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Sample records for power socio-economic costs

  1. [Power generation and ecology: socio-economic collision].

    PubMed

    Belonogova, M V; Davydov, B I

    1999-01-01

    The authors make analysis of the socio-economic collision between power generation and ecology. Russia enters the world market in the period of global and local ecological ill-being. The following eight dimensions of the problem have been reviewed: uncontrolled growth of population, limited earth resources, life standards and ecological crisis, national/ecological interests and power safety, eco- and power regionalism, religion and ethnoses (demography and energy reserves), eco-sitting of power installations, sanitary guidelines and standards and the reality.

  2. Are socio-economic disparities in diet quality explained by diet cost?

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-06-01

    Socio-economic disparities in nutrition are well documented. This study tested the hypothesis that socio-economic differences in nutrient intakes can be accounted for, in part, by diet cost. A representative sample of 1295 adults in King County (WA) was surveyed in 2008-2009, and usual dietary intakes were assessed based on a food-frequency questionnaire. The monetary value of individual diets was estimated using local retail supermarket prices for 384 foods. Nutrients of concern as identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee were fibre, vitamins A, C and E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. A nutrient density score based on all seven nutrients was another dependent measure. General linear models and linear regressions were used to examine associations among education and income, nutrient density measure and diet cost. Analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. Controlling for energy and other covariates, higher-cost diets were significantly higher in all seven nutrients and in overall nutrient density. Higher education and income were positively and significantly associated with the nutrient density measure, but these effects were greatly attenuated with the inclusion of the cost variable in the model. Socio-economic differences in nutrient intake can be substantially explained by the monetary cost of the diet. The higher cost of more nutritious diets may contribute to socio-economic disparities in health and should be taken into account in the formulation of nutrition and public health policy.

  3. Socio-Economic Status and Enrollment in Higher Education: Do Costs Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have…

  4. Socio-economic costs of osteoarthritis: a systematic review of cost-of-illness studies.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Ruiz Zamora, Alba

    2015-04-01

    The burden of illness that can be attributed to osteoarthritis is considerable and ever increasing. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze currently available data derived from cost-of-illness studies on the healthcare and non-healthcare costs of osteoarthritis. PubMed, Index Medicus Español (IME), and the Spanish Database of Health Sciences [Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)] were searched up to the end of April 2013. This study adhered to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles were reviewed and the study quality assessed by two independent investigators with consensus resolution of discrepancies. We identified 39 studies that investigated the socio-economic cost of osteoarthritis. Only nine studies took a social perspective. Rather than estimating the incremental cost of osteoarthritis, nine studies estimated the total cost of treating patients with osteoarthritis without a control for comorbidity. The other 30 studies determined the incremental cost with or without a control group. Only nine studies assessed a comprehensive list of healthcare resources. The annual incremental healthcare costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €705 to €19,715. The annual incremental non-healthcare-related costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €432 to €11,956. The study concludes that the social cost of osteoarthritis could be between 0.25% and 0.50% of a country׳s GDP. This should be considered in order to foster studies that take into account both healthcare and non-healthcare costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  6. Socio-economic burden of rare diseases: A systematic review of cost of illness evidence.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Aris; Tordrup, David; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-07-01

    Cost-of-illness studies, the systematic quantification of the economic burden of diseases on the individual and on society, help illustrate direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. In the context of the BURQOL-RD project ("Social Economic Burden and Health-Related Quality of Life in patients with Rare Diseases in Europe") we studied the evidence on direct and indirect costs for 10 rare diseases (Cystic Fibrosis [CF], Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy [DMD], Fragile X Syndrome [FXS], Haemophilia, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis [JIA], Mucopolysaccharidosis [MPS], Scleroderma [SCL], Prader-Willi Syndrome [PWS], Histiocytosis [HIS] and Epidermolysis Bullosa [EB]). A systematic literature review of cost of illness studies was conducted using a keyword strategy in combination with the names of the 10 selected rare diseases. Available disease prevalence in Europe was found to range between 1 and 2 per 100,000 population (PWS, a sub-type of Histiocytosis, and EB) up to 42 per 100,000 population (Scleroderma). Overall, cost evidence on rare diseases appears to be very scarce (a total of 77 studies were identified across all diseases), with CF (n=29) and Haemophilia (n=22) being relatively well studied, compared to the other conditions, where very limited cost of illness information was available. In terms of data availability, total lifetime cost figures were found only across four diseases, and total annual costs (including indirect costs) across five diseases. Overall, data availability was found to correlate with the existence of a pharmaceutical treatment and indirect costs tended to account for a significant proportion of total costs. Although methodological variations prevent any detailed comparison between conditions and based on the evidence available, most of the rare diseases examined are associated with significant economic burden, both direct and indirect.

  7. Does the Rising Cost of Tuition Affect the Socio-Economic Status of Students Entering University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Wayne; Shale, Doug

    2004-01-01

    As tuition fees increase, universities need to be concerned whether costs have risen to a point where students from low-income families are being disproportionately excluded. Given the rates of increases in tuition fees in recent times, this outcome seems plausible and is often the opening point of discussions on this matter (see for example, the…

  8. Socio-economic and geographic differentials in costs and payment strategies for primary healthcare services in Southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin

    2005-03-01

    The study explored socio-economic and geographic inequalities that exist in healthcare seeking, expenditures and methods of paying for healthcare. The study was conducted in two communities (one rural and urban) in Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to household heads or their representatives by trained interviewers. A socio-economic status (SES) index, together with urban-rural comparisons was used to examine the inequalities. The expenditures on healthcare and the proportions of respondents that used the different payment strategies were compared across SES quartiles and between the urban and rural areas. There were varying degrees of socio-economic and geographic inequalities in treatment expenditures, providers seen and payment modalities that were used. User fee without reimbursement was the commonest type of payment strategy, followed distantly by instalment payment. The two poorest quartiles were less likely to have used user fee and they mostly used instalment payment in the rural area. Logistic regression analysis showed that location was significantly and positively related to user fee but not to instalment payment. In conclusion, the poorest SES group and rural dwellers are the major sufferers of inequality and this could be mitigated through improved provision of primary healthcare services in rural areas and initiation of exemptions, vouchers and other pro-poor payment strategies for the poorest SES groups.

  9. Diet cost, diet quality and socio-economic position: how are they related and what contributes to differences in diet costs?

    PubMed

    Rydén, Petra J; Hagfors, Linda

    2011-09-01

    To examine diet costs in relation to dietary quality and socio-economic position, and to investigate underlying reasons for differences in diet costs. Dietary intake was assessed by a 4 d food diary and evaluated using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI). National consumer food prices collected by Statistics Sweden and from two online stores/supermarkets were used to estimate diet costs. Sweden. A nationally representative sample of 2160 children aged 4, 8 or 11 years. Higher scores on the HEI resulted in higher diet costs and, conversely, higher diet costs were linked to increased total HEI scores. Children who consumed the most healthy and/or expensive diets ate a more energy-dilute and varied diet compared with those who ate the least healthy and/or least expensive diets. They also consumed more fish, ready meals and fruit. Regression analysis also linked increased food costs to these food groups. There was a positive, but weak, relationship between HEI score and diet cost, parental education and parental occupation respectively. Healthy eating is associated with higher diet cost in Swedish children, in part because of price differences between healthy and less-healthy foods. The cheapest and most unhealthy diets were found among those children whose parents were the least educated and had manual, low-skill occupations. Our results pose several challenges for public health policy makers, as well as for nutrition professionals, when forming dietary strategies and providing advice for macro- and microlevels in society.

  10. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob; Jennum, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system.

  11. The power of light: socio-economic and environmental implications of a rural electrification program in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges da Silveira Bezerra, Paula; Ludovique Callegari, Camila; Ribas, Aline; Lucena, André F. P.; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Koberle, Alexandre; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Universal access to electricity is deemed critical for improving living standards and indispensable for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development. In 2003, the ‘Luz para Todos’ (LpT—Light for All) program was launched aiming to universalize access to electricity in Brazil. The program focused on rural and isolated areas, also targeting to bring development to those regions along with electrification. This paper evaluates the results of the LpT program in improving socio-economic development in the poorest regions of Brazil. After an initial qualitative analysis, an empirical quantitative assessment of the influence of increased electrification rates on the components of the Human Development Index (HDI) is performed. The empirical results of this study showed that electrification had a positive influence on all dimensions of the HDI, with the education component having the strongest effect. Although complementary policies were needed to achieve this, results show that electricity access is a major requirement to improve quality of life.

  12. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  13. Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Shipley, Martin J.; Dundas, Ruth; Macintyre, Sally; Der, Geoff; Mortensen, Laust H.; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this well-documented association. Methods and results Cohort study of 4289 US male former military personnel with data on four widely used markers of socio-economic position (early adulthood and current income, occupational prestige, and education), IQ test scores (early adulthood and middle-age), a range of nine established CVD risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total blood cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, blood glucose, resting heart rate, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s), and later mortality. We used the relative index of inequality (RII) to quantify the relation between each index of socio-economic position and mortality. Fifteen years of mortality surveillance gave rise to 237 deaths (62 from CVD and 175 from ‘other’ causes). In age-adjusted analyses, as expected, each of the four indices of socio-economic position was inversely associated with total, CVD, and ‘other’ causes of mortality, such that elevated rates were evident in the most socio-economically disadvantaged men. When IQ in middle-age was introduced to the age-adjusted model, there was marked attenuation in the RII across the socio-economic predictors for total mortality (average 50% attenuation in RII), CVD (55%), and ‘other’ causes of death (49%). When the nine traditional risk factors were added to the age-adjusted model, the comparable reduction in RII was less marked than that seen after IQ adjustment: all-causes (40%), CVD (40%), and ‘other’ mortality (43%). Adding IQ to the latter model resulted in marked, additional explanatory power for all outcomes in comparison to the age-adjusted analyses: all-causes (63%), CVD (63%), and

  14. An exploration of the socio-economic profile of women and costs of receiving abortion services at public health facilities of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Kumar, Rakesh; Warvadekar, Janardan; Manning, Vinoj; Andersen, Kathryn Louise

    2017-03-21

    Maternal mortality, which primarily burdens developing countries, reflects the greatest health divide between rich and poor. This is especially pronounced for access to safe abortion services which alone avert 1 of every 10 maternal deaths in India. Primarily due to confidentiality concerns, poor women in India prefer private services which are often offered by untrained providers and may be expensive. In 2006 the state government of Madhya Pradesh (population 73 million) began a concerted effort to ensure access to safe abortion services at public health facilities to both rural and urban poor women. This study aims to understand the socio-economic profile of women seeking abortion services in public health facilities across this state and out of pocket cost accessing abortion services. In particular, we examine the level of access that poor women have to safe abortion services in Madhya Pradesh. This study consisted of a cross-sectional client follow-up design. A total of 19 facilities were selected using two-stage random sampling and 1036 women presenting to chosen facilities with abortion and post-abortion complications were interviewed between May and December 2014. A structured data collection tool was developed. A composite wealth index computed using principal component analysis derived weights from consumer durables and asset holding and classified women into three categories, poor, moderate, and rich. Findings highlight that overall 57% of women who received abortion care at public health facilities were poor, followed by 21% moderate and 22% rich. More poor women sought care at primary level facilities (58%) than secondary level facilities and among women presenting for postabortion complications (67%) than induced abortion. Women reported spending no money to access abortion services as abortion services are free of cost at public facilities. However, poor women spend INR 64 (1 USD) while visiting primary level facilities and INR 256 (USD 4) while

  15. [How much does a caesarean section cost in Madagascar? Socio-economical aspects and caesarean sections rate in Toamasina, Madagascar 1999-2001].

    PubMed

    Robitail, S; Gorde, S; Barrau, K; Tremouille, S; Belec, M

    2004-11-01

    The maternal mortality is a major issue of public health in developing countries. Essential obstetric cares, especially caesarean section, play a crucial role in the decrease of maternal mortality. WHO, FNUAP and UNICEF estimate that the minimum acceptable rate of caesarean section in developing countries must reach 5% to guarantee safety for both the new-born and the mother. In Madagascar; the average national rate of caesarean section was 0.6% in 1997. In the area of Toamasina, this rate was 0.7%. To increase the number of women who can access to those essential obstetric cares, several solutions may be followed. One of them is to develop health insurance for pregnant women. This kind of solution seems to be well accepted and equitable. To reach this goal, this study was carried out to define sociodemographic characteristics of women who got caesarean section in Toamasina, to assess the cost of a caesarean section at the CHR (regional hospital) of Toamasina, and to measure the evolution of the caesarean section rate in the area. A retrospective survey was carried out for the years 1999, 2000 and 2001 including all women who got a caesarean section in the area of Toamasina: in the hospital of Toamasina and in the one of Fenerive-Est. Data were collected in both hospitals. 748 women were included in the survey The cost-analysis consisted in a partial medico-economic cost analysis which was measured from the patient's point of view. Sociodemographic characteristics are comparable with the results found in the literature. The mean age of the women involved was 28+/-7 years. The main indications for caesarean section were foeto-pelvic disproportion (37%) and placenta praevia (12%). The maternal mortality rate was 3%. The rate of infantile mortality was 18%. The cover rate of caesarean section in the area of the CHR is estimated respectively at 0.58%, 0.67% and 0.71% for the years 1999, 2000 and 2001. Data collection step was very difficult to carry out. The rates of

  16. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Dietrich, J.; Carroll, C.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  17. Socio-economic factors in obesity: a case of slim chance in a fat world?

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2006-01-01

    The global obesity pandemic has been well-documented and widely discussed by the public, the media, health officials, the food industry and academic researchers. While the problem is widely recognised, the potential solutions are far less clear. There is only limited evidence to guide decisions as to how best to manage obesity in individuals and in populations. While widely viewed as a clinical and public health problem in developed countries, it is now clear that many developing countries also have to grapple with this problem or face the crippling healthcare costs resulting from obesity-related morbidity. There is also abundant evidence that obesity is socio-economically distributed. In developed countries persons of lower socio-economic position are more likely to be affected, while in developing countries, it is often those of higher socio-economic position who are overweight or obese. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence that links socio-economic position and obesity, to discuss what is known about underlying mechanisms, and to consider the role of social, physical, policy and cultural environments in explaining the relationships between socio-economic position and obesity. We introduce the concept of 'resilience' as a potential theoretical construct to guide research efforts aimed at understanding how some socio-economically disadvantaged individuals manage to avoid obesity. We conclude by considering an agenda to guide future research and programs focused on understanding and reducing obesity among those of low socio-economic position.

  18. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  19. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  20. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations

  1. Educational Justice and Socio-Economic Segregation in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists exploring educational injustice often focus on socio-economic segregation as a central measure of injustice. The comprehensive ideal, furthermore, has the idea of socio-economic integration built into it. The current paper argues that socio-economic segregation is valuable only insofar as it serves other, more fundamental values. This…

  2. Using secondary data to analyse socio-economic impacts of water management actions.

    PubMed

    Westling, Emma L; Lerner, David N; Sharp, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the socio-economic impacts of river restoration schemes, and is novel in considering how a wide range of socio-economic variables can be used to understand impacts on the entire resident population within an area. A control-impacted approach was applied to explore differences in socio-economic characteristics of areas within which a restoration scheme had been carried out compared to areas without such a scheme. The results show that significant differences exist between control and impacted areas for a range of socio-economic variables. However, due to constraints in the methods and the data available, there are currently limitations in the extent to which socio-economic impacts of river restoration schemes can be fully explored. Additional datasets that become available in the future may increase the ability to detect associations between improvements in the water environment and socio-economic benefits. However, whilst the secondary data used in this paper are potentially powerful, they should be used alongside other techniques for assessing the impacts of decisions as part of future frameworks to deliver sustainable water management.

  3. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world.

  4. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 3. Socio-economic studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Government of the Somali Democratic Republic (GSDR), with the support of the international donor community, is prepared to launch a comprehensive program for the development of Jubba Valley. The keystone of the program is construction of a dam on the Jubba River near Baardheere. Planners have been looking toward construction of the dam, among other things, to increase agricultural output by fostering irrigation development. The objectives of the Socio-economic Baseline Study (SEBS) report are to: present a body of a new information on socio-economic life in Jubba Valley; assess the impact of development efforts on socio-economic life; recommend measures to enhance beneficial impacts and mitigate adverse ones; and propose a program to monitor the progress of those impacts and interventions.

  5. Socio-economic status, forms of capital and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2012-03-01

    While the relationships among socio-economic status (SES) and obesity are powerful and synergistic, the SES construct is insufficient to describe some of the cultural influences on status production in society, and therefore on obesity production. Socio-economic status has two closely related dimensions. The economic one is represented by financial wealth while the social one can incorporate education, occupational prestige, authority and community standing. These are, however, incomplete explanations for the relationships between societal inequalities and obesity. Cultural factors associated with SES and obesity are examined here by using Bourdieu and Boltanski's theory of practice, which links economic, social and cultural forms of capital (or value) in an overarching category of symbolic capital. These represent categories through which power relationships within society are negotiated. This construct permits a more complete examination of societal stratification and its human biological consequences and amplifiers, since it incorporates the notion of cultural value in different groups of, for example, preferences in body size and shape. The focus is primarily on the USA, although it draws on literature from elsewhere in the industrialized world where appropriate. Differences in obesity rates across major ethnic groups are discussed, because this is an area in which forms of capital differ, and may offer new insights into obesity and factors that predispose to it, as forms of symbolic capital.

  6. Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

  7. Assessing the impact of socio-economic variables on breast cancer treatment outcome disparity.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Min Rex

    2013-01-01

    We studied Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) breast cancer data of Georgia USA to analyze the impact of socio-economic factors on the disparity of breast cancer treatment outcome. This study explored socio-economic, staging and treatment factors that were available in the SEER database for breast cancer from Georgia registry diagnosed in 2004-2009. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was computed for each predictor to measure its discriminatory power. The best biological predictors were selected to be analyzed with socio-economic factors. Survival analysis, Kolmogorov- Smirnov 2-sample tests and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used for univariate and multivariate analyses of time to breast cancer specific survival data. There were 34,671 patients included in this study, 99.3% being females with breast cancer. This study identified race and education attainment of county of residence as predictors of poor outcome. On multivariate analysis, these socio-economic factors remained independently prognostic. Overall, race and education status of the place of residence predicted up to 10% decrease in cause specific survival at 5 years. Socio-economic factors are important determinants of breast cancer outcome and ensuring access to breast cancer treatment may eliminate disparities.

  8. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  9. The Socio-Economic Background of Erasmus Students: A Trend Towards Wider Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Manuel Souto

    2008-01-01

    The article focuses on the financial issues and family background of Erasmus students. It examines the costs of Erasmus study periods in the academic year 2004/05 and the socio-economic background of Erasmus students that year, based on over 15000 survey responses. Results are compared with those of a similar survey undertaken in 1998 to track…

  10. Measuring socio-economic position in dietary research: is choice of socio-economic indicator important?

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian

    2003-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and diet, by assessing the unadjusted and simultaneously adjusted (independent) contributions of education, occupation and household income to food purchasing behaviour. The sample was randomly selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design, and the response rate was 66.4%. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Food purchasing was examined on the basis of three composite indices that reflected a household's choice of grocery items (including meat and chicken), fruit and vegetables. Brisbane City, Australia, 2000. : Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas (Census Collectors Districts). When shopping, respondents in lower socio-economic groups were less likely to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar. Disadvantaged groups purchased fewer types of fresh fruits and vegetables, and less often, than their counterparts from more advantaged backgrounds. When the relationship between SEP and food purchasing was examined using each indicator separately, education and household income made an unadjusted contribution to purchasing behaviour for all three food indices; however, occupation was significantly related only with the purchase of grocery foods. When education and occupation were simultaneously adjusted for each other, the socio-economic patterning with food purchase remained largely unchanged, although the strength of the associations was attenuated. When household income was introduced into the analysis, the association between education, occupation and food purchasing behaviour was diminished or became non-significant; income, however, showed a strong, graded association with food choice. The food purchasing behaviours of socio-economically disadvantaged groups were least in accord with dietary guideline recommendations, and hence are more consistent with greater risk for the development of diet

  11. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  12. Rehabilitation of burn patients: an underestimated socio-economic burden.

    PubMed

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Sander, Jan-Thorben; Weyand, Birgit; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Patients with burns utilise intensive medical care and rehabilitation. Deep dermal burns lead to scar contractures. Virtually no published data exists on costs for treatment of acute burns in comparison to burn sequelae. Our purpose was to collect financial data on burn therapy to estimate the socio-economic burden of thermal injuries. German-DRG for in-patient treatment of burns was collected from our burn center. DRG-related T95.- coding served as a search tool for burn associated sequelae. To include rehabilitation costs, data from the largest health care insurance and a workmen compensation fund were acquired. Acute burn treatment comprised 92% of costs for intensive care with approximately 4.600 EUR per percent total burned surface area (TBSA). Expenses for non-intensive care patients were significantly lower than for burn sequelae. Rehabilitation expenses were 4.4-fold higher than costs for acute burns including 59% for manual therapy and 37% for auxiliary material. TBSA multiplied by factor 4600 could serve for cost calculation of severely burned patients. Approximately 0.3 billion EUR in total or 270.000 EUR per patient/year were spent on burn sequelae. Early admission to specialized burn centers is advocated with state-of-the-art treatment to minimize burn sequelae and health care expenses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Moving forward socio-economically focused models of deforestation.

    PubMed

    Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-01-05

    Whilst high-resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision-making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approximately 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterization of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. Whilst considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterization of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects.

  14. Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2014-12-30

    Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.

  15. Are there associations between socio-economic status and known diabetes in an elderly Finnish population?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, L A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the associations between socio-economic status and type 2 diabetes in a non-institutionalised population aged 70 years or over. Diabetes was assessed on the basis of self-reports and additionally 2-h oral glucose tolerance test for the subjects on diet treatment. Socio-economic status was assessed by questions on marital status, number of residents in household, basic education, self-rated income and economic status. In the population of 379 subjects (141 men), 14% (n = 19) of men and 19% (n = 46) of women had known diabetes. Known diabetes was less common among married compared to unmarried, widowed or divorced subjects. Diabetes was also more common among men with higher compared to lower level of basic education, while a reverse trend was seen among women. Women, who had been engaged in manual labour, had diabetes more often compared to those engaged in administrative work. Diabetes was more common among men who rated their income as good, but the opposite was true of women. Higher income among men and lower income among women were the most powerful variables associated with known diabetes. Known diabetes was more common in elderly women with lower socio-economic status, whereas the opposite was true of men. This finding suggests that the impact of the socio-economic changes that have taken place in Finland in the 20th century on the risk factors for diabetes has been greater among men with higher and women with lower socio-economic status.

  16. The socio-economic burden of snakebite in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Jayamanne, Shaluka F; Dawson, Andrew; Isbister, Geoff K; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka; Lalloo, David G

    2017-07-01

    Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in Sri Lanka. Data from a representative nation-wide community based household survey were used to estimate the number of bites and deaths nationally, and household and out of pocket costs were derived from household questionnaires. Health system costs were obtained from hospital cost accounting systems and estimates of antivenom usage. DALYs lost to snakebite were estimated using standard approaches using disability weights for poisoning. 79% of victims suffered economic loss following a snakebite with a median out of pocket expenditure of $11.82 (IQR 2-28.57) and a median estimated loss of income of $28.57 and $33.21 for those in employment or self-employment, respectively. Family members also lost income to help care for patients. Estimated health system costs for Sri Lanka were $ 10,260,652 annually. The annual estimated total number of DALYS was 11,101 to 15,076 per year for envenoming following snakebite. Snakebite places a considerable economic burden on the households of victims in Sri Lanka, despite a health system which is accessible and free at the point of care. The disability burden is also considerable, similar to that of meningitis or dengue, although the relatively low case fatality rate and limited physical sequelae following bites by Sri Lankan snakes means that this burden may be less than in countries on the African continent.

  17. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). Methods Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007–2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent’s last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. Results Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report ‘very good’ on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level. PMID:22709921

  18. Designing a socio-economic assessment method for integrative biomedical research: the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human project.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Rainer; Stroetmann, Karl A; Stroetmann, Veli N; Viceconti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In integrative biomedical research, methods assessing the clinical or even socio-economic impact of more complex technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based tools for modelling and simulation of human physiology have rarely been applied. The EU funded Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human (VPHOP) research project, part of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) European initiative, will create a patient-specific hypermodel to predict the absolute risk of bone fracture much more accurately than predictions based on current clinical practice. The project has developed an innovative, multilevel generic methodological framework to assess the clinical and socio-economic impact of biocomputational models. The assessment framework consists of three components: a socio-economic cost benefit analysis, health economic analysis of care pathways, and disease cost simulation models. Through its holistic perspective, the method provides a tool to appraise the overall value of biocomputational models for society.

  19. Socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality and antibiotics use: A cross-cultural study among European countries.

    PubMed

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Lajunen, Timo; Gaygısız, Esma

    2017-02-13

    There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed. Governance quality (r=-.51), mean years of schooling (r=-.61), power distance (r=.59), masculinity (r=.53), and neuroticism (r=.73) correlated with antibiotic use. The highest amount of variance in antibiotic use was accounted by the cultural values (65%) followed by socio-economic factors (63%) and personality factors (55%). Results show that socio-economic factors, cultural values and national personality characteristics explain cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe. In particular, governance quality, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and neuroticism were important factors explaining antibiotics use. The findings underline the importance of socio-economic and cultural context in health care and in planning public health interventions.

  20. Socio-economic differentials in birth masculinity in China.

    PubMed

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z; Ren, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between birth masculinity and socio-economic levels in China. Both 2000 and 2005 data suggest the presence of a non-linear relationship between the sex ratio at birth and socio-economic status, with a lower sex ratio at birth observed among both the poorest and the richest households. This inverted-U pattern is significantly different from what is observed in India and what has been assumed previously for China. Multivariate analyses indicate that this pattern persists after the introduction of several other covariates of birth masculinity such as ethnicity, fertility, migration status, age or parity. These results suggest that further economic advances and socio-economic mobility could contribute to the return to normalcy of the sex ratio at birth.

  1. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.

    2016-03-01

    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  2. Socio-economic Aspects of Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2004-10-21

    Fusion power systems, if developed and deployed, would have many attractive features including power production not dependant on weather or solar conditions, flexible siting, and minimal carbon dioxide production. In this paper, we quantify the benefit of these features. In addition, fusion deployment scenarios are developed for the last half of this century and these scenarios are analyzed for resource requirements and waste production.

  3. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population. PMID:28636630

  4. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Samiul; Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.

  5. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops: comparison in different socio-economical frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Rodrigo; Rasheed, Adnan; Peillon, Manuel; Perdigones, Alicia; Sanchez, Raúl; María Tarquis, Ana; García, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Wind power can play an interesting role in irrigation projects in different areas. A simple methodology has been developed in previous papers for technical evaluation of windmills for irrigation water pumping [1]. This methodology can determine the feasibility of the technology and the levels of daily irrigation demand satisfied by windmills at different levels of risk, using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) as greenhouse crop. The present work compared the feasibility of the technology and the critical factors involved in three different countries: Cuba, Spain and Pakistan. The study considered as factors the wind speed level, the energy cost, the tomato prices, the reliability and distance to the electrical grid, and the crop development dates, determining the economic feasibility for each combination of factors in each country. Countries have been selected because of their different socio-economical frameworks, leading to different critical factors. References [1] Peillón, M., Sánchez, R., Tarquis, A.M., García, J.L. The use of wind pumps for greenhouse microirrigation: A case study for tomato in Cuba. Agricultural Water Management, DOI 10.1016/j.agwat.2012.10.024

  6. Socio-economic appraisal of fishing community in Pulicat lagoon, south east coast of India: case study.

    PubMed

    Devi, V Vandhana; Krishnaveni, M

    2012-10-01

    Assessment of socio-economic issues of fishing community is an important aspect in framing a strategy for the preservation of eco-systems which leads to sustainable lagoon management. The present investigation analyses the current potential socio-economic status of the fishing community of Pulicat lagoon, the second largest lagoon in India. The socio-economic indicators considered in the study include demography, economic aspects, social aspects and occupation details. The relevant details were collected from 300 fisher folk family by conducting field survey through a well prepared questionnaire in the villages around Pulicat lagoon. The data analysis was done using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) to assess the adequacy and precision of the collected data. The important and encouraging socio-economic indicators identified from the field survey for effective lagoon management includes significant presence of younger generation in the region; affinity and self-belongingness of fisher folk towards the lake; better economic status and moderate education level; appreciable fishing income and affinity towards fishing profession. It is emphasized to motivate the fisher folk to improve their work attitude for betterment in economic status. The pertinent lagoon issues, comprising seasonal variation, local fishing issues, pollution from industries, water intake to thermal power plant which directly or indirectly affects the socio-economic status of fishing community, also need much emphasis while proposing sustainable lagoon management system. The information and observation from this study will be very helpful in formulating management policies on the conservation of the Pulicat lagoon ecosystem.

  7. Investigating socio-economic inequity in access to and expenditures on routine immunization services in Anambra state.

    PubMed

    Sibeudu, Florence T; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Onwujekwe, Obinna E

    2017-02-01

    Addressing existing inequities in the utilization of priority health services such as routine immunization is a current public health priority. Increasing access to routine immunization from the current low levels amongst all socio-economic status groups in Nigeria is challenging. However, little is known on the level of SES inequity in utilization of routine immunization services and such information which will inform the development of strategies for ensuring equitable provision of routine immunization services in the country. The study was a cross sectional household survey, which was undertaken in two randomly selected communities in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on levels of access to RI by children under-2 years from randomly selected households. In each household, data was collected from the primary care givers or their representative (in their absence). The relationship between access to routine immunization and socio-economic status of households and other key variables was explored in data analysis. Households from high socio-economic status (well-off) groups utilized routine immunization services more than those that belong to low socio-economic status (poor) groups (X(2) = 9.97, p < 0.002). It was found that higher percentage of low socio-economic status households compared to the high socio-economic status households received routine immunization services at public health facilities. Households that belong to low socio-economic status groups had to travel longer distance to get to health facilities consequently incurring some transportation cost. The mean expenditures on service charge for routine immunization services (mostly informal payments) and transportation were US$1.84 and US$1.27 respectively. Logistic regression showed that access to routine immunization was positively related to socio-economic status and negatively related to distant of a household to a

  8. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  9. Socio-economic support for good health in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, T; Vaahtera, M; Ndekha, M; Cullinan, T; Salin, M L; Koivisto, A M; Ashorn, P

    2000-03-01

    To study the socio-economic support for good health among subsistence farmers in rural Malawi. A cross-sectional survey. Lungwena, a rural area with 17,000 inhabitants in southern Malawi. Seven hundred and ninety five pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic at Lungwena Health Centre between June 1995 and September 1996. Interviews about socio-economic conditions. Measurements of cultivated land areas and distances between home and the local health centre. Proportion of households lacking literate adults, adequate water source and sanitation, easy access to modern health care or food security. Only 14% of the interviewed women could read and write and half of the households had no literate members. Every fifth household was lacking both an access to safe drinking water and a proper sanitary facility. The distance to the health centre was more than 5 km among half of the households and only 37% had enough land to grow food for all family members. When other potential means of obtaining food were taken into account, 27% of the households had no food security. Numerous households were lacking more than one socio-economic prerequisites of good health: three or more were missing from a quarter of the families. Socio-economic prerequisites of health were commonly missing in Lungwena. Subsequent health interventions should strengthen the investments into general poverty alleviation.

  10. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates…

  11. Socio-Economic Indexes in Surveys for Comparisons between Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista-Foguet, J. M.; Fortiana, J.; Currie, C.; Villalbi, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    The study of socio-economic inequalities from a cross-national perspective has been hampered by the lack of adequate common indices of socioeconomic status that can be used in a self-report survey instrument. This paper examines the construction and the properties of global social indexes in general, and of the Family Affluence Scale (henceforth…

  12. Socio-Economic Position and Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Tim N.

    2011-01-01

    The proportion of students enrolled at university from the lowest quartile of socio-economic position has remained static at around 15% for at least the past 15 years (DEEWR, "Transforming Australia's higher education system," 2009). This paper argues that the apparent lack of progress towards equity of access has been exacerbated due to…

  13. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates…

  14. Lunar settlements - A socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Factors in the design and development of a lunar settlement (LS) which affect the performance of the crew members are discussed. Topics examined include LS-program time constraints imposed by decisions made in developing and operating the Space Station; changes to make allowance for the long-term requirements of LSs; the design of the physical, technical, and organic LS environment; and the vital role of group dynamics in assuring LS success. It is suggested that many short-term cost-minimization strategies employed in spacecraft development may be inappropriate for LS programs.

  15. Socio-economic Aspects of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Marešová, Petra; Mohelská, Hana; Dolejš, Josef; Kuča, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Social development, better living conditions and medical advances lead to the fact that more people have the opportunity to live longer than in the past. The aging population is a characteristic feature of demographic trends in developed countries. This trend is closely linked with the issue of increasing number of diseases in old age and increasing government expenditure on health and social care. The most frequently mentioned diseases in old age include dementia. The cause may lie in all kinds of diseases, the most common are Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease. Now the care of current 35 million patients with dementia costs over $ 600 billion per year, it is approximately one percent of global Gross Domestic Product. This review discusses the recent issues and questions in the area of social and economic aspects of Alzheimer's disease. It focuses in detail on the national strategies in the approach to Alzheimer's disease, the anticipated problems concerning the insufficient number of social workers and necessary expenses of state budgets in the future. The situation in the area of health insurance companies' expenditures is illustrated in the context of the analysis of long-term care systems, in the chosen countries within the European Union.

  16. [Mossi socio-economic systems and migrations].

    PubMed

    Boutillier, J L; Quesnel, A; Vaugelade, J

    1977-01-01

    The dynamics of migration among the Mossi of Upper Volta are analyzed through an examination of the socioeconomic objectives of population movements in the precolonial period and at present. The article discusses the precolonial and contemporary Mossi socioeconomic systems, the organization of production, the demographic characteristics of current migration and the sources of data regarding it, the influence of receiving areas on the expansion of migration, the effects on Mossi economy and society of migrant savings, the effect of prolonged absence of migrants on Mossi organization of production, and regional determinants of migration. Precolonial Mossi society differed from the common view of traditional African societies in several respects: the most common unit of production was a polygamous conjugal family, the political system was complex and hierarchical, and a form of money was used. Contemporary Mossi society continues to be governed largely according to norms inherited from the ancestors. 2 types of factors, socioeconomic status and possibilities of accession to land, appear to condition emigration and such of its features as age, duration, and whether or not the spouse accompanies the migrant. Demographic data on migration in Upper Volta was acquired in a 1973 follow-up study of residents interviewed in a 1960-61 sample survey which covered about 49% of the national population. The development of a capitalist agrarian system in the coastal countries of Ghana and the Ivory Coast has been associated with an increased flow of migration from Upper Volta and a modification of the nature of migratory movement. Because so many young men are absent abroad, more and more of the agricultural work is undertaken by the very old or the very young, and the power of the elders is consequently declining. Development efforts in Upper Volta are influenced, often unfavorably, by the type of development process occurring in the neighboring countries.

