysis. One product is an interface software package called CO-ST-IN for COntrol-STructure-INteraction. CO-ST-IN acts to translate data between NASTRAN and EASY5, facilitating the analysis of complex coupled problems. Interfaces to SDRC I-DEAS and MATRIXx are also offered. Beside transferring standard modal information, CO-ST-IN implements a number of advanced methods. These include a modal ordering algorithm that helps eliminate uncontrollable or unobservable modes from the analysis, an implementation of the more accurate mode acceleration algorithm for recovery of element forces and stresses directly in EASY5 and an implementation of fixed interface modes in NASTRAN, which reduces the error in the closed-loop model due to the use of truncated mode sets.

  11. Environmental radiological studies in 1989 near the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Wong, Kai M.; Jones, H.E.

    1990-11-01

    In December 1988, the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) asked the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Sciences Division (ENV) to collect sediment, water,and fish samples downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station for analysis of radionuclides to compare with results from earlier surveys in 1984 through 1987 (1--8). ENV was, however, asked to reduce the total number of sample collections to a minimum in this study because of financial constraints. The proposal ENV submitted for the 1989 Environmental Radiological Studies downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station reflected this reduction, but we believe, nevertheless, the 1989 efforts do allow us to make some meaningful comparisons with the previous studies. Cesium-137 is the most significant radionuclide still observed downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant. Only occasionally is {sup 134}Cs or {sup 60}CO observed. In 1989, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the water and fish decreased with distance from the plant to the same level that is was in 1987, and was lower than it had been from 1984 through 1986. The concentration ratio (CR) for {sup 137}Cs in fish is between 1000 and 1500, which is below the NRC default value of 2000. Physical mixing in the creek environment has moved the {sup 137}Cs deeper into the sediment column, thereby reducing the concentration in the top 12 cm relative to that in previous years. 8 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Installation for a nuclear power station with staggered swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Gigou, R.

    1982-12-28

    In an installation for a nuclear power station comprising a ''reactor building'' with a first swimming pool for handling of fuel units and a fuel building with a second swimming pool for the transfer, storage and deactivation of the units, the second swimming pool is located at a lower level than that of the first and is connected to the first by an intermediate auxiliary chamber filled with water and located under the first swimming pool. The auxiliary chamber is connected by a vertical pipeline to the first swimming pool and by a horizontal connecting pipeline to the second swimming pool. Each of the pipelines is provided with a shut-off valve, with interlocking means which prevents the simultaneous opening of the two valves. There is negligible dead space around a conveyor basket for fuel units when it is in the vertical or horizontal pipelines.

  13. Optical measurements pertaining to Space Station solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holly, S.; Springer, T.; Jefferies, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station solar dynamic power system is a hybrid of solar photovoltaic and solar dynamic systems, the latter of which uses a parabolic reflector to collect solar energy. This paper describes analytical results of an off-axis solar illumination on the intensity distribution in arbitrary target planes perpendicular to the axis of a parabolic reflector. Such computational capability would make it possible to predict optical intensity distributions resulting from off-axis angles of incident radiation on such target planes. To validate the computer code, experimental optical measurements were performed on the multifaceted paraboloidal collecor at the Solar Dynamic Test Facility at Rockedyne's Santa Susana Field Laboratory. The experimental data compared reasonably well with the calculated values.

  14. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.S.; Catapano, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  15. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-12-01

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom.

  16. Temporal variations in Global Seismic Stations ambient noise power levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, A.T.; Gee, L.S.; Hutt, C.R.; McNamara, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent concerns about time-dependent response changes in broadband seismometers have motivated the need for methods to monitor sensor health at Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations. We present two new methods for monitoring temporal changes in data quality and instrument response transfer functions that are independent of Earth seismic velocity and attenuation models by comparing power levels against different baseline values. Our methods can resolve changes in both horizontal and vertical components in a broad range of periods (∼0.05 to 1,000 seconds) in near real time. In this report, we compare our methods with existing techniques and demonstrate how to resolve instrument response changes in long-period data (>100 seconds) as well as in the microseism bands (5 to 20 seconds).

  17. Integrated simulation of the Escatron PFBC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Cortes, C.; Martinez, D.

