Science.gov

Sample records for power sources conference

  1. Compact high power multi-SLED source design and packaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Apurva; Dattner, Yonathan

    2017-03-01

    Packaging solutions developed for Luxmux's BeST SLED family of sources will be discussed along with their applications. In particular, a narrow linewidth (<300 pm) continuously tunable (from 1250 nm to 1750 nm) laser source providing >20mW output power from a compact fiber-coupled butterfly package will be presented.

  2. Development of ultrashort x-ray/gamma-ray sources using ultrahigh power lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Hojbota, Calin; Jeon, Jong Ho; Rhee, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Seong Ku; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Hwang Woon; Pathak, Vishwa B.; Pae, Ki Hong; Sebban, Stéphane; Tissandier, Fabien; Gautier, Julien; Ta Phuoc, Kim; Malka, Victor; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-05-01

    Short-pulse x-ray/gamma-ray sources have become indispensable light sources for investigating material science, bio technology, and photo-nuclear physics. In past decades, rapid advancement of high intensity laser technology led extensive progresses in the field of radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions - x-ray lasers, betatron radiation and Compton gamma-rays. Ever since the installation of a 100-TW laser in 2006, we have pursued the development of ultrashort x-ray/gamma-ray radiations, such as x-ray lasers, relativistic high-order harmonics, betatron radiation and all-optical Compton gamma-rays. With the construction of two PW Ti:Sapphire laser beamlines having peak powers of 1.0 PW and 1.5 PW in 2010 and 2012, respectively [1], we have investigated the generation of multi-GeV electron beams [2] and MeV betatron radiations. We plan to carry out the Compton backscattering to generate MeV gamma-rays from the interaction of a GeV electron beam and a PW laser beam. Here, we present the recent progress in the development of ultrashort x-ray/gamma-ray radiation sources based on laser plasma interactions and the plan for developing Compton gamma-ray sources driven by the PW lasers. In addition, we will present the applications of laser-plasma x-ray lasers to x-ray holography and coherent diffraction imaging. [references] 1. J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, and J. Lee, Opt. Lett. 35, 3021 (2010). 2. H. T. Kim, K. H. Pae, H. J. Cha, I J. Kim, T. J. Yu, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. M. Jeong, J. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 165002 (2013).

  3. Power sources.

    PubMed

    Luciano, A A

    1995-09-01

    The rapid development of endoscopic surgery has created an ever-increasing demand for new instruments, such as lasers of various wavelengths, and new applications of high-frequency electrosurgery. The technology has advanced rapidly and it is sometimes difficult to understand the different applications of these new instruments and take full advantage of these developments. This article has reviewed the basic principles of the various power sources commonly utilized in gynecologic surgery and described the clinical applications of each of them.

  4. Widely tunable, high peak power ultrafast laser sources in biological imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Widely tunable ultrafast lasers have enabled a large number of biological imaging techniques including point scanning multiphoton excited fluorescence (MPEF), SHG/THG and stimulated Raman imaging. Tunable ultrafast lasers offer spectral agility, covering the entire relative transparency window in live tissue (700-1300nnm) and flexibility with multi-color, synchronized outputs to support sophisticated label free techniques (e.g. stimulated Raman modalities). More recently newly available high peak power lasers based on Ytterbium technology drive advances in two-photon light-sheet, 3 photon excited fluorescence and holographic patterning for optogenetics photo-stimulation. These laser platforms offer a unique blend of compactness, ease of use and cost efficiency, and ideally complement tunable platforms typically based on Ti:Sapphire and IR optical parametric oscillators (OPO). We present various types of ultrafast laser architectures, link their optical characteristics to key bio-imaging requirements, and present relevant examples and images illustrating their impact in biological science. In particular we review the use of ultrafast lasers in optogenetics and fast in-vivo Calcium imaging deep in mouse brain.

  5. Power Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit…

  6. Soldier System Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    capability 21 Photovoltaic Power Sources 23 Maximum Power Tracking in Solar Arrays 23 Optimum Configuration of Solar Array for Enhanced Power Generation...Sources", IEEE Transactions on Power Elec- tronics, vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 244-253, Jan. 2005. 9. S. Liu, R. Dougal, E. Solodovnik, "Maximum Power Tracking and...eguate FRetulat Fig. 5.5. Flow chart of control algorithm. 22 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCES MAXIMUM POWER

  7. Militarized Thermoelectric Power Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Thermoelectric power sources are being developed to provide multifuel, silent, maintenance free tactical power generators for forward area...applications. Recent technology improvements, state of development, and performance characteristics of the 100-Watt and 500-Watt Thermoelectric Power Sources are presented. (Author)

  8. Conference Report: Power and Energy Society Annual Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorino, Naoto; Mori, Hiroyuki

    The 19th Power & Energy Society Annual Conference was held on September 24-26, 2008 at Hiroshima University. The total number of technical papers was 415 and 53 sessions (52 oral sessions and 1 poster session) were organized. A panel discussion, a special lecture, technical exhibitions and technical tours were also organized. All events were very well attended and the final enrollment attained to 954 registrations. The conference has been successfully closed by the great contribution of all participants. In this article, the outline of the conference is reported.