  17. The Clinical and Socio-Economic Relevance of Increased IPMN Detection Rates and Management Choices.

    PubMed

    Budde, Christoph; Beyer, Georg; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Increased usage of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has led to a large increase in identified pancreatic cysts of up to 25% in population-based studies. The clinical and economic relevance of identifying so many cystic lesions has not been established. Compared to other organs such as liver or kidney, dysontogenetic pancreatic cysts are rare. Pancreatic cysts comprise a variety of benign, premalignant or malignant lesions; however, precise diagnosis before resection has an accuracy of only 80%. The focus of recent research was the malignant potential of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) with the aim of establishing clinical pathways addressing risk of malignancy, age and comorbidity, treatment-related morbidity and mortality as well as cost-effectiveness of treatment and surveillance. The focus of this review is to analyze the clinical and socio-economic relevance as well as the cost-benefit relation for IPMNs. For analysis, the following MESH terms were used to identify original articles, reviews, and guidelines in PubMed: ('intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm' OR 'pancreatic cysts') and (incidence OR relevance OR socio-economic OR economic OR cost-effectiveness OR cost-benefit). The retrieved publications were reviewed with a focus on clinical and socio-economic relevance in relation to the increasing incidence of IPMN. Addressing the increasing prevalence of pancreatic cystic lesions, recent consensus guidelines suggested criteria for risk stratification according to 'worrisome features' and 'high-risk stigmata'. Recent prospective cohort studies evaluated whether these can be applied in clinical practice. Evaluation of three different clinical scenarios with regard to costs and quality-adjusted life years suggested a better effectiveness of surveillance after initial risk stratification by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with cyst fluid analysis compared with immediate resection or follow-up without

  18. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.

  19. Measuring socio-economic data in tuberculosis prevalence surveys.

    PubMed

    van Leth, F; Guilatco, R S; Hossain, S; Van't Hoog, A H; Hoa, N B; van der Werf, M J; Lönnroth, K

    2011-06-01

    Addressing social determinants in the field of tuberculosis (TB) has received great attention in the past years, mainly due to the fact that worldwide TB incidence has not declined as much as expected, despite highly curative control strategies. One of the objectives of the World Health Organization Global Task Force on TB Impact Measurement is to assess the prevalence of TB disease in 22 high-burden countries by active screening of a random sample of the general population. These surveys provide a unique opportunity to assess socio-economic determinants in relation to prevalent TB and its risk factors. This article describes methods of measuring the socio-economic position in the context of a TB prevalence survey. An indirect measurement using an assets score is the most feasible way of doing this. Several examples are given from recently conducted prevalence surveys of the use of an assets score, its construction, and the analyses of the obtained data.

  20. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  1. Socio-economic inequality: Relationship between Gini and Kolkata indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Ghosh, Asim; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2017-01-01

    Socio-economic inequality is characterized from data using various indices. The Gini (g) index, giving the overall inequality is the most common one, while the recently introduced Kolkata (k) index gives a measure of 1 - k fraction of population who possess top k fraction of wealth in the society. Here, we show the relationship between the two indices, using both empirical data and analytical estimates. The significance of their relationship has been discussed.

  2. Neighbourhood social and socio-economic composition and injury risks.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Anne; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-10-01

    To investigate whether social and socio-economic characteristics of the population within a parish influence childhood injury. The study encompasses all children aged 0-15 y living in Stockholm County over the 3-y period 1999-2001 (about 360,000 children per year), grouped into parish of residence (138 parishes). The effect of parish attributes on injury rate were analysed based on three indices (deprivation, socio-economic status and social integration) derived by a factor analysis of 11 characteristics of the parishes' population, each index being split into three levels. Childhood injury resulting in at least one night of hospitalization during the period 1999-2001 was considered (n = 5540) by index, and rate ratios were calculated for 12 injury causes using parishes forming the best level of the index as the reference group. Higher levels of deprivation negatively influenced pedestrian injury rates, had a protective effect on other traffic-related injuries, and negatively affected some other types of unintentional injuries. Higher concentrations of people with low socio-economic status did not impact on the risk of traffic and fall injuries, but increased that of burns/scalds and cases of poisoning. Parishes with lower levels of social integration had significantly higher rates of bicycle- and moped-related injuries, and also of self-inflicted ones. Compositional characteristics of the population in a residential area affect injury to varying degrees and direction according to type of injury. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be specific to injury type.

  3. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  4. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  5. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  6. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government are...

  7. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government are...

  8. Solar thermal electric power plants - Their performance characteristics and total social costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1976-01-01

    The central receiver (power tower) concept as a thermal conversion approach to the conversion of solar energy into electricity is compared to other solar power plant designs which feature distributed solar collection and use other types of solar collector configurations. A variety of solar thermal storage concepts are discussed and their impacts on system performance are assessed. Although a good deal of quantification is possible in a comparative study, the subjective judgments carry enormous weight in a socio-economic decision, the ultimate choice of central power plant being more a social than an economic or technical decision. Major elements of the total social cost of each type of central plant are identified as utility economic costs, R&D funds, health costs, and other relevant social impacts.

  9. Solar thermal electric power plants - Their performance characteristics and total social costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1976-01-01

    The central receiver (power tower) concept as a thermal conversion approach to the conversion of solar energy into electricity is compared to other solar power plant designs which feature distributed solar collection and use other types of solar collector configurations. A variety of solar thermal storage concepts are discussed and their impacts on system performance are assessed. Although a good deal of quantification is possible in a comparative study, the subjective judgments carry enormous weight in a socio-economic decision, the ultimate choice of central power plant being more a social than an economic or technical decision. Major elements of the total social cost of each type of central plant are identified as utility economic costs, R&D funds, health costs, and other relevant social impacts.

  10. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  11. Health Economic Data in Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies: Importance of the Socio-Economic Burden as a Decision-Making Criterion.

    PubMed

    Iskrov, Georgi; Dermendzhiev, Svetlan; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation. New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies.

  12. Health Economic Data in Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies: Importance of the Socio-Economic Burden as a Decision-Making Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Iskrov, Georgi; Dermendzhiev, Svetlan; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. Objective: This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. Results/Conclusions: Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation. New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies. PMID:27582707

  13. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.

    PubMed

    Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

    2015-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management.

  14. Socio-economic differences in takeaway food consumption among adults.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2012-02-01

    To examine socio-economic differences in the frequency and types of takeaway foods consumed. A cross-sectional postal survey. Participants were asked about their usual consumption of overall takeaway food (<4 times/month or ≥4 times/month) and of twenty-two specific takeaway food items (<1 time/month or ≥1 time/month); these latter foods were grouped into 'healthy' and 'less healthy' choices. Socio-economic position was measured on the basis of educational level and equivalised household income, and differences in takeaway food consumption were assessed by calculating prevalence ratios using log binomial regression. Adults aged 25-64 years from Brisbane, Australia, were randomly selected from the electoral roll (n 903; 63·7 % response rate). Compared with their more educated counterparts, the least educated were more regular consumers of overall takeaway food and fruit or vegetable juice and less regular consumers of sushi. For the 'less healthy' items, the least educated more regularly consumed potato chips, savoury pies, fried chicken and non-diet soft drinks; however, the least educated were less likely to consume curry. Household income was not associated with overall takeaway consumption. The lowest-income group was a more regular consumer of fruit or vegetable juice compared with the highest-income group. Among the 'less healthy' items, the lowest-income group was a more regular consumer of fried fish, ice cream and milk shakes, whereas curry was consumed less regularly. The frequency and types of takeaway foods consumed by socio-economically disadvantaged groups may contribute to inequalities in overweight or obesity and to chronic disease.

  15. Socio-economic predictors of mortality among diabetic people.

    PubMed

    Forssas, Erja; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Arffman, Martti; Keskimäki, Ilmo

    2012-06-01

    The present study examines the role of six aspects of socio-economic status (income, occupational position, education, unemployment, living alone and type of residential area) in mortality among types 1 and 2 diabetic people in Finland. All-cause mortality and causes of deaths (for example, alcohol diseases) are assessed. People with diabetes aged 30-79 years in 2000-03 were identified from national registers. The data comprised 528 734 person-years and 18 841 deaths. Relative mortality risks were obtained from Poisson regression models. Among type 1 diabetic men, mortality differences were largest for long-term unemployed (aged 30-64 years); RR 3.85 (3.00-4.94) compared with the employed, and for low (vs. high) income group; RR 1.96 (1.78-2.17). The findings were similar for type 2 men; RR 2.58 (2.16-3.09) for unemployment and 1.61 (1.53-1.69) for income. In type 1 diabetic women, largest differences were found according to unemployment; RR 3.32 (1.88-5.88) and education (lowest vs. highest education); RR 2.35 (1.84-3.00), but in type 2 diabetes, the strongest determinants were disposable income; RR 1.55 (1.44-1.66) and education; RR 1.50 (1.33-1.70). In most socio-economic determinants, relative differences were largest in deaths due to diabetes and alcohol diseases. Five aspects of socio-economic position were related to mortality among diabetic people in Finland. No systematic mortality differences were, however, found for type of municipality of residence. These findings together with the role of deaths from alcohol diseases and diabetes in mortality trends, indicate that different aspects of social disadvantage are important predictors of mortality among diabetic people.

  16. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ladipo, Modupe M.; Irabor, Achiaka E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse. Aim and setting The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index. Results The somatising patients were mostly females (70%), with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family) was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04). Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039). Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042) and more conflicts (p = 0.019) in their interpersonal relationship. Conclusion This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients. PMID:26245602

  17. Costing the satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for satellite power system costing, places approximate limits on the accuracy possible in cost estimates made at this time, and outlines the use of probabilistic cost information in support of the decision-making process. Reasons for using probabilistic costing or risk analysis procedures instead of standard deterministic costing procedures are considered. Components of cost, costing estimating relationships, grass roots costing, and risk analysis are discussed. Risk analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation model is used to estimate future costs.

  18. Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diogo; Velho, Roberto M; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2014-11-13

    In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments, which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems.

  19. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A

    2014-11-13

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.

  20. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. PMID:25288814

  1. Socio-economic transition, inequality, and mortality in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kalediene, Ramune; Petrauskiene, Jadvyga

    2004-03-01

    The study assessed inequalities in mortality of Lithuanian urban and rural populations throughout the period of socio-economic transition (1990-2000). Mortality from major causes of death, except cancers in females, was higher among the rural population. Inequality in mortality increased during the period of transition, especially among males, mainly due to more rapidly improving health of the urban population. Cardiovascular diseases and external causes made the largest contribution to the inequality. Differences in mortality of urban and rural populations point to greater social and psychological stress affecting the rural population, unhealthy life styles, inequities in accessibility of health care and lack of preventive programs in rural areas.

  2. Socio-economic aspects of areca nut use.

    PubMed

    Croucher, R; Islam, S

    2002-01-01

    The socio-economic aspects of areca nut consumption have been overlooked. A narrative review was conducted to establish some of these features of areca nut consumption. Medline, Pubmed and the World Wide Web were searched using the terms: areca nut, betel nut, areca catechu and pan masala. Further analysis was conducted of datasets describing aspects of United Kingdom areca nut sales and consumption. South Asian economies at different stages of development have varying areca nut cultivation practices, employment opportunities and marketing strategies. Attempts at regulation of areca nut import and sales are described. Retail practice among the South Asian communities of the United Kingdom was found to reflect the diverse consumer practices current in their countries of origin. A study of areca nut consumption patterns and motivations among Bangladeshi women resident in East London identified differences between those chewing areca nut in paan with and without tobacco. Further research into the socio-economic aspects of areca nut consumption is needed which should be multidisciplinary in focus, of sound scientific quality and incorporating the opinions of consumers.

  3. Socio-economic characteristics and personal attitudes of patients attending a French prosthodontic teaching clinic.

    PubMed

    Fromentin, O; Boy-Lefèvre, M L

    2000-11-01

    The aims of the study were to define the socio-economic characteristics of patients attending a Teaching Hospital Prosthetics Department and to determine the attitudes and aspirations of such patients. The study was performed on 162 patients who requested prosthetic treatment in a French university dental hospital department. They were asked to complete a questionnaire at the beginning of their treatment. The questionnaire was composed of 2 parts, covering respectively: firstly, social, economic, and demographic data concerning the patients, the source of referral and the primary motivation for their decision to request treatment, and secondly comments concerning their prosthetic treatment. The results show the socio-professional and socio-economic diversity of this population. In most cases, the patients were recommended to the university hospital service by their relatives or friends. Among the criteria proposed, they indicate that cost and quality of treatment were their major motivation. Analysis of the patients' comments identifies some factors responsible for the lack of efficiency associated with care and dental education.

  4. Mobile phone call data as a regional socio-economic proxy indicator.

    PubMed

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's.

  5. Mobile Phone Call Data as a Regional Socio-Economic Proxy Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's. PMID:25897957

  6. Socio-economic inequity in HIV testing in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Wook; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a significant contributor to Malawi's burden of disease. Despite a number of studies describing socio-economic differences in HIV prevalence, there is a paucity of evidence on socio-economic inequity in HIV testing in Malawi. Objective To assess horizontal inequity (HI) in HIV testing in Malawi. Design Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) 2004 and 2010 in Malawi are used for the analysis. The sample size for DHS 2004 was 14,571 (women =11,362 and men=3,209), and for DHS 2010 it was 29,830 (women=22,716 and men=7,114). The concentration index is used to quantify the amount of socio-economic-related inequality in HIV testing. The inequality is a primary method in this study. Corrected need, a further adjustment of the standard decomposition index, was calculated. Standard HI was compared with corrected need-adjusted inequity. Variables used to measure health need include symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Non-need variables include wealth, education, literacy and marital status. Results Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of the population ever tested for HIV increased from 15 to 75% among women and from 16 to 54% among men. The need for HIV testing among men was concentrated among the relatively wealthy in 2004, but the need was more equitably distributed in 2010. Standard HI was 0.152 in 2004 and 0.008 in 2010 among women, and 0.186 in 2004 and 0.04 in 2010 among men. Rural–urban inequity also fell in this period, but HIV testing remained pro-rich among rural men (HI 0.041). The main social contributors to inequity in HIV testing were wealth in 2004 and education in 2010. Conclusions Inequity in HIV testing in Malawi decreased between 2004 and 2010. This may be due to the increased support to HIV testing by global donors over this period. PMID:27790970

  7. Declining inequality? The changing impact of socio-economic background and ability on education in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marks, Gary

    2003-12-01

    The paper addresses several debates surrounding the reproduction of socio-economic inequality: (i) the persistent inequality thesis, which maintains that despite the increases in educational participation socio-economic inequalities in education have not declined; (ii) the related thesis of maximally maintained inequality, which proposes that socio-economic inequalities decline only when participation levels for the most privileged socio-economic group approach saturation levels; (iii) the meritocracy debate on the importance of ability vis-à-vis socio-economic background and changes in its influence over time; and (iv) the effect of policy changes on socio-economic inequalities in education. These issues are addressed using data from six Australian youth cohorts born between 1961 and the mid-1980s.

  8. Socio-economic characteristics of transit riders: some recent evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Pucher, J.; Hendrickson, C.; McNeil, S.

    1981-07-01

    Socio-economic data on transit riders representing a survey of 18,000 randomly-selected households confirms that the poor, elderly, minorities, and women are relativley dependent on mass transit and account for a significant share of the ridership. Statistics summarizing the income distribution by travel mode, travel purpose, trip length, mode and time of day, and ethnic/racial background are presented in tables. Other tables compare trip distance and mode by race, sex, and age group. The data reveal that the service provided for disadvantaged groups is often the least subsidized, raising questions of equity. If carefully targeted direct-to-user subsidies were directed at groups with the least mobility, they would be more effective than general transit subsidies. 17 references, 8 tables. (DCK)

  9. Socio-Economic Resilience to Floods in 90 Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.; Bangalore, M.; Vogt-Schilb, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global losses from floods are increasing, with renewed calls for action to reduce their impact. In each country, region or city, many actions can protect the population and help rebuild and recover: building dikes and restoring mangroves; land-use planning; early warning and evacuation; insurance and social safety nets. What should be the priorities? How to build a comprehensive strategy? Is progress being made? We propose a tool - a national-level scorecard based on welfare economics - to assess a country's socio-economic resilience to river floods and identify the most promising policy options in different contexts to reduce the impact of floods on well-being. The tool is applied to 90 countries using open databases, and can serve as a starting point for designing policies and more in-depth local studies.

  10. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  11. Socio-economic disparities in Australian adolescents' eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Crawford, David; Baur, Louise A; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    To assess the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and poor eating behaviours in a large representative sample of Australian secondary-school students. Cross-sectional survey of students' vegetable, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption assessed using validated instruments and collected via a web-based self-report format. Secondary schools across all Australian states and territories. Secondary-school students (n 12 188; response rate: 54 %) aged 12-17 years participating in the 2009-10 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey. Overall, 25 % of students reported consuming ≤1 serving of vegetables/d and 29 % reported eating ≤1 serving of fruit/d. Fourteen per cent of students reported drinking at least 1-2 cups of sugar-sweetened beverages/d while 9 % reported eating fast food ≥3 times/week. After adjusting for other demographic factors, students of lower-SEP areas were more likely to report low intake of vegetables (F(4, 231) = 3·61, P = 0·007) and high frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (F(4, 231) = 8·41, P < 0·001) and fast food (F(4, 231) = 4·59, P = 0·001) compared with students of high-SEP neighbourhoods. A positive SEP association was found for fruit consumption among female students only (F(4, 231) = 4·20, P = 0·003). Those from lower-SEP areas were also more likely to engage in multiple poor eating behaviours (F(4, 231)=5·80, P < 0·001). Results suggest that socio-economic disparities in Australian adolescents' eating behaviours do exist, with students residing in lower-SEP neighbourhoods faring less well than those from high-SEP neighbourhoods. Reducing social inequalities in eating behaviours among young people should be a key consideration of future preventive strategies.

  12. Socio-economic position and height in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin

    2002-10-01

    To examine the relationship between socio-economic position and height in early adulthood. A representative probability sample of Australian households (part of the 1995 National Health Survey). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Socio-economic position was measured using occupation and family income. Participants comprised 9,577 Australian-born males and females aged 20-24 (n = 3,186), 25-29 (n = 3,184), and 30-34 (n = 3,207). Height was self-reported and operationalised in terms of mean height and 'short' stature (defined as 1 SD below mean height for each sex-age subgroup). Graded, positive associations were found between occupation, family income, and height for males and females in each age cohort. Among males, mean height differences between blue-collar employees and professionals were 1.1 cm to 1.5 cm (depending on age-cohort), and for females, 1.6 cm to 2.1 cm. The corresponding height differences for males and females living in the least and most affluent families were 1.6 cm to 2.3 cm, and 1.0 cm to 2.5 cm, respectively. Persons in blue-collar jobs and those in low-income families were more likely to be classified as 'short'. Estimates of mortality risk associated with short stature suggest that these height differences translate to about a 2-5% increased risk of death for the most disadvantaged groups. Given that socioeconomic height differences in adulthood have their genesis in the formative stages of biological and social development, public health intervention efforts need to focus on early life exposures and environments. The greatest reduction in height inequalities, and by extension health inequalities, is likely to flow from macro-level public policies to alleviate poverty and minimise the social and economic divide.

  13. PV concentrator array power costs

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaic concentrator array installed costs per adjusted peak watt (W/sub ap/) have been developed for three leading tracking structure designs using current and expected concentrator module performance. Total installed costs are presented for the arrays for 10/sup 5/m/sup 2//y production and 500 kW/sub p/ field sizes. Array field annual performance and power costs are developed as a function of array spacing using the results of a detailed computer performance code which includes the effects of array shading, series/parallel wiring, bypass diode, maximum power tracking, and PCU voltage limitations. Results indicate installed costs of the three arrays are within 10% of each other. Installed power costs are relatively insensitive to array spacing and are approximately $4/W/sub ap/ with current technology and can be expected to drop to $3 to $3.50/W/sub ap/ with array cost reductions and cell efficiency improvements.

  14. The relationship between body structure and the socio-economic status in Hungarian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2014-06-01

    Among the numerous factors that influence the pattern of children's growth and development there are factors of the changeable socio-economic environment. The inequalities among the socio-economic strata in the Hungarian society have increased during last decades. The main objective of the study was to examine the body structure of children and adolescents living in different socio-economic backgrounds. The subjects of the present paper (9479 boys, 9304 girls) were examined in the 2nd Hungarian National Growth Study 2003-2006. Body structure was assessed by some absolute body dimensions, BMI, body composition and body shape indices. Children were grouped into relatively good, average and poor socio-economic subgroups by considering the education and occupation of the parents as well as the number of children in the family. Significant differences were found in the body structure of children varying in the socio-economic background: the better the socio-economic conditions the higher stature in both genders, while the lower relative fatness was found only in pubertal girls. The prevalence of unhealthy nutritional statuses (both underweight and overweight/ obese) was significantly lower in children living in better socio-economic conditions in both genders. Differences that were found in the body structure of children living in different socio-economic backgrounds emphasize the importance of using reference growth values layered also to socio-economic strata for screening nutritional status in childhood and adolescence.

  15. [Assessment of the influence of socio-economic factors on health and demographic indices].

    PubMed

    Chubirko, M I; Pichuzhkina, N M; Masaĭlova, L A; Lastochkina, G V

    2012-01-01

    THE THEME: assessment of the influence of socio-economic factors on health and demographic indicators. population of municipalities of the Voronezh region. the justification of the system of measures aimed at stabilizing the medical-demographic situation at the regional level. methods of Health Statistics; questionnaire. the low socio-economic status of the population is set in the territories, depressed at the level of demographic development. The contribution of socio-economic indicators in health and demographic situation has been determined Reliable cause-effect relationships between health and demographic indicators and the level of socio-economic development of the population have been identified.

  16. The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: A new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; O'Neill, Brian; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Lempert, Rob; Moss, Richard H.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    A new set of socioeconomic scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) are described that provide a set of global narratives and socio-economic pathways to pair with climate model scenarios developed using the new Representative Concentration Pathways.

  17. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  18. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  19. Food loss reduction from an environmental, socio-economic and consumer perspective - The case of the Swiss potato market.

    PubMed

    Willersinn, Christian; Mouron, Patrik; Mack, Gabriele; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Potatoes are one of the commodities with the highest loss shares along the entire supply chain. In the present study, we analyzed six potential loss reduction scenarios concerning their environmental-socio-economic sustainability compared with the current situation by using the "SustainOS" methodology. For this purpose, life cycle assessments, full-cost calculations and an online consumer survey were conducted. Environmental improvements through loss reduction were rather small and did not cross limits of significance, but the socio-economic performance of the entire supply chain can be improved considerably. Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to predict the influence of specific subjective items like the intention to avoid food loss, knowledge related to food loss and consumers' price sensitivity on the assigned preference. Results show that perceived risks, perceived inconvenience and the general acceptance of loss-reducing instruments influence consumers' preferences. Altogether, only three out of six tested scenarios seem realistic: selling unwashed potatoes in a lightproof box, selling unpacked potatoes, and improved quality sorting at farms. For two of the other scenarios, consumers significantly indicated their refusal even if losses decreased considerably, whereas the sixth scenario was unfavorable from a socio-economic perspective.

  20. Health-Seeking Behaviour of Port Harcourt City Residents: A Comparison between the Upper and Lower Socio-Economic Classes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing the determinants and distribution of the health-seeking behaviours of Port Harcourt residents, and comparing them between the upper and lower socio-economic classes. A descriptive cross-sectional study using 204 respondents was carried out. The socio-economic classification used occupation and average monthly income. Multi-staged sampling technique was used; stage one being by stratified sampling using socio-economic classes for stratification; stage two involved clustered sampling; following which five-sectioned structured questionnaires were administered. Differences (P<0.05) in Health facility used existed: the upper class used mostly Government and Private Hospitals; the lower class additionally used health centres and un-orthodox health facilities. Reasons for using a health facility was similar (P>0.05) as both classes mostly go for treatment or medical check-ups. Health facility preference was mostly for good treatment outcome and accessibility; cost also, for the lower class. Commonly and last used health-care giver differed (P<0.05); upper class mostly saw a doctor, the lower saw the doctor, pharmacist and nurse. Competence; the major reason for health-care giver selection by the upper class differed (P<0.05) from the lower that had previous good treatment outcome and illness severity. The upper socioeconomic classed have better health-seeking behaviours because they use more competent Health facilities and health-care givers. PMID:28299098

  1. Health-Seeking Behaviour of Port Harcourt City Residents: A Comparison between the Upper and Lower Socio-Economic Classes.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Promise Tamunoipiriala

    2013-06-25

    This study aimed at establishing the determinants and distribution of the health-seeking behaviours of Port Harcourt residents, and comparing them between the upper and lower socio-economic classes. A descriptive cross-sectional study using 204 respondents was carried out. The socio-economic classification used occupation and average monthly income. Multi-staged sampling technique was used; stage one being by stratified sampling using socio-economic classes for stratification; stage two involved clustered sampling; following which five-sectioned structured questionnaires were administered. Differences (P<0.05) in Health facility used existed: the upper class used mostly Government and Private Hospitals; the lower class additionally used health centres and un-orthodox health facilities. Reasons for using a health facility was similar (P>0.05) as both classes mostly go for treatment or medical check-ups. Health facility preference was mostly for good treatment outcome and accessibility; cost also, for the lower class. Commonly and last used health-care giver differed (P<0.05); upper class mostly saw a doctor, the lower saw the doctor, pharmacist and nurse. Competence; the major reason for health-care giver selection by the upper class differed (P<0.05) from the lower that had previous good treatment outcome and illness severity. The upper socioeconomic classed have better health-seeking behaviours because they use more competent Health facilities and health-care givers.

  2. Socio-Economic Gradients in Maternal and Child Health-Seeking Behaviours in Egypt: Systematic Literature Review and Evidence Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Ploubidis, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-seeking behaviour lies on the direct pathway between socio-economic position (SEP) and health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesise evidence of socio-economic gradients in health-seeking behaviours related to maternal and child health in Egypt. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) were searched in September 2013 for material published in English from 1992 to 2013 for a combination of terms describing health-seeking behaviours, indicators of socio-economic position and geographical limitation to Egypt. Findings of studies were described and synthesised in a narrative format as meta-analysis was not possible. Findings Among the 786 references identified, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined maternal and five studies child health-seeking behaviours (one study examined both). For maternal health, three dimensions of health-seeking behaviour (receipt of any care, type of care and intensity of care) were covered by studies of ante-natal and one dimension (type of care) by analyses of delivery care. For child health, two dimensions of preventive care (coverage of and intensity of immunisation) and three dimensions of curative care (receipt of any care, type and cost of care) were analysed. Conclusions Based on two studies of time trends in nationally-representative surveys, socio-economic inequalities in seeking care for basic preventive and curative interventions in maternal and child health appear to have narrowed. Limited evidence of gradients in intensity of maternal preventive and provider selection in child curative care showed that inequalities may have widened. In studies of more geographically and socially homogeneous samples, fewer gradients were identified. Current body of evidence contains numerous limitations and gaps and is insufficient to draw a conclusive summary of such gradients. Improved understanding of SEP gradients is crucial in

  3. A globalization-oriented perspective on health, inequality and socio-economic development.

    PubMed

    Tausch, Arno

    2012-01-01

    There has been an attention to inequality as a causal factor for deficient health in the medical journals over the last decades (Richard G. Wilkinson et al. and Schnell et al.); however, the reasons for inequality and the interactions of the underlying causes of inequality at the level of the world economy have not yet been properly explored in this kind of literature. The aim of this article is to provide a new, globalization-oriented, multi-disciplinary perspective on life expectancy, under-five mortality, inequality and socio-economic development in the world system, compatible with the advances in international sociological research on the subject over the last three decades. Taking up the traditions of quantitative sociology to study the effects of multinational corporation (MNC) penetration as a key determining variable for development outcomes such as socio-economic inequality and infant mortality, this article analyzes from the perspective of quantitative political science and economics this particular role of MNC penetration as the key variable for the determination of health, inequality and socio-economic development in 183 countries of the world system, using international social science standard data. As correctly predicted by quantitative sociology, but largely overlooked by the medical profession, the development style, implied by a high MNC penetration of their host countries, reflects the oligopolistic power, which transnational corporations wield over local economies. We took up an idea from Austro-American economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950), which states that the long-term effects of oligopolistic power are negative and lead toward economic and social stagnation. Our data show that although MNC penetration indeed led to certain short-term growth effects after 1990, today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC penetration. There is a negative trade-off between MNC

  4. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  5. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  6. Socio-economic characteristics, living conditions and diet quality are associated with food insecurity in France.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Vieux, Florent; Lioret, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Carine; Caillavet, France; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) in France and to describe its associations with socio-economic factors, health behaviours, diet quality and cost (estimated using mean food prices). Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. FI was assessed using an adapted version of the US Department of Agriculture's Food Insufficiency Indicator; dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d open-ended food record; and individual demographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Individuals experiencing FI were compared with food-secure individuals, the latter being divided into four categories according to quartiles of their income per consumption unit (FS1 to FS4). Differences among categories were analysed using χ² tests, ANOVA and tests for trend. Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007. Adults aged 18-79 years (n 2624). Individuals experiencing FI represented 12·2% of the population. They were on average younger, more frequently women and single parents with children compared with those in the other four categories. Their mean income per consumption unit was higher than that in the FS1 category, but they reported poorer material and housing conditions. The prevalence of smoking and the mean daily time spent watching television were also higher in the FI category. No significant difference among categories was found for energy intake, but mean intakes of fruits, vegetables and fish were lower, and diet quality was slightly but significantly poorer in the FI category. Daily diet cost was also lower in the FI category. France is not spared by FI. FI should be routinely monitored at the national level and research should be promoted to identify effective strategies to reduce nutrition inequalities in France.

  7. The Importance of Socio-Economic Versus Environmental Risk Factors for Reported Dengue Cases in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wijayanti, Siwi P M; Porphyre, Thibaud; Chase-Topping, Margo; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is a major mosquito-borne viral disease and an important public health problem. Identifying which factors are important determinants in the risk of dengue infection is critical in supporting and guiding preventive measures. In South-East Asia, half of all reported fatal infections are recorded in Indonesia, yet little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in this country. Hospital-reported dengue cases in Banyumas regency, Central Java were examined to build Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models assessing the influence of climatic, demographic and socio-economic factors on the risk of dengue infection. A socio-economic factor linking employment type and economic status was the most influential on the risk of dengue infection in the Regency. Other factors such as access to healthcare facilities and night-time temperature were also found to be associated with higher risk of reported dengue infection but had limited explanatory power. Our data suggest that dengue infections are triggered by indoor transmission events linked to socio-economic factors (employment type, economic status). Preventive measures in this area should therefore target also specific environments such as schools and work areas to attempt and reduce dengue burden in this community. Although our analysis did not account for factors such as variations in immunity which need further investigation, this study can advise preventive measures in areas with similar patterns of reported dengue cases and environment.

  8. The Importance of Socio-Economic Versus Environmental Risk Factors for Reported Dengue Cases in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Chase-Topping, Margo; Rainey, Stephanie M.; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major mosquito-borne viral disease and an important public health problem. Identifying which factors are important determinants in the risk of dengue infection is critical in supporting and guiding preventive measures. In South-East Asia, half of all reported fatal infections are recorded in Indonesia, yet little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in this country. Methodology/Principal findings Hospital-reported dengue cases in Banyumas regency, Central Java were examined to build Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models assessing the influence of climatic, demographic and socio-economic factors on the risk of dengue infection. A socio-economic factor linking employment type and economic status was the most influential on the risk of dengue infection in the Regency. Other factors such as access to healthcare facilities and night-time temperature were also found to be associated with higher risk of reported dengue infection but had limited explanatory power. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that dengue infections are triggered by indoor transmission events linked to socio-economic factors (employment type, economic status). Preventive measures in this area should therefore target also specific environments such as schools and work areas to attempt and reduce dengue burden in this community. Although our analysis did not account for factors such as variations in immunity which need further investigation, this study can advise preventive measures in areas with similar patterns of reported dengue cases and environment. PMID:27603137

  9. The political mobilization of corporate directors: socio-economic correlates of affiliation to European pressure groups.

    PubMed

    Bond, Matthew; Glouharova, Siana; Harrigan, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Business has played a central role in the debate over Britain's place in the European Union. This paper examines the socio-economic characteristics of directors of Britain's largest corporations who affiliated either to Business for Sterling or Britain in Europe. It reports associations between directors' social backgrounds and their probabilities of affiliation. Elite university education, club membership, wealth and multiple directorships were all associated with higher propensities to affiliate. The associations are consistent with the idea that directors' social resources allow them to overcome collective action problems as well as supplying them with the motivations to affiliate. They also indicated that directors form a privileged group in that they have a number of very powerful actors who can take unilateral political actions.

  10. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

    PubMed

    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  11. Public and Private Schools: How Management and Funding Relate to Their Socio-Economic Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In most PISA-participating countries and economies, the average socio-economic background of students who attend privately managed schools is more advantaged than that of those who attend public schools. Yet in some countries, there is little difference in the socio-economic profiles between public and private schools. Why? An analysis of PISA…

  12. Revisiting Free School Meal Eligibility as a Proxy for Pupil Socio-Economic Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilie, Sonia; Sutherland, Alex; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Whether someone has ever had free school meal (FSM) eligibility over a six-year period is the measure of socio-economic disadvantage currently used in the English school system. It is used to monitor the socio-economic gap in achievement in the education system, to identify particular children at risk of low achievement and to direct funding to…

  13. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Position and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidlow, Christopher; Johnston, Lynne Halley; Crone, Diane; Ellis, Naomi; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present review was to examine epidemiological evidence to determine if there is strong evidence of a positive gradient of increasing physical activity across the socio-economic strata, and how relationships are affected by socio-economic measurement. Design: Systematic review. Method: A search of major databases was…

  14. A Study on Relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2015-01-01

    Personality covers the whole nature of the individual. Socio Economic Status refers to the position that an individual and family occupies with reference to prevailing average standards, cultural possession and participation in group activity of community. This paper reports on relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of student…

  15. Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoble, Rosa; Dickson, Keith; Hanney, Steve; Rodgers, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of socio-economic impact is an emerging theme for publicly-funded academic research. Within this context, the paper suggests that the concept of institutional research capital be expanded to include the capture and evaluation of socio-economic impact. Furthermore, it argues that understanding the typology of impacts and the tracking…

  16. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  17. Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

  18. Public and Private Schools: How Management and Funding Relate to Their Socio-Economic Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In most PISA-participating countries and economies, the average socio-economic background of students who attend privately managed schools is more advantaged than that of those who attend public schools. Yet in some countries, there is little difference in the socio-economic profiles between public and private schools. Why? An analysis of PISA…

  19. Socio-economic differences in prescription and OTC drug use in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tobi, Hilde; Meijer, Willemijn M; Tuinstra, Jolanda; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T

    2003-10-01

    To detect whether there were socio-economic differences in the overall use of prescription and OCT drugs among adolescents. This study was a secondary analysis of questionnaire data collected to investigate socio-economic differences in health risk behaviour and decision-making. About 20% of the 741 girls and 10% of the 736 boys reported using at least one prescription drug in the past 14 days, oral contraceptives excluded. For OTC drugs these percentages were 45% and 24%, respectively. No statistically significant socio-economic differences in prescription drug use could be detected. A higher socio-economic status was associated with an increased OTC drug use, especially in boys. The odds of girls who reported medication was about twice that for boys, after adjusting for perceived health and socio-economic status. There were socio-economic differences with regard to OTC drug use. No socio-economic differences in prescription medication use could be found. There were gender differences with respect to medication use in adolescence, regardless of perceived health and socio-economic status.