    1997-12-31

    The study of the phenomena in fluidized beds has a great importance for the knowledge and development of FBC technologies. But nowadays, and from an operational point of view, the interest lies not only in fluidized bed behavior, but also in the influence of fluidized bed variables in the rest of the power plant. Although there is a great variety of designs and studies on FBC power stations (AFBC, CFBC and PFBC, with different types of cycles and first and second generation fluidized beds), there is a lack of detailed studies considering the interactions between the bed variables and the performance of the cycles (steam and gas). In order to improve the knowledge from this particular standpoint, an integrated model of the Escatron PFBC 80 MWe power plant (Spain) has been developed. The model has been validated with actual plant data, being able to predict the behavior of the plant as a whole. To do this, it estimates the most important variables of the fluidized bed (i.e., bed temperature profiles, bed density, fuel feed rate, heat transfer, entrainment, gas and steam flow rates), as well as the operating parameters of the power cycles (i.e., steam and gas turbine loads, temperatures and pressures). A practical application of this model is the evaluation of operational and design changes affecting the response of the fluidized bed, the steam and gas cycles, and, in turn, the power plant efficiency and availability.

  18. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  19. [Medical and psychological aspects of safety measures maintenance among nuclear and power station personnel].

    PubMed

    Ipatov, P L; Sorokin, A V; Basov, V I

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with 15-year experience of medical and psychophysiologic service in Medical and Sanitary Establishment No. 156 and Balakovo nuclear power station on providing reliability of occupational activities for the station personnel.

  20. Control-structure interaction study for the Space Station solar dynamic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, J.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.; Kim, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the feasibility of using a conventional PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) controller design to perform the pointing and tracking functions for the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power module. Using this simple controller design, the control/structure interaction effects were also studied without assuming frequency bandwidth separation. From the results, the feasibility of a simple solar dynamic control solution with a reduced-order model, which satisfies the basic system pointing and stability requirements, is suggested. However, the conventional control design approach is shown to be very much influenced by the order of reduction of the plant model, i.e., the number of the retained elastic modes from the full-order model. This suggests that, for complex large space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic, the conventional control system design methods may not be adequate.

  1. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  2. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  3. ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

  4. Cucurbit germplasm collections at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, USA is one of four primary Plant Introduction Stations in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), and has responsibility for maintenance, regeneration, characterization, and distribution of the NPGS Cucumis and Cucurbi...

  5. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  6. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

  7. M-C Power commercialization program for MCFC power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, E. H.; Schora, F. C.

    1992-01-01

    M-C Power Corporation was established by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop, manufacture, market, sell and service commercial MCFC power plants using IGT's IMHEX® fuel cell stack concept. M-C Power has created an integrated commercialization program to develop a market-responsive, natural gas-fueled MCFC power plant. M-C Power's market entry offering will range from 500 kW to 3 MW and will be designed for on-site and distributed power applications. Future products will include a wider range of sizes for distributed power and power plants for dispersed (30-50 MW) and base load ( > 100 MW) power generation, the latter fueled by coal-derived gases. M-C Power Corporation has established the world's most advanced MCFC components and stack manufacturing facilities at its plant in Burr Ridge, IL, capable of producing 3 MW/year of stacks based on one shift per day, five days per week operation. This capacity can be increased to 12 MW/year by adding one tape casting machine and operating three shifts per day for 330 days/year. An industry group has been formed to guide, support, and stimulate the IMHEX® Commercialization Program. This group is called the Alliance to Commercialize Carbonate Technology (ACCT). ACCT members include electric, gas and combination utilities as well as pipeline companies and potential industrial users. In addition, the program enjoys wide support from government, industry and research institutions.

  8. 75 FR 76495 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    .... There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and... permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity of the plant, or to... Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants,'' to...

  9. NO sub x reduction at Zolling power station

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerschky, R.; Merz, A. )

    1990-01-01

    In 1985 the West German utility Isar-Amperwerke AG placed a modern 450 MW coal-fired power plant unit into commercial operation. This paper describes systems for pollution control incorporated in its design. These systems include: high efficiency through, for example, operation at supercritical steam pressure; extraction of process heat and district heating; attractive architectural design; a modern flue-gas desulfurization system with wet limestone scrubber; and equipment for nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) abatement. This paper focuses on this equipment.

  10. Ultrafiltration treatment for liquid laundry wastes from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kichik, V.A.; Maslova, M.N.; Svittsov, A.A.; Kuleshov, N.F.