  9. Proceedings of the Power Sources Conference (36th) Held in Cherry Hill, New Jersey on June 6-9, 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-09

    graphite. Interfacial area was 940 cnmi J (1), - de)p;Jq.s( -• 4U. 74 0 be0 Jd0 E0I t7 n I- TPo 0pa (AeQA -EIOIc L.. CC 0 Ad JI-0. 0 .2 0 -4 Eq C13 C4...of 92:4:4 in cyclohexane. The resulting slurries were then spin coated onto pretreated aluminium disks. 3.00 Electrodes were dried at 200°C under...high performance emitter development was process where a primary energy source (chemical flame , nuclear carried out at The Gillette Company. Gillette

  10. The 2016 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nomi L.; Cock, Peter J.A.; Chapman, Brad; Fields, Christopher J.; Hokamp, Karsten; Lapp, Hilmar; Muñoz-Torres, Monica; Wiencko, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Message from the ISCB: The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a yearly meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. BOSC has been run since 2000 as a two-day Special Interest Group (SIG) before the annual ISMB conference. The 17th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2016) took place in Orlando, Florida in July 2016. As in previous years, the conference was preceded by a two-day collaborative coding event open to the bioinformatics community. The conference brought together nearly 100 bioinformatics researchers, developers and users of open source software to interact and share ideas about standards, bioinformatics software development, and open and reproducible science. PMID:27781083

  11. The 2016 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC).

    PubMed

    Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Chapman, Brad; Fields, Christopher J; Hokamp, Karsten; Lapp, Hilmar; Muñoz-Torres, Monica; Wiencko, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Message from the ISCB: The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a yearly meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. BOSC has been run since 2000 as a two-day Special Interest Group (SIG) before the annual ISMB conference. The 17th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2016) took place in Orlando, Florida in July 2016. As in previous years, the conference was preceded by a two-day collaborative coding event open to the bioinformatics community. The conference brought together nearly 100 bioinformatics researchers, developers and users of open source software to interact and share ideas about standards, bioinformatics software development, and open and reproducible science.

  12. Miniature Radioisotope Power Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed miniature power source generates electricity for years from heat developed in small radioisotope unit without addition of fuel or dependence on sunlight. Called powerstick, is relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and rugged. Supplies power to small vehicles or scientific instruments in remote locations on Earth or in outer space. Envisioned uses include Mars miniature rovers and monitoring equipment for toxic or nuclear storage sites.

  13. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  15. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed

  16. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed

  17. Power Sources for Ultra Low Power Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-12

    DARPA asked JASON to examine the issue of power sources for low power electronics with a specific emphasis on the properties of nuclear batteries and...integrated power sources combining power and electronics. During the 1998 Summer Study a workshop was held to provide background for the study, with

  18. STANDARD FAMILY OF POWER SOURCES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A standard family of power sources is proposed which will minimize the number and variety of power sources , prevent the flooding of the supply system...with hardware that only could be used in a single application and provide the user with a family of power sources from which he could select one...new concept in the deployment of power sources . No longer is a single power source developed for each equipment; rather, the selection of a battery

  19. Literature for American Power Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Recent experimental work of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration has opened the perspective of a focusing gamma-ray telescope operating in the energy range of nuclear transitions, featuring unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution. The instrument consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens situated on a stabilized spacecraft, focusing gamma-rays onto a small array of Germanium detectors perched on an extendible boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 in., an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 {sigma} narrow line sensitivity of a few times 10 {sup {minus}7} photons s{sup {minus}2} cm {sup {minus}2} (10 {sup 6} sec observation). This instrumental concept permits observation of any identified source at any selected line-energy ;in a range of typically 200 keV to 1300 keV. The resulting ``sequential`` operation mode makes sites of explosive nucleosynthesis natural scientific objectives for such a telescope: The nuclear lines of extragalactic supernovae ({sup 56}Ni, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 60}Fe) and galactic novac (p{sup {minus}}p{sup +} line, {sup 7}Be) are accessible to observation, one at a time, due to the erratic appearance and the sequence of half-lifes of these events Other scientific objective include the narrow 511 keV line from galactic broad class annihilators (such as 1E1740-29, nova musca) and possible redshifted annihilation lines from AGN`s.

  20. POWER SOURCES FOR ELECTRIC CARS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An extrapolation, based on extensive experience with battery and fuel cell power sources during various Army programs, is made into the future world...of the electric car and speculates on the power sources most suited as the electrical energy source. The conclusion is that both the battery and the

  1. Technologies. [space power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  2. Krakow conference on low emissions sources: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Krakow Conference on Low Emission Sources presented the information produced and analytical tools developed in the first phase of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. This phase included: field testing to provide quantitative data on missions and efficiencies as well as on opportunities for building energy conservation; engineering analysis to determine the costs of implementing pollution control; and incentives analysis to identify actions required to create a market for equipment, fuels, and services needed to reduce pollution. Collectively, these Proceedings contain reports that summarize the above phase one information, present the status of energy system management in Krakow, provide information on financing pollution control projects in Krakow and elsewhere, and highlight the capabilities and technologies of Polish and American companies that are working to reduce pollution from low emission sources. It is intended that the US reader will find in these Proceedings useful results and plans for control of pollution from low emission sources that are representative of heating systems in central and Eastern Europe. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Forty-seventh annual power distribution conference, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This is a collection of papers presented at the forty-seventh annual Power Distribution Conference in 1994. The topics of the papers include recent developments in distribution grounding, partial discharge analysis of electrical machinery, insulating fluids analysis as a basis for a complete transformer monitoring program, environmental and regulatory issues regarding the use of silicone transformer fluids, locating and identifying harmonic sources, optimizing distribution operations resources, surface launch directional boring units, electrical supply to Dallas/Fort Worth international airport, a microprocessor-based digital feeder monitor with high-impedance fault detection, a modern review of distribution system protective coordination, and Ski Apache electric service improvements.

  4. Annual national conference of American Public Power Association

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The conference included 38 presentations. References to twenty-eight papers were included in the Energy Database. The general themes of the presentations