  20. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  1. Parental and Community Involvement in Schools: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter-Twilley, Rhonda; Legum, Harry; Norton, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if there was a relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and parental/community involvement in elementary schools, and if there is a significantly significant difference between low SES schools and high SES schools with regard to parental/community involvement. Socio-economic status was measured by…

  2. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  3. Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

  4. Integrating natural and socio-economic science in coastal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R. Kerry

    2000-07-01

    The future more sustainable management of coastal resources is an important policy goal for all governments of countries with coastlines. Coastal areas are under intense environmental change pressure with extensive feedback effects between the natural systems and the human systems. It could be argued that there is just one jointly determined and coevolving system that needs to be studied and managed. Understanding the interactions between the coastal zone and environmental change cannot be achieved by observational studies alone. Modelling of key environmental and socio-economic processes is a vital tool, required to buttress coastal management institutions and practice. Three overlapping procedural stages can be identified in the coastal resource assessment process. The scoping and auditing stage, implemented via a 'pressure-state-impact-response' framework, details, among other thing, problems, system boundaries and value conflicts. The framework is itself based on a conceptual model, which lays stress on functional value diversity and the links between ecosystem processes, functions and outputs of goods and services which are deemed 'valuable' by society. The two subsequent stages are integrated modelling, combining natural and social science methodologies, and evaluation of management options and related gains and losses. An overview of a research project, which utilised the pressure-state-impacts-response (P-S-I-R) framework and supporting concepts and methods, is presented in the last section of the paper, together with some generic 'lessons' for interdisciplinary research.

  5. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  6. Socio-economic drought in Texas: A Future Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajsekhar, D.; Mishra, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts and the socioeconomic impact it makes are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change. Here, we review the possible changes in hazard and vulnerability posed by future droughts as a result of anthropogenic global warming in the state of Texas. An ensemble of downscaled and bias corrected meteorological and hydrologic projections representing the future scenarios were used for drought analysis. Quantification of the risk posed by droughts was then performed by considering a composite Drought Risk Index (DRI). DRI consists of two components: (1) Drought Hazard expressed in terms of joint drought magnitude and frequency of occurrence, and (2) Drought Vulnerability which is expressed in terms of the potential indicators representing the future socio-economic scenario of the study region. A set of drought hazard, vulnerability, and composite risk maps were then developed. These maps serve as an aid to identify the regions vulnerable to droughts in future, thus helping in development of mitigation strategies. The results are expected to be relevant for effective water resources management in a consistently drought prone state like Texas.

  7. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development.

  8. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  9. Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

  10. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  11. [Intelligence and the explanation for socio-economic inequalities in health].

    PubMed

    Huisman, M; Mackenbach, J P

    2007-05-12

    Attention is increasingly being paid to the role of cognitive ability to explain socio-economic inequalities in health. The universal socio-economic gradient in health, where each rung lower on the socio-economic ladder implies worse health, has still not been satisfactorily explained scientifically. Because cognitive ability is related to a multitude of social outcomes in a similarly graded manner, hypothesising that cognitive ability plays a major role in health inequalities by socio-economic status is appealing. Recent empirical studies have shown that at least part of socio-economic health inequalities can indeed be explained by differences in cognitive ability. However, this does not imply that we should be pessimistic about future attempts to break the chain that links socio-economic status and cognitive ability with health. During some life stages, environmental factors may be able to influence cognitive ability. Interventions may therefore be targeted in order to optimize these effects. In addition, there is evidence that cognitive ability is correlated with health-related behaviours such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and obesity. Therefore, another opportunity for reducing health inequalities related to cognitive ability and socio-economic status would be to develop tailored interventions to improve health-related behaviours in disadvantaged groups. However, the first priority is to further investigate the role of cognitive ability in health inequalities by examining various health outcomes, different age groups and variations across the life course.

  12. Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian; Sellstrom, Eva; Petticrew, Mark

    2013-02-28

    The well established links between poor housing and poor health indicate that housing improvement may be an important mechanism through which public investment can lead to health improvement. Intervention studies which have assessed the health impacts of housing improvements are an important data resource to test assumptions about the potential for health improvement. Evaluations may not detect long term health impacts due to limited follow-up periods. Impacts on socio-economic determinants of health may be a valuable proxy indication of the potential for longer term health impacts. To assess the health and social impacts on residents following improvements to the physical fabric of housing. Twenty seven academic and grey literature bibliographic databases were searched for housing intervention studies from 1887 to July 2012 (ASSIA; Avery Index; CAB Abstracts; The Campbell Library; CINAHL; The Cochrane Library; COPAC; DH-DATA: Health Admin; EMBASE; Geobase; Global Health; IBSS; ICONDA; MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; NTIS; PAIS; PLANEX; PsycINFO; RIBA; SCIE; Sociological Abstracts; Social Science Citations Index; Science Citations Index expanded; SIGLE; SPECTR). Twelve Scandinavian grey literature and policy databases (Libris; SveMed+; Libris uppsök; DIVA; Artikelsök; NORART; DEFF; AKF; DSI; SBI; Statens Institut for Folkesundhed; Social.dk) and 23 relevant websites were searched. In addition, a request to topic experts was issued for details of relevant studies. Searches were not restricted by language or publication status. Studies which assessed change in any health outcome following housing improvement were included. This included experimental studies and uncontrolled studies. Cross-sectional studies were excluded as correlations are not able to shed light on changes in outcomes. Studies reporting only socio-economic outcomes or indirect measures of health, such as health service use, were excluded. All housing improvements which

  13. Explaining socio-economic inequalities in immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ataguba, John E; Ojo, Kenneth O; Ichoku, Hyacinth E

    2016-11-01

    Globally, in 2013 over 6 million children younger than 5 years died from either an infectious cause or during the neonatal period. A large proportion of these deaths occurred in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunization is one way to reduce childhood morbidity and deaths. In Nigeria, however, although immunization is provided without a charge at public facilities, coverage remains low and deaths from vaccine preventable diseases are high. This article seeks to assess inequalities in full and partial immunization coverage in Nigeria. It also assesses inequality in the 'intensity' of immunization coverage and it explains the factors that account for disparities in child immunization coverage in the country. Using nationally representative data, this article shows that disparities exist in the coverage of immunization to the advantage of the rich. Also, factors such as mother's literacy, region and location of the child, and socio-economic status explain the disparities in immunization coverage in Nigeria. Apart from addressing these issues, the article notes the importance of addressing other social determinants of health to reduce the disparities in immunization coverage in the country. These should be in line with the social values of communities so as to ensure acceptability and compliance. We argue that any policy that addresses these issues will likely reduce disparities in immunization coverage and put Nigeria on the road to sustainable development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia.

    PubMed

    Goswmai, Sankar; Das, Kishore K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%). Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p<0.05). Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Socio-economic cultural transformations and Depression in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, Giuseppe; Carabetta, Carmelo

    2015-09-01

    The socio-economic and cultural evolution in the last decades encouraged a significant process of transformation of the life conditions in advanced societies, particularly the average duration of the life of the elderly population, which since the second half of the past century has increased by about 60%, becoming from an average of fifty years to about eighty two for women and eighty for men. This phenomenon enables scholars and in particular demography scholars, to assume that in 2030 the number of elderly persons will reach about two billion worldwide. This development of an increasingly longer life expectancy, justifies the trust in the great progress that characterizes our society. The rapid growth of this segment of population, due to the improved living conditions and the related progress in science, technology and medicine, in addition to its positive aspects, also includes negative elements, which already affect the Welfare State and, more generally, the public administration that is called to fill the gaps that the transformation of the family and kinship networks have treated with indifference. The problems of the increasingly long-lived, is not freed from new elements of negativity related to the physical and mental decline that leads to the development of new diseases in addition to those already present, ans is increasingly motivated to seek the best remedies to shorten or eliminate the diseases of the elderly. In this context, Depression assumes a central dimension which will surely be a central concern for the economic, social and health impact and for the multitude of changes that put in crisis many of the traditional institutions. This work aims to analyze through a careful review of the scientific literature, the causes of the spread of this disease, the diagnostic difficulties and possible solutions for prevention and care.

  16. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-01-26

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities.

  17. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Mattah, Memuna M.; Armah, Frederick A.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  18. Mental health and socio-economic variations in Australian suicide.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Richard; Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Harrison, James; Carter, Greg

    2005-10-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between suicide rates and prevalence of mental disorder and suicide attempts, across socio-economic status (SES) groups based on area of residence. Australian suicide data (1996-1998) were analysed in conjunction with area-based prevalences of mental disorder derived from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being (1997). Poisson regression models of suicide risk included age, quintile of area-based SES, urban-rural residence, and country of birth (COB), with males and females analysed separately. Analysis focussed on the association between suicide and prevalences of (ICD-10) affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and suicide attempts by SES group. Prevalences of other psychiatric symptomatology, substance use problems, health service utilisation, stressful life-events and personality were also investigated. Significant increasing gradients were evident from high to low SES groups for prevalences of affective disorders, anxiety disorders (females only), and substance use disorders (males only); sub-threshold drug and alcohol problems and depression; and suicide attempts and suicide (males only). Prevalences of mental disorder, other sub-threshold mental health items and suicide attempts were significantly associated with suicide, but in most cases associations were reduced in magnitude and became statistically non-significant after adjustment for COB, urban-rural residence, and SES. For male suicide the relative risk (RR) in the lowest SES group compared to the highest was 1.40 (95% CI 1.29-1.52, p<0.001) for all ages, and 1.46 (95% CI 1.27-1.67, p<0.001) for male youth (20-34 years). This relationship was not substantially modified in males when regression models included prevalences of affective disorders, and other selected mental health variables and demographic factors. From a population perspective, SES remained significantly associated with suicide after controlling for the

  19. Youth proxy efficacy for fruit and vegetable availability varies by gender and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Geller, Karly S; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined proxy efficacy, which was defined as youth's confidence to influence their parents to provide fruits and vegetables. The overall objective was to examine change in middle-school youth's proxy efficacy over time, and to determine if changes were moderated by gender and socio-economic status. Longitudinal cohort nested within schools. Eight middle schools located in urban, suburban and rural areas of a mid-western US state. Seven hundred and twelve youth followed across their 6th, 7th and 8th grade years. The sample was 51.8 % female, 30.5 % low socio-economic status and 89.5 % Caucasian, non-Hispanic. Males and lower socio-economic status youth were significantly lower in proxy efficacy at each assessment year compared with females and high socio-economic youth, respectively. Proxy efficacy to influence parents to provide fruits and vegetables may be an important construct to target in future interventions.

  20. Impact of reproductive health on socio-economic development: a case study of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adinma, J I B; Adinma, E D

    2011-03-01

    The link between reproductive health, sexual and reproductive right, and development was highlighted at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Egypt. Developmental disparities are related to socio-economic differences which have led to the identification of distinct socio-economic classifications of nations. Human development represents the socioeconomic standing of any nation, in addition to literacy status and life expectancy. Africa accounts for 25% of the world's landmass but remains the world's poorest continent. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has policies and programmes geared towards the improvement of its socio-economic standing and overal development, with little positive result. Reproductive health is a panacea towards reversing the stalled socio-economic growth of Nigeria as evident from the linkage between reproductive health and development, highlighted in Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, 5 and 6. Fast tracking Nigeria's development requires implementation of reproductive health policies and programmes targeted on women and children.

  1. Problem-Solving Behavior of First Grade Children From Differing Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Charles D.; Mortenson, W. Paul

    1973-01-01

    Describes investigation designed to determine if differences in socio-economic level and sex affect the development of strategies used by first grade students in attempting to solve a scientific problem involving simple machines. (JR)

  2. Problem-Solving Behavior of First Grade Children From Differing Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Charles D.; Mortenson, W. Paul

    1973-01-01

    Describes investigation designed to determine if differences in socio-economic level and sex affect the development of strategies used by first grade students in attempting to solve a scientific problem involving simple machines. (JR)

  3. Biological ageing: a fundamental, biological link between socio-economic status and health?

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean M; White, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Socio-economic differences in health appear to be universal but the precise pathways that link socio-economic status and health remain unclear. Differential exposure to specific risk and protective factors are often cited as, at least, partial explanations of socio-economic differences in health. However, risk factors are culturally specific and risk factor-specific models of socio-economic differences in health may be inadequate: as soon as prevailing risk factors change, so too must associated explanations of socio-economic differences in health. An alternative, risk factor-independent, model of socio-economic differences in health proposes that fundamental pathways to health and disease exist and that risk and protective factors act by feeding into these pathways. We propose that biological ageing is one such fundamental pathway to health, disease and, thus, socio-economic differences in health. Biological ageing is the progressive decline in physiological ability to meet demands, that occurs over time. It is due to the accumulation of damage at the cellular level and the rate of biological ageing is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. There is increasing evidence that many known disease risk and protective factors influence the rate of cellular damage accumulation and hence biological ageing and that the pathogenesis of some important diseases is related to biological ageing. We discuss these issues and hypothesize that socio-economic differences in health are partly a result of poor people ageing faster than rich people due to the unhealthy environments to which they are exposed.

  4. Alcohol-related mortality as a function of socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, P

    1999-06-01

    To describe the differences in acute, chronic and total alcohol-related mortality by several measures of socio-economic status (SES) and to unravel the influences of different dimensions of SES. A register-based follow-up study of alcohol-related mortality. Finland. The dataset was formed by linking census records with death records for 1987-95 and included 21,922 alcohol-related deaths. SES indicators include education, occupational class, personal income, net household income per consumption unit (spending power) and housing tenure. The judgement of whether death was alcohol-related was based on death certificates. Acute and chronic alcohol-related mortality were much higher in low SES groups for all SES indicators, including spending power, even when controlling for the remaining SES variables. Among men, personal income was a better predictor of alcohol-related death than spending power, while among women the situation was reversed. The effect of one SES measure was often stronger in low levels of another SES measure. Social selection and drift are likely to contribute to the large differentials in respect to personal income, while their effect on other differentials is likely to be smaller. SES is an important predictor of acute and chronic alcohol-related mortality. The total impact of SES cannot fully be captured using only one or two measures of SES.

  5. Food insecurity, socio-economic factors and weight status in two Iranian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    To study the association of weight status with food insecurity (FI) and socio-economic status (SES) in Azeri and Kurd ethnic groups living in Urmia city, North-Western Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20-64 years old, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri and 278 Kurd), were selected through a combination of cluster, random and systematic sampling methods. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics were assessed by a valid questionnaire, and household food security status was analyzed using an adapted household food insecurity access scale through face-to-face interviews at homes. General and central obesities were measured and evaluated using standard methods. Based on the findings, moderate-to-severe FI, as well as low SES, was more dominant in Kurds, compared to Azeris. After adjusting for confounders, being female (OR = 4.33, CI 95%: 2.35-7.97) and moderate-to-severe FI (OR = 2.00, CI 95%: 1.01-3.97) in Azeris and being female (OR = 5.39, CI 95%: 2.28-12.23) and higher total cost of household/capita (OR = 1.005, CI 95%: 1.002-1.009) in Kurds were related to higher odds of general obesity while low (OR = 0.41, CI 95%: 0.18-0.91) and moderate (OR = 0.13, CI 95%: 0.02-0.60) education levels were linked to lower chance of general obesity. Furthermore, the chance of central obesity was lower in Azeris with high educational levels (OR = 0.64, CI 95%: 0.21-0.94), females (OR = 0.72, CI 95%: 0.34-0.86), home owners (OR = 0.56, CI 95%: 0.31-0.91) and females Kurds (OR = 0.60, CI 95%: 0.37-0.97) with moderate-to-severe FI and higher total income per capita. In contrast, the chance of central obesity increased in Kurds with increased age (OR = 1.06, CI 95%: 1.02-1.10) and total cost of household per capita (OR = 1.004, CI 95%: 1.000-1.008). These findings show that the association between moderate-to-severe FI and risk of general/central obesity varies in Azeris, compared to

  6. Associations between forest characteristics and socio-economic development: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning.

  7. Effects on birthweights of maternal education, socio-economic status, and work-related characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nordström, M L; Cnattingius, S

    1996-03-01

    Birthweights of 3,451 infants of women registered for antenatal care in Uppsala County, Sweden, were analyzed using three different maternal socio-economic indicators; education, socio-economic status and work environment exposure characteristics. Other explanatory variables were maternal age, parity, height, smoking habits, and length of gestation. Mean birthweights increase with longer education and higher socio-economic status. No general pattern was seen for work environment characteristics. When smoking habits are controlled for, social differences in birthweight decrease to non-significant values. A regression model with a socio-economic indicator alone explains only a minor part, less than 1%, of the variation in birthweight. When smoking is included, adding a socio-economic indicator does not significantly improve the model. Practically all social differences in birthweight are related to the differences in maternal age, parity, height, and smoking habits. If a socio-economic indicator is to be included in the analysis of birthweights (for other reasons like international comparisons), we recommend education.

  8. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: A mixed-methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R.; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009–2010). Even in Britain's leading ‘cycling city’, cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a ‘park-and-ride’ site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could ‘afford’ to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across

  9. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio-economic

  10. Socio-economic, epidemiological and geographic features based on GIS-integrated mapping to identify malarial hotspots.

    PubMed

    Qayum, Abdul; Arya, Rakesh; Kumar, Pawan; Lynn, Andrew M

    2015-05-07

    Malaria is a major health problem in the tropical and subtropical world. In India, 95% of the population resides in malaria endemic regions and it is major public health problem in most parts of the country. The present work has developed malaria maps by integrating socio-economic, epidemiology and geographical dimensions of three eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The area has been studied in each dimension separately, and later integrated to find a list of vulnerable pockets/villages, called as malarial hotspots. The study has been done at village level. Seasonal variation of malaria, comparison of epidemiology indices and progress of the medical facility were studied. Ten independent geographical information system (GIS) maps of socio-economic aspects (population, child population, literacy, and work force participation), epidemiology (annual parasitic index (API) and slides collected and examined) and geographical features (settlement, forest cover, water bodies, rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature) were drawn and studied. These maps were overlaid based on computed weight matrix to find malarial hotspot. It was found that the studied dimensions were inter-weaving factors for malaria epidemic and closely affected malaria situations as evidenced from the obtained correlation matrix. The regions with water logging, high rainfall and proximity to forest, along with poor socio-economic conditions, are primarily hotspot regions. The work is presented through a series of GIS maps, tables, figures and graphs. A total of 2,054 out of 8,973 villages studied were found to be malarial hotspots and consequently suggestions were made to the concerned government malaria offices. With developing technology, information tools such as GIS, have captured almost every field of scientific research especially of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. Malarial mapping enables easy update of information and effortless accessibility of geo-referenced data to policy

  11. Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media

  12. A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2010-10-01

    One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  14. Socio-economic life course and obesity among adults in Florianopolis, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz; Navarro, Albert; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2017-03-29

    To estimate the association between socio-economic life course and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and general and abdominal obesity in adults. A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1,222 adults (aged 22-63) from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The socio-economic life course was analysed using the educational level of participants and their parents. Height, weight and WC were measured by specially trained staff. Linear and logistic regressions were used with adjustment for confounding factors, and data were stratified according to sex. Mean BMI and WC were about 2kg/m(2) (95% CI: -3.3 to -0.7) and 6cm (95% CI: -9.7 to -2.9) lower in women with a high socio-economic position, while the association was reversed in men with a high socio-economic position, with WC being about 4cm higher (95% CI: 0.1 to 7.5). In addition, women who had always been in a high socio-economic position were less likely to have abdominal obesity (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.76) while no such association was found in men. Socio-economic life course influences BMI, WC and obesity, with differences between males and females, thereby indicating that public policies that contemplate a socio-economic life course approach can be effective for controlling obesity. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth of children living in the outskirts of Ankara: impact of low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Timur; Hauspie, Roland; Susanne, Charles; Güleç, Erksin

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of the growth of Turkish schoolchildren are limited to large cities and to subjects from high socio-economic background. Very little is known about growth and development of rural, suburban and low socio-economic children in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to compare height and weight of school-aged children of low socio-economic background with available growth data from high socio-economic strata, and to verify the possible influences of three socio-demographic parameters on their growth. The sample consisted of 1,052 girls and 1,223 boys, aged between 7-17 years, living in the outskirts of Ankara, a suburban area of poor socio-economic background. Centile distributions for height and weight were estimated by the LMS-method. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used to compare mean z-scores for height and weight among the various categories of the socio-demographic parameters. Children living in the outskirts of Ankara have lower mean values for height and weight when compared with growth data of upper socio-economic strata children. The differences were most pronounced during adolescence. Skinfolds were higher in girls than in boys at all ages (largest p = 0.007). There was no clear relationship between growth and the number of siblings, the number of rooms in the house, the mother's and father's education, and the father's professional status (p > 0.05), except for the height of girls (p < 0.05). It is suggested that the lower growth status of children living in the outskirts of Ankara is attributable to the poor socio-economic status of this suburban population, which has not changed over the past decades. It is postulated that the growth impairment during adolescence might be due to a reduced tempo of growth in these children.

  16. Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status? A factorial vignette survey.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark; Hansen, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced by the patient's SES. Material and method An experimental factorial vignette survey was used. Four different vignettes describing fictitious patient cases with different SES variables were randomly allocated to therapists working in somatic hospitals. Thereafter, the therapists judged specific clinical situations and general attitudes in relation to the patient's SES. Chi-square was used to test the statistical association between the variables. Results No statistically significant associations were found between the specific clinical situations and the patient's SES. A statistical significant association was found between general attitudes and the patient's SES. Subgroup analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the therapist's gender, age, and the therapeutic judgement in relation to SES. Conclusion In the specific clinical situations, Danish therapists seem to maintain their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted.

  17. Redirecting public oral health fluoride varnish intervention to low socio-economic status children in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Huber, Cynthia; Baran, Sylvia; De Graaff, Cindi; Howell, Marianne; Patterson, Steve; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-09-14

    Dental decay is most prevalent among low socio-economic status (SES) groups where cost limits access to dental care. To address inequities in oral health outcomes, Alberta Health Services (AHS) Oral Health Action Plan encompasses a population health approach that redirects fluoride varnish (FV) applications to low SES children. Using low SES measures to establish the eligibility criteria is fundamental to the delivery of FV applications to the target population. A series of four FV applications over two years is directed to children age 12-35 months and two applications per year to children in Kindergarten and grades 1 and 2, using low SES measures for eligibility criteria. The provincial objective for children receiving the first FV application is 10%-20% of the population age. Additional objectives are set for rates of subsequent FV applications for each population group. From 2015 to 2016, the rate of first FV applications for eligible target populations is below the provincial objective for children age 12-35 months (5%) and within the objective for children in Kindergarten and grades 1 and 2 (16%). Rates of subsequent FV applications in the school setting are being met. Encompassing a population health approach to deliver standardized fluoride varnish applications to low SES children better targets inequities in oral health outcomes in Alberta. Challenges of redirecting the FV intervention include creating the eligibility criteria and engaging the target population, particularly for the preschool population. Achieving population objectives are challenged by unequal distribution of resources across the province.

  18. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: adherence challenges in environments of low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Steyl, Tania; Phillips, Julie

    2014-11-06

    The efficacy of treatment for clients with diabetes is highly dependent on the individual's ability to manage the disease. Several constraints, such as poverty, illiteracy and insufficient resources (finances and specialised healthcare professionals), especially communities of low socio-economic status, could influence clients' ability to manage their disease. The main aim of this study was to outline the obstacles encountered by individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus from an urban community with regard to management of their disease. The study was conducted at a primary health care facility in the Western Cape, South Africa. Ethical clearance was obtained from all relevant authorities. Eight (8) conveniently selected clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus per participating community healthcare centre (six approved centres in total) were invited to take part in focus group discussions. Twenty six clients, 15 females and 11 males, with a mean age of 58.92 years (SD = 7.33), agreed to participate. Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim followed by content analysis and identification of themes. Themes that emerged were challenges with: a healthy eating plan, physical activity, financial constraints, other people's understanding of the disease, and service received at the community healthcare centre. Verbatim quotes were used to exemplify the themes. Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experienced several challenges in the management of their disease. These challenges should be addressed to assist with better glycaemic control and to curb the emergence of diabetic complications and their attendant cost implications.

  19. Childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility as determinants of low back pain outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E; Raitakari, O T; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Solovieva, S

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent problem and tends to be socio-economically patterned. Relatively little is known about life-course socio-economic circumstances as determinants of different types of LBP. Our aim was to examine whether childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility are associated with radiating and non-specific LBP and sciatica. Data were derived from the Young Finns Study (n = 2231). Childhood socio-economic position was based on parental education, occupational class and family income at baseline in 1980. Data on own education and LBP outcomes were collected at the end of follow-up in 2007. Social mobility was based on parental and own education. Covariates were composed of age, parental body mass index and smoking. Both childhood and own socio-economic position remained associated with radiating LBP and sciatica after adjustments. However, the associations varied by socio-economic indicator and gender. Stable lower socio-economic position and downward mobility were associated with radiating LBP. Childhood socio-economic circumstances affect the risk of radiating LBP and sciatica in adulthood. To prevent low back disorders, early socio-economic circumstances need to be considered alongside own socio-economic position. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  20. Socio-economic implication of multi-drug resistant malaria in the community; how prepared is Nigeria for this emerging problem?

    PubMed

    Chukwuani, C M

    1999-01-01

    The control of faciparum malaria is becoming increasingly challenging in many endemic areas of the world, including Nigeria, due to the development of resistance to chloroquine and other anti-malarial drugs. Current rising health care costs demands that any preventive medicine and/or disease control program be judged according to its economic viability. As has been previously noted, any successful control of malaria will depend on socio-economic factors that influence its prevalence and management in the community. Cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness analysis of proposed and current intervention strategic are thus justified. This paper presents a review of studies involving socio-economic evaluation of the morbidity and mortality consequences of malaria. Studies involving health facility utilization profile for malaria in Nigeria and elsewhere are also reviewed. The review finds no studies evaluating or determining an appropriate economic model/framework for malaria control in Nigeria and concludes that as enormous and challenging the problem of multi-drug resistant malaria is, it can still be contained if control and management strategies are adopted based on sound and practical socio-economic judgement.

  1. Socio-economic differences in outdoor food advertising in a city in Northern England.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Ganiti, Ellie; White, Martin

    2011-06-01

    To explore differences in the prevalence of outdoor food advertising, and the type and nutritional content of advertised foods, according to an area-based marker of socio-economic position (SEP) in a city in Northern England. All outdoor advertisements in the city were identified during October-December 2009, their size (in m2) estimated and their location determined using a global positioning system device. Advertisements were classified as food or non-food. Food advertisements were classified into one of six food categories. Information on the nutritional content of advertised foods was obtained from packaging and manufacturer's websites. An area-based marker of SEP was assigned using the location of each advertisement, grouped into three affluence tertiles for analysis. A city in Northern England. None. In all, 1371 advertisements were identified; 211 (15 %) of these were for food. The advertisements covered 6765 m2, of which 1326 m2 (20 %) was for food. Total advertising and food advertising space was largest in the least affluent tertile. There was little evidence of socio-economic trends in the type or nutritional content of advertised foods. Despite an absence of socio-economic differences in the type and nutritional content of advertised foods, there were socio-economic differences in food advertising space. There may also be socio-economic differences in exposure to outdoor food advertising.

  2. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2014-06-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

  3. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stephen; McNeil, Debbie; Yee, Wendy; Siever, Jodie; Rose, Sarah

    2014-09-16

    To evaluate a possible association between neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta births. The study design was a retrospective cohort of all births in Alberta for the years 2001 and 2006. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation. Neighbourhood socio-economic status was measured by the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index for each Statistics Canada census dissemination area. Births were linked to dissemination area using maternal postal codes. The analysis comprised 73,585 births, in which the rate of spontaneous preterm delivery at <37 weeks was 5.3%. The rates of spontaneous preterm delivery for each neighbourhood socio-economic category ranged from 4.9% (95% CI 4.5%-5.2%) in the highest category to 6.3% (95% CI 6.0%-6.7%) in the lowest (p<0.001). After controlling for smoking, parity, maternal age and year, we found that women living in the highest socio-economic status neighbourhoods had an adjusted spontaneous preterm birth rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.7%-5.5%) compared to 6.0% (95% CI 5.6%-6.4%) for women living in the lowest (p=0.003). This study documented a modest increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth with low socio-economic status. The possibility of confounding bias cannot be ruled out.

  4. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents: the mediating role of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Veselska, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Reijneveld, S A; van Dijk, J P

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of socio-economic status and the self-esteem of adolescents with physical activity, and their joint effects. A sample of 3694 elementary-school students from Slovakia (mean age 14.3 years, 49% boys) completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and answered questions about the frequency of their physical activity and their parents' educational level. Adolescents with higher socio-economic status were significantly more likely to report physical activity on ≥5 days/week and to report higher self-esteem. In logistic regression, the association between socio-economic status and physical activity decreased after including self-esteem, suggesting that at least a part of this association is mediated by self-esteem. To conclude, youths from lower socio-economic groups have already been identified as a target group, for intervention. These findings suggest that it is important for promotion programmes to focus not only on the enhancement of their physical activity, but also on their self-esteem as a possible mediator. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Innovative Socio-economic Interventions Against Tuberculosis (ISIAT) project: an operational assessment.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C; Montoya, R; Zevallos, K; Curatola, A; Ynga, W; Franco, J; Fernandez, F; Becerra, N; Sabaduche, M; Tovar, M A; Ramos, E; Tapley, A; Allen, N R; Onifade, D A; Acosta, C D; Maritz, M; Concha, D F; Schumacher, S G; Evans, C A

    2011-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. Poverty (46% earned socio-economic interventions were associated with increases in household contact TB screening (from 82% to 96%); successful TB treatment completion (from 91% to 97%); patient human immunodeficiency virus testing (from 31% to 97%); and completion of preventive therapy (from 27% to 87%; all P < 0.0001). Socio-economic interventions can strengthen TB control activities. tuberculosis; control; microcredit; poverty;social determinants.

  6. The Innovative Socio-economic Interventions Against Tuberculosis (ISIAT) project: an operational assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, C.; Montoya, R.; Zevallos, K.; Curatola, A.; Ynga, W.; Franco, J.; Fernandez, F.; Becerra, N.; Sabaduche, M.; Tovar, M. A.; Ramos, E.; Tapley, A.; Allen, N. R.; Onifade, D. A.; Acosta, C. D.; Maritz, M.; Concha, D. F.; Schumacher, S. G.; Evans, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    SETTING Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. OBJECTIVE To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. DESIGN Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. RESULTS Poverty (46% earned socio-economic interventions were associated with increases in household contact TB screening (from 82% to 96%); successful TB treatment completion (from 91% to 97%); patient human immunodeficiency virus testing (from 31% to 97%); and completion of preventive therapy (from 27% to 87%; all P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Socio-economic interventions can strengthen TB control activities. PMID:21740659

  7. Socio-economic factors & longevity in a cohort of Kerala State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sauvaget, Catherine; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Fayette, Jean-Marie; Thomas, Gigi; Thara, Somanathan; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Even though Kerala State is well-known for its egalitarian policies in terms of healthcare, redistributive actions and social reforms, and its health indicators close to those of high-resource countries despite a poor per-capita income, it is not clear whether socio-economic disparities in terms of life expectancy are observed. This study was therefore carried out to study the impact of socio-economic level on life expectancy in individuals living in Kerala. Methods A cohort of 1,67,331 participants aged 34 years and above in Thiruvananthapuram district, having completed a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline in 1995, was followed up for mortality and cause of death until 2005. Survival estimates were based on the participants’ vital status and death rates were calculated separately for men and women and for several socio-economic factors, stratified by age. Results At 40 years, men and women were expected to live another 34 and 37 years, respectively. Life expectancy varied across the participants’ different socio-economic categories: those from high income households with good housing conditions, materially privileged households and small households, had a 2-3 years longer life expectancy as compared to the deprived persons. Also, those who went to college lived longer than the illiterates. The gaps between categories were wider in men than in women. Interpretation & conclusions Socio-economic disparity in longevity was observed: wealthy people from Kerala State presented a longer life expectancy. PMID:21623031

  8. Burden of micronutrient deficiencies by socio-economic strata in children aged 6 months to 5 years in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Simon; Plessow, Rafael; Eichler, Klaus; Malek, Olivia; Capanzana, Mario V; Agdeppa, Imelda; Bruegger, Urs

    2013-12-11

    Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are a chronic lack of vitamins and minerals and constitute a huge public health problem. MNDs have severe health consequences and are particularly harmful during early childhood due to their impact on the physical and cognitive development. We estimate the costs of illness due to iron deficiency (IDA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and zinc deficiency (ZnD) in 2 age groups (6-23 and 24-59 months) of Filipino children by socio-economic strata in 2008. We build a health economic model simulating the consequences of MNDs in childhood over the entire lifetime. The model is based on a health survey and a nutrition survey carried out in 2008. The sample populations are first structured into 10 socio-economic strata (SES) and 2 age groups. Health consequences of MNDs are modelled based on information extracted from literature. Direct medical costs, production losses and intangible costs are computed and long term costs are discounted to present value. Total lifetime costs of IDA, VAD and ZnD amounted to direct medical costs of 30 million dollars, production losses of 618 million dollars and intangible costs of 122,138 disability adjusted life years (DALYs). These costs can be interpreted as the lifetime costs of a 1-year cohort affected by MNDs between the age of 6-59 months. Direct medical costs are dominated by costs due to ZnD (89% of total), production losses by losses in future lifetime (90% of total) and intangible costs by premature death (47% of total DALY losses) and losses in future lifetime (43%). Costs of MNDs differ considerably between SES as costs in the poorest third of the households are 5 times higher than in the wealthiest third. MNDs lead to substantial costs in 6-59-month-old children in the Philippines. Costs are highly concentrated in the lower SES and in children 6-23 months old. These results may have important implications for the design, evaluation and choice of the most effective and cost-effective policies aimed

  9. Characterising socio-economic inequalities in exposure to air pollution: a comparison of socio-economic markers and scales of measurement.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Wilkinson, Paul; Stafford, Mai; Tonne, Cathryn

    2011-05-01

    This study examines traffic-related air pollution in London in relation to area- and individual-level socio-economic position (SEP). Mean air pollution concentrations were generally higher in postcodes of low SEP as classified by small-area markers of deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) domains) and by the postcode-level ACORN geodemographic marker. There were exceptions, however, including reversed directions of associations in central London and for SEP markers relating to education. ACORN predicted air pollution independently of IMD and explained additional variation at the postcode level, indicating the potential value of using both markers in air pollution epidemiology studies. By contrast, after including IMD and ACORN there remained little relationship between air pollution and individual-level SEP or smoking, suggesting limited residual socio-economic confounding in epidemiological studies with comprehensive area-level adjustment.