    1988-03-01

    The authors conduct a comprehensive analysis of the waste constituents--radioactive and organic--of the laundry water resulting from the on-site laundering and decontamination of clothing worn in nuclear power plants. The primary isotope contaminants consist of niobium and zirconium 95, manganese 54, cobalt 60, iron 59, and cesium 134 and 137. A variety of filter and adsorbent materials used in an ultrafiltration process are comparatively tested for their effectiveness in removing not only these isotopes but also the organic contaminants in the process of recycling the water. Those materials consist of copper hexacyanoferrate, polyacrylophosphonic acid, and several metal-polymer complexes.

  11. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  12. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  13. Village power plants versus solar home systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt-Kuentzel, B.; Schaefer, G.

    1993-08-01

    Figures on rural energy consumption is presented along with past experience in rural electrification projects which show clearly the limits of any rural electrification policy. Three alternatives are compared using a network for electricity distribution, i.e. connection to the national grid, village networks with diesel and solar power stations, and the solar home system.

  14. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  15. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  16. Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously storing electrical energy in wheels and utilizing the resulting momentum for spacecraft attitude control. It was shown that such a system possessed many advantages over other contemporary energy storage and attitude control systems in many applications. More recent technology advances in composite rotors, magnetic bearings, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the feasibility and merits of such a system. The paper presents the results of a recent study whose focus was to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for the Space Station application. A system and component design concept is developed to establish the system performance capability. A system level trade study, including life-cycle costing, is performed to define the merits of the system relative to two other candidate systems. It is concluded that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but offers substantial savings in mass, and life-cycle cost.

  17. Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously storing electrical energy in wheels and utilizing the resulting momentum for spacecraft attitude control. It was shown that such a system possessed many advantages over other contemporary energy storage and attitude control systems in many applications. More recent technology advances in composite rotors, magnetic bearings, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the feasibility and merits of such a system. The paper presents the results of a recent study whose focus was to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for the Space Station application. A system and component design concept is developed to establish the system performance capability. A system level trade study, including life-cycle costing, is performed to define the merits of the system relative to two other candidate systems. It is concluded that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but offers substantial savings in mass, and life-cycle cost.

  18. International Space Station power module thermal control system hydraulic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, V.

    1997-12-31

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses four photovoltaic power modules (PVMs) to provide electric power for the US On-Orbit Segment. The PVMs consist of photovoltaic arrays (PVAs), orbit replaceable units (ORUs), photovoltaic radiators (PVRs), and a thermal control system (TCS). The PVM TCS function is to maintain selected PVM components within their specified operating ranges. The TCS consists of the pump flow control subassembly (PFCS), piping system, including serpentine tubing for individual component heat exchangers, headers/manifolds, fluid disconnect couplings (FQDCs), and radiator (PVR). This paper describes the major design requirements for the TCS and the results of the system hydraulic performance predictions in regard to these requirements and system component sizing. The system performance assessments were conducted using the PVM TCS fluid network hydraulic model developed for predicting system/component pressure losses and flow distribution. Hardy-Cross method of iteration was used to model the fluid network configuration. Assessments of the system hydraulic performance were conducted based on an evaluation of uncertainties associated with the manufacturing and design tolerances. Based on results of the analysis, it was concluded that all design requirements regarding system performance could be met. The hydraulic performance range, enveloping possible system operating parameter variations was determined.

  19. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-03-22

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the /sup 137/Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984.

  20. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection. 74.710 Section 74.710 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and...

  1. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. 74.792 Section 74.792 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and...

  2. 75 FR 76498 - Firstenergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION Firstenergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment... Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS... nuclear power reactors provide adequate margins of safety during any condition of normal...

  3. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual... non-network program arrangements. Part 73, Subpart G—Emergency Broadcast System (for low power TV...

  4. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual... non-network program arrangements. Part 73, Subpart G—Emergency Broadcast System (for low power TV...

  5. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual... non-network program arrangements. Part 73, Subpart G—Emergency Broadcast System (for low power TV...

  6. 76 FR 41532 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Yankee-Rowe); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Yankee-Rowe); Notice of... indirect transfer of the Facility Operating License No. DPR-3 for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Yankee... Officer Powers, and General Hearing Management for NRC Adjudicatory Hearings,'' of 10 CFR part 2....

  7. 76 FR 39134 - ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... COMMISSION ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... licensing basis requirements previously applicable to the nuclear power units and associated systems...