  10. Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents: beyond socio-economic impact?

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, Bjørn E; Koushede, Vibeke; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Nelausen, Malene Kubstrup; Nielsen, Line; Rayce, Signe Boe

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analysed by multilevel multivariable logistic regression. 8 % of all schoolchildren reported emotional symptoms almost daily. Odds ratio for daily symptoms was 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for children without trustful communication with parents compared to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance, regardless of socio-economic position.

  11. Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-02-28

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

  12. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    PubMed

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency.

  13. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 1. Executive report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS) was carried out as a three-phase project to collect environmental and socio-economic data in Somalia's Jubba Valley, the site of proposed development of a large hydroelectric dam. Complementary to construction of the dam, various plans are being prepared for subsequent development of irrigated agriculture in the middle and lower Jubba Valley. Numerous environmental and socio-economic changes will occur with dam construction, filling of the reservoir, infrastructural enhancement, and intensification of agriculture. Volume I, the Executive Report, and reports based on JESS longer-term studies (TEBS and SEBS) represent the most comprehensive assessment of the overall JESS effort: these reports consider and, in most cases, summarize the findings of other investigations.

  14. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  15. Socio-economic indicators are independently associated with intake of animal foods in French adults.

    PubMed

    Méjean, Caroline; Si Hassen, Wendy; Lecossais, Christelle; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2016-12-01

    The specific role of major socio-economic indicators (education, occupation, income) in influencing consumer choice of animal foods (AF) intake could reveal distinct socio-economic facets, thus enabling elucidation of mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. We investigated the independent association of each indicator with intake of different AF and their effect modification. Cross-sectional study. AF intake was estimated using three 24 h dietary records. Associations between socio-economic factors and AF intake and interactions between socio-economic indicators were assessed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and energy intake. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, since gender interactions were found. France. Adults (n 92 036) participating in the NutriNet-Santé Study. Low educated persons had higher intake of red meat (+9-12 g/d), processed meat (+6-9 g/d) and poultry (for men, +7 g/d) than those with a higher education level. Percentage of fish consumers was lower in individuals of the lowest income class compared with those in higher classes. Manual workers had a higher intake of cream desserts (for men, +14 g/d) than managerial staff. Few significant interactions were found. In stratified analyses, persons with the highest income consumed more yoghurt than those who had lower income, only in low educated individuals. Socio-economic disparities in AF intake varied according to the socio-economic indicator, suggesting the specific influence of each indicator on AF intake. In particular, lower education was associated with higher intake of red and processed meats and cream desserts, and had an effect modification on the relationship between income and AF intake.

  16. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  17. Socio-economic status and quality of life in children with chronic disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Didsbury, Madeleine S; Kim, Siah; Medway, Meredith M; Tong, Allison; McTaggart, Steven J; Walker, Amanda M; White, Sarah; Mackie, Fiona E; Kara, Tonya; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine

    2016-12-01

    Reduced quality of life (QoL) is a known consequence of chronic disease in children, and this association may be more evident in those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the association between socio-economic disadvantage and QoL among children with chronic disease, and to identify the specific socio-economic factors that are most influential. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to March 2015. Observational studies that reported the association between at least one measure of social disadvantage in caregivers and at least one QoL measure in children and young people (age 2-21 years) with a debilitating non-communicable childhood disease (asthma, chronic kidney disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and epilepsy) were eligible. A total of 30 studies involving 6957 patients were included (asthma (six studies, n = 576), chronic kidney disease (four studies, n = 796), epilepsy (14 studies, n = 2121), type 1 diabetes mellitus (six studies, n = 3464)). A total of 22 (73%) studies reported a statistically significant association between at least one socio-economic determinant and QoL. Parental education, occupation, marital status, income and health insurance coverage were associated with reduced QoL in children with chronic disease. The quality of the included studies varied widely and there was a high risk of reporting bias. Children with chronic disease from lower socio-economic backgrounds experience reduced QoL compared with their wealthier counterparts. Initiatives to improve access to and usage of medical and psychological services by children and their families who are socio-economically disadvantaged may help to mitigate the disparities and improve outcomes in children with chronic illnesses.

  18. Development of an integrated methodology for the sustainable environmental and socio-economic management of river ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koundouri, P; Ker Rault, P; Pergamalis, V; Skianis, V; Souliotis, I

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Water Framework Directive aimed to establish an integrated framework of water management at European level. This framework revolves around inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground waters. In the process of achieving the environment and ecological objectives set from the Directive, the role of economics is put in the core of the water management. An important feature of the Directive is the recovery of total economic cost of water services by all users. The total cost of water services can be disaggregated into environmental, financial and resource costs. Another important aspect of the directive is the identification of major drivers and pressures in each River Basin District. We describe a methodology that is aiming to achieve sustainable and environmental and socioeconomic management of freshwater ecosystem services. The Ecosystem Services Approach is in the core of the suggested methodology for the implementation of a more sustainable and efficient water management. This approach consists of the following three steps: (i) socio-economic characterization of the River Basin area, (ii) assessment of the current recovery of water use cost, and (iii) identification and suggestion of appropriate programs of measures for sustainable water management over space and time. This methodology is consistent with a) the economic principles adopted explicitly by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), b) the three-step WFD implementation approach adopted in the WATECO document, c) the Ecosystem Services Approach to valuing freshwater goods and services to humans. Furthermore, we analyze how the effects of multiple stressors and socio-economic development can be quantified in the context of freshwater resources management. We also attempt to estimate the value of four ecosystem services using the benefit transfer approach for the Anglian River Basin, which showed the significance of such services.

  19. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  20. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  1. Television and the behaviour of adolescents: does socio-economic status moderate the link?

    PubMed

    Chowhan, James; Stewart, Jennifer M

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines the relationship between adolescent behaviour, television viewing and family socio-economic status (SES) using the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). The effect of television viewing on adolescents' behaviour, ranging from pro-social to aggressive, and whether this effect is moderated by family socio-economic status is investigated. An adolescent fixed effects model is used to estimate the effect of television viewing on behaviour. The results indicate that the effect of television viewing varies between males and females. Family SES has a role in the effect of television on adolescents' behaviour, although the results do not distinguish between the two proposed hypotheses.

  2. Socio-economic impact of endovenous thermal ablation techniques.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Damian; Lane, Tristan R A; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H

    2014-03-01

    Varicose veins are common and cause extensive morbidity; however, the value of treatment is under-appreciated. Many procedures allow the treatment of varicose veins with minimal cost and extensive literature supporting differing minimally invasive approaches. In this article, we investigate the current literature regarding treatment options, clinical outcome and the cost-benefit economics associated with varicose vein treatment. The practice of defining clinical outcome with quality of life (QOL) assessment is explained to provide valid concepts of treatment success beyond occlusion rates.

  3. [Prevalence and socio-economic relevance of allergies in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böcking, C; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I

    2012-03-01

    Within the last five decades, the worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, or food allergies has increased dramatically. Germany follows a similar trend; several studies have shown increased numbers of allergic diseases in this period. Although allergic diseases do not exhibit high mortality rates, the loss of quality of life as shown by studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) is considerable. Additional health-economical analyses documented that allergic patients more frequently occupy services of the health care system in Germany. The treatment of allergies and the increasing consultation rates cause rising costs and an increasing burden for the national economy. Currently it is possible to control allergic diseases such as asthma by a precise diagnosis or identification of the causative allergen. However, a considerable reduction in the prevalence of allergic disease and its therapy costs can only be expected if causative therapies and effective prevention strategies are available.

  4. [Public health in major socio-economic crisis].

    PubMed

    Cosmacini, G

    2014-01-01

    The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions.

  5. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  6. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  7. Patterns of disparity: ethnic and socio-economic trends in breast cancer mortality in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sarfati, Diana; Blakely, Tony; Shaw, Caroline; Cormack, Donna; Atkinson, June

    2006-06-01

    To test whether trends in breast cancer mortality varied by ethnicity and socio-economic position during the 1980s and '90s in New Zealand. Four cohorts of the entire New Zealand population for 1981-84; 86-89; 91-94 and 96-99 allowed direct determination of socio-economic trends in breast cancer mortality. For ethnicity, unlinked routine census and mortality data were used with adjustment factors for undercounting of Māori and Pacific deaths. Māori and non-Māori non-Pacific mortality rates changed little until mid-1990s with Māori experiencing 25% higher mortality. In 1996-99, Māori rates increased notably to become 68% higher than non-Māori non-Pacific (SRR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.49-1.90). Pacific women experienced an approximate three-fold increase in breast cancer mortality over time. There appeared to be reducing mortality among higher income and education groups but trends within socio-economic groups were not statistically significant. Nevertheless, by 1996-99, there was a significant 22% excess mortality (SRR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01-1.49) for low compared with high-income groups. Widening ethnic, and probably, socio-economic disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely due to both underlying incidence and differential survival trends. Disparities are likely to increase once the full differential mortality benefits of screening impact on the population.

  8. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  9. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  10. "Mindstorms" and "Mindtools" Aren't Happening: Digital Streaming of Students via Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the possibility that school-based uses of new technologies might actually exacerbate the educational disadvantage of already disadvantaged social groups--particularly, learners from low socio-economic status populations. It draws on some recent international studies that indicate how minority, poor and urban students may be…

  11. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  12. Talking in Class: A Study of Socio-Economic Difference in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manison Shore, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the relationship between socio-economic background and the school experience of two groups of children. I seek to establish whether or not there are identifiable differences in the language of primary school children living in two demographically contrasting geographical areas and, if there are differences, how these…

  13. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  14. The Relationship between Parental Literacy Involvement, Socio-Economic Status and Reading Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmerechts, Kenneth; Agirdag, Orhan; Kavadias, Dimokritos

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an average age of 10 years) in 10 Western European…

  15. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  16. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  17. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  18. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  19. Research framework of integrated simulation on bilateral interaction between water cycle and socio-economic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, C. F.; Yang, X. L.; Niu, C. W.; Jia, Y. W.

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of bilateral interaction between natural water cycle evolution and socio-economic development has been obscured in current research due to the complexity of the hydrological process and the socio-economic system. The coupling of economic model CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) and distributed hydrological model WEP (Water and Energy transfer Processes) provides a model-based tool for research on response and feedback of water cycle and social development, as well as economic prospects under the constraint of water resources. On one hand, water policies, such as water use limitation and water price adjustment under different levels of socio-economic development, are to be evaluated by CGE model as assumed conditions and corresponding results of water demand could be put into WEP model to simulate corresponding response during the whole process of water cycle. On the other hand, variation of available water resources quantity under different scenarios simulated by WEP model may provide proper limitation for water demand in CGE model, and corresponding change of economic factors could indicate the influence of water resources constraints on socio-economic development. The research is believed to be helpful for better understanding of bilateral interaction between water and society.

  20. Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

  1. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  2. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  3. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  4. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  5. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  6. Accelerating the Mathematics Learning of Low Socio-Economic Status Junior Secondary Students: An Early Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Tom; Nutchey, David; Grant, Edlyn

    2013-01-01

    The "Accelerating the Mathematics Learning of Low Socio-Economic Status Junior Secondary Students" project aims to address the issues faced by very underperforming mathematics students as they enter high school. Its aim is to accelerate learning of mathematics through a vertical curriculum to enable students to access Year 10 mathematics…

  7. Socio-economic versus obstetric risk factors for drug addiction in offspring.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, K; Allebeck, P; Eklund, G; Jacobson, B

    1992-12-01

    Two possible risk factors for drug addiction were weighed against each other: (1) perinatal factors associated with obstetric medication at time of birth; and (2) factors associated with familial socio-economic conditions at time of birth. The subjects comprised 200 amphetamine addicts and 200 opiate addicts born in Stockholm 1945-1966. In a matched case control study, addicts were compared to their siblings with regard to possible obstetric risk factors by means of conditional logistic regression controlling for socio-economic level and civil status. Administration of opiates, barbiturates and nitrous oxide to mothers during labour was associated with drug addiction in offspring, hence confirming results from earlier studies. In a cohort study the risk associated with birth at a given hospital and familial socio-economic level was analysed by means of log-linear analysis using 7100 controls from the general population. For amphetamine addicts, a low socio-economic level at time of birth might be of importance for the infant subsequently becoming an addict. This could not be demonstrated for the opiate addicts. An uneven distribution of births among the hospitals, most pronounced for the amphetamine addicts, is in agreement with the hypothesis that obstetric practices may be risk factors for adult drug addiction.

  8. Socio-Economic Bias in Piaget's Theory and Its Implications for Cross-Culture Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck-Morss, Susan

    1975-01-01

    The existence of a time lag discovered in the cross-cultural application of Piagetian tests may result from a socio-economic bias in Piaget's theory. Abstract, formal cognition may reflect a particular social structure, embodying the principles of exchange value, reification, and alienation which govern production and exchange in the…

  9. Development of a Socio-Economic-Status Index Using United States Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosset, Jane M.; Hawk, Thomas R.

    The study reported here employed a quasi-factorial ecological approach to explore the possibility of using economic and social indicators available from the 1980 census to construct a socio-economic status (SES) index. The study hypothesized that if an appropriate factor analysis model could be identified, factor score equations could be used to…

  10. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  11. Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

  12. "Mindstorms" and "Mindtools" Aren't Happening: Digital Streaming of Students via Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the possibility that school-based uses of new technologies might actually exacerbate the educational disadvantage of already disadvantaged social groups--particularly, learners from low socio-economic status populations. It draws on some recent international studies that indicate how minority, poor and urban students may be…

  13. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  14. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  15. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  16. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  17. Life Satisfaction Depending on Socio-Economic Status and Gender among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eroglu, Susran Erkan; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Calisir, Vahit

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference…

  18. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  19. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  20. Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

  1. How Do Some Students Overcome Their Socio-Economic Background? PISA in Focus. No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Are socio-economically disadvantaged students condemned to perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of poor academic achievement, poor job prospects and poverty? Not if they attend schools that provide them with more regular classes. Resilient students in the 2006 and 2009 PISA surveys displayed high levels of academic achievement despite the fact…

  2. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  3. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…

  4. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  5. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  6. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  7. SUITABILITY OF A SOCIO-ECONOMIC SCALE FOR HOSPITAL PSYCHIATRIC POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.; Shantha, G.B.; Balan, V.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The Socio-economic scale devised by Gupta and Sethi (1978) was applied to 737 urban cases registered in the psychiatric out-patient department of a general hospital during the period of one year. Correlation and regression co-efficients were calculated for education, income, occupation and total scores. The scale seemed to be suitable for hospital psychiatric population. PMID:21847287

  8. Socio-economic differences in HIV/AIDS mortality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Probst, Charlotte; Parry, Charles D H; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    To quantify socio-economic differences in the risk of HIV/AIDS mortality in South Africa for different measures of socio-economic status. Systematic literature search in Web of Knowledge and PubMed. Measures of relative risk (RR) were pooled separately for education, income, assets score and employment status as measures of socio-economic status, using inverse-variance weighted DerSimonian-Laird random effects meta-analyses. Ten studies were eligible for inclusion comprising over 175 000 participants and 6700 deaths. For income (RR 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.09), assets score (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12-2.36) and employment status (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.21-1.92), persons of low socio-economic status had an over 50% higher risk of dying from HIV/AIDS. The RR of 1.10 for education was not significant (95% CI 0.74-1.65). Future research should identify effective strategies to reduce HIV/AIDS mortality and alleviate the consequences of HIV/AIDS deaths, particularly for poorer households. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Back to the Basics: Socio-Economic, Gender, and Regional Disparities in Canada's Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason D.; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance W.

    2008-01-01

    This study reassessed the extent to which socio-economic background, gender, and region endure as sources of educational inequality in Canada. The analysis utilized the 28,000 student Canadian sample from the data set of the OECD's 2003 "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)". Results, consistent with previous findings,…

  10. Socio-Economic Background, Senior Secondary Mathematics, and Post-Secondary Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoh, Eng; Leigh-Lancaster, David

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between socio-economic background and completion of senior secondary mathematics study leading to various post-schooling pathways has been an area of keen interest to researchers, school systems and policy makers for some time. This paper briefly considers some aspects of this relationship using recent Victorian data relating to…

  11. Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

  12. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  13. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  14. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  15. The Relationship between Parental Literacy Involvement, Socio-Economic Status and Reading Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmerechts, Kenneth; Agirdag, Orhan; Kavadias, Dimokritos

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an average age of 10 years) in 10 Western European…

  16. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  17. The measurement of household socio-economic position in tuberculosis prevalence surveys: a sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Boccia, D; Hargreaves, J; Howe, L D; De Stavola, B L; Fielding, K; Ayles, H; Godfrey-Faussett, P

    2013-01-01

    To assess the robustness of socio-economic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys. Data were drawn from the TB prevalence survey conducted in Lusaka Province, Zambia, in 2005-2006. We compared TB socio-economic inequalities measured through an asset-based index (Index 0) using principal component analysis (PCA) with those observed using three alternative indices: Index 1 and Index 2 accounted respectively for the biases resulting from the inclusion of urban assets and food-related variables in Index 0. Index 3 was built using regression-based analysis instead of PCA to account for the effect of using a different assets weighting strategy. Household socio-economic position (SEP) was significantly associated with prevalent TB, regardless of the index used; however, the magnitude of inequalities did vary across indices. A strong association was found for Index 2, suggesting that the exclusion of food-related variables did not reduce the extent of association between SEP and prevalent TB. The weakest association was found for Index 1, indicating that the exclusion of urban assets did not lead to higher extent of TB inequalities. TB socio-economic inequalities seem to be robust to the choice of SEP indicator. The epidemiological meaning of the different extent of TB inequalities is unclear. Further studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.

  18. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  19. Socio-economic disparities in access to assisted reproductive technologies in Australia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katie; Burley, Hugh; McLachlan, Robert; Bowman, Mark; Macaldowie, Alan; Taylor, Kate; Chapman, Michael; Chambers, Georgina Mary

    2016-11-01

    Women from disadvantaged socio-economic groups access assisted reproductive technology treatment less than women from more advantaged groups. However, women from disadvantaged groups tend to start families younger, making them less likely to suffer from age-related subfertility and potentially have less need for fertility treatment. Whether socio-economic disparities in access to assisted reproductive technology treatment persist after controlling for the need for treatment, has not been previously explored. This population based study demonstrates that socio-economic disparities in access to assisted reproductive technology treatment persist after adjusting for several confounding factors, including age at first birth (used as a measure of delayed childbearing, hence a proxy for need for fertility treatment), geographic remoteness and Australian jurisdiction. Assisted reproductive technology access progressively decreased as socio-economic quintiles became more disadvantaged, with a 15.8% decrease in access in the most disadvantaged quintile compared with the most advantaged quintile after controlling for confounding factors. The adjusted rate of access to assisted reproductive technology treatment also decreased by 12.3% for women living in regional and remote areas compared with those in major cities. These findings indicate that financial and sociocultural barriers to assisted reproductive technology treatment remain in disadvantaged groups after adjusting for need. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…

  1. An Adapted Dialogic Reading Program for Turkish Kindergarteners from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergül, Cevriye; Akoglu, Gözde; Sarica, Ayse D.; Karaman, Gökçe; Tufan, Mümin; Bahap-Kudret, Zeynep; Zülfikar, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Adapted Dialogic Reading Program (ADR) on the language and early literacy skills of Turkish kindergarteners from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. The effectiveness of ADR was investigated across six different treatment conditions including classroom and home based implementations in various…

  2. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  3. How Do Some Students Overcome Their Socio-Economic Background? PISA in Focus. No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Are socio-economically disadvantaged students condemned to perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of poor academic achievement, poor job prospects and poverty? Not if they attend schools that provide them with more regular classes. Resilient students in the 2006 and 2009 PISA surveys displayed high levels of academic achievement despite the fact…

  4. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  5. Socio-economic health differences in The Netherlands: a review of recent empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J P

    1992-02-01

    Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is associated with a higher frequency of a wide range of health problems. This negative association has consistently been found for the following health indicators: birth weight; adult body height; prevalence of health complaints; prevalence of many chronic conditions; prevalence of disability; incidence of long-term work incapacity; perceived general health; adult mortality. Inconsistent findings were reported for: children's body height; prevalence of some chronic conditions; incidence of sickness absence (short-term work incapacity); perinatal mortality. The magnitude of the differences varies from study to study, and possibly from health problem to health problem. In studies categorizing the study population in 3-6 hierarchically ordered socio-economic groups on the basis of either education or occupational status, the Relative Risks (of the lowest versus the highest socio-economic group) mostly lie between 1 and 2. Exceptions are prevalence of disability and incidence of long-term work incapacity where Relative Risks between 2 and 4 have been found. A direct comparison with data from other countries is problematic, but at first sight the differences as observed in the Netherlands seem to be of the same order of magnitude as those observed in other industrialized countries. Although most Relative Risks imply 'weak associations' from a technical-epidemiological point of view, the Population Attributable Risks are substantial (generally between 0.25 and 0.40), underlining the public health impact of socio-economic health differences. Information on trends in health inequalities over time is limited to children's body height and adult mortality. For children's body height a substantial decrease of inequalities was

  6. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  7. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  8. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1988-07-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  9. Students' Choice of Post-Compulsory Science: In search of schools that compensate for the socio-economic background of their students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhag, Per; Emanuelsson, Patrik; Wickman, Per-Olof; Mikael Hamza, Karim

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly argued that socio-economic inequalities can explain many of the differences in achievement and participation in science education that have been reported among countries and among schools within a country. We addressed this issue by examining (a) the relationship between variables associated with socio-economic background and application frequencies to the Swedish Natural Science Programme (NSP) in upper secondary school and (b) whether there are lower secondary schools in Sweden that seem to compensate for these variables. Data from Statistics Sweden (SCB) covering the whole population of 106,483 ninth-grade students were used to calculate the probability for each student to apply to the NSP. Our results indicate that the variables, such as parental educational level and grades, have explanatory power, but with varying effect for different subpopulations of students. For example, grades in mathematics have a greater impact than grades in science for females' choice of the NSP. The opposite holds for male students. Out of 1,342 schools, 158 deviated significantly from predicted, that is, the students in these schools applied to the NSP in greater or lesser extent than expected. The number of deviating schools is greater than predicted by pure random variation. This suggests that variables of socio-economic background are only a partial explanation of the application frequencies, and that the deviation needs to be investigated further. Our findings suggest that in order to understand why schools deviate positively and so compensate for the socio-economic background of their students, we need to study their practices more closely.

  10. Longitudinal changes in functional capacity: effects of socio-economic position among ageing adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP). In addition, it is of interest whether health behaviours have an effect on these possible changes. Methods This longitudinal follow-up study consisted of 1,898 individuals from three birth cohorts (1926–1930, 1936–40, 1946–50) who took part in clinical check-ups and answered to a survey questionnaire in 2002 and 2008. A sub-scale of physical functioning from the RAND-36 was used to measure functional capacity. Education and adequacy of income were used as indicators of socio-economic position. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used as a main method of analysis. Results Physical functioning in 2002 and 2008 was poorest among those men and women belonging to the oldest cohort. Functional capacity deteriorated in six years among men in the oldest cohort and among women in all three cohorts. Socio-economic disparities in functional capacity among ageing people existed. Especially lower adequacy of income was most consistently associated with poorer functional capacity. However, changes in functional capacity by socio-economic position remained the same or even narrowed independent of health behaviours. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities in physical functioning are mainly incorporated in the level of functioning at the baseline. No widening socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity exist. Partly these disparities even seem to narrow with ageing. PMID:23241401

  11. Cancer awareness and socio-economic position: results from a population-based study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Wulff, Christian Nielsen; Vedsted, Peter

    2014-08-09

    Differences in cancer awareness between individuals may explain variations in healthcare seeking behaviour and ultimately also variations in cancer survival. It is therefore important to examine cancer awareness and to investigate possible differences in cancer awareness among specific population subgroups. The aim of this study is to assess awareness of cancer symptoms, risk factors and perceived 5-year survival from bowel, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer in a Danish population sample and to analyse the association between these factors and socio-economic position indicators. A population-based telephone survey was carried out among 1,000 respondents aged 30-49 years and 2,000 respondents aged 50 years and older using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Information on socio-economic position was obtained by data linkage through Statistics Denmark. Prevalence ratios were used to determine the association between socio-economic position and cancer awareness. A strong socio-economic gradient in cancer awareness was found. People with a low educational level and a low household income were more likely to have a lower awareness of cancer symptoms, cancer risk factors and the growing risk of cancer with age. Furthermore, men and people outside the labour force tended to be less aware of these factors than women and people within the labour force. However, women were more likely than men to lack awareness of the relationship between age and cancer risk. No clear associations were found between socio-economic position and lack of awareness of 5-year survival from bowel, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. As cancer awareness has shown to be positively associated with cancer-related behaviour, e.g. healthcare seeking, consideration must be given to tackle inequalities in cancer awareness and to address this issue in future public health strategies, which should be targeted at and tailored to the intended recipient groups.

  12. Health Insurance, Socio-Economic Position and Racial Disparities in Preventive Dental Visits in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ayo-Yusuf, Imade J.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Olutola, Bukola G.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine the contributions of socio-economic position and health insurance enrollment in explaining racial disparities in preventive dental visits (PDVs) among South Africans. Data on the dentate adult population participating in the last South African Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2003–2004 (n = 6,312) was used. Main outcome measure: Reporting making routine yearly PDVs as a preventive measure. Education, material wealth index and nutritional status indicated socio-economic position. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of PDVs. A variant of Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was also conducted. Health insurance coverage was most common among Whites (70%) and least common among black Africans (10.1%) in South Africa. Similarly, a yearly PDV was most frequently reported by Whites (27.8%) and least frequently reported among black Africans (3.1%). Lower education and lower material wealth were associated with lower odds of making PDVs. There was significant interaction between location (urban/rural) and education (p = 0.010). The racial and socio-economic differences in PDVs observed in urban areas were not observed in rural areas. In the general dentate population, having health insurance significantly increased the odds of making PDVs (OR = 4.32; 3.04–6.14) and accounted for 40.3% of the White/non-White gap in the probability of making PDVs. Overall, socio-economic position and health insurance enrollments together accounted for 55.9% (95% CI = 44.9–67.8) of the White/non-White gap in PDVs. Interventions directed at improving both socio-economic position and insurance coverage of non-White South Africans are likely to significantly reduce racial disparities in PDVs. PMID:23282482

  13. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Gobina, Inese; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Hetland, Jørn; de Looze, Margaretha; Richter, Matthias; Due, Pernille

    2009-09-01

    To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries. The overall OR (95 % CI) for 2+ daily health complaints for all countries was 1.31 (1.27-1.36) in the medium versus high FAS group and 2.07 (2.00-2.14) in the low versus high FAS group. This socio-economic gradient in health complaints attenuated somewhat in the multilevel models which included macro level data. There was no association between GNP and health complaints. The OR for high symptom load was 1.35 (1.08-1.69) per 10 % increase in Gini coefficient. The socio-economic gradient in health complaints at the individual level was somewhat attenuated in the multilevel models which included macro level data. There was a significant association between low FAS and high level of health complaints in 30 of 37 countries. Health complaints increased significantly by increasing income inequality in the country.

  14. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P.; Hamberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Individual and area socio-economic status (SES) are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH) were reflectively analyzed. Results The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and mortality overall. PMID

  15. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for

  16. The Socio-Economic Gradient in Children's Reading Skills and the Role of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Lingam, Raghu; Friend, Angela

    2015-01-01

    By the time children leave primary school there is a large socio-economic gap in their reading proficiency. There are a number of potential explanations for this socio-economic gap and in this paper we investigate the role of three particular genes and gene-environment interactions in determining children's reading skills, using the Avon…

  17. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  18. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  19. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  20. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  1. The Socio-Economic Gradient in Children's Reading Skills and the Role of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Lingam, Raghu; Friend, Angela

    2015-01-01

    By the time children leave primary school there is a large socio-economic gap in their reading proficiency. There are a number of potential explanations for this socio-economic gap and in this paper we investigate the role of three particular genes and gene-environment interactions in determining children's reading skills, using the Avon…

  2. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  4. Growth in Literacy and Numeracy Achievement: Evidence and Explanations of a Summer Slowdown in Low Socio-Economic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Weaven, Mary; Davies, Anne; Hooley, Neil; Davidson, Kristy; Loton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of summer slide or setback has gained a great deal of attention in the USA. It is understood to account for as much as 80% of the difference in achievement for students between low and high socio-economic families over their elementary schooling. In a mixed method longitudinal study of reforms in low socio-economic school…

  5. Human Costs of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the human costs of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity and...whether these costs are equitably compensated for and represented in the price of the electricity.'' Analysis considers estimates of the value of human life, lost productivity, and potential effects of radiation. (Author/AL)

  6. Human Costs of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the human costs of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity and...whether these costs are equitably compensated for and represented in the price of the electricity.'' Analysis considers estimates of the value of human life, lost productivity, and potential effects of radiation. (Author/AL)

  7. Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

    2011-12-01

    The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

  8. Langevin processes, agent models and socio-economic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Sabatelli, Lorenzo

    2004-05-01

    We review some approaches to the understanding of fluctuations of financial asset prices. Our approach builds on the development of a simple Langevin equation that characterises stochastic processes. This provides a unifying approach that allows first a straightforward description of the early approaches of Bachelier. We generalize the approach to stochastic equations that model interacting agents. The agent models recently advocated by Marsilli and Solomon are motivated. Using a simple change of variable, we show that the peer pressure model of Marsilli and the wealth dynamics model of Solomon are essentially equivalent. The methods are further shown to be consistent with a global free energy functional that invokes an entropy term based on the Boltzmann formula. There follows a brief digression on the Heston model that extends the simple model to one that, in the language of physics, exhibits a temperature this is subject to stochastic fluctuations. Mathematically the model corresponds to a Feller process. Dragulescu and Yakovenko have shown how the model yields some of the stylised features of asset prices. A more recent approach by Michael and Johnson maximised a Tsallis entropy function subject to simple constraints. They obtain a distribution function for financial returns that exhibits power law tails and which can describe the distribution of returns not only over low but also high frequencies (minute by minute) data for the Dow Jones index. We show how this approach can be developed from an agent model, where the simple Langevin process is now conditioned by local rather than global noise. Such local noise may of course be the origin of speculative frenzy or herding in the market place. The approach yields a BBGKY type hierarchy of equations for the system correlation functions. Of especial interest is that the results can be obtained from a new free energy functional similar to that mentioned above except that a Tsallis like entropy term replaces the

  9. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road

    PubMed Central

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania’s food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while

  10. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  11. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    describes the behavior of hydropower operators. This integrated model allows to quantitatively explore possible trajectories of future evolution of the hydropower systems under the combined effect of climate and socio-economic drivers. In a multi-objective perspective, the model can test how different hydropower operation strategies perform in terms of power production, reliability and flexibility of supply, profitability of operation, and ecosystem conservation. This contribution presents the methodological framework designed to formulate the integrated model, its expected outcomes, and some preliminary results on a pilot study.

  12. Socio-economic status, geographic remoteness and childhood food allergy and anaphylaxis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mullins, R J; Clark, S; Camargo, C A

    2010-10-01

    The risk factors for food allergy (FA) and anaphylaxis remain uncertain. We examined the association between socio-economic status (SES), geographic remoteness and childhood FA and anaphylaxis in Australia. Sales of infant hypoallergenic formulae (IHF; 2008-2009) and EpiPens (2006-2007) in children aged 0-4 years and hospital anaphylaxis admission rates (2002-2006) in age groups 0-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-64 and 65+ years were used as proxy markers of FA and anaphylaxis in Australia. Government and commercially derived data were analysed by SES and geographic remoteness (very remote, remote, outer regional, inner regional and major cities). Annual IHF sales rates were higher in those with the greatest compared with the least socio-economic advantage (47,830 vs. 21,384 tins/100,000 population; P<0.001). EpiPen sales trends were also higher in those with the greatest socio-economic advantage in all age groups, most marked in those aged 0-4 (1713 vs. 669/100,000; P=0.002) and 5-14 years (1628 vs. 600/100,000; P=0.001). Formula sales rates were higher in major cities than remote/very remote regions (37,421 vs. 6704/100,000; P<0.001) with similar EpiPen sales trends, particularly in ages 0-4 (1166 vs. 601/100,000; P=0.045) and 5-14 years (1099 vs. 588/100,000; P<0.001). Socio-economic advantage and geographic remoteness remained statistically significant in multivariable analysis of prescription rates (P<0.01) and were unchanged by adjustment for health services access. While anaphylaxis admission rates were higher in those with the greatest compared with the least socio-economic advantage in children aged 0-4 years (129 vs. 92/100,000 population/year; P=0.03), the opposite was observed in older age groups (e.g. aged 25-64 years: 43 vs. 76, P=0.01). There was no association between geographic remoteness and anaphylaxis admissions. Socio-economic advantage and residence in major cities may be risk factors for developing childhood FA and anaphylaxis. Further study will

  13. Integration of Weather Research Forecast (WRF) Hurricane model with socio-economic data in an interactive web mapping service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnert, J.; Wilhelmi, O.; Sampson, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    The integration of weather forecast models and socio-economic data is key to better understanding of the weather forecast and its impact upon society. Whether the forecast is looking at a hurricane approaching land or a snow storm over an urban corridor; the public is most interested in how this weather will affect day-to-day activities, and in extreme events how it will impact human lives, property and livelihoods. The GIS program at NCAR is developing an interactive web mapping portal which will integrate weather forecasts with socio-economic and infrastructure data. This integration of data is essential to better communication of the weather models and their impact on society. As a pilot project, we are conducting a case study on hurricane Ike, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas on 13 September, 2008, with winds greater than 70 mph. There was heavy flooding and loss of electricity due to high winds. This case study is an extreme event, which we are using to demonstrate how the Weather Research Forecasts (WRF) model runs at NCAR can be used to answer questions about how storms impact society. We are integrating WRF model output with the U.S. Census and infrastructure data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) web mapping framework. In this case study, we have identified a series of questions and custom queries which can be viewed through the interactive web portal; such as who will be affected by rain greater than 5 mm/h, or which schools will be affected by winds greater than 90 mph. These types of queries demonstrate the power of GIS and the necessity of integrating weather models with other spatial data in order to improve its effectiveness and understanding for society.