  8. 75 FR 14208 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The license provides, among..., ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  9. 75 FR 14209 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background.... DPR-28, which authorizes operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). The license....55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

  10. [Water-soluble anions of atmosphere on Tianwan nuclear power station].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng-Qiang; He, Ying; Zheng, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Fa-Rong; Pang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2010-11-01

    Three major water-soluble anions (Cl-, SO4(2-) and NO3-) in the atmosphere of the Tianwan nuclear power station in Lianyungang were determined by ion chromatography from June 2005 to May 2006. The results showed that the annual average concentration of Cl-, SO4(2-) and NO3- in the atmosphere of Tianwan nuclear power station was (33.12 +/- 53.63) microg x m(-3), (53.34 +/- 30.34) microg x m(-3) and (8.34 +/- 4.47) microg x m(-3), respectively. The concentrations of the three water-soluble anions showed evident trend of seasonal variation. The concentrations of Cl-, SO4(2-) reached the highest level in summer and the lowest level in winter, while the concentration of NO3- in autumn and winter was higher than those in summer and spring. Meteorological parameters such as wind direction, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity were studied and showed definite influence to the anions concentration of the atmosphere. This is the first simultaneous monitoring of corrosive anions in the atmosphere of Chinese coastal nuclear power plant, and it will provide basis for the prevention of marine atmospheric corrosion, which will ensure the safely operating of our nuclear power industry.

  11. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  12. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  13. The 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: Solar facilities design integration. Pilot-plant station manual (RADL Item 2-1). Volume 1: System description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    The complete Barstow Solar Pilot Plant is described. The plant requirements and general description are presented, the mechanical, electric power, and control and instrumentation systems as well as civil engineering and structural aspects and the station buildings are described. Included in the mechanical systems are the heliostats, receiver, thermal storage system, beam characterization system, steam, water, nitrogen, and compressed air systems, chemical feed system, fire protection system, drains, sumps and the waste disposal systems, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems.

  14. DC-DC power converter research for Orbiter/Station power exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.

    1993-01-01

    This project was to produce innovative DC-DC power converter concepts which are appropriate for the power exchange between the Orbiter and the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The new converters must interface three regulated power buses on SSF, which are at different voltages, with three fuel cell power buses on the Orbiter which can be at different voltages and should be tracked independently. Power exchange is to be bi-directional between the SSF and the Orbiter. The new converters must satisfy the above operational requirements with better weight, volume, efficiency, and reliability than is available from the present conventional technology. Two families of zero current DC-DC converters were developed and successfully adapted to this application. Most of the converters developed are new and are presented.

  15. 78 FR 24666 - Updates to the List of Plant Inspection Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... designed for handling germplasm and other plant material imported for plant breeding and research programs... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 Updates to the List of Plant Inspection Stations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are...

  16. GHGRP Power Plants Sector Industrial Profiles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles, available for download below, contain detailed analyses for the Power Plants industry.

  17. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) compiled from various EPA programs.

  18. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  19. Space Station Freedom electric power system photovoltaic power module integrated launch package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathanson, Theodore H.; Clemens, Donald D.; Spatz, Raymond R.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the Space Station Freedom solar power module requires a weight efficient structure that will include large components within the limited load capacity of the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The design iterations to meet these requirements have evolved from a proposal concept featuring a separate cradle and integrated equipment assembly (IEA), to a package that interfaces directly with the Shuttle. Size, weight, and cost have been reduced as a result.

  20. Space Station Freedom electric power system photovoltaic power module integrated launch package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathanson, Theodore H.; Clemens, Donald D.; Spatz, Raymond R.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the Space Station Freedom solar power module requires a weight efficient structure that will include large components within the limited load capacity of the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The design iterations to meet these requirements have evolved from a proposal concept featuring a separate cradle and integrated equipment assembly (IEA), to a package that interfaces directly with the Shuttle. Size, weight, and cost have been reduced as a result.

  1. 35. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS 325 AND 321) AT LEFT, FUEL TOWER AT CENTER AND CHLORINE EVAPORATOR (BUILDING 251) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 34. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT (BUILDING 325) AT LEFT AND CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. Efficiencies of Power Plants Using Hydrothermal Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirosaka, Kazuma; Yuvamitra, Korakot; Ishikawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    Wet biomass is hard to handle as a fuel for power plants because it contains high moisture and its drying process needs more energy input than it produces. Hydrothermal oxidation could be one of the promising technologies to overcome this problem because this process does not need drying process at all. We focus on recovery of thermal energy produced by hydrothermal oxidation of wet biomass. Two kinds of power plant are investigated, a direct type and an indirect type. In the direct type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and directly flowed into a turbine. In the indirect type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and the reaction heat is conveyed to the main water, which is flowed into a turbine. The amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency are calculated by using ethanol, glucose and peat solutions as reactants. In both type of power plant, one steam turbine is employed for generating electricity with the maximum turbine inlet temperature of 650 °C. As ethanol concentration increased, the amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency become higher. The maximum efficiency for the direct type power plant using ethanol solution is about 26.4 % for 17.6 wt% at the reactor pressure of 10 MPa. The efficiency of the indirect type power plant is much lower than that of the direct type, but by pressurizing main water up to 4 MPa, the efficiency becomes higher up to 20.9 %. For glucose solution, the maximum efficiency for the direct type is about 25.5 % for 34.5 wt% at the reactor pressure of 5 MPa. The maximum efficiency of the indirect type at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 21.1 % for 40.7 wt%. For peat solution, only the indirect type is investigated. The maximum efficiency at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 20.8 % for 36.8 wt%.

  4. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads †

    PubMed Central

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient. PMID:22666026

  5. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  6. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

  8. Darlington tritium removal facility and station upgrading plant dynamic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Busigin, A.; Williams, G. I. D.; Wong, T. C. W.; Kulczynski, D.; Reid, A.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station has been operating a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) and a D{sub 2}O station Upgrading Plant (SUP) since 1989. Both facilities were designed with a Distributed Control System (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC) for process control. This control system was replaced with a DCS only, in 1998. A dynamic plant simulator was developed for the Darlington TRF (DTRF) and the SUP, as part of the computer control system replacement. The simulator was used to test the new software, required to eliminate the PLCs. The simulator is now used for operator training and testing of process control software changes prior to field installation. Dynamic simulation will be essential for the ITER isotope separation system, where the process is more dynamic than the relatively steady-state DTRF process. This paper describes the development and application of the DTRF and SUP dynamic simulator, its benefits, architecture, and the operational experience with the simulator. (authors)

  9. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  10. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-05

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  11. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  12. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  13. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  14. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  15. Launch packaging options for the PV power module cargo element. [for space station power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.; Vogt, Scott T.

    1989-01-01

    NASA recently embarked on the Space Station Freedom program, which will utilize the Shuttle Orbiter for transportation to orbit. Each flight is unique in terms of the hardware that is manifested and the method by which it is integrated to form viable cargo elements. Various constraints determine the packaging options for the three PV power module combined assemblies. Several packaging options for the PV power module cargo element are presented. These options are discussed in terms of their impact on the overall flight hardware manifest as determined by the various constraints.

  16. Technical assessment and environmental improvement of Almaty No. 1 heat and power station

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Myers, P.T.

    1996-12-31

    Almaty No. 1 Heat and Power Station (BPS) supplies steam for industrial customers and heat and electricity to the residents of Almaty, the capital city of Kazakhstan. Feasibility studies performed by local technical institutes concluded that the aging boilers were soon reaching their end of life. Prior to approval of a loan to Kazakhstan for replacement of two of the boilers, the Asian Development Bank contracted the Tennessee Valley Authority to perform a technical and financial assessment of the power station to determine if continued operation was justified and to recommend a program of boiler equipment rehabilitation and/or replacement to reduce the high level of air pollution in the city. The assessment determined the city had a shortage of 480 Gcal/hr heating supply and a 125 MW deficit in electrical supply. Continued operation of Almaty No. 1 Heat and Power Station (UPS) was justified due to the strategic location of the heat and steam supply, high efficiency of the combined heating and power supply, and the low cost of the investment. The existing plant equipment had exceeded its original design life but the rehabilitation of the existing boilers is not a cost-effective option because of the very stringent emission requirements, low-cost and low-quality coal burning, and the derating requirements. Based on stringent air emission criteria, the most technically and economically viable solution is to replace the existing boiler Nos. 7 and 8 with a single circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler with limestone feed and a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator. The CFB boiler would allow Almatyenergo to burn the low-cost, low-quality coal and meet all the emission requirements.