  14. [Years of Life Lost Due to Premature Death and Their Relationship with Climate and Socio-Economic Performance of Regions].

    PubMed

    Boytsov, S A; Samorodskaya, I V; Tret'jakov, V V; Vatolina, M A

    2015-01-01

    The "years of potential life lost" (YPLL) indicator is widely used in international studies. Still YPLL's variety in the Russian regions is poorly investigated. Our aim was to study the performance of YPLL in the regions of Russia in 2013 and their relationship with the regional socio-economic indicators. Non-clinical observational study was conducted. The object of study--YPLL in the Russian regions. YPLL per 100 thousand population (non-standardized and standardized to the world standard population age structure) is based on data of Rosstat. Subject of investigation--YPLL variability in the regions, the evaluation of the correlation between YPLL, climatic effect and socio-economic indicators of the regions. The average standardized YPLL in the region was 20,185 (95% CI 19,272-21,029); non-standardized--25,880 (95% CI 24,744-26,957). Maximum standardized YPLL above the minimum in 3.4 times. Minimum YPLL rates were recorded in the North Caucasus, Moscow and St. Petersburg; maximum--in Chukotka, Republic of Tuva and the Jewish Autonomous Region. Negative statistically significant correlation to the average power detected between YPLL and: 1) specific weight of the total space, equipped with water supply, hot water supply and sanitation; 2) share of population with tertiary education in total population; 3) road density (km of roads per 1000 sq km); 4) climatic conditions. The regional YPLL indicators vary considerably and are higher than the similar indicators in developed countries. According to the findings PYLL indicator are influenced by economic factor,indicators of household living conditions of the population, the infrastructure system in the region, the level of education of the population and climatic effect. The resuts we got require further multidisciplinary study of the problem.

  15. Racial and Socio-Economic Disparities in Breast Cancer Hospitalization Outcomes by Insurance Status

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Sakhuja, Swati; Raviv, Neomi Vin

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women in the US, and despite numerous studies documenting racial disparities in outcomes, the survival difference between Black and White women diagnosed with breast cancer continues to widen. Few studies have assessed whether observed racial disparities in outcomes vary by insurance type e.g. Medicare/Medicaid versus private insurance. Differences in coverage, availability of networked physicians, or cost-sharing policies may influence choice of treatment and treatment outcomes, even after patients have been hospitalized, effects of which may be differential by race. Purpose The aim of this analysis was to examine hospitalization outcomes among patients with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer and assess whether differences in outcome exist by insurance status after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. Methods We obtained data on over 67,000 breast cancer patients with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer for this cross-sectional study from the 2007-2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS), and examined breast cancer surgery type (mastectomy vs. breast conserving surgery or BCS), post-surgical complications and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable regression models were used to compute estimates, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Black patients were less likely to receive mastectomies compared with White women (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.71 - 0.90), regardless of whether they had Medicare/Medicaid or Private insurance. Black patients were also more likely to experience post-surgical complications (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.12-1.78) and higher in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.57, 95%: 1.21-2.03) compared with White patients, associations that were strongest among women with Private insurance. Women residing outside of large metropolitan areas were significantly more likely to receive mastectomies (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1

  16. Aquacultural and socio-economic aspects of processing carps into some value-added products.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, H S; Sehgal, G K

    2002-05-01

    Carps are the mainstay of Indian aquaculture, contributing over 90% to the total fish production, which was estimated to be 1.77 million metric tonnes in 1996. Carp culture has a great potential for waste utilization and thus for pollution abatement. Many wastes such as cow, poultry, pig, duck, goat, and sheep excreta, biogas slurry, effluents from different kinds of factories/industries have been efficiently used for enhancing the productivity of natural food of carps and related species. Besides, several organic wastes/byproducts such as plant products, wastes from animal husbandry, and industrial by-products have been used as carp feed ingredients to lower the cost of supplementary feeding. However, to ensure the continued expansion of fish ponds and the pollution control, there must be a market for the fish (carps) produced in these ponds. The carps have, however, a low market value due to the presence of intra-muscular bones, which reduces their consumer acceptability. Thus, a need was felt to develop some boneless convenience products for enhancing the consumer acceptability of the carps. Efforts were made to prepare three value-added fish products, namely fish patty, fish finger and fish salad from carp flesh and were compared with a reference product ('fish pakoura'). Sensory evaluation of these products gave highly encouraging results. The methods of preparation of these products were transferred to some progressive farmers of the region who prepared and sold these products at very attractive prices. Carp processing has a great potential for the establishment of a fish ancillary industry and thus for boosting the production of these species. In Punjab alone, there is a potential of consuming 32,448 metric tonnes per annum of such value-added products (which would require 54,080 metric tonnes of raw fish). The development of value-added products has a significant role in raising the socio-economic status of the people associated with carp culture. The

  17. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K.; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. Objectives To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. Design This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Results Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1–3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6–43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. Conclusion The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns. PMID

  18. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  19. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market

    PubMed Central

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  20. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    PubMed

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed.

  1. Rates of breastfeeding and exposure to socio-economic adversity amongst children with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gore, Nick; Emerson, Eric; Brady, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Children with intellectual disability are at increased risk of experiencing poor health relative to their typically developing peers. Previous research indicates that exposure to socio-economic disadvantage contributes towards this disparity but that additional factors (including parenting practices) may be involved in mediating/moderating pathways. This study examined duration of breastfeeding amongst children with and without intellectual disability by a secondary analysis of data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Children with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have been ever breastfed; breastfed exclusively or at all at 3 months or breastfed at all at 6 months relative to children without intellectual disability. None of these differences remained significant when other psycho-social risk factors for reduced breastfeeding were controlled for. The study adds to both the sparse literature on breastfeeding practices amongst families of children with intellectual disability and research demonstrating relationships between socio-economic disadvantage and wellbeing for children with intellectual disability.

  2. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  3. Socio-economic differences in public opinion regarding water fluoridation in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Mummery, W Kerry; Duncan, Mitchell; Kift, Ryan

    2007-08-01

    To describe public opinion relating to the fluoridation of drinking water in a sample of the Queensland population. Data were collected by means of a computer-assisted telephone interview survey from a sample of the Queensland population. Descriptive statistics and logistical regression were used to examine associations between variables. Seventy per cent of the total sample supported water fluoridation of their local supply. More than 71% of the total sample agreed that water fluoridation was safe. People living in areas of higher socio-economic/relative socio-economic advantage were more likely to support the addition of fluoride to local drinking water and agree that it was safe. Opinions about fluoridation varied by respondent age and gender. General support was found in this sample of the Queensland population for fluoridation of drinking water. In Queensland, fluoridation of the water supply is now a political decision. Information about public opinion on fluoridation may assist decision makers in the final determination.

  4. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  5. Socio-economic status and fertility decline: Insights from historical transitions in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain; Gauvreau, Danielle; Hanson, Heidi A; Maloney, Thomas N; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Molitoris, Joseph; Pozzi, Lucia; Smith, Ken R; Vézina, Hélène

    2017-03-01

    The timings of historical fertility transitions in different regions are well understood by demographers, but much less is known regarding their specific features and causes. In the study reported in this paper, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society, but do support the idea that the upper classes acted as forerunners by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers were the latest to start limiting their fertility. Apart from these similarities, patterns of class differences in fertility varied significantly between populations.

  6. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 2. Environmental studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS) investigated conditions in the Jubba Valley of southern Somalia. Projections from that baseline information were intended to elucidate changes likely to occur as a result of construction of a high dam near Baardheere and related developments. In particular, JESS was required to suggest ways of mitigating adverse impacts, enhancing potentially good impacts, and to draw up a program for future environmental and socio-economic monitoring. The report contains an analysis of the Terrestrial Ecology Baseline Studies (TEBS) section of the JESS project. Human use of biological resources is examined from the perspectives of land use, forestry, rangelands, and biological conservation. TEBS activities are used as the basis for a future monitoring program of terrestrial ecology.

  7. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  8. Socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet: results from the E3N study.

    PubMed

    Affret, Aurélie; Severi, Gianluca; Dow, Courtney; Rey, Grégoire; Delpierre, Cyrille; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2017-06-01

    To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet. Dietary data from a large cohort study were used to derive two mutually exclusive dietary patterns through a latent class analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-economic factors were studied with logistic regression. E3N, a French prospective cohort study composed of women recruited from a national health insurance plan covering people working in the national education system. E3N participants (n 73 031) with dietary and socio-economic data available. The 'Healthy' pattern was characterized by a large consumption of fruits and vegetables and the 'Less Healthy' pattern by a large consumption of pizza and processed meat. When all socio-economic factors were analysed together, all of the individual factors considered were associated with a healthy diet (e.g. women with three or more children were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. women with no children, OR (95 % CI): 0·70 (0·66, 0·75)) while the contextual factors associated with a healthy diet included the size of the agglomeration of residence and the area of birth and residence (e.g. women living in the West of France were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. those living in the South of France: 0·78 (0·72, 0·83)). We demonstrated that individual and contextual factors are both associated with diet. Rather than focusing only on individual factors, we recommend future studies or public health and nutritional strategies on diet to consider both types of factors.

  9. Socio-Economic and Cultural Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis at the Kenya – Uganda Transboundary

    PubMed Central

    Rutto, Jane Jemeli; Osano, Odipo; Thuranira, Elias Gitonga; Kurgat, Richard Kiptum; Odenyo, Victor Agab Omondi

    2013-01-01

    Background Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r.) infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. Results Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7%) applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a larger extent than

  10. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.

  11. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Design Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Setting Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. Subjects In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45–69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40–60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21 326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Results Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII) = 2·02–5·17) and women (RII = 2·09–3·57). Conclusions The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position. PMID:20843403

  12. Factors associated with GPs' knowledge of their patients' socio-economic circumstances: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ludovic; Ringa, Virginie; Bloy, Géraldine; Falcoff, Hector; Rigal, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    To determine appropriate management for individual patients, GPs are supposed to use their knowledge of the patient's socio-economic circumstances. To analyse factors associated with GPs' knowledge of these circumstances. Observational survey of GPs who were internship supervisors in the Paris metropolitan area. Each of 52 volunteer GPs completed a self-administered questionnaire about their own characteristics and randomly selected 70 patients from their patient list. Their knowledge was analysed as the agreement between the patients' and GPs' responses to questions about the patients' socio-economic characteristics in questionnaires completed by both groups. The association between agreement and the GPs' characteristics was analysed with a multilevel model adjusted for age, sex and the duration of the GP-patient relationship. Agreement varied according to the socio-economic characteristics considered (from 51% to 90%) and between GPs. Globally, the GPs overestimated their patients' socio-economic level. GP characteristics associated with better agreement were sex (female), long consultations, the use of paper records or an automatic reminder system and participation in continuing medical education and in meetings to discuss difficult cases. Knowledge of some patient characteristics, such as their complementary health insurance coverage or perceived financial situation, should be improved because their overestimation may lead to care that is too expensive and thus result in the patients' abandonment of the treatment. Besides determining ways to help GPs to organize their work more effectively, it is important to study methods to help doctors identify their patients' social-economic circumstances more accurately in daily practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Variation in supermarket exposure to energy-dense snack foods by socio-economic position.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the availability of energy-dense,nutrient-poor snack foods (and fruits and vegetables) in supermarkets located insocio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional supermarket audit. Melbourne, Australia. Measures included product shelf space and number of varieties for soft drinks, crisps, chocolate, confectionery and fruits and vegetables, as well as store size. Thirty-five supermarkets (response 83 %) from neighbourhoods in the lowest and highest quintile of socio-economic disadvantage. Shelf space allocated to soft drinks (23?6m v. 17?7m, P50?006), crisps (16?5m v. 13?0m, P50?016), chocolate (12?2m v. 10?1m, P50?022) and confectionery (6?7m v. 5?1m, P50?003) was greater in stores from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for store size (stores in disadvantaged areas being larger), shelf space for confectionery (6?3m v. 5?6m, P50?024) and combined shelf space for all energy-dense foods and drinks (55?0m v. 48?9m, P50?017) remained greater in stores from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The ratio of shelf space allocated to fruits and vegetables to that for energy-dense snack foods also varied by socio-economic disadvantage after adjustment for store size (most disadvantaged v. least disadvantaged: 1?7 v. 2?1, P50?025). Varieties of fruits and vegetables and chocolate bars were more numerous in less disadvantaged areas (P,0?05). Exposure to energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks in supermarketswas greater in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Thismay impact purchasing, consumption and cultural norms related to eatingbehaviours and may therefore work against elimination of the known socioeconomicgradient in obesity levels. Reform of supermarket stocking practicesmay represent an effective means of obesity prevention.

  14. Socio-Economic Status and Peritonitis in Australian Non-Indigenous Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P; Hawley, Carmel M; Badve, Sunil V; Boudville, Neil C; Brown, Fiona G; Clayton, Philip A; Johnson, David W

    2015-01-01

    ♦ The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 - 9; IRSD deciles 4 - 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  15. Socio-Economic Status and Peritonitis in Australian Non-Indigenous Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil C.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Johnson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ Results: 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 – 9; IRSD deciles 4 – 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ Conclusions: In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. PMID:24497587

  16. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.

  17. Effect of socio-economic status on quality of life in people affected with respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana; Wronka, Iwona; Marchewka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the impact of respiratory allergy on quality of life in young people, and examined whether socio-economic status modifies the above dependence. The study was conducted in 458 female and 363 male university students, aged 18-25. Information on socio-economic status (SES) was collected using a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were medically diagnosed. Quality of life (QoL) was based on the Polish version of the SF-36 test. Respiratory allergy or respiratory and food allergy were declared by 19.2 % of women and 19.0 % of men. The prevalence of allergy was higher in students with high SES. The students suffering from allergy obtained lower scores in all domains of QoL, but the differences were statistically insignificant. However, the overall test result in allergic students was significantly lower than that in non-allergic students. Differences QoL were significantly associated with socio-economic variables. In persons with low SES, the differences in QoL between those suffering from allergy and those who did not have allergy were larger than in persons with high SES. The results indicate that the course of allergic diseases is highly dependent on socio-economic status. The prevalence of allergy among students of low status is lower than among those of high status. However, allergy to a greater extent impairs the quality of life of students with low than high SES.

  18. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    PubMed

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged <6 years. The concentration index for socio-economic inequality in stunting was -0·1913. Mother's education contributed 70 % in decomposition of this index. Mean height-for-age Z-score was -0·544 and -0·335 for low and high socio-economic groups, respectively. Mother's education was the factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  19. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  20. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-05

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  1. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    PubMed

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-06

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage.

  2. A multilevel study of area socio-economic status and food purchasing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Thomas, Lyndal R; Jolley, Damien; Subramanian, Sv; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the association between area socio-economic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Data were collected by mail survey (64.2 % response rate). Area SES was indicated by the proportion of households in each area earning less than $AUS 400 per week, and individual-level socio-economic position was measured using education, occupation and household income. Food purchasing was measured on the basis of compliance with dietary guideline recommendations (for grocery foods) and variety of fruit and vegetable purchase. Multilevel regression analysis examined the association between area SES and food purchase after adjustment for individual-level demographic (age, sex, household composition) and socio-economic factors. Melbourne city, Australia, 2003. Residents of 2564 households located in fifty small areas. Residents of low-SES areas were significantly less likely than their counterparts in advantaged areas to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar; and they purchased a smaller variety of fruits. There was no evidence of an association between area SES and vegetable variety. In Melbourne, area SES was associated with some food purchasing behaviours independent of individual-level factors, suggesting that areas in this city may be differentiated on the basis of food availability, accessibility and affordability, making the purchase of some types of foods more difficult in disadvantaged areas.

  3. The role of socio-economic position as a moderator of children's healthy food intake.

    PubMed

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota M; Parletta, Natalie; Dollman, James

    2014-09-14

    Children of low socio-economic position (SEP) consume poorer diets than those of high SEP; however, there is limited understanding of why socio-economic gradients in diet occur. Some evidence suggests that determinants of dietary intake may differ between SEP groups. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the associations between personal and environmental variables and children's fruit and vegetable intake, and healthy dietary behaviours are moderated by SEP. A total of 395 children aged 9 to 13 years and their parents were recruited in Adelaide, South Australia. Personal and environmental dietary predictors were measured using child-completed online questionnaires and telephone interviews with parents. Dietary intake was measured using an online FFQ. First, dietary predictors were identified using correlated component regression, and subsequently tested for moderation by four SEP indicators using partial least-squares structural equation modelling. Fruit and vegetable intake and healthy behaviours were predicted by self-efficacy, attitudes and a supportive home environment. For girls, only the associations of self-efficacy with healthy behaviours were moderated by occupation. For boys, income moderated the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with attitudes, and healthy behaviours with supportive home environments. Occupation and employment moderated the associations of boys' family environments and fruit intake, and attitudes with healthy behaviours. Reducing socio-economic disparities in children's healthy dietary intake may be more successfully achieved by tailoring health promotion policies and interventions according to variables that moderate the relationships between dietary intake and SEP.

  4. [The influence of socio-economic conditions in renal posttransplant infection].

    PubMed

    Ianhez, L E; Sampaio, M; Chocair, P R; Fonseca, J A; Sabbaga, E

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and four patients who underwent renal transplantation were followed up as outpatients with a minimum of four years. They were divided into two socio-economic levels: group I - 104 patients who underwent transplantation in a private hospital and 120 patients (group II) with a lower socio-economic standard, treated in a public hospital. In both groups urinary infections and hepatitis were excluded. The incidence of infection in group I was 24% and in group II, 50% (p = 0.0002). There was no difference in relation to viral infection in either groups. However, bacterial infection and infection by opportunistic agents were significantly higher in group II (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0282). The number of hospitalizations and the number of infections of patients were higher in group II. There was a tendency for an increase in mortality owing to infection in group II. There was no difference in the two groups as the parameters of: age, sex, type of donor, primary disease, number of rejections crises, level of serum creatinine and number of patients with ciclosporine. On the other hand, the dose of azathioprine and prednisone was mildly higher in those patients of group II. Low level of socio-economic conditions is a risk factor in renal transplant patients.

  5. Socio-Economic Spatial for the Sustainability of the Estuary Ecosystem in Pelabuhanratu Coastal West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriatna, L.; Supriatna, J.; Harmantyo, D.

    2017-02-01

    An estuary area is a typical ecosystem where a vast array of fish breed to enlarge populations. These regions are made productive by organic material in the form of foodstuff, while receiving sunlight sufficient enough to illuminate the brackish waters. These zones must be protected due to their fertile waters and surrounding fertile land. Estuary areas are threatened by nearby landfill and waste debris along and upstream of the river, which consequently contaminate the estuary zone. Socio-economic conditions of the community also affect the sustainability of the estuary. In this case, the Socio-Economic Spatial Model, based on Geographical Information System (GIS) and trade off analysis, were used to elaborate the ecosystem sustainability in the Cimandiri estuary, West Java. This research also uses the temporal analysis of land use change upstream and monitors the community activity around the estuary. The research showed a change in the spatial and temporal land use consequently altering the watershed and the socio-economic analysis showed the community use of the estuary as unsustainable for the region and ecosystems within.

  6. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J.; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  7. Addressing tuberculosis patients' medical and socio-economic needs: a comprehensive programmatic approach.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Carmen C; Millones, Ana K; Santa Cruz, Janeth; Aguilar, Margot; Clendenes, Martin; Toranzo, Miguel; Llaro, Karim; Lecca, Leonid; Becerra, Mercedes C; Yuen, Courtney M

    2017-04-01

    For a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Carabayllo, Peru, we describe the prevalence of medical comorbidities and socio-economic needs, the efforts required by a comprehensive support programme ('TB Cero') to address them and the success of this programme in linking patients to care. Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Carabayllo underwent evaluations for HIV, diabetes, mental health and unmet basic needs. For patients initiating treatment during 14 September, 2015-15 May, 2016, we abstracted data from evaluation forms and a support request system. We calculated the prevalence of medical comorbidities and the need for socio-economic support at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis, as well as the proportion of patients successfully linked to care or support. Of 192 patients, 83 (43%) had at least one medical comorbidity other than tuberculosis. These included eight (4%) patients with HIV, 12 (6%) with diabetes and 62 (32%) deemed at risk for a mental health condition. Of patients who required follow-up for a comorbidity, 100% initiated antiretroviral therapy, 71% attended endocrinology consultations and 66% attended psychology consultations. Of 126 (65%) patients who completed the socio-economic evaluation, 58 (46%) reported already receiving food baskets from the municipality, and 79 (63%) were given additional support, most commonly food vouchers and assistance in accessing health care. Carabayllo tuberculosis patients face many challenges in addition to tuberculosis. A collaborative, comprehensive treatment support programme can achieve high rates of linkage to care for these needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Socio-economic transformation of Akan funeral rites in Ghana: the changing process.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Cultural traditions at the end of life solidify societal members. As the world becomes more globalized, socio-economic factors affect how traditional practices are expressed, and the role and toll they make on modern societies. This article examines the contemporary Akan funeral practices in Ghana. Akan lineage members, from birth through puberty, marriage, maturity, old age, go through various rites of passage that bond them culturally and spiritually to others in society. One such ritual is funeral celebration. Funeral celebration, an old practice, has always been at the heart of public social events of Akan people. However, the changes in Ghanaian Akan funerals over the past 4 decades, and their impact on the people, make this an important topic. The article describes the Akan belief of life after death, the respect accorded to the dead, the prestige associated with successful funeral celebrations, and socio-economic factors that continue to shape Akan funeral practices. Socio-economic impact and the resulting challenges are discussed.

  9. Differences in the socio-economic distribution of inflammatory bowel disease and microscopic colitis.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, A; Turner, K O; Genta, R M

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and microscopic colitis are characterized by different geographical distributions across the USA. In this cross-sectional study we utilized demographic and socio-economic information associated with individual ZIP codes to further delineate the epidemiological characteristics of the two diseases. A total of 813 057 patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2008 and 2014 were extracted from an electronic database of histopathology reports. The prevalence of patients with IBD or microscopic colitis was expressed as percentage of the population associated with specific demographic (age, sex, ethnicity) and socio-economic characteristics (population size, housing value, annual income, tertiary education). Both diseases were more common among subjects from ZIP codes with predominantly White residents and less common among subjects from ZIP codes with predominantly non-White residents such as Black, Hispanic and Asian. These ethnic variations were more pronounced in microscopic colitis than IBD. Markers of affluence, such as average residential house value and annual income, were positively associated with IBD and negatively with microscopic colitis. The prevalence of both diseases was positively correlated with tertiary education. The occurrence of both IBD and microscopic colitis is influenced by environmental risk factors. The differences in the demographic, ethnic and socio-economic distributions of the two diseases suggest that different sets of risk factors affect the two diseases and that their aetiology is unrelated. Published [2016]. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. What is the impact of socio-economic inequalities on the use of mental health services?

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, Francesco; Jones, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Amartya Sen, who received the Nobel Prize for Economics, has demonstrated that the incidence of deprivation, in terms of capability, can be surprisingly high even in the most developed countries of the world. The study of socio-economic inequalities, in relation to the utilisation of health services, is a priority for epidemiological research. Socio-economic status (SES) has no universal definition. Within the international research literature, SES has been related to social class, social position, occupational status, educational attainment, income, wealth and standard of living. Existing research studies have shown that people from a more deprived social background, with a lower SES, are more likely to have a higher psychiatric morbidity. Many studies show that SES influences psychiatric services utilization, however the real factors linking SES and mental health services utilisation remain unclear. In this editorial we discuss what is currently known about the relationship between SES and the use of mental health services. We also make an argument for why we believe there is still much to uncover in this field, to understand fully how individuals are influenced by their personal socio-economic status, or the neighbourhood in which they live, in terms of their use of mental health services. Further research in this area will help clarify what interventions are required to provide greater equality in access to mental health services.

  11. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    PubMed

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure.

  12. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J.; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  13. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  14. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  15. What are the socio-economic conditions of local areas affected by wildfires in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, José Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The socio-economic context of wildfire distribution is paramount to understand the conditions that influence the vulnerability and resilience levels of different communities exposed to wildfire risk. This research had the main purpose to assess the social and economic dimensions of fire occurrence in Portugal, the country most affected by wildfires in Europe. Differences in fire incidence levels, obtained from number of fire events and burned areas recorded between 2007 and 2014, were examined in relation to socio-economic data from the latest Census at local level, describing conditions regarding exposure levels, sociodemographic patterns, infrastructures, agricultural activities and labour conditions for the civil parishes of mainland Portugal. To identify differences between parishes, two groups were retrieved for fire events and burned areas separately, based on quantiles and keeping only the highest and lowest 20% of wildfire incidence data. The relationships between the wildfire incidence groups and the socio-economic variables were assessed with a stepwise approach based on classification trees. First, irrelevant variables for identifying differences between the groups were removed by an interactive process based on misclassification rates. The second step used random Forest analysis with the selected variables to compute the strength of association and rank variables by importance. The third step applied cluster analysis to determine if the clusters created only with the selected independent variables were equivalent to the initial groups. Results showed that the social and economic conditions of civil parishes vary with wildfire incidence levels. Population density, proportion of foreigners, overcrowded housing conditions, proportion of houses occupied seasonally, and agricultural variables, such as pastures and livestock density, appeared as relevant to distinguish the two fire incidence groups, although with differences in their level of importance and

  16. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. Results In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3–37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9–34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0–34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2–35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02–1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92–2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26–1.86]). Conclusion These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level. PMID:27441841

  17. Low cost space power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Randall B.

    1991-01-01

    The success of this study has given a method of fabricating durable copolymer films without size limitations. Previously, only compression molded samples were durable enough to generate electrical energy. The strengthened specimens are very long lived materials. The lifetime was enhanced at least a factor of 1,300 in full pyroelectric conversion cycle experiments compared with extruded, non-strengthened film. The new techniques proved so successful that the lifetime of the resultant copolymer samples was not fully characterized. The lifetime of these new materials is so long that accelerated tests were devised to probe their durability. After a total of more than 67 million high voltage electrical cycles at 100 C, the electrical properties of a copolymer sample remained stable. The test was terminated without any detectable degradation to allow for other experiments. One must be cautious in extrapolating to power cycle performance, but 67 million electrical cycles correspond to 2 years of pyroelectric cycling at 1 Hz. In another series of experiments at reduced temperature and electrical stress, a specimen survived over one-third of a billion electrical cycles during nearly three months of continuous testing. The radiation-limited lifetimes of the copolymer were shown to range from several years to millions of years for most earth orbits. Thus, the pyroelectric copolymer has become a strong candidate for serious consideration for future spacecraft power supplies.

  18. Socio-economic burden of influenza among children younger than 5 years in the outpatient setting in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Jing; Jiang, Yanwei; Ding, Yunfang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liling; Feng, Zijian; Iuliano, Danielle; McFarland, Jeffrey; Zhao, Genming

    2013-01-01

    The disease burden of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza in China has not been well described. The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology and socio-economic burden of influenza in children younger than 5 years in outpatient and emergency department settings. A prospective study of laboratory-confirmed influenza among children presenting to the outpatient settings in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital with symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) was performed from March 2011 to February 2012. Throat swabs were collected for detection of influenza virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Data were collected using a researcher administered questionnaire, concerning demographics, clinical characteristics, direct and indirect costs, day care absence, parental work loss and similar respiratory illness development in the family. Among a total of 6,901 children who sought care at internal outpatient settings, 1,726 (25%) fulfilled the criteria of ILI and 1,537 were enrolled. Influenza was documented in 365 (24%) of enrolled 1,537 ILI cases. Among positive patients, 52 (14%) were type A and 313 (86%) were type B. About 52% of influenza outpatients had over-the-counter medications before physician visit and 41% visited hospitals two or more times. Children who attended daycare missed an average of 1.9 days. For each child with influenza-confirmed disease, the parents missed a mean of 1.8 work days. Similar respiratory symptoms were reported in 43% of family contacts of influenza positive children after onset of the child's illness. The mean direct and indirect costs per episode of influenza were $123.4 for outpatient clinics and $134.6 for emergency departments, and $125.9 for influenza A and $127.5 for influenza B. Influenza is a common cause of influenza-like illness among children and has substantial socio-economic impact on children and their families regarding healthcare seeking and day care/work absence

  19. The socio-economic dimension of flood risk assessment: insights of KULTURisk framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the

  20. Socio-economic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Europe: an exploration of the role of heightened social mobility.

    PubMed

    Simons, Audrey M W; Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The larger than expected socio-economic inequalities in health in more egalitarian countries might be explained by a heightened social mobility in these countries. Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to examine the associations between country-level social mobility, income inequality and socio-economic differences in all-cause mortality, using country-level secondary data from 12 European countries. Both income equality and social mobility were found to be associated with larger socio-economic differences in mortality, particularly in women. These findings suggest that social mobility and income equality, beside their shiny side of improving population health, might have a shady side of increasing socio-economic health inequalities.

  1. Socio-economic risk factors for injuries in Swedish children and adolescents: a national study over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Cecilia; Schyllander, Jan; Stark Ekman, Diana; Janson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have assessed if Sweden's injury prevention work has been equally effective for children of different socio-economic backgrounds. The goal of this paper is to review the country's injury rates for children over time, stratified by socio-economic status (SES), to see if the effects are similar across SES levels. This study employs a retrospective case-control study design, using data from the hospitalisation records of 51,225 children, which were linked to family socio-economic data. Children and adolescents in families receiving social welfare benefits, and those living with single parents and mothers with less education had higher risks of injuries leading to hospitalisation. The population-based safety work over the past decades seems to have had only minor effects on reducing the impact of socio-economic based difference in injury risks to younger Swedes.

  2. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity) were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance) and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings) were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-1.49), poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60), more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83), more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73), and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41). The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio-economic

  3. Optimal location selection for the installation of urban green roofs considering honeybee habitats along with socio-economic and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jae Ha; Lee, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Won Kyung; Sohn, So Young

    2017-03-15

    This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects. The benefits of green roofs are improved energy efficiency and air quality, reduction of urban flood risk and infrastructure improvement costs, reuse of storm water, and creation of space for education and leisure. Furthermore, the estimated cost of installing green roofs is also considered. We employ spatial data to determine the expected effects of green roofs on each building unit, because the benefits and costs may vary depending on the location of the building. This is due to the heterogeneous spatial conditions. In the third step, the final building sites are proposed by solving the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal locations for green roofs as urban honeybee foraging sites. As an illustrative example, we apply the proposed framework in Seoul, Korea. This new framework is expected to contribute to sustainable urban ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Housing as a socio-economic determinant of health: findings of a national needs, gaps and opportunities assessment.

    PubMed

    Dunn, James R; Hayes, Michael V; Hulchanski, J David; Hwang, Stephen W; Potvin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    In 2002-2003, a Needs, Gaps and Opportunities Assessment (NGOA) was conducted to investigate relationships between socio-economic dimensions of housing and health. Recent reviews of the literature point to a dearth of research on the socio-economic dimensions of housing and health, despite its potential for promoting health. The NGOA sought to identify research needs and gaps, and future opportunities for research in housing, socio-economic status and health. The methods used included a literature scan, a scan of research capacity, eight regional stakeholder workshops across Canada, and an open-ended e-mail survey of stakeholders. In this paper, we report the findings of the stakeholder consultations. The main finding of the NGOA was that there is a significant dearth of research on housing as a socio-economic determinant of health but enormous potential for conducting high-impact, longitudinal and quasi-experimental research in the area. Of particular interest to stakeholder participants in the NGOA were the economic aspects of housing and health; the impact of housing on health for vulnerable subgroups (e.g., Aboriginal peoples, immigrants, children, seniors); the role of socio-economically and ethnically mixed communities; and the interaction between socio-economic aspects of housing and biophysical hazards in the home. The NGOA demonstrated that there is a substantial audience eager for knowledge on housing as a socio-economic determinant of health and that such knowledge could make an immediate impact on policy decision-making and program operation. Although knowledge gaps are substantial, the NGOA clearly identifies opportunities for high-impact, longitudinal and quasi-experimental research. Recently signed federal-provincial funding agreements for housing make the findings of the NGOA timely. Moreover, the NGOA results demonstrate how research on housing as a socio-economic determinant of health could be a strategy for improving our understanding of the

  5. Socio-economic status, dietary habits and health-related outcomes in various parts of the world: a review.

    PubMed

    Vlismas, Konstantinos; Stavrinos, Vassilios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2009-06-01

    It is generally accepted that socio-economic status (SES) influences dietary habits as well as human health. Three main parameters have been most often used to define SES, i.e., occupation, education and income. These characteristics cover different aspects of the socio-economic structure of people. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge regarding the relationships between SES, dietary habits and health-related outcomes in various parts of the world.

  6. Socio-economic Effects of Drought in the Horn of Africa: Population Movements, Livelihoods, Market Prices, and Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-21

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 4- 5 Socio-economic Effects of Drought in the Horn of Africa Population Movements, Livelihoods, Market Prices , and...ERDC/CRREL TR-14-5 April 2014 Socio-economic Effects of Drought in the Horn of Africa Population Movements, Livelihoods, Market Prices , and...Additional analyses investigated market price re- sponse to drought and market connectivity and explored the use of census data on household water

  7. Socio-economic Evaluation Of Different Alternatives For Flood Protection Within The Rivierenland-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, S. P.; van Ast, J. A.

    The Netherlands have a tradition of protecting land against flooding from the main rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt by means of an extensive system of dikes. In recent years, however, this approach to protection has been increasingly questioned with re- gard to its sustainability and cost-effectiveness. The argument is that although the continued elevation of dikes may be technically feasible, there are several disadvan- tages to this approach. Firstly, a vast network of dikes requires a very high degree of organisation of water management, in which mistakes can not be afforded. Such a high degree of organisation may not always be maintainable in the future, due to changed economic or political circumstances. Secondly, it may not be the most cost- effective system for maintaining safety in the long term. Thirdly, it may not be the most desirable approach in terms of sustainability. One of the alternatives to contin- ued dike-elevation is the concept 'room for the river' ('ruimte voor de rivier'), which aims to give more space to rivers in the horizontal in stead of the vertical dimen- sion. This approach would reduce the risk of flooding, defined as the product of the probability and the consequences of flooding. In order to explore the long term con- sequences of both alternatives ('dike elevation' and 'room for the river'), the ministry of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Public Works, Transport and Water Management) started the 'Rivierenland'-project. The comparison of the alternatives mentioned was based on a fictitious project to adjust a region of The Netherlands, between the rivers Rhine and Meuse, to the concept of 'room for water'. The consequence of this adjustment would be that safety within that region would no longer be safeguarded by dikes, but by adjusting daily life to the 'demands of the water'. Part of the 'Rivierenland'-project was an analysis of the socio-economic costs and benefits of the alternative approaches. Within this analysis, a study was performed

  8. The role of socio-economic disadvantage in the development of comorbid emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra; Moulton, Vanessa

    2017-01-07

    Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. Second, to explore the roles of the home environment (household chaos) and parenting (quality of emotional support, quality of the parent-child relationship and harsh parental discipline) in mediating any associations between socio-economic disadvantage and child emotional and conduct problems. Using growth curve models, we found that socio-economic disadvantage was associated with emotional and conduct problems but neither the home environment nor parenting attenuated this association. Lower quality of the parent-child relationship and harsher discipline were associated with more conduct problems. It appears that socio-economic disadvantage and parenting contribute independently to the prediction of comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD.

  9. The relationship between socio-economic status and access to eye health services in the UK: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Knight, A; Lindfield, R

    2015-02-01

    Lower socio-economic status has been shown to adversely affect access to general health care. This study aims to determine the existence and nature of an association between socio-economic status and access to eye health services in the UK. Systematic review. Search terms were run in four databases and reviewed against a pre-agreed set of inclusion and exclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Quality of studies was assessed according to calculations of statistical significance, size of effect, primary research question and a quality score against an adapted STROBE checklist. Good quality studies included in the review most commonly concluded that lower socio-economic groups had less access to eye health services than higher socio-economic groups. However there were a comparable number of studies that concluded that there was no association. This discrepancy was largely attributed to different ways of measuring socio-economic status, access, and types of eye health services, and so studies did not compare the same thing. The evidence base was of low quality, limiting the ability of this review to make definitive conclusions. The review concluded that there is equal and weak evidence of lower socio-economic groups having reduced access to eye health services in the UK, and there being no association. This subject would benefit from further research to improve the quality of the evidence base. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Socio-Economic Determinants on the Vaccination Rates with Rotavirus and Human Papiloma Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    GRDADOLNIK, Urška; SOČAN, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines. Methods Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the average gross pay in euros, the unemployment rate, the educational and households structure, the population density, the number of inhabitants, the number of children aged from 0 to 4, the number of women aged from 15 to 30) were extracted from Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia web page. The strength of the correlation between socioeconomic variables and self-paid HPV and RV vaccination rates was determined. Results Rotavirus vaccination rates show a slight negative correlation with the number of residents per administrative unit (ρ=−0.29, p=0.04), and no correlation with other socio-economic variables. Likewise, no correlation has been found between HPV vaccination rates and the selected socio-economic variables. Conclusion Ecological study did not reveal any correlations between socio economic variables and vaccination rates with RV and HPV self-paid vaccines on administrative unit level. PMID:27647088

  11. The Impact of Socio-Economic Determinants on the Vaccination Rates with Rotavirus and Human Papiloma Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Grdadolnik, Urška; Sočan, Maja

    2016-03-01

    Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines. Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the average gross pay in euros, the unemployment rate, the educational and households structure, the population density, the number of inhabitants, the number of children aged from 0 to 4, the number of women aged from 15 to 30) were extracted from Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia web page. The strength of the correlation between socioeconomic variables and self-paid HPV and RV vaccination rates was determined. Rotavirus vaccination rates show a slight negative correlation with the number of residents per administrative unit (ρ=-0.29, p=0.04), and no correlation with other socio-economic variables. Likewise, no correlation has been found between HPV vaccination rates and the selected socio-economic variables. Ecological study did not reveal any correlations between socio economic variables and vaccination rates with RV and HPV self-paid vaccines on administrative unit level.

  12. Socio-economic Inequality in the Use of Procedures and Mortality Among AMI Patients: Quantifying the Effects Along Different Paths.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Terje P; Häkkinen, Unto; Iversen, Tor; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Moger, Tron Anders

    2015-12-01

    It is not known whether inequality in access to cardiac procedures translates into inequality in mortality. In this paper, we use a path analysis model to quantify both the direct effect of socio-economic status on mortality and the indirect effect of socio-economic status on mortality as mediated by the provision of cardiac procedures. The study links microdata from the Finnish and Norwegian national patient registers describing treatment episodes with data from prescription registers, causes-of-death registers and registers covering education and income. We show that socio-economic variables affect access to percutaneous coronary intervention in both countries, but that these effects are only moderate and that the indirect effects of the socio-economic factors on mortality through access to percutaneous coronary intervention are minor. The direct effects of income and education on mortality are significantly larger. We conclude that the socio-economic gradient in the use of percutaneous coronary intervention adds to socio-economic differences in mortality to little or no extent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Extremely large telescopes as a motor of socio-economic development and implications of their construction and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Martin, J.; Sanchez-Padron, M.; Sanchez, F.; Martinez-Roger, Carlos

    2004-07-01

    Large-Scale observing facilities are scarce and costly. Even so, the perspective to enlarge or to increase the number of these facilities are quite real and several projects are undertaking their first steps in this direction. These costly facilities require the cooperation of highly qualified institutions, able to undertake the project from the scientific and technological point of view, as well as the vital collaboration and effective support of several countries, at the highest level, able to provide the necessary investment for their construction. Because of these technological implications and the financial magnitude of these projects, their impact goes well beyond the international astrophysical community. We propose to carry out a study on the socio-economic impact from the construction and operation of an Extremely Large Telescope of class 30 - 100 m. We plan to approach several aspects such as its impact in the promotion of the employment; social, educational and cultural integration of the population; the impulse of industries; its impact on the national and international policies on research; environmental issues; etc. We will also analyze the financial instruments available, and those special aids only accessible for some countries and regions to encourage their participation in projects of this magnitude.

  14. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  15. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors.

    PubMed

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  16. Community-based behavior change promoting child health care: a response to socio-economic disparity.

    PubMed

    Horii, Naoko; Habi, Oumarou; Dangana, Alio; Maina, Abdou; Alzouma, Souleymane; Charbit, Yves

    2016-04-21

    Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth is a key behavioral health factor known to decrease neonatal mortality risks. Yet, few demographic studies examined how a community-based intervention impacts postpartum breastfeeding among the socio-economically deprived population in Sub-Saharan Africa. A post-intervention evaluation was conducted in 2011 to measure the effect of a UNICEF-led behavior change communication program promoting child health care in rural Niger. A quantitative survey is based on a post hoc constitution of two groups of a study sample, exposed and unexposed households. The sample includes women aged 15-49 years, having at least one child less than 24 months born with vaginal delivery. Rate ratio for bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were applied for statistical analysis. The outcome variable is the initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Independent variables include other behavioral outcome variables, different types of communication actions, and socio-demographic and economic status of mothers. The gaps in socio-economic vulnerability between the exposed and unexposed groups imply that mothers deprived from accessing basic health services and hygiene facilities are likely to be excluded from the communication actions. Mothers who practiced hand washing and used a traditional latrine showed 2.0 times more likely to initiate early breastfeeding compared to those who did not (95 % CI 1.4-2.7; 1.3-3.1). Home visits by community volunteers was not significant (AOR 1.2; 95 % CI 0.9-1.5). Mothers who got actively involved in exclusive breastfeeding promotion as peers were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour of birth (AOR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.4-2.9). A multi-sectorial approach combining hygiene practices and optimal breastfeeding promotion led to supporting early initiation of breastfeeding. A peer promotion of child health care suggests a model of behavior change communication strategy

  17. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Mischler, Paula; Kearney, Michael; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Vounatsou, Penelope; Malone, John B

    2012-09-01

    Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent) ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL), low annual precipitation (45-250 mm), and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C) as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively), while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC). This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts) would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  18. Neighborhood socio-economic characteristics, African ancestry, and Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Sonderman, Jennifer S.; Zheng, Wei; Williams, Scott M.; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The authors recently reported high Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence among African-Americans of high African ancestry. We sought to determine whether neighborhood-level socio-economic characteristics are associated with H. pylori prevalence and whether this helps explain the link between African ancestry and H. pylori. Methods Antibodies to H. pylori proteins were assessed in the serum of 336 African-American and 329 white Southern Community Cohort Study participants. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for CagA+ and CagA− H. pylori were calculated using polytomous logistic regression in relation to 10 Census block group-level measures of socio-economic status. Results After adjusting for individual-level characteristics, three neighborhood-level factors were significantly inversely related to CagA+ H. pylori: percent completed high school; median house values; and percent employed (comparing highest to lowest tertile, OR, 0.47, 95 % CI, 0.26–0.85; OR, 0.56, 95 % CI, 0.32–0.99; and OR, 0.59, 95 % CI, 0.34–1.03, respectively). However, accounting for these measures did not attenuate the association between African ancestry and CagA+ H. pylori, with African-Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry maintaining two-, seven-, and ninefold increased odds, respectively, compared to whites. Conclusions Neighborhood-level measures of education, employment, and house values are associated with CagA+ H. pylori sero-prevalence, but do not explain the persistent strong relationship between African ancestry level and CagA+ H. pylori. The findings suggest that neighborhood socio-economic status can help to highlight high-risk areas for prevention and screening efforts and that the link between African ancestry and H. pylori may have a biological basis. PMID:22527167

  19. Analysing Relationships Between Urban Land Use Fragmentation Metrics and Socio-Economic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapena, M.; Ruiz, L. A.; Goerlich, F. J.

    2016-06-01

    Analysing urban regions is essential for their correct monitoring and planning. This is mainly accounted for the sharp increase of people living in urban areas, and consequently, the need to manage them. At the same time there has been a rise in the use of spatial and statistical datasets, such as the Urban Atlas, which offers high-resolution urban land use maps obtained from satellite imagery, and the Urban Audit, which provides statistics of European cities and their surroundings. In this study, we analyse the relations between urban fragmentation metrics derived from Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) data from the Urban Atlas dataset, and socio-economic data from the Urban Audit for the reference years 2006 and 2012. We conducted the analysis on a sample of sixty-eight Functional Urban Areas (FUAs). One-date and two-date based fragmentation indices were computed for each FUA, land use class and date. Correlation tests and principal component analysis were then applied to select the most representative indices. Finally, multiple regression models were tested to explore the prediction of socio-economic variables, using different combinations of land use metrics as explanatory variables, both at a given date and in a dynamic context. The outcomes show that demography, living conditions, labour, and transportation variables have a clear relation with the morphology of the FUAs. This methodology allows us to compare European FUAs in terms of the spatial distribution of the land use classes, their complexity, and their structural changes, as well as to preview and model different growth patterns and socio-economic indicators.

  20. Socio-economic status and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Song, L; Shen, L; Li, H; Liu, B; Zheng, X; Zhang, L; Xu, S; Wang, Y

    2017-06-21

    The relationship between socio-economic status and gestational diabetes mellitus has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between socio-economic status and risk of gestational diabetes. Data were obtained from the ongoing Healthy Baby Cohort study in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Information on educational level and household income was collected using standard questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. Gestational diabetes was defined based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group's criteria. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for gestational diabetes in relation to socio-economic status. Among 6886 participants, 1005 (14.6%) pregnant women were diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Higher educational level was inversely associated with risk of gestational diabetes (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58, 0.95 for high school and OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50, 0.76 for college or above). After adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs for gestational diabetes were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59, 1.00) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.51, 0.83) for women with high school and college or above education, respectively, compared with women with less than high school education. No significant association between household income and gestational diabetes was observed after adjustment for potential confounders. Subgroup analysis showed that the reduced risk of gestational diabetes with higher educational level was more evident among women with a pre-pregnancy BMI < 24 kg/m(2) (P for interaction = 0.022). Our findings suggested that educational level was a more robust predictor of gestational diabetes than household income among Chinese women. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  1. Neighborhood socio-economic characteristics, African ancestry, and Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Cohen, Sarah S; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Zheng, Wei; Williams, Scott M; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B

    2012-06-01

    The authors recently reported high Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence among African-Americans of high African ancestry. We sought to determine whether neighborhood-level socio-economic characteristics are associated with H. pylori prevalence and whether this helps explain the link between African ancestry and H. pylori. Antibodies to H. pylori proteins were assessed in the serum of 336 African-American and 329 white Southern Community Cohort Study participants. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for CagA+ and CagA- H. pylori were calculated using polytomous logistic regression in relation to 10 Census block group-level measures of socio-economic status. After adjusting for individual-level characteristics, three neighborhood-level factors were significantly inversely related to CagA+ H. pylori: percent completed high school; median house values; and percent employed (comparing highest to lowest tertile, OR, 0.47, 95 % CI, 0.26-0.85; OR, 0.56, 95 % CI, 0.32-0.99; and OR, 0.59, 95 % CI, 0.34-1.03, respectively). However, accounting for these measures did not attenuate the association between African ancestry and CagA+ H. pylori, with African-Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry maintaining two-, seven-, and ninefold increased odds, respectively, compared to whites. Neighborhood-level measures of education, employment, and house values are associated with CagA+ H. pylori sero-prevalence, but do not explain the persistent strong relationship between African ancestry level and CagA+ H. pylori. The findings suggest that neighborhood socio-economic status can help to highlight high-risk areas for prevention and screening efforts and that the link between African ancestry and H. pylori may have a biological basis.

  2. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?

    PubMed

    Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

  3. Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

    2011-05-01

    This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex

  4. A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2005-03-01

    One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they involve several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is led to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, and selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to some socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide with a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test this interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For these systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting parallel concerns the phase transition that occurs when locusts gather together to form swarms which may contain several billion insects. What hinders the thorough investigation of such cases from the standpoint of collective phenomena that we advocate is the lack or inadequacy of statistical data; up to now socio-economic data were collected for completely different purposes. Most essential, for further progress, are the statistics which would permit to estimate the strength of social ties and interactions. Once adequate data become available, rapid advancement may be expected. At the end of the paper, we will discuss whether or not the ergodic principle applies to social systems.

  5. The design and realization of a socio-economic statistical spatio-temporal database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cankun; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Haibo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims to introduce a case of Socio-economic statistical Spatio-temporal Database. This database system services in the rural socio-economic statistical work, which is a combination of statistical tables, spatial data, search algorithm and maintenance interface. Administrative codes are the conjunction media of spatial data and attribute data, and also are the key words of database query processing. Through storing the changing information in the database, it could reflect the change of administrative divisions. As the main issues of database design, the studying of the approach to recording and querying these changes as well as the processing of statistical data by the rules of administrative divisions changes, requires a large amount of research work. To address these problems, a series of management analysis tools have been developed to deal with the processing of socio-economic statistical data with changes in the administrative division. A searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database is used to ensure the comparability of the results, which are acquired by the positive sequence and the anti-sequence temporal query under complex spatial changes in the administrative division. According to the spatial changes, searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database mainly translates temporal series statistical data into standard format data which is matched to the benchmark year. The searching algorithm controls the process of inquiry through recursion of the table of the administrative code changes, which are composed of multi-way tree structure and double linked list and record the relationship between upper and lower level administrative units. These search algorithms and meta-data storage structures constitute the spatio-temporal database, so as to serve the spatial analysis of statistical data. The comparability problem mentioned above was well solved by this approach. And a set of functions was provided by this system with spatio-temporal database

  6. The design and realization of a socio-economic statistical spatio-temporal database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cankun; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Haibo

    2009-09-01

    This paper aims to introduce a case of Socio-economic statistical Spatio-temporal Database. This database system services in the rural socio-economic statistical work, which is a combination of statistical tables, spatial data, search algorithm and maintenance interface. Administrative codes are the conjunction media of spatial data and attribute data, and also are the key words of database query processing. Through storing the changing information in the database, it could reflect the change of administrative divisions. As the main issues of database design, the studying of the approach to recording and querying these changes as well as the processing of statistical data by the rules of administrative divisions changes, requires a large amount of research work. To address these problems, a series of management analysis tools have been developed to deal with the processing of socio-economic statistical data with changes in the administrative division. A searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database is used to ensure the comparability of the results, which are acquired by the positive sequence and the anti-sequence temporal query under complex spatial changes in the administrative division. According to the spatial changes, searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database mainly translates temporal series statistical data into standard format data which is matched to the benchmark year. The searching algorithm controls the process of inquiry through recursion of the table of the administrative code changes, which are composed of multi-way tree structure and double linked list and record the relationship between upper and lower level administrative units. These search algorithms and meta-data storage structures constitute the spatio-temporal database, so as to serve the spatial analysis of statistical data. The comparability problem mentioned above was well solved by this approach. And a set of functions was provided by this system with spatio-temporal database

  7. Incidence of HIV in Windhoek, Namibia: Demographic and Socio-Economic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Aulagnier, Marielle; Janssens, Wendy; De Beer, Ingrid; van Rooy, Gert; Gaeb, Esegiel; Hesp, Cees; van der Gaag, Jacques; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence in Windhoek, Namibia and to analyze socio-economic factors related to HIV infection. Method In 2006/7, baseline surveys were performed with 1,753 private households living in the greater Windhoek area; follow-up visits took place in 2008 and 2009. Face-to-face socio-economic questionnaires were administrated by trained interviewers; biomedical markers were collected by nurses; GPS codes of household residences were recorded. Results The HIV prevalence in the population (aged>12 years) was 11.8% in 2006/7 and 14.6% in 2009. HIV incidence between 2007 and 2009 was 2.4 per 100 person year (95%CI = 1.9–2.9). HIV incidence and prevalence were higher in female populations. HIV incidence appeared non-associated with any socioeconomic factor, indicating universal risk for the population. For women a positive trend was found between low per-capita consumption and HIV acquisition. A HIV knowledge score was strongly associated with HIV incidence for both men and women. High HIV prevalence and incidence was concentrated in the north-western part of the city, an area with lower HIV knowledge, higher HIV risk perception and lower per-capita consumption. Discussion The HIV incidence and prevalence figures do not suggest a declining epidemic in Windhoek. Higher vulnerability of women is recorded, most likely related to economic dependency and increasing transactional sex in Namibia. The lack of relation between HIV incidence and socio-economic factors confirms HIV risks for the overall urban community. Appropriate knowledge is strongly associated to lower HIV incidence and prevalence, underscoring the importance of continuous information and education activities for prevention of infection. Geographical areas were identified that would require prioritized HIV campaigning. PMID:21991374

  8. Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-01

    Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ≤Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (≥2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (≥1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules.

  9. Attitudes of haemophilic patients towards their health and socio-economic problems in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehramiri, A; Parand, S; Haghpanah, S; Karimi, M

    2012-01-01

    Although new technologies and treatments have improved the quality of life of people with haemophilia, they still face many health and socio-economic problems. We designed this study to identify some of these problems according to patients' attitudes towards efforts to solve them. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran, during January and May 2010. The participants were 100 patients with haemophilia who were referred to Shiraz Hemophilia Center, a major referral centre in southern Iran. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on the attitudes of haemophilic patients about some of their health and socio-economic problems. Mean age of the patients was 28.2 ± 9.0 (range of 16-67 years). In univariate analysis, disease severity, joint involvement, HCV status, income level and educational level of the patients were found to have possible effect on patients' attitude towards their health and socio-economic problems. However, in multivariate model we found that only income level, educational level and HCV status as independent factors influencing the patients' attitude towards childbearing, employment problems, occupational problems, social and friend relationship and continuing education. Haemophilic patients had many social and health problems, which could be alleviated with interdisciplinary interventions to improve their quality of life. Financial support of these patients should be taken into account to reduce their economic problems. Also, encouraging them and providing facilities to achieve a higher educational level could help them to have a better attitude towards their health and overcome the disease-related problems.

  10. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning from the census: the Socio-economic Factor Index (SEFI) and health outcomes in Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Chateau, Dan; Metge, Colleen; Prior, Heather; Soodeen, Ruth-Ann

    2012-07-04

    Using data from the Canadian census, researchers at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy sought to create an area-based socio-economic measure (ABSM). The degree of association between the ABSM and health was evaluated. Values on several census variables (including income, education, employment and family structure) were captured at the enumeration-area or dissemination-area level and submitted to a principal components factor analysis to create three ABSMs: an updated version of the Socio-economic Factor Index (SEFI-2) and modified versions of Pampalon's material deprivation and social deprivation indices. Factor scores from these analyses were then compared with several population health measures: Premature Mortality Rate (PMR), Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL), life expectancy, and self-rated health. SEFI-2 scores were strongly related not only to the other ABSMs but also to every measure of health status. The strongest correlations between an ABSM and health measure were for SEFI-2 and PYLL(r=0.85), and SEFI-2 and PMR (r=0.80). The weakest correlations were found with the social deprivation ABSM measure and the self-rated health measure. ABSMs based on measures from the Canadian census are a valuable resource to population health researchers. Importantly, depending on the research question and reason for the inclusion of an ABSM, these composite measures may perform better than a simple measure of income alone. The ability to adjust for socio-economic status when assessing population health status or population health interventions contributes to the validity of conclusions drawn when conducting this type of research, and ABSMs may be able to substitute for area health status where it may not be easily determined.

  12. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, T I Lund; Johnsen, R; Vatten, L J

    2000-01-01

    International and interethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence suggest an environmental aetiology, and lifestyle and socio-economic factors have been studied, but with divergent results. Information on a cohort of 22 895 Norwegian men aged 40 years and more was obtained from a health examination and two self-administered questionnaires. Information on incident cases of prostate cancer was made available from the Cancer Registry. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate incidence rate ratios as estimates of the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Reported P -values are two-sided. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 644 cases were diagnosed. Risk was elevated among men in occupations of high compared to low socio-economic status (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.05–1.61), and among men with high education compared to the least educated (RR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.11–2.19). A RR of 1.56 (95% CI 0.97–2.44) suggests a higher risk among divorced or separated men, compared with married men. We also found indications of a weak negative association with leisure-time physical activity (RR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.62–1.03 for high vs low activity), a weak positive association with increasing number of cigarettes (P = 0.046), while alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of prostate cancer. These results show that high socio-economic status is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and that divorced or separated men might be at higher risk than married men. Data from this study also indicate that high levels of physical activity may reduce prostate cancer risk. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10755415

  13. Prevalence, Causes and Socio-Economic Determinants of Vision Loss in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Nicky; Steven, David; Lecuona, Karin; Joubert, Francois; Rogers, Graeme; Cook, Colin; Polack, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Cape Town, South Africa and to explore socio-economic and demographic predictors of vision loss in this setting. Methods A cross sectional population-based survey was conducted in Cape Town. Eighty-two clusters were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Within each cluster 35 or 40 people aged 50 years and above were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity of participants was assessed and eyes with a visual acuity less than 6/18 were examined by an ophthalmologist to determine the cause of vision loss. Demographic data (age, gender and education) were collected and a socio-economic status (SES) index was created using principal components analysis. Results Out of 3100 eligible people, 2750 (89%) were examined. The sample prevalence of bilateral blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9–1.8). Posterior segment diseases accounted for 65% of blindness and cataract was responsible for 27%. The prevalence of vision loss was highest among people over 80 years (odds ratio (OR) 6.9 95% CI 4.6–10.6), those in the poorest SES group (OR 3.9 95% CI 2.2–6.7) and people with no formal education (OR 5.4 95% CI 1.7–16.6). Cataract surgical coverage was 68% in the poorest SES tertile (68%) compared to 93% in the medium and 100% in the highest tertile. Conclusions The prevalence of blindness among people ≥50 years in Cape Town was lower than expected and the contribution of posterior segment diseases higher than previously reported in South Africa and Sub Saharan Africa. There were clear socio-economic disparities in prevalence of vision loss and cataract surgical coverage in this setting which need to be addressed in blindness prevention programs. PMID:22363476

  14. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and socio-economic status: a prospective study in Duque de Caxias, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belo, M T C T; Luiz, R R; Teixeira, E G; Hanson, C; Trajman, A

    2011-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate tuberculosis treatment outcomes according to socio-economic status (SES) using different classification criteria. Patients aged ≥18 years under treatment for ≤8 weeks were interviewed. Outcomes were classified as successful (cure/completed) or unsuccessful (default/failure/death). The overall treatment default ratio was 20.9% and the unsuccessful outcome rate was 24.1%. Unsuccessful treatment was associated with SES according to any criteria used, except for the definition of poverty line. Poverty seems to be hampering the achievement of the World Health Organization targeted 90% cure rate in developing settings.

  15. Widowhood, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Wellbeing in Low and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Using data on women aged 50 and over from the WHO’s Survey of Ageing and Adult Health for China, Ghana, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa (N=17,009), we assess associations between widowhood and socio-economic, health and quality of life deprivations. We find variations in the prevalence and timing of widowhood across the study countries, and associations between widowhood and being in the poorest wealth quintile for all five countries. For other deprivations, national experiences varied, with stronger and more consistent effects for India and China. These findings challenge generalised claims about widowhood and call for more contextualised analysis. PMID:27594712

  16. Widowhood, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Wellbeing in Low and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia

    Using data on women aged 50 and over from the WHO's Survey of Ageing and Adult Health for China, Ghana, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa (N=17,009), we assess associations between widowhood and socio-economic, health and quality of life deprivations. We find variations in the prevalence and timing of widowhood across the study countries, and associations between widowhood and being in the poorest wealth quintile for all five countries. For other deprivations, national experiences varied, with stronger and more consistent effects for India and China. These findings challenge generalised claims about widowhood and call for more contextualised analysis.

  17. Multibeam Data and Socio-Economic Issues in West-Central San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Carlson, Paul R.; Wong, Florence L.; Cacchione, David A.

    1998-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the largest estuary on the conterminous U.S. Pacific Coast and is one of the world's largest natural harbors. It is a biologically productive and diverse environment. San Francisco Bay has a maritime economy that annually generates over $7.5 billion, handles 50 million tons of cargo, and involves thousands of jobs. Recent investigations by the USGS in this estuary help address both socio-economic and scientific issues: *Trimming pinnacles may prevent a calamitous oil spill. *Can San Francisco Bay accept more dredge spoil? *Bay floor biological habitats are quite varied. *How thick and how variable is the sediment fill in central San Francisco Bay?

  18. The prevalence of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome in a lower socio-economic group in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A

    1990-06-01

    The prevalence of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) was investigated in Zimbabwe. The study was carried out at Government dental centres, where most of the patients seen were local indigenous Zimbabweans belonging to the lower and lower middle socio-economic group which forms more than 80 per cent of the population of the country. There was a very low prevalence in this group unlike the results of similar studies in more developed countries. Nervous tensions, stress and strains associated with a faster pace of life and often cited in the aetiology of MPDS could be the attributing factor.

  19. Socio-economic deprivation and duration of hospital stay in severe mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Abas, Melanie Amna; Vanderpyl, Jane; Robinson, Elizabeth; Le Prou, Trix; Crampton, Peter

    2006-06-01

    Adults from South Auckland, New Zealand who required acute admission to hospital were followed from admission to discharge. After adjusting for demographic factors, diagnosis, chronicity, severity, consultant psychiatrist and involuntary admission, the length of stay for those from more deprived areas was significantly longer by 7 days than for those from less deprived areas. Information on socio-economic deprivation should be used in discharge planning and in optimising access to community care. Research is needed on group-level factors that may affect recovery from mental disorders.

  20. A mediation approach to understanding socio-economic inequalities in maternal health-seeking behaviours in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona M R; Ploubidis, George B

    2015-01-21

    The levels and origins of socio-economic inequalities in health-seeking behaviours in Egypt are poorly understood. This paper assesses the levels of health-seeking behaviours related to maternal care (antenatal care [ANC] and facility delivery) and their accumulation during pregnancy and childbirth. Secondly, it explores the mechanisms underlying the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and maternal health-seeking behaviours. Thirdly, it examines the effectiveness of targeting of free public ANC and delivery care. Data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey were used to capture two latent constructs of SEP: individual socio-cultural capital and household-level economic capital. These variables were entered into an adjusted mediation model, predicting twelve dimensions of maternal health-seeking; including any ANC, private ANC, first ANC visit in first trimester, regular ANC (four or more visits during pregnancy), facility delivery, and private delivery. ANC and delivery care costs were examined separately by provider type (public or private). While 74.2% of women with a birth in the 5-year recall period obtained any ANC and 72.4% delivered in a facility, only 48.8% obtained the complete maternal care package (timely and regular facility-based ANC as well as facility delivery) for their most recent live birth. Both socio-cultural capital and economic capital were independently positively associated with receiving any ANC and delivering in a facility. The strongest direct effect of socio-cultural capital was seen in models predicting private provider use of both ANC and delivery. Despite substantial proportions of women using public providers reporting receipt of free care (ANC: 38%, delivery: 24%), this free-of-charge public care was not effectively targeted to women with lowest economic resources. Socio-cultural capital is the primary mechanism leading to inequalities in maternal health-seeking in Egypt. Future studies should therefore examine the

  1. Cost optimisation studies of high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.; Nightingale, M.P.S.; Godden, D.

    1995-10-01

    Cost optimisation studies are carried out for an accelerator based neutron source consisting of a series of linear accelerators. The characteristics of the lowest cost design for a given beam current and energy machine such as power and length are found to depend on the lifetime envisaged for it. For a fixed neutron yield it is preferable to have a low current, high energy machine. The benefits of superconducting technology are also investigated. A Separated Orbit Cyclotron (SOC) has the potential to reduce capital and operating costs and intial estimates for the transverse and longitudinal current limits of such machines are made.

  2. The contribution of three components of nutrition knowledge to socio-economic differences in food purchasing choices.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-08-01

    To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio-economic

  3. Socio-economic rehabilitation programmes of LEPRA India--methodology, results and application of needs-based socio-economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rao, V P; Rao, I R; Palande, D D

    2000-12-01

    There is now a better understanding of the scope and process of rehabilitation. The approach recognizes the impact of leprosy on the individual, aims to understand the needs and concerns of those affected, their families and community in the rehabilitation process, and that aims to restore the person to normal social life. LEPRA India has undertaken socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) activities in its projects in Andrah Pradesh and Orissa States in India with a holistic approach that has been evolutionary, developmental and participatory. A SER Officer (SERO) was posted to each project. A plan was formulated by the SERO with participation of all project staff. The main emphasis of the programme was on active participation of the affected person in the rehabilitation process. A needs-assessment study was conducted in the target population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Information was elicited about social and economic status, before and after the disease, and the current rehabilitation needs of the persons affected. The next step was meeting the needs through interventions by the SER staff. The impact of the programme on restoration of social and economic status of the affected persons was analysed. The paper stresses the importance of assessing the needs of persons affected by leprosy, structuring a rehabilitation programme with the active participation of the affected person and evaluating the impact of the interventions in restoring normal social and economic life.

  4. Understanding socio-economic impacts of geohazards aided by cyber-enabled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2008-12-01

    Due to an increase in the volume of geohazards worldwide, not only are impoverished regions in less developed countries such as Haiti, vulnerable to risk but also low income regions in industrialized countries, e.g. USA, as well. This has been exemplified once again by Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna and Ike and the impact on the Caribbean countries during the summer of 2008. To date, extensive research has been conducted to improve the monitoring of human-nature coupled systems. However, there is little emphasis on improving and developing methodologies to a) interpret multi-dimensional and complex data and b) validate prediction and modeling results. This presentation tries to motivate more research initiatives to address the aforementioned issues, bringing together two academic disciplines, earth and social sciences, to research the relationship between natural and socio-economic processes. Results are presented where cyber-enabled methods based on artificial intelligence are applied to different geohazards and regions in the world. They include 1) modeling of public health risks associated with volcanic gas hazards, 2) prediction and validation of potential areas of mining-triggered earthquakes, and 3) modeling of socio-economic risks associated with tropical storms in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

  5. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  6. Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; Bianchi, Alessandra; Dottori, Francesco; Burek, Peter

    2016-06-01

    River floods generate a large share of the socio-economic impact of weather-driven hazards worldwide. Accurate assessment of their impact is a key priority for governments, international organization, reinsurance companies and emergency responders. Yet, available databases of flood losses over large domains are often affected by gaps and inconsistencies in reported figures. In this work, a framework to reconstruct the economic damage and population affected by river floods at continental scale is applied. Pan-European river flow simulations are coupled with a high-resolution impact assessment framework based on 2-D inundation modelling. Two complementary methods are compared in their ability to estimate the climatological average flood impact and the impact of each flood event in Europe between 1990 and 2013. The event-based method reveals key features, such as the ability to include changes in time of all three components of risk, namely hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Furthermore, it skilfully reproduces the socio-economic impact of major flood events in the past two decades, including the severe flooding hitting central Europe in June 2013. On the other hand, the integral method is capable of reproducing the average flood losses which occurred in Europe between 1998 and 2009. Strengths and limitations of the proposed model are discussed to stress the large potential for filling in the gaps of current datasets of flood impact.

  7. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  8. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: addressing inequities in exposure and risk.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M

    2015-05-19

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  9. [Teenage and adult pregnancy: different correlations between socio-economic status and smoking].

    PubMed

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál

    2013-03-10

    Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.

  10. Psychological traces of China's socio-economic reforms in the ultimatum and dictator games.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqi; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Huangfu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Can traces of rapid socio-economic changes within a society be reflected in experimental games? The post-Mao reforms in China provide a unique natural quasi-experiment to study people from the same society who were raised with radically different values about distribution of wealth and altruistic behavior. We tested whether the size of offers in the ultimatum and dictator games are an increasing function of the number of years Chinese citizens experienced of the Mao era ("planned economy"). For the cohort that lived throughout the entire Mao era, we found that mean offers in the two games were substantially higher than what is typically offered in laboratory studies. These offers were also higher than those of two younger Chinese cohorts. In general, the amount offered decreased with less time spent under Mao, while in the oldest group in which every member spent the same amount of time under Mao, the younger members tended to offer more, suggesting an additional effect of early education under Mao and contradicting the alternative hypothesis that generosity increases with age. These results suggest that some of the observed individual differences in the offers made in experimental games can be traced back to the values of the socio-economic era in which individuals grew up.