  17. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  18. 75 FR 8153 - Nebraska Public Power District; Cooper Nuclear Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Nebraska Public Power District; Cooper Nuclear Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... District (NPPD, the licensee), for operation of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS), located in Nemaha County... Statement for the Cooper Nuclear Station dated February 1973. Agencies and Persons Consulted In...

  19. European legislation in the United Kingdom: a threat to coal-fired power station product utilization?

    SciTech Connect

    Sear, K.A.

    2006-07-01

    The author considers that the European Union has not taken the approach adopted in the USA where environmental regulators are keen to promote the use of coal-fired power station ash by-product and recycled materials. The United Kingdom has seen, with some dismay, the effects EU legislation is having on the ash industry. This article outlines only some of the problems being tackled. The Waste Framework Directive is difficult to interpret and fails to define critical aspects of the problem. This directive is discussed at some length in the article. A total of nine directives effect the operation of coal-fired power plant. Many are imprecise and open to interpretation and cause a deal of frustration, delays and confusion to the ash supplier and contractor. This is causing markets to suffer.

  20. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Prassinos, P.G.; Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1987-03-01

    This Summary Report is the first of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 2 is the Systems Analysis of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 3 documents the results of the fragility screening for the review. The three volumes demonstrate how the seismic margin review guidance (NUREG/CR-4482) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Seismic Design Margins Program can be applied. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  1. The counter effects of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kenta

    2017-01-01

    The counter effects of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are discussed in this paper. Though decommission and remediation have been conducted in the facility and surrounding area, ninety thousand residences near the facility are still under the evacuation order. Four nuclear power units have already restarted under the new regulatory framework, but two of them in Fukui prefecture stop the operation due to the provisional disposition declared by Ohtsu district court in Shiga prefecture. Reinforcement of the latter layer of the defense in depth has been improved in many ways. The improvement of decision-making process is very important in latter layers of the defense in depth, in contrast the plant behaviors are automatically decided based on their design in the prior layers.

  2. Environmental review of Potomac Electric Power Company's proposed Station H Element I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The report has been conducted to evaluate the potential impacts to environmental and cultural resources from the proposed construction and operation of Element I (the combustion turbine portion) of the Station H power plant facility at Potomac Electric Power Company's Dickerson site. This review also presents an evaluation of air quality impacts of Elements I and II (combustion turbine and combined cycle components of the facility) and an assessment of compliance with state and Federal air quality regulations (primarily the ambient air quality standards and the air quality impact requirements of PSD regulations). Results of the Environmental Review analysis are used as the basis for establishing preliminary recommended licensing conditions for operating the proposed facility. These recommendations are also included in the report.

  3. Feasibility Study of a Satellite Solar Power Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Maynard, O. E.; Mackovciak, J. J. R.; Ralph, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility study of a satellite solar power station (SSPS) was conducted to: (1) explore how an SSPS could be flown and controlled in orbit; (2) determine the techniques needed to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI); and (3) determine the key environmental, technological, and economic issues involved. Structural and dynamic analyses of the SSPS structure were performed, and deflections and internal member loads were determined. Desirable material characteristics were assessed and technology developments identified. Flight control performance of the SSPS baseline design was evaluated and parametric sizing studies were performed. The study of RFI avoidance techniques covered (1) optimization of the microwave transmission system; (2) device design and expected RFI; and (3) SSPS RFI effects. The identification of key issues involved (1) microwave generation, transmissions, and rectification and solar energy conversion; (2) environmental-ecological impact and biological effects; and (3) economic issues, i.e., costs and benefits associated with the SSPS. The feasibility of the SSPS based on the parameters of the study was established.

  4. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Climatographic analysis of the Zion Nuclear Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Whitcomb, R.C. ); Lyons, W.A.; Venne, M.G.; Keen, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this papers is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities. A conceptual framework for allocating resources in developing an adequate emergency response system includes three major factors: (1) frequency of the mesoscale regimes; (2) extent to which the regime can result in high concentrations/doses; (3) ease with which it can be modeled, with due consideration given for input data requirements.

  6. Climatographic analysis of the Zion nuclear power station site

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Venne, M.G.; Keen, C.S.; Miller, C.W.; Whitcomb, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example, a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities.