  11. Public health in China: An environmental and socio-economic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjing; Li, Yonghua; Hao, Zhe; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    Despite the large literature on public health, few studies have examined the associations between public health outcomes and environmental and socio-economic factors. This study bridges this gap by demonstrating the relationships between public health and 10 selected environmental and socio-economic factors from the spatial perspective. In particular, three public health outcomes in China are investigated, namely the number of centenarians per 100,000 people (termed the centenarian ratio), the proportion of nonagenarians of the 65 years and older population (termed the longevity index), and life expectancy at birth. We base our analysis on stepwise regression and geographically weighted regression models, with study areas of 31 provinces in China. Our results show that SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentration decreases the centenarian ratio; PM10 (particles with diameters of 10 μm or less) concentration and coal consumption (CC) per capita decrease the longevity index, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita prolongs life expectancy at birth, while energy consumption (EC) per capita decreases life expectancy at birth. Further, our findings demonstrate that public health outcomes show clear regional differences in China.

  12. Socio-economic and behavioural factors related to caries in twelve-year-old Sardinian children.

    PubMed

    Campus, G; Lumbau, A; Lai, S; Solinas, G; Castiglia, P

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to describe socio-economic and behavioural factors related to caries experience in school children in Sassari, Sardinia (Italy). Four hundred and three 12-year-old schoolchildren were randomly selected and their teeth clinically examined after air drying, under standard light using a plain mirror and WHO community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN) ballpoint probe. The clinical DMFS index was recorded following a diagnostic threshold, CPITN following the WHO indications. A questionnaire concerning oral hygiene habits (OHH), the onset of toothbrushing habits (OTH), frequency of dental check-ups (DCU), sweet food and soft drink consumption and socio-economic background factors, i.e. parents' occupational status (SOCFAM) and parents' age, was filled in by children and parent(s)/guardian(s). The caries prevalence was 61.6%. A positive skewness of DMFS was observed. Regarding caries, a significant linear trend (p<0.05) was found among odds ratios at each exposure level in SOCFAM, OHH, OTH and CPITN. A logistic regression model for caries was constructed using related factors. CPITN (gingival conditions) gave a significant contribution in the predictive model (p = 0.01). Gender acted as an effect modifier on CPITN, so logistic regression models were constructed for males and females separately. CPITN was the only statistically significant covariate in males and OHH the only one in females. Our results confirm a high caries prevalence and also a need for preventive and educational programmes for caries in Sardinia.

  13. Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Rychlik, Ewa; Siuba, Magdalena; Respondek, Wioleta; Ryżko-Skiba, Małgorzata; Sajór, Iwona; Gugała, Sylwia; Błażejczyk, Tomasz; Ciok, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection. METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H pylori infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups: I-examined group (111 persons with H pylori re-infection) and II-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors. RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001), vegetables (P = 0.02), and fruit (P = 0.008) consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected. CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables), might decrease the risk of H pylori re-infection. PMID:19266606

  14. Analysis of the methods for assessing socio-economic development level of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Olga; Bogacheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The present paper provides a targeted analysis of current approaches (ratings) in the assessment of socio-economic development of urban areas. The survey focuses on identifying standardized methodologies to area assessment techniques formation that will result in developing the system of intelligent monitoring, dispatching, building management, scheduling and effective management of an administrative-territorial unit. This system is characterized by complex hierarchical structure, including tangible and intangible properties (parameters, attributes). Investigating the abovementioned methods should increase the administrative-territorial unit's attractiveness for investors and residence. The research aims at studying methods for evaluating socio-economic development level of the Russian Federation territories. Experimental and theoretical territory estimating methods were revealed. Complex analysis of the characteristics of the areas was carried out and evaluation parameters were determined. Integral indicators (resulting rating criteria values) as well as the overall rankings (parameters, characteristics) were analyzed. The inventory of the most widely used partial indicators (parameters, characteristics) of urban areas was revealed. The resulting criteria of rating values homogeneity were verified and confirmed by determining the root mean square deviation, i.e. divergence of indices. The principal shortcomings of assessment methodologies were revealed. The assessment methods with enhanced effectiveness and homogeneity were proposed.

  15. The household-based socio-economic deprivation index in Setiu Wetlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Syerrina; May, Chin Sin; Rahman, Nuzlinda Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Deprivation index usually used in public health study. At the same time, deprivation index can also use to measure the level of deprivation in an area or a village. These indices are also referred as the index of inequalities or disadvantage. Even though, there are many indices that have been built before. But it is believed to be less appropriate to use the existing indices to be applied in other countries or areas which had different socio-economic conditions and different geographical characteristics. The objective of this study is to construct the index based on the socio-economic factors in Setiu Wetlands (Jajaran Merang, Jajaran Setiu and Jajaran Kuala Besut) in Terengganu Malaysia which is defined as weighted household-based socioeconomic deprivation index. This study has employed the variables based on income level, education level and employment rate obtained from questionnaire which are acquired from 64 villages included 1024 respondents. The factor analysis is used to extract the latent variables or observed variables into smaller amount of components or factors. By using factor analysis, one factor is extracted from 3 latent variables. This factor known as socioeconomic deprivation index. Based on the result, the areas with a lower index values until high index values were identified.

  16. Mass media campaign improves cervical screening across all socio-economic groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenny O; Mullins, Robyn M; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data were obtained from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry for each Pap test registered during 2005 and categorized into SES quintiles using the Index of Socio-Economic Advantage/Disadvantage. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the impact of the campaign on the weekly number of Pap tests and whether the media campaign had a differential effect by SES, after adjusting for the number of workdays per week, age group and time since previous test. Cervical screening increased 27% during the campaign period and was equally effective in encouraging screening across all SES groups, including low-SES women. Mass media campaigns can prompt increased rates of cervical screening among all women, not just those from more advantaged areas. Combining media with additional strategies targeted at low-SES women may help lessen the underlying differences in screening rates across SES.

  17. Agreement in measuring socio-economic status: area-based versus individual measures.

    PubMed

    Demissie, K; Hanley, J A; Menzies, D; Joseph, L; Ernst, P

    2000-01-01

    Area-based socio-economic status (SES) measures are frequently used in epidemiology. Such an approach assumes socio-economic homogeneity within an area. To quantify the agreement between area-based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 943 children who resided in 155 small enumeration areas and 117 census tracts from 18 schools in Montreal, Quebec. We used street address information together with 1986 census data and parental occupation to establish area-based and individual level SES indicators, respectively. As compared with the SES score determined at the level of the individual, 13 different area-based SES indices classified the children within the same quintile 28.7% (+/- 2.8%) of the time. The discrepancy was within one quintile in 35.3% (+/- 2.3%) of cases, two quintiles in 20.6% (+/- 3.6%), three quintiles in 11.3% (+/- 4.2%) and four quintiles in 4.1% (+/- 0.2%). In conclusion, we observed a substantial discrepancy between area- based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level. Caution should therefore be used in designing or interpreting the results of studies in which area-based SES measures are used to test hypotheses or control for confounding.

  18. Determinants of childhood immunization uptake among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants in East China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-07-09

    To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤ 24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents' educational level and the frequency of mother's utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

  19. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  20. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  1. Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.

    PubMed

    Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

    2014-07-01

    Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife.

  2. Socio-economic Correlates of Malnutrition among Married Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mostafa Kamal, S M; Md Aynul, Islam

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of malnutrition among ever married non-pregnant women of reproductive age of Bangladesh using a nationally representative weighted sample of 10,145. Body mass index was used to measure nutritional status. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to assess the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and women's nutritional status. Overall, 28.5% of the women were found to be underweight. The fixed effect multivariate binary logistic regression analysis yielded significantly increased risk of underweight for the young, currently working, non-Muslim, rural residents, widowed, divorced or separated women. Significant wide variations of malnourishment prevailed in the administrative regions of the country. Wealth index and women's education were the most important determinants of underweight. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of being underweight was almost seven times higher (OR=6.76, 95% CI=5.20-8.80) among women with no formal education as compared to those with higher education and the likelihood of underweight was significantly (p<0.001) 5.2 times (OR=5.23, 95% CI=4.51-6.07) in the poorest as compared to their richest counterparts. Poverty alleviation programmes should be strengthened targeting the poor. Effective policies, information and health education programmes for women are required to ensure adequate access to health services and for them to understand the components of a healthy diet.

  3. The Effect of Socio-Economic Status on Severity of Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma at Presentation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lik Thai; Agarwal, Pankaj K; Young, David; Ah-Kee, Elliott Yann; Diaper, Charles J M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of socio-economic factors on size of periocular basal cell carcinoma at presentation. All periocular basal cell carcinoma cases receiving treatment from the oculoplastics team in South Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, Glasgow, between 1999 and 2009, were identified retrospectively. Information collected included demographic details of patients, side and site of lesions, type of lesions, and size of lesions. The size of lesion was defined as small for any dimension not exceeding 5 mm, medium for dimensions between 6 mm and 10 mm, and large for dimensions exceeding 11 mm. Home address was used to determine the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation rank. The demographics, size of lesion, and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation rank were investigated using the general linear regression modelling. Of the 67 cases, 24 were men and 43 were women. The mean age was 71.5 years. There were a total of 67 identified cases, of which 38 presented with small-size lesions, 24 with medium-size lesions, and 5 with large-size lesions. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation is related to the presenting incidence of basal cell carcinoma, with the lower ranks presenting more frequently. Socio-economic deprivation is associated with larger and more frequent presentation of periocular basal cell carcinoma. This highlights the importance of raising awareness among populations of the more deprived areas of the significance of lumps and bumps within the periocular regions.

  4. Teaching Lower Socio-Economic Students About The Electromagnetic Spectrum Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauvelt, Sharon R.

    2006-12-01

    Educating students from lower socio-economic backgrounds can be both challenging and rewarding. In this study, I attempted to present information on the electromagnetic spectrum in several creative ways to make it both interesting and concrete for my students. Students from lower socio-economic backgrounds must have a connection with the subject matter and the electromagnetic spectrum presents the challenge of thinking abstractly about light and its properties. In the state of Missouri students are exposed to the concept of light and how humans perceive light in the 6th grade. Students at this age and especially in economically depressed areas have a harder time thinking abstractly and therefore the concept of light and sight can be confusing and misconceptions formed. The goal of my research is to gain insight to students’ prior knowledge, dispel misconceptions with concrete evidence and ideas while creating engaging lessons about electromagnetic spectrum. The understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum is fundamental for students to understand other concepts such as the Doppler Effect in stars, stellar magnitudes, distances to stars and other physics and astronomical concepts.

  5. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  6. Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other. PMID:25036182

  7. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  8. Environmental and socio-economic methodologies and solutions towards integrated water resources management.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Jan; Rodriguez Sinobas, Leonor; Foglia, Laura; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    Semi-arid regions are facing the challenge of managing water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and drought. These are recently pressured by the impact of climate change favoring the shifting from using surface water to groundwater without taking sustainability issues into account. Likewise, water scarcity raises the competition for water among users, increasing the risk of social conflicts, as the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is already one of the major factors limiting socio-economic development. In terms of hydrology, semi-arid regions are characterized by very complex hydro- and hydrogeological systems. The complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the poor data availability, (1) which limits the number of analysis techniques and methods available to researchers, (2) limits the accuracy of models and predictions, and (3) consequently challenges the capabilities to develop appropriate management measures to mitigate or adapt the environment to scarcity and drought conditions. Integrated water resources management is a holistic approach to focus on both environmental as well as on socio-economic factors influencing water availability and supply. The management approaches and solutions adopted, e.g. in form of decision support for specific water resources systems, are often highly specific for individual case studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological Traces of China's Socio-Economic Reforms in the Ultimatum and Dictator Games

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liqi; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Huangfu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Can traces of rapid socio-economic changes within a society be reflected in experimental games? The post-Mao reforms in China provide a unique natural quasi-experiment to study people from the same society who were raised with radically different values about distribution of wealth and altruistic behavior. We tested whether the size of offers in the ultimatum and dictator games are an increasing function of the number of years Chinese citizens experienced of the Mao era (“planned economy”). For the cohort that lived throughout the entire Mao era, we found that mean offers in the two games were substantially higher than what is typically offered in laboratory studies. These offers were also higher than those of two younger Chinese cohorts. In general, the amount offered decreased with less time spent under Mao, while in the oldest group in which every member spent the same amount of time under Mao, the younger members tended to offer more, suggesting an additional effect of early education under Mao and contradicting the alternative hypothesis that generosity increases with age. These results suggest that some of the observed individual differences in the offers made in experimental games can be traced back to the values of the socio-economic era in which individuals grew up. PMID:23967102

  10. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

  11. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  12. Uninterruptible Power Systems: Operational and Cost Considerations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    different possible power configuratioms which may be employed. Specific recommendations for reconfiguration to achieve cost savings are advanced for...Uncontrolled input circuits ( Argentina FAA Diamondhead, V-10 -’ ~~a Rewarc, Miami Hurricane, Pacific NOTAM, Cape Canaveral, Abino, Great Lakes) would continue...Shore. Diplomatic Telecommunications Service. Advanced Airborne Command Post. Ground Mobile Forces (GMF) Communications. White House Communications

  13. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-economic analysis of the risk management of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in China in the context of the Stockholm Convention.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hu, Jian-xin; Yi, Shan

    2016-05-01

    Socio-economic analysis (SEA) plays an important role in decision-making on risk management actions for certain chemicals under Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in developing countries. This paper showed the first holistic and quantitative SEA case study on that by developing a country-specific SEA framwork and methodologies and applying the case of HBCD phase-out in China under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The study indicates that, under the possible scenarios of 10 years and 5 years , the economic costs of HBCD phase-out in China would be between 9.032 and 19.021 billion RMB. Although the total economic costs seems to be significant, it would only have a marginal impact on the house building industry with a likely cost increase by about 0.07‰-0.14‰. Meanwhile, the HBCD phase-out may render significant environmental and health benefits, including about 23-29 tons of HBCD release prevented to the environment, 1.142-1.469 million tons of potentially HBCD contained hazardous wastes avoided, along with significant reduction from 58% up to almost 100% in local environmental concentrations of HBCD, and about 0.0996-0.128 million workers at risk avoided and at least 3.067-4.033 billion RMB of the health care savings. While the scenario of phasing out HBCD over 10 years would be less costly than the scenario of that over 5 years, the later scenario suggested much greater environmental and health benefits for China.

  15. Access to health care services as a justiciable socio-economic right under the South African constitution.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This commentary describes and analyses the decision of the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Minister of Health and Others v Treatment Action Campaign and Others where the South African government was found to have violated the right of access to health care under the Constitution. Section 27(1) guarantees everyone the right of access to health care services. Section 27(2) imposes on the state a duty to take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of this right. To the extent that government was unreasonably delaying access to patently affordable life-saving therapy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to a class of persons that was largely vulnerable and indigent, it is submitted that the case was correctly decided. However, there is little doubt that the decision, and in particular the prescriptive nature of the remedy granted by the Court and its budgetary implications, do no sit easily with a traditional notion of separation of powers between the judiciary on the one hand, and the executive and Parliament on the other. At the same time, it must be accepted that the remedy and its budgetary implications are an inevitable consequence of the inclusion of justiciable socio-economic rights in the Bill of Rights. The principles that were applied by the Court in determining the case were largely drawn from jurisprudence developed by organs under treaty bodies, and in particular the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

  16. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  17. Does parents' socio-economic status matter in intentions of vaccinating against human papillomavirus for adolescent daughters?

    PubMed

    Pan, Frank; Shu, Hui-Gan

    2015-03-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination provides substantial protection, and it is best to be taken before the age of twelve. Taiwan approved HPV vaccines since 2006. However, very few female adolescent have been vaccinated until now. To examine whether the parents' socio-economic status matters in deciding to purchase HPV vaccination for their daughters based on the theory of planned behavior. A structured questionnaire to collect 394 responses from parents of adolescent girls in Taiwan. Data was coded to categorize relevant socio-economic classes, and was analyzed with SPSS. The behavior intentions of parents with low (mean= 5.28) and high (5.01) socio-economic status are significantly stronger than the moderate (4.56) in deciding to purchase the HPV vaccination. Socio-economic factor has a slightly negative impact (B= -0.08), and attitude (0.68), subjective norms (0.16), and behavior control (0.32) have positive impacts on the parents' intention. Major impacts on the decision to purchase an HPV vaccination for their adolescent was not due to the parents' socio-economic status but the parent's attitude. As the major predictor of a less complicated decision, attitudes toward the HPV vaccination should be reinforced through continuous communications between service providers and patient-advocate groups.

  18. Burden of micronutrient deficiencies by socio-economic strata in children aged 6 months to 5 years in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are a chronic lack of vitamins and minerals and constitute a huge public health problem. MNDs have severe health consequences and are particularly harmful during early childhood due to their impact on the physical and cognitive development. We estimate the costs of illness due to iron deficiency (IDA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and zinc deficiency (ZnD) in 2 age groups (6–23 and 24–59 months) of Filipino children by socio-economic strata in 2008. Methods We build a health economic model simulating the consequences of MNDs in childhood over the entire lifetime. The model is based on a health survey and a nutrition survey carried out in 2008. The sample populations are first structured into 10 socio-economic strata (SES) and 2 age groups. Health consequences of MNDs are modelled based on information extracted from literature. Direct medical costs, production losses and intangible costs are computed and long term costs are discounted to present value. Results Total lifetime costs of IDA, VAD and ZnD amounted to direct medical costs of 30 million dollars, production losses of 618 million dollars and intangible costs of 122,138 disability adjusted life years (DALYs). These costs can be interpreted as the lifetime costs of a 1-year cohort affected by MNDs between the age of 6–59 months. Direct medical costs are dominated by costs due to ZnD (89% of total), production losses by losses in future lifetime (90% of total) and intangible costs by premature death (47% of total DALY losses) and losses in future lifetime (43%). Costs of MNDs differ considerably between SES as costs in the poorest third of the households are 5 times higher than in the wealthiest third. Conclusions MNDs lead to substantial costs in 6-59-month-old children in the Philippines. Costs are highly concentrated in the lower SES and in children 6–23 months old. These results may have important implications for the design, evaluation and choice of the

  19. Socio-economic development with regard to the availability of resources in Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, R.; Behle, C.; Doevenspeck, M.; Mulindabigwi, V.; Schopp, M.; Singer, U.; Henrichsmeyer, W.; Janssens, M.; Schug, W.

    2003-04-01

    The socio-economic part within the IMPETUS-Project analyses interdependencies between resource availability and socio-economic development in Benin. The results of various research activities of natural and social sciences are integrated in a modelling system, in order to calculate development scenarios of resource utilisation and food security in Benin for the next two decades. Missing data concerning water usage and economic parameters are collected in field surveys, in co-operation with other disciplines and stakeholders on site, investigating the upper Ouémé-catchment in particular. The demand of water is analysed by water frequency observation, household analysis and interviews with experts and shows the effects of changing socio-economic parameters on demand growth. The analysis of water availability investigates the question, how the gap between water demand and water availability, due to demographic, social and natural conditions, may be closed by improved management systems and improved technical equipment. A further field of interest is to measure the influence of land use systems and rain variability on carbon balance and food security. Rain variability associated with inadequate land use systems has become the most important factor for determining food insecurity and emission of (global )greenhouse gases in Benin. Therefore, farmers in Benin need efficient water management systems, otherwise they are obliged to extend their agricultural areas or to migrate towards less occupied regions. The results of the above mentioned research activities are introduced in the modelling system BenIMPACT (Benin Integrated Modelling System for Policy Analysis, Climate and Technology Change). It consists of an agricultural sector model (spatial, synthetic, non-linear), a tool to calculate water balances and a basic data system, which provides data and results in a mapping tool (BenMap). Establishing BenIMPACT as a decision support system in corresponding institutions

  20. Relative importance of climatic, geographic and socio-economic determinants of malaria in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the parasite and its vector, but also socio-economic conditions, such as levels of urbanization, poverty and education, which impact human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for the modelling of malaria risk in space and time. Methods A statistical mixed model framework is proposed to model malaria risk at the district level in Malawi, using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases from July 2004 to June 2011. Several climatic, geographic and socio-economic factors thought to influence malaria incidence were tested in an exploratory model. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a generalized linear mixed model was adopted, which included structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. A hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used for model fitting and prediction. Results Using a stepwise model selection procedure, several explanatory variables were identified to have significant associations with malaria including climatic, cartographic and socio-economic data. Once intervention variations, unobserved confounding factors and spatial correlation were considered in a Bayesian framework, a final model emerged with statistically significant predictor variables limited to average precipitation (quadratic relation) and average temperature during the three months previous to the month of interest. Conclusions When modelling malaria risk in Malawi it is important to account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity and correlation between districts. Once observed and unobserved confounding factors are allowed for

  1. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face

  2. Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in South-West Ethiopia: Estimates and Socio-Economic Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Yaya, Yaliso; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia has achieved the fourth Millennium Development Goal by reducing under 5 mortality. Nevertheless, there are challenges in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal and neonatal mortality and the socio-economic inequalities of these mortalities in rural south-west Ethiopia. Methods We visited and enumerated all households but collected data from those that reported pregnancy and birth outcomes in the last five years in 15 of the 30 rural kebeles in Bonke woreda, Gamo Gofa, south-west Ethiopia. The primary outcomes were maternal and neonatal mortality and a secondary outcome was the rate of institutional delivery. Results We found 11,762 births in 6572 households; 11,536 live and 226 stillbirths. There were 49 maternal deaths; yielding a maternal mortality ratio of 425 per 100,000 live births (95% CI:318–556). The poorest households had greater MMR compared to richest (550 vs 239 per 100,000 live births). However, the socio-economic factors examined did not have statistically significant association with maternal mortality. There were 308 neonatal deaths; resulting in a neonatal mortality ratio of 27 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 24–30). Neonatal mortality was greater in households in the poorest quartile compared to the richest; adjusted OR (AOR): 2.62 (95% CI: 1.65–4.15), headed by illiterates compared to better educated; AOR: 3.54 (95% CI: 1.11–11.30), far from road (≥6 km) compared to within 5 km; AOR: 2.40 (95% CI: 1.56–3.69), that had three or more births in five years compared to two or less; AOR: 3.22 (95% CI: 2.45–4.22). Households with maternal mortality had an increased risk of stillbirths; OR: 11.6 (95% CI: 6.00–22.7), and neonatal deaths; OR: 7.2 (95% CI: 3.6–14.3). Institutional delivery was only 3.7%. Conclusion High mortality with socio-economic inequality and low institutional delivery highlight the importance of strengthening obstetric interventions in rural south

  3. Relative importance of climatic, geographic and socio-economic determinants of malaria in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; Chirombo, James; Tompkins, Adrian M

    2013-11-14

    Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the parasite and its vector, but also socio-economic conditions, such as levels of urbanization, poverty and education, which impact human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for the modelling of malaria risk in space and time. A statistical mixed model framework is proposed to model malaria risk at the district level in Malawi, using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases from July 2004 to June 2011. Several climatic, geographic and socio-economic factors thought to influence malaria incidence were tested in an exploratory model. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a generalized linear mixed model was adopted, which included structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. A hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used for model fitting and prediction. Using a stepwise model selection procedure, several explanatory variables were identified to have significant associations with malaria including climatic, cartographic and socio-economic data. Once intervention variations, unobserved confounding factors and spatial correlation were considered in a Bayesian framework, a final model emerged with statistically significant predictor variables limited to average precipitation (quadratic relation) and average temperature during the three months previous to the month of interest. When modelling malaria risk in Malawi it is important to account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity and correlation between districts. Once observed and unobserved confounding factors are allowed for, precipitation and temperature in the

  4. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging

  5. Using GIS-based methods of multicriteria analysis to construct socio-economic deprivation indices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Schuurman, Nadine; Hayes, Michael V

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades researchers have produced substantial evidence of a social gradient in a variety of health outcomes, rising from systematic differences in income, education, employment conditions, and family dynamics within the population. Social gradients in health are measured using deprivation indices, which are typically constructed from aggregated socio-economic data taken from the national census – a technique which dates back at least until the early 1970's. The primary method of index construction over the last decade has been a Principal Component Analysis. Seldom are the indices constructed from survey-based data sources due to the inherent difficulty in validating the subjectivity of the response scores. We argue that this very subjectivity can uncover spatial distributions of local health outcomes. Moreover, indication of neighbourhood socio-economic status may go underrepresented when weighted without expert opinion. In this paper we propose the use of geographic information science (GIS) for constructing the index. We employ a GIS-based Order Weighted Average (OWA) Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) as a technique to validate deprivation indices that are constructed using more qualitative data sources. Both OWA and traditional MCA are well known and used methodologies in spatial analysis but have had little application in social epidemiology. Results A survey of British Columbia's Medical Health Officers (MHOs) was used to populate the MCA-based index. Seven variables were selected and weighted based on the survey results. OWA variable weights assign both local and global weights to the index variables using a sliding scale, producing a range of variable scenarios. The local weights also provide leverage for controlling the level of uncertainty in the MHO response scores. This is distinct from traditional deprivation indices in that the weighting is simultaneously dictated by the original respondent scores and the value of the

  6. Self-rated mental health and socio-economic background: a study of adolescents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Katrin; Nyholm, Maria; Nygren, Jens M; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-04-23

    Adolescents' mental health is a major public health issue. Previous research has shown that socio-economic factors contribute to the health status of adolescents. The present study explores the association between socio-economic status and self-rated mental health among adolescents. Cross sectional data from the Halmstad Youth Quality of Life cohort was collected in a town in Sweden. In all, 948 adolescents (11-13 younger age group and 14-16 older age group) participated. Information on self-rated mental health was collected from the subscale Psychological functioning in the Minneapolis Manchester Quality of Life instrument. The items were summarized into a total score and dichotomized by the mean. Indicators measuring socio-economic status (SES) were collected in a questionnaire using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and additional factors regarding parents' marital status and migration were added. Logistic models were used to analyze the data. Girls were more likely to rate their mental health below the mean compared to boys. With regard to FAS (high, medium, low), there was a significantly increased risk of self-rated mental health below the mean among younger boys in the medium FAS score OR; 2.68 (95% CI 1.35;5.33) and among older boys in the low FAS score OR; 2.37 (1.02;5.52) compared to boys in the high FAS score. No such trend was seen among girls. For younger girls there was a significant protective association between having parents born abroad and self-rated mental health below mean OR: 0.47 (0.24;0.91). A complex pattern of associations between SES and self-rated mental health, divergent between age and gender groups, was shown. The total FAS score was only associated with boys' self-rated mental health in both age groups, whereas parents' migratory status influenced only the girls' self-rated mental health. Because of the different association for girls' and boys' self-rated mental health and SES, other factors than SES should also be considered when

  7. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio-economic background to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    If socio-economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Comparing cohort studies. United Kingdom. Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Participants self-reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22-26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non-manual) indicated socio-economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and -0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non-manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non-smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college and university) despite socio-economic background being associated in opposite directions with these risk

  8. Environmental-Socio-Economic Monitoring as a Tool of Region’s Environmental-Economic System Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanina, T. V.; Baumgarten, M. I.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailov, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the region’s environmental-economic system management through a tool such as the environmental-socio-economic monitoring. The purpose of research - is analysis and development of theoretical assumptions of environmental-socio-economic monitoring system for the effective management of geographically distributed environmental-economic system. The main elements of environmental-socio-economic monitoring are identified, taking into account the characteristics of the studied area. The main result of the research is the development of multi-functional integrated monitoring system for the evaluation of the indicators "gross domestic product" and "gross national product", taking into account the influence of environmental factors. The results of the study conducted may be recommended to the regional and federal governments to support the effective, environment-friendly management decision-making consistent with the overall development concept.

  9. The dynamics of household dissolution and change in socio-economic position: A survival model in a rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Kurt; Sartorius, Benn Kd; Collinson, Mark A; Tollman, Stephen M

    2014-11-02

    This paper investigates household dissolution and changes in asset wealth (socio-economic position) in a rural South African community containing settled refugees. Survival analysis applied to a longitudinal dataset indicated that the covariates increasing the risk of forced household dissolution were a reduction in socio-economic position (asset wealth), adult deaths and the permanent outmigration of more than 40% of the household. Conversely, the risk of dissolution was reduced by bigger households, state grants and older household heads. Significant spatial clusters of former refugee villages also showed a higher risk of dissolution after 20 years of permanent residence. A discussion of the dynamics of dissolution showed how an outflow/inflow of household assets (socio-economic position) was precipitated by each of the selected covariates. The paper shows how an understanding of the dynamics of forced household dissolution, combined with the use of geo-spatial mapping, can inform inter-disciplinary policy in a rural community.

  10. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael G.; Floría, Luis Mario; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

  11. The Effect of Socio-Economic Predictors of Chronic Diseases in Ghana: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Blay, Samuel Nguah; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    Socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana are not well understood and their influence has been relatively overlooked. This paper seeks to examine the influence of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghanaians three different age groups. The data employed in the study were drawn from Global Ageing and Adult Health survey conducted in Ghana by SAGE and was based on the design for the World Health Survey. The survey was conducted in 2007 and collected data on socio-economic characteristics and other variables of the individuals interviewed. The overall results suggest that chronic diseases in relatively older Ghanaians reflects social and economic exposures with the differentials observed only partially explained by current social and economic conditions. Our results were by and large very much expected from the current medical knowledge available. PMID:23985113

  12. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    PubMed

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  13. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes.

    PubMed

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael G; Floría, Luis Mario; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

  14. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Rafael G.; Floría, Luis Mario

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized. PMID:27853531

  15. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G...Edelstein, 2004; Burnette, 2008), we suggested a method for mitigating the problem of 1/f noise. We and others ( Guedes , 2008) have been utilizing...6. Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - 3magnetoresistive/microelectromechanical devices for static field modulation and sensor 1/f noise

  16. Who is most susceptible to movie smoking effects? Exploring the impacts of race and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie A; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D

    2012-12-01

    This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socio-economic status modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socio-economic status, the interactions of these variables and family and background characteristics. National sample of US adolescents. A total of 3653 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents' reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. The proportion having tried smoking was lower for blacks (32%) compared to Hispanics (41%) and whites (38%). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on blacks. Socio-economic status further modified the relation among whites; high socio-economic status white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low socio-economic status white adolescents. Exposure to movie smoking is not experienced uniformly as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among US adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socio-economic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.

  18. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  20. Advanced testicular cancer in a society of racial and socio-economic health disparity.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michael

    2013-06-24

    This is the case of an African-American man who presented with a 6 month history of impressive unilateral testicular swelling and abdominal pain. After a thorough workup he was found to have metastatic testicular seminoma causing multiple complex sequelae. This case highlights the essential diagnostic and therapeutic features of a common malignancy seen primarily in young men. His advanced disease presentation, complex management of multiple comorbidities combined with his African-American race and lower socio-economic status (SES) highlight an unusual paradigm shift in testicular cancer epidemiology from the more typical high SES Caucasian to the lower SES, less educated male patient. Beyond the unexpected clinical presentation, this case then presents multiple avenues of discussion regarding the unfortunate effects of racial disparities on disease presentation and progression that are plaguing our healthcare system today.

  1. A method of assigning socio-economic status classification to British Armed Forces personnel.

    PubMed

    Yoong, S Y; Miles, D; McKinney, P A; Smith, I J; Spencer, N J

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate a socio-economic status classification method for British Armed Forces personnel. Two study groups comprising of civilian and Armed Forces families were identified from livebirths delivered between 1 January-30 June 1996 within the Northallerton Health district which includes Catterick Garrison and RAF Leeming. The participants were the parents of babies delivered at a District General Hospital, comprising of 436 civilian and 162 Armed Forces families. A new classification method was successfully used to assign Registrar General's social classification to Armed Forces personnel. Comparison of the two study groups showed a significant difference in social class distribution (p = 0.0001). This study has devised a new method for classifying occupations within the Armed Forces to categories of social class thus permitting comparison with Registrar General's classification.

  2. Onset of disability and life satisfaction: evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel.

    PubMed

    Pagán-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyses the effect of the onset of disability on the well-being of individuals. In particular, we are interested in studying whether people can adapt to disability over time after its onset. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for the period 1984-2006, we estimate life satisfaction equations using a fixed-effects model for working-age males (aged 21-58). The results show that disability has a significant negative effect on life satisfaction, but, in time, hedonic adaptation will return disabled males to life satisfaction levels registered by those who have not become disabled. These findings contribute to supporting the idea within psychology literature that individuals bounce back from painful events or adversities (such as the onset of disability) to achieve initial life satisfaction scores.

  3. A Manner of Being: Body Languages of Socio-Economic Development.

    PubMed

    Antohin, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    This article proposes to move forward analytical work on the human aspect of socio-economic development, by featuring how personal decisions about physical appearance in effect negotiate socio-ethnic positions and desired economic aims that arise from new technologies of living. By envisioning how the body can serve as a conduit of consciousness-making, tattoos work as one cultural practice that produces an interplay between traditional precedents and contemporary trends and permits reflecting on how the categorizations of rural/urban can behave as a dialectical medium for internal anxieties and debates regarding social transformation. This is particularly salient for Ethiopia as a country with one of the most gradual village to city migrations in the continent, which inspires thinking about how such cultural shifts are as much about maintaining historical relationships to identity formation as it is about attaining new subjectivities.

  4. Night-time lights: A global, long term look at links to socio-economic trends

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Wagner, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    We use a parallelized spatial analytics platform to process the twenty-one year totality of the longest-running time series of night-time lights data—the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) dataset—surpassing the narrower scope of prior studies to assess changes in area lit of countries globally. Doing so allows a retrospective look at the global, long-term relationships between night-time lights and a series of socio-economic indicators. We find the strongest correlations with electricity consumption, CO2 emissions, and GDP, followed by population, CH4 emissions, N2O emissions, poverty (inverse) and F-gas emissions. Relating area lit to electricity consumption shows that while a basic linear model provides a good statistical fit, regional and temporal trends are found to have a significant impact. PMID:28346500

  5. Relations between Internet use, socio-economic status (SES), social support and subjective health.

    PubMed

    Wangberg, Silje C; Andreassen, Hege K; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Santana, Silvina Maria Vagos; Sørensen, Tove; Chronaki, Catharine E

    2008-03-01

    This study aimed to explore relations between Internet use, socio-economic status (SES), social support and subjective health. Participants were from representative samples between 15 and 80 years of age from seven different European countries. Two different survey datasets were used: (i) eHealth trends (eHT; N = 7934) and (ii) the European social survey (ESS2; N = 11248). Internet users who had used the Internet for health purposes were compared with Internet users who had not used it for health purposes. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the relationships between SES, Internet use, social support and subjective health. Use of other media was compared to Internet use in relation to social support and subjective health. Internet use was found to be more closely related to social support and subjective health than use of other media. Internet use was also found to be a plausible mediator between SES and subjective health, especially through interacting with social support.