  7. Adaptive Modeling of the International Space Station Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Justin Ray

    2007-01-01

    Software simulations provide NASA engineers the ability to experiment with spacecraft systems in a computer-imitated environment. Engineers currently develop software models that encapsulate spacecraft system behavior. These models can be inaccurate due to invalid assumptions, erroneous operation, or system evolution. Increasing accuracy requires manual calibration and domain-specific knowledge. This thesis presents a method for automatically learning system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques are applied to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). We also explore a knowledge fusion approach that uses traditional engineered EPS models to supplement the learned models. We observed that these engineered EPS models provide useful background knowledge to reduce predictive error spikes when confronted with making predictions in situations that are quite different from the training scenarios used when learning the model. Evaluations using ISS sensor data and existing EPS models demonstrate the success of the adaptive approach. Our experimental results show that adaptive modeling provides reductions in model error anywhere from 80% to 96% over these existing models. Final discussions include impending use of adaptive modeling technology for ISS mission operations and the need for adaptive modeling in future NASA lunar and Martian exploration.

  8. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  9. Course in power plant systems interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Like most nuclear engineering programs, the Pennsylvania State Univ. (Penn State) program includes in-depth studies of reactor theory and thermal hydraulics, heat transfer, and fluid flow. The compartmentalization of these topics results in a distinct lack of understanding of the way that typical systems in a nuclear power plant interact to produce the transients that occur in a plant. To correct the deficiency, attempts have been made to develop a comprehensive systems course, which not only educates the students about power plant systems but also teaches them the way they interact. This paper describes the various approaches used and the problems encountered with each approach.

  10. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  11. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  12. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  13. Solar array pointing control for the International Space Station electrical power subsystem to optimize power delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    Precise orientation control of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS) photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays is required for a number of reasons, including the optimization of power delivery to ISS system loads and payloads. To maximize power generation and delivery in general, the PV arrays are pointed directly at the sun with some allowance for inaccuracies in determination of where to point and in the actuation of pointing the PV arrays. Control of PV array orientation in this sun pointing mode is performed automatically by onboard hardware and software. During certain conditions, maximum power cannot be generated in automatic sun tracking mode due to shadowing of the PV arrays cast by other ISS structures, primarily adjacent PV arrays. In order to maximize the power generated, the PV arrays must be pointed away from the ideal sun pointing targets to reduce the amount of shadowing. The amount of off-pointing to maximize power is a function of many parameters such as the physical configuration of the ISS structures during the assembly timeframe, the solar beta angle and vehicle attitude. Thus the off-pointing cannot be controlled automatically and must be determined by ground operators. This paper presents an overview of ISS PV array orientation control, PV array power performance under shadowed and off-pointing conditions, and a methodology to maximize power under those same conditions.

  14. Safety system augmentation at Russian Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerbo, J. A.; Satpute, S. N.; Donkin, J. Y.; Reister, R. A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class 1E DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyanie Zprie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER 440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNASZOR (GAN), the Russian Version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union.

  15. Sowing seed, planting trees, producing power

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.

    1997-07-01

    With three crops-to-power projects, the US DOE and US DOA have their biomass power for rural development initiative in high gear. Farmers can produce abundant supplies of fast-growing energy crops on marginal or underutilized acreage to feed power plants. This article summarizes the three projects in Minnesota, Iowa, and New York, and discusses the importance of the necessity for cooperation.

  16. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (18)Islanding Operation of the First Japanese-Made Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Yoshiaki

    Shimane Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 (Shimane-1) of Chugoku Electric known as the first Japanese-made nuclear power plant scrammed automatically before dawn 12th September 1985 due to a power transmission grid trip result from thunderstroke. Until then, Shimane-1 was believed to be able to continue operation regardless of such power transmission grid trouble because the turbine bypass system had sufficient capacity to process total rated steam flow generated in the reactor. This paper describes the concerted efforts to achieving islanding operation of Shimane-1 by plant fabricator Hitachi, CRIEPI and Chugoku Electric with this incident as a start.

  17. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-22

    Project activities were focused on the design and construction the sub-scale hybrid Direct Fuel Cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant and modification of a Capstone Simple Cycle Model 330 microturbine. The power plant design work included preparation of system flow sheet and performing computer simulations based on conservation of mass and energy. The results of the simulation analyses were utilized to prepare data sheets and specifications for balance-of-plant equipment. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) were also completed. The steady state simulation results were used to develop design information for modifying the control functions, and for sizing the heat exchangers required for recuperating the waste heat from the power plant. Line and valve sizes for the interconnecting pipes between the microturbine and the heat recuperators were also identified.

  18. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  19. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K.

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  20. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...