  6. The Neighborhood Environments of Mutual-help Recovery Houses: Comparisons by Perceived Socio-economic Status.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Groh, David R; Jason, Leonard A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the setting/House-level characteristics of 160 self-governed, mutual-support substance abuse recovery homes (OHs) across the U.S. These dwellings were located in four different neighborhood types: upper/middle class (n = 23 Houses), urban working/lower class (n = 71 Houses), suburban upper/middle-class (n = 39 Houses), and suburban working/lower class (n = 27 Houses). Interior dwelling characteristics and amenities located within a 2-block radius were similar across the four neighborhood types. However, Houses in urban, working, and lower class neighborhoods reported more alcohol/drug intoxicated persons. Most importantly, despite the greater potential for environmental temptations and easier access for substances, none of the neighborhood factors including neighborhood socio-economic status significantly predicted relapse rates over a 12 month period.

  7. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009.

    PubMed

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 1. the Socio-Economic Control of a Scientific Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra; Tokoro, Gensuke

    A major paradigm shift with potentially profound implications has been taking place over the past 3 decades at a rapidly accelerating pace. The Copernican revolution of half a millennium ago is now being extended to place humanity on the Earth in its correct cosmic perspective -- an assembly of cosmically derived viral genes, no more, no less, pieced together over 4 billion years of geological history against the processes of Darwinian natural selection. The evidence for our cosmic ancestry has now grown to the point that to deny it is a process fraught with imminent danger. We discuss the weight of modern scientific evidence from diverse sources, the history of development of the relevant ideas, and the socio-economic and historical forces that are responsible for dictating the pace of change.

  9. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 4. Bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography is a revised version of the Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Study (JESS) bibliography that was published in 1986, relating specifically to social and environmental systems in Somalia as well as river-basin assessment and planning, in general. Many new references have been added and the bibliography has been organized into 22 different sections, corresponding to the subject codes (BIBCODE) being used by the JESS team in Somalia. The bibliography includes selected monographs, conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, reports, JESS studies and dissertations. Users should recognize that the bibliography is neither definitive nor comprehensive, and that an inclusion of a particular reference does not imply that its scientific merit has been substantiated.

  10. Socio-Economic Concerns and Essential Elements in Estuary Management Strategies; Haliç Case, Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, Bedri; Isil Cetin, Basak

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries are transitional areas between the land and sea and home to a large and growing proportion of the world's population. They are highly productive ecosystems which create jobs, and boosts local economic growth with a higher percentage of collective and private enterprises and a larger share of production. They serve many important socio-economic functions and therefore receive untreated urban wastes and riverine inputs and concentrate various pollutants coming from inland domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. Therefore such kinds of complex systems are highly vulnerable because they are usually the sink for the hinterlands. Due to serious environmental problems felt more intensively day by day, central and local governments must adopt an integrated policy and decision making process to promote a balance of uses. As surrounded by many historical attractions, heritage sites, buzzing cultural scenes and other natural resources, the Haliç (the Golden Horn estuary) offers great opportunities and has a vitality fed by widespread economic and cultural factors. The typical landscape of the estuary, its bridges, geomorphic features, oceanographic and hydrodynamic features of its waters, sea bottom characteristics, environmental pollution, make this estuary a critical marine environment which impacts to economy, environment and community. However, rapid urban growth and uncontrolled industrial development (1950-1985) led to a severe increase in pollution levels of its water and cohesive sediments. The siltation due to liquid and solid waste dumped by two streams caused anaerobic decomposition problems. In addition, the ecological processes occurring in the Haliç are rather complex as they are interacted with the socio-economic system. This study focuses on the essential elements of integrated coastal zone management for the Haliç, and its probable impacts to economy, environment and community. All objectives and probable impacts need to be integrated

  11. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe: the importance of socio-economic change.

    PubMed

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina; Agyemang, Charles O; Harding, Seeromanie; Juel, Knud; Rafnsson, Snorri Björn; Regidor, Enrique; Rey, Grégoire; Rosato, Michael; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kunst, Anton E

    2012-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were highest in migrants originating from either the Caribbean or South Asia. MRRs for the migrant population as a whole were 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0) and 2.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3) for men and women respectively. We furthermore found a consistently inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality. Most migrant groups have higher diabetes mortality rates than the local-born populations. Mortality rates are particularly high in migrants from North Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia or low-GDP countries. The inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality suggests that socio-economic change may be one of the key aetiological factors.

  12. Dietary patterns of French adults: associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors.

    PubMed

    Bertin, M; Touvier, M; Dubuisson, C; Dufour, A; Havard, S; Lafay, L; Volatier, J-L; Lioret, S

    2016-04-01

    Although the French eating model may differ from those of other countries, no studies to date have investigated dietary patterns in a wide age range of adults and at the national level. We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DP) of French adults and assess their associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors. The present study included 2624 adults (1087 men, 1537 women) aged 18-79 years from the cross-sectional national French INCA2 dietary survey. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day estimated food record. Clusters of DP were derived using principal component analysis and clustering, conjointly. Age-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between DP and correlates. Five DP were identified, namely 'traditional', 'prudent', 'diversified', 'processed' and 'sandwiches'. Men were more likely to follow a traditional diet and women the 'prudent' pattern. Members of the 'processed' and 'sandwiches' patterns were younger compared to non-members. Healthier dietary patterns were overall positively associated with a higher socio-economic position, healthier behaviours (in terms of sedentary behaviours and smoking status) and lower body mass index. Under-reporting of energy intake, restrictive diet to lose weight and dietary supplement consumption were also related to specific DP, although differentially in men and women. Associations with contextual factors (i.e. household composition, agglomeration size and region) were also observed. The identification of adults' dietary patterns and associated behaviours (all modifiable) is important for the conceptualisation of multi-behavioural programs. The additional information on social and environmental correlates is also essential for targeting the most vulnerable population groups in the context of such public health interventions. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Associations with early-life socio-economic position in adult DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Borghol, Nada; Suderman, Matthew; McArdle, Wendy; Racine, Ariane; Hallett, Michael; Pembrey, Marcus; Hertzman, Clyde; Power, Chris; Szyf, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged socio-economic position (SEP) in childhood is associated with increased adult mortality and morbidity. We aimed to establish whether childhood SEP was associated with differential methylation of adult DNA. Methods Forty adult males from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study were selected from SEP extremes in both early childhood and mid-adulthood. We performed genome-wide methylation analysis on blood DNA taken at 45 years using MeDIP (methylated DNA immunoprecipitation). We mapped in triplicate the methylation state of promoters of approximately 20 000 genes and 400 microRNAs. Probe methylation scores were averaged across triplicates and differential methylation between groups of individuals was determined. Differentially methylated promoter sites of selected genes were validated using pyrosequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA. Results Variably methylated probes (9112 from n = 223 359 on the microarray) corresponded to 6176 gene promoters with at least one variable probe. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of probes obtained from the 500 most variable promoters revealed a cluster enriched with high SEP individuals confirming that SEP differences contribute to overall epigenetic variation. Methylation levels for 1252 gene promoters were associated with childhood SEP vs 545 promoters for adulthood SEP. Functionally, associations with childhood SEP appear in promoters of genes enriched in key cell signalling pathways. The differentially methylated promoters associated with SEP cluster in megabase-sized regions of the genome. Conclusions Adult blood DNA methylation profiles show more associations with childhood SEP than adult SEP. Organization of these associations across the genome suggests a well-defined epigenetic pattern linked to early socio-economic environment. PMID:22422449

  14. Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gauffin, Karl; Vinnerljung, Bo; Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Hjern, Anders

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether socio-economic status (SES) in childhood and school failure at 15 years of age predict illicit drug abuse in youth and young adulthood. Register study in a Swedish national cohort born 1973-88 (n = 1,405,763), followed from age 16 to 20-35 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for any indication of drug abuse. Our outcomes were hospital admissions, death and criminality associated with illicit drug abuse. Data on socio-demographics, school grades and parental psychosocial problems were collected from censuses (1985 and 1990) and national registers. School failure was defined as having mean school grades from the final year in primary school lower than -1 standard deviation and/or no grades in core subjects. School failure was a strong predictor of illicit drug abuse with an HR of 5.87 (95% CI: 5.76-5.99) after adjustment for age and sex. Childhood SES was associated with illicit drug abuse later in life in a stepwise manner. The lowest stratum had a HR of 2.28 (95% CI: 2.20-2.37) compared with the highest stratum as the reference, when adjusted for other socio-demographic variables. In the fully adjusted model, the effect of SES was greatly attenuated to an HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.19-1.28) in the lowest SES category, while the effect of school failure remained high with an HR of 4.22 (95% CI: 4.13-4.31). School failure and childhood socio-economic status predict illicit drug abuse independently in youth and young adults in Sweden. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Assessing conservation opportunity on private land: socio-economic, behavioral, and spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher M; Brown, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a method for assessing conservation opportunity on private land based on landholders' socio-economic, behavioral, and farm characteristics. These characteristics include age, gender, education, level of off-farm income, farm size, proportion of remnant native vegetation on-farm, and ecological value of native vegetation on-farm. A sample of landholders who own greater than 2 ha of land in the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin region were sent a mail-based survey about their values and preferences for environmental management (N = 659, 52% response). Cross-tabulations and ANOVA statistical analysis techniques were used to compare the socio-economic attributes across three landholder classes: disengaged, moderately engaged, and highly engaged in native vegetation planting. Results indicate that highly engaged landholders were more likely to be female, formally educated, hobby farmers who managed small parcels of land and have high off-farm incomes, whereas disengaged landholders held significantly stronger farming connections (more farming experience, family have lived on the farm for more generations). Spatial analysis revealed area-specific differences in conservation opportunity and conservation priority. In some areas, properties of high ecological value were managed by highly engaged landholders, but nearby properties of high value were managed by moderately engaged or disengaged landholders. Environmental managers therefore cannot assume areas of high conservation priority will be areas of high conservation opportunity. At the regional scale, the potential for revegetation seems most promising within the moderately engaged landholder group considering the vast amount of land managed by this group in areas of high ecological value, particularly within the less represented Mallee and Coorong and Rangelands sub-regions. We suggest that incentive schemes which purchase conservation need to be targeted at disengaged landholders; mentoring

  16. Explaining socio-economic differences in intention to smoke among primary school children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking prevalence is higher among low socio-economic status (LSES) groups, and this difference may originate from a higher intention to smoke in childhood. This study aims to identify factors that explain differences in intention to smoke between children living in high socio-economic status (HSES) and LSES neighbourhoods. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from the baseline assessment of a smoking prevention intervention study. Dutch primary school children, aged 10 – 11 years (N = 2,612), completed a web-based questionnaire about their attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy expectations, modelling and intention to smoke. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess potential individual cognitive (attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy) and social environmental (modelling) mediators between SES and intention to smoke. Results Multiple mediation models indicated that modelling mediated the association between SES (B = -0.09 (p < 0.01)) and intention to smoke (B = 1.06 (p < 0.01)). Mainly the father, mother and other family members mediated this association. Gender did not moderate the association between SES and intention to smoke and the potential mediators indicating that there are no differences in mediating factors between boys and girls. Conclusions This study indicates that future smoking prevention studies may focus on the social environment to prevent smoking onset. However, replication of this study is warranted. Trial registration This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Atrium-Orbis-Zuyd Hospital (NL32093.096.11 / MEC 11-T-25) and registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR3116). PMID:24555819

  17. Persistent opioid use and socio-economic factors: a population-based study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Kristian; Fredheim, Olav M; Romundstad, Pål; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2014-04-01

    A growing proportion of the population is using opioids for longer time periods, but little is known about the characteristics of patients who are persistent opioid users. We therefore studied the association between socio-economic factors and persistent vs. short-term opioid use 4 years later. The background population is the complete Norwegian population in 2001. The study population is derived from two groups aged 35 years or older in 2001 who met one of the following criteria in 2005: (1) persistent opioid users (n = 15,113) or (2) short-term opioid users (n = 214,061). The applied definition of persistent opioid use corresponds to an average daily dose indicating likely daily use of opioids during 365 consecutive days. The socio-economic factors work status, income, marital status, immigrant status and education were obtained from the Population and Housing Census of 2001, and data on opioid use in 2005 were obtained from the complete national Norwegian Prescription Database. For logistic regression analyses, the study population was stratified by gender and by age over/under 67 years. In the 35- to 67-year-old age group, receiving a disability pension was more common in persistent opioid users compared with short-term opioid users (48% vs. 16% for women, 36% vs. 9% for men). Adjusted odds ratios for receiving a disability pension were 6.51 and 5.77 for women and men, respectively. Being divorced/separated was associated with being a persistent opioid user (odds ratio of 1.4 for both genders). There were also negative associations between persistent opioid use and attained education level, an unemployed working status and income status. Disability pension, not working, divorce, low income and low education in 2001 were associated with persistent opioid use in 2005. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Dallolio, Laura; Di Gregori, Valentina; Lenzi, Jacopo; Franchino, Giuseppe; Calugi, Simona; Domenighetti, Gianfranco; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2012-08-16

    One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM). The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006-2008) and the Gini index of income inequality, mean household income, percentage of women with at least 8 years of education, and percentage of unemployed aged 15-64 years were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Univariate linear regression and multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and direction of the effect of the four socio-economic variables on IM. The Gini index and the total unemployment rate showed a positive strong correlation with IM (r = 0.70; p < 0.001 and r = 0.84; p < 0.001 respectively), mean household income showed a strong negative correlation (r = -0.78; p < 0.001), while female educational attainment presented a weak negative correlation (r = -0.45; p < 0.05). Using a multiple stepwise linear regression model, only unemployment rate was independently associated with IM (b = 0.15, p < 0.001). In Italy, a high-income country where health care is universally available, variations in IM were strongly associated with relative and absolute income and unemployment rate. These results suggest that in Italy IM is not only related to income distribution, as demonstrated for other developed countries, but also to economic factors such as absolute income and unemployment. In order to reduce IM and the existing inequalities, the challenge for Italian decision makers is to promote economic growth and enhance employment levels.

  19. Socio-economic effects on meeting PA guidelines: comparisons among 32 countries

    PubMed Central

    Borraccino, A; Lemma, P; Iannotti, R; Zambon, A; Dalmasso, P; Lazzeri, G; Giacchi, M; Cavallo, F

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationship between age and gender with physical activity (PA) and how meeting of PA guidelines (PAGL) is related to socio-economic-status. Methods Data were collected from 11-, 13-, and 15-y.o. students in 32 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey 2001/2002. A self-completed questionnaire assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for the past seven days and MVPA for a typical week. Socio-economic status (SES) was assessed using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Results None of the countries averaged enough MVPA to meet PAGL. The pattern of MVPA across gender and age was consistent among all countries. In all countries girls were significantly less active than boys (mean hours/week of MVPA 3.52 ±1.88 vs 4.13 ±1.95) and were more likely to not meet the PAGL; older children were less active when compared to the youngest. SES was significantly associated with the amount of reported MVPA. SES and PAGL were significantly related in seven countries and a significant decrease in the influence of age was observed in these countries compared to other countries. Conclusions Levels of MVPA during adolescence showed consistent patterns across countries in relation to age, gender and social-class. The limited effect of age on PA in countries where the influence of social class was less strong, suggesting the possibility of a moderating effect of context in the development of habits acquired in childhood PMID:19276860

  20. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas). Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs. PMID:21463527

  1. Childhood socio-economic status and ethnic disparities in psychosocial outcomes in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the extent to which childhood socio-economic status (SES) could account for differences in adult psychosocial outcomes between Māori and non-Māori individuals in a birth cohort of more than 1000 individuals studied to age 30. Data were gathered on three measures of childhood SES (family SES, family living standards, family income) and adult psychosocial outcomes including mental health, substance use, criminal offending, and education/welfare dependence outcomes, as part of a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (the Christchurch Health and Development Study). Those reporting Māori ethnicity had significantly (p < 0.0001) poorer scores on the three measures of childhood SES, with estimates of Cohen's d indicating a moderate effect size. Māori cohort members also had significantly (p < 0.05) greater rates of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. Controlling for childhood SES reduced the magnitude of the ethnic differences in psychosocial outcomes, but did not fully explain the differences between Māori and non-Māori. Adjustment for childhood SES had the strongest effect on education/welfare dependence, but weaker effects on mental health, substance use, and criminal offending. Improvements in SES among Māori in New Zealand may, to some extent, ameliorate the long standing disparities in psychosocial well-being between Māori and non-Māori. However, efforts to improve Māori well-being will require an approach that moves beyond a sole focus on rectifying socio-economic disadvantage. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  2. Socio-economic correlates of functional health literacy among patients of primary health care in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Toçi, E; Burazeri, G; Kamberi, H; Jerliu, N; Sørensen, K; Brand, H

    2014-09-01

    Functional health literacy (FHL) has been related to individual characteristics, ill-health and disease knowledge. However, the information about FHL in Kosovo is very limited and thus the aim of this study was to assess the demographic and socio-economic correlates of FHL among users of primary health care in Kosovo, a postconflict country in the Western Balkans. Cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo between November 2012-February 2013, including a representative sample of 1035 consecutive primary care users aged ≥18 years (60% females; overall mean age: 44.3 ± 16.9 years; overall response rate: 86%). Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was used to assess FHL. General linear model and logistic regression were used to assess the association of TOFHLA score with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Overall, four out of five participants exhibited inadequate or marginal FHL in this Kosovo sample. FHL score was independently and inversely related to age, but positively associated with educational attainment and being in a situation other than unemployed. Limited or marginal FHL was very common among primary care users in Kosovo and considerably higher than in the neighbouring Serbia. The low health literacy levels in Kosovo may provide an additional barrier towards achievement of health care goals. There is a need to design and implement suitable and effective educational and health system interventions in the Kosovo context. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pattern of socio-economic and health aspects among TB patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, A K; Deepani, Vijit; Dhall, Meenal; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2016-10-01

    Socio-economic and health-related factors have a significant impact on tuberculosis (TB) incidence among population residing in resource-scare settings. To evaluate the pattern of socio-economic and health-related factors among TB patients and control in Delhi, India. The present cross-sectional study was performed among 893 TB patients (or cases) and 333 healthy disease-free controls. The data for the present study was obtained from several district TB centres in north, west and south Delhi. The collected data was edited, coded and statistical analysed with the help of SPSS 20.0 version. Illiteracy and primary education were significant risk factors being associated with a TB. Rented housing condition had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.89) compared to owned housing condition. 3-5 individuals per room were 3 times more likely to be associated with a case of TB (95% CI: 2.49-4.41). Migrant individuals were 13 times more likely to be associated with a case of TB (95% CI: 8.77-19.78) in comparison to settled population. Daily consumption of non-vegetarian food also significantly contributed to case of TB with an OR of 3.4 (95% CI: 2.51-4.72). Loss of appetite and family TB served as significant health-related factors associated with TB risk. Lower educational status, rented household, individuals per room (as a measure of overcrowding) and migratory status served as prominent risk factors for TB disease. Preference and frequency of non-vegetarian food being consumed, night sweating, weight loss, loss of appetite, earlier TB and family TB were principle health-related risk factors associated with TB disease. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Socio-Economic, Demographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Adults of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Rengma, Melody Seb; Sen, Jaydip; Mondal, Nitish

    2015-07-01

    Overweight and obesity are the accumulation of high body adiposity, which can have detrimental health effects and contribute to the development of numerous preventable non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults belonging to the Rengma-Naga population of North-east India. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 826 Rengma-Naga individuals (males: 422; females: 404) aged 20-49 years from the Karbi Anglong District of Assam, using a two-stage stratified random sampling. The socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle variables were recorded using structured schedules. Height and weight were recorded and the Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using standard procedures and equation. The WHO (2000) cut-off points were utilized to assess the prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥23.00-24.99 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥25.00 kg/m(2)). The data were analysed using ANOVA, chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression analysis using SPSS (version 17.0). The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 32.57% (males: 39.34%; females: 25.50%) and 10.77% (males: 9.95%; females: 11.63%), respectively. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that age groups (e.g., 40-49 years), education (≥9(th) standard), part-time occupation and monthly income (≥Rs.10000) were significantly associated with overweight and obesity (p<0.05). Age, education occupation and income appear to have higher associations with overweight and obesity among adults. Suitable healthcare strategies and intervention programmes are needed for combating such prevalence in population.

  5. Nutritional status of Tunisian adolescents: associated gender, environmental and socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis; Achour, Noureddine; Maire, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status of Tunisian adolescents and associated factors. A cross-sectional study based on a national stratified random cluster sample. In all, 1,295 boys and 1,577 girls aged 15-19 years, of whom 28.4 % had already left school. Socio-economic characteristics of the parents, anthropometric measurements, food behaviours and physical activity of the adolescents were recorded during home visits. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity (WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference) were, respectively, 8.1 %, 17.4 % and 4.1 % among boys and 1.3 %, 20.7 % and 4.4 % among girls; abdominal obesity was highly prevalent among both sexes. Prevalence of overweight differed by region (from 11.5 % to 22.2 %) and was higher in urban v. rural areas for males (21.7 % v. 10.4 %) but not for females (21.7 % v. 19.2 %). These differences were partially mediated by socio-economic and lifestyle factors for males. For females, influence of cultural factors is hypothesised. In rural areas, overweight was more prevalent among boys of higher economic level households, having a working mother or a sedentary lifestyle; for girls, prevalence increased with the level of education of the mother. In urban areas, prevalence of overweight was related to eating habits: it was higher for boys with irregular snacking habits and for girls skipping daily meals. Urban girls having left school were also more overweight. Overweight and abdominal obesity in late adolescence have become a true public health problem in Tunisia with the combined effects of cultural tradition for girls in rural areas, and of rapid economic development for boys and girls in cities.

  6. Socio-economic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children.

    PubMed

    Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007.   Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) analysis on depressed mood in Korea: the impact of gender differences and other socio-economic factors

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Lara; Noh, Yong-Hwan; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression), might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods: Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females), aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP) regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status) and socio-economic factors

  8. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) analysis on depressed mood in Korea: the impact of gender differences and other socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Lara; Noh, Yong-Hwan; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2015-04-16

    Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people's quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression), might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females), aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP) regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status) and socio-economic factors (such as education

  9. Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-04-01

    Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem

  10. [Assessment of the impact of socio-economic factors on the health state of the population of the Sverdlovsk region in the system of social-hygienic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Derstuganova, T M; VelichkovskiĬ, B T; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Malykh, O L; Kochneva, N I; Iarushin, S V

    2013-01-01

    There was investigated the impact of socioeconomic factors on medical and demographic processes in working age population. For the assessment of the impact of living conditions and environmental factors on mortality rate in a population of the Sverdlovsk region factor-typological, correlation and regression analyzes were applied There was shown an availability of statistically significant correlation relationships between mortality of the population of working age and socio-economic characteristics (degree of home improvement, quality of medical care, the level of social tension, the level of the demographic load), as well as between their increments with taking into account the time shifts. The effect of the value of the purchasing power on the mortality rate of the working population has been established The purchasing power was shown to be connected with a mortality rate of working population from external causes more stronger than death from all causes.

  11. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  12. The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the

  13. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  15. Rethinking Initial Teacher Education: Preparing Teachers for Schools in Low Socio-Economic Communities in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grudnoff, Lexie; Haigh, Mavis; Hill, Mary; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Ell, Fiona; Ludlow, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Differential student achievement has particular significance in New Zealand as it has one of the largest gaps between high and low achievers among all OECD countries. Students from low socio-economic status (SES) communities, who are often Maori and Pasifika, are heavily over-represented in the low achieving group, while students from wealthier…

  16. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES. PMID:27938632

  17. Children's Environmental Learning, Knowledge, and Interactions under Conditions of Socio-Economic Transformation: The Possibilities of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Cindi R.

    This paper argues that the socio-economic transformation caused by the 1971 Suki Agricultural project in central eastern Sudan has had contradictory effects on children. The Suki Agricultural Project was expected to transform the rural economy from production for consumption to production for exchange and profit. Ten years after the project's…

  18. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  19. Rethinking Initial Teacher Education: Preparing Teachers for Schools in Low Socio-Economic Communities in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grudnoff, Lexie; Haigh, Mavis; Hill, Mary; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Ell, Fiona; Ludlow, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Differential student achievement has particular significance in New Zealand as it has one of the largest gaps between high and low achievers among all OECD countries. Students from low socio-economic status (SES) communities, who are often Maori and Pasifika, are heavily over-represented in the low achieving group, while students from wealthier…

  20. School Governing Bodies in England under Pressure: The Effects of Socio-Economic Context and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Chris; Brammer, Steve; Connolly, Michael; Fertig, Mike; James, Jane; Jones, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research into the nature and functioning of school governing bodies in different socio-economic and performance contexts. The research analysed 5000 responses from a national questionnaire-based survey and undertook 30 case studies of school governing. The research confirmed that school governing in England is a complex and…

  1. Eco-Health Linkages: evidence base and socio-economic considerations for linking ecosystem goods and services to human health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are thought to play a role in protecting human health, but the empirical evidence directly linking EGS to human health outcomes is limited, and our ability to detect Eco-Health linkages is confounded by socio-economic factors. These limitations ...

  2. Use of local variations in trachoma endemicity in depicting interplay between socio-economic conditions and disease

    PubMed Central

    Assaad, F. A.; Maxwell-Lyons, F.; Sundaresan, T.

    1969-01-01

    A trachoma prevalence survey was conducted in 1960-61 in Taiwan prior to the introduction of a large-scale treatment campaign. Marked local differences in endemicity of trachoma were encountered in neighbouring administrative areas (lin). Use is made of these local variations in depicting the interactions between socio-economical factors and endemicity of the disease. The study demonstrates the interaction between the socio-economic development of the household, on the one hand, and of the community of which the household forms a part, on the other. In a community of low trachoma endemicity, persons who do not share in the general socio-economic level of development nevertheless benefit from a low risk of infection, while in a community of high endemicity those in the upper socio-economic groups suffer from an enhanced risk of infection, though to an appreciably lesser extent than the general average for the community. The study indicates a possibility of an absence of association between various bio-physical environmental factors; for example, in a small community, better housing does not necessarily mean a better water supply. However, if any of the factors are considered, whether there is an implied pattern in the other factors or not, the most striking index of relative prevalence appears to be provided by the number of persons per unit (i.e., ping; about 3.3 m2) of sleeping area. PMID:5308696

  3. Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…

  4. The Ecology of Young Children's Behaviour and Social Competence: Child Characteristics, Socio-Economic Factors and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the effects of socio-economic factors on mother- and teacher-rated behaviour, and the unique and cumulative contribution of both risk and protective factors inherent in children's proximal and distal influences to behaviour during the…

  5. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  6. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  7. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  8. [The relation between socio-economic class and demographic factors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Martins, Ronald Jefferson; Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza

    2008-12-01

    Different factors like stress and occlusion can decrease the adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system and lead to the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective of this study was to verify the relation of the variables socio-economic level, schooling, sex and age with the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction. The population of this study consisted of a statistically significant sample of subjects of both sexes belonging to different socio-economic classes living in the urban area of the city of Piacatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The Criterion of Economic Classification Brazil (CCEB) was used for the economic stratification of the population. Fonseca's Questionnaire was applied to samples collected from each extract to verify the level of TMD. The data collected were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square Test, with a significance level of 5%. In total, 354 heads of families participated in the research. No statistically significant relation was found between socio-economic class, schooling, age group and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). There was a relation between sex and TMD (p<0.02). The variables socio-economic class, schooling and age group had no influence upon the occurrence of TMD, however there is a significant relation with the sex of the individual.

  9. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  10. Who Are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the Achievement of Students with Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and student achievement has been prevalent in the literature, yet research focusing on the association between factors and the achievement of school populations with distinct categories of SES is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate various relevant student,…

  11. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  12. The Political Response of Spanish Youth to the Socio-Economic Crisis: Some Implications for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Gonzalo; Belando-Montoro, María R.; Guío, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the current socio-economic crisis on Spanish youth and their political response to it. It does so in three consecutive stages. In the first, it analyses the repercussion of the crisis on young people using information from certain social indicators (employment, mobility and education). It then outlines the…

  13. Socio-economic differences in self-esteem of adolescents influenced by personality, mental health and social support.

    PubMed

    Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that self-esteem is lower among adolescents of low socio-economic status and is associated with a number of intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural factors. Evidence on the mechanisms by which these factors contribute to the connection between socio-economic status and developing self-esteem is incomplete, however. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess whether personality, mental health and social support contribute to the relationship between socio-economic status and self-esteem. A sample of 3694 elementary-school students from Slovakia (mean age = 14.3 years, 49% boys) filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Family Affluence Scale, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Perceived Social Support Scale. Hierarchical linear regression showed family affluence, personality dimensions of extroversion, emotional stability and openness to experience, as well as mental health subscales and social support from family and significant others to be associated with self-esteem. Results indicate that personality dimensions and mental health subscales contribute to the association between family affluence and self-esteem. The contribution of personality and mental problems in the relation between socio-economic status and self-esteem may have important implications for the design of promotional programs aimed at enhancing self-esteem.

  14. Socio-Economic Determinants of Inter-State Student Mobility in India: Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Shashiranjan; Kumar, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the socio-economic determinants of student mobility in India and evaluates the factors that hinder and promote higher educational mobility. It is argued that despite the mass expansion of higher education in India in recent times, student mobility is directed towards developed educational regions. India is a unique case…

  15. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  16. Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…

  17. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Mario; Freitas, Raul; Crespi, Antonio L.; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, Joao Alexandre

    2011-10-15

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  18. The Ecology of Young Children's Behaviour and Social Competence: Child Characteristics, Socio-Economic Factors and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the effects of socio-economic factors on mother- and teacher-rated behaviour, and the unique and cumulative contribution of both risk and protective factors inherent in children's proximal and distal influences to behaviour during the…

  19. A Grounded Theory Approach to Understanding the Persistence Issue That Exists for Lower-Socio Economic Status College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research and program implementation in both the K-12 and higher educational systems, students of low socio-economic status (SES) still have access to and persist in higher education at significantly lower numbers than their more affluent peers (Gollnick & Chinn, 2012; Perna, 2005). This study employed a grounded-theory…

  20. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Parental Involvement in Turkish Primary Schools: Perspective of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether teachers'…

  1. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  2. [The Predictive Ability of Entrance Testing and a Survey of Socio-Economic Characteristics at Lake Land College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lach, Ivan J.

    The predictive ability of required tests as to grade point averages (GPA) and a survey of students' socio-economic characteristics are reported on in two separate studies from Lake Land College (Illinois). In the first paper a comparative study of required reading and mathematics tests and the American College Test (ACT) as to their ability to…

  3. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  4. The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

  5. Limited English Proficiency, Race/Ethnicity and Socio-Economic Status as Influences on Scores in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwilliger, James S.; Magnuson, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three basic demographic variables on reading test scores for students in the middle elementary grades. Limited English proficiency (LEP), race/ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) were studied to determine their influence individually and in combination on performance in large-scale…

  6. School Governing Bodies in England under Pressure: The Effects of Socio-Economic Context and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Chris; Brammer, Steve; Connolly, Michael; Fertig, Mike; James, Jane; Jones, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research into the nature and functioning of school governing bodies in different socio-economic and performance contexts. The research analysed 5000 responses from a national questionnaire-based survey and undertook 30 case studies of school governing. The research confirmed that school governing in England is a complex and…

  7. Examination of Science Learning Equity through Argumentation and Traditional Instruction Noting Differences in Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared student scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge in argumentation-based and traditional instruction, taught in school regions with low and high socio-economic status (SES) respectively. Furthermore, concrete and formal reasoning students' scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge were compared during both instructions…

  8. Life Satisfaction Shows Terminal Decline in Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70- to 100-year-olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with…

  9. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  10. Contribution of Spoken Language and Socio-Economic Background to Adolescents' Educational Achievement at Age 16 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy; Rush, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-documented associations exist between socio-economic background and language ability in early childhood, and between educational attainment and language ability in children with clinically referred language impairment. However, very little research has looked at the associations between language ability, educational attainment and…

  11. Connecting Multiliteracies and Engagement of Students from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds: Using Bernstein's Pedagogic Discourse as a Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammit, Katina Penklis

    2011-01-01

    Many students in Australia from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds have historically been alienated from learning and education because of the narrow definition of literacy and of what counts as legitimate texts. Consequently, traditional pedagogy, curriculum and assessment practices disengage many students. To address this issue, we…

  12. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  13. School Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status and Teachers' Work Commitment in Finland: Longitudinal Survey with Register Linkage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and 2004…

  14. Explaining socio-economic status differences in walking for transport: An ecological analysis of individual, social and environmental factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The identification of potential mechanisms of influence (mediators) of socio-economic status (SES) on walking for transport is important, because the likely opposing forces of influence may obscure pathways for intervention across different SES groups. This study examined individual, and perceived s...

  15. School Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status and Teachers' Work Commitment in Finland: Longitudinal Survey with Register Linkage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and 2004…

  16. The Association between Socio-economic Context at Individual and Neighbourhood Levels, Wellbeing and Lifestyle Behaviours of Young Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    SALEHI, Asiyeh; HARRIS, Neil; SEBAR, Bernadette; COYNE, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics at the individual and neighbourhood levels, and wellbeing and lifestyle behaviours of young Iranian women. Methods: Cluster convenience sampling was used to select 391 Iranian women participated in this cross-sectional survey in Shiraz, Iran in 2013. A scale adapted from the British General Household Social Capital questionnaire was used to assess neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics. The satisfaction with life scale, WHO quality of life scale, and the International Health and Behaviours Survey were used to measure wellbeing outcomes and lifestyle behaviours. Results: Findings showed participants were dissatisfied with their neighbourhood socio-economic conditions (M: 36.3±9.8, score range: 11–60) as well as the availability of leisure facilities (M: 1.8, score range: 1–5) in their local areas. Correlations and regression analysis revealed that better neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics were positively associated with better wellbeing outcomes as well as healthier lifestyle behaviours. Conclusion: These findings suggest the need for transitioning economies to be cognisant of the importance of social policy and strategies for enhancing neighbourhood socioeconomic status in order to enhance wellbeing outcomes for sub-populations, including young women. PMID:27957461

  17. Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and actions…

  18. Socio-Economic Status Differences in Mathematics Accuracy, Strategy Use, and Profiles in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Sun; Park, Yoon Soo; Ginsburg, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that students from low socio-economic status (SES) families are at greater risk for mathematics education and achievement, and these factors in turn, may impact their long-term well-being. This paper investigates differences in mathematics achievement by SES, using clinical interview (CI). Students in Kindergarten to Grade…

  19. Parents' Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated parents' socio-economic status on secondary school students' academic performance in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted. The population for the study comprised all Junior Secondary School students in Ekiti State. The sample consisted of 960 students from 20 secondary schools randomly…

  20. Eco-Health Linkages: evidence base and socio-economic considerations for linking ecosystem goods and services to human health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are thought to play a role in protecting human health, but the empirical evidence directly linking EGS to human health outcomes is limited, and our ability to detect Eco-Health linkages is confounded by socio-economic factors. These limitations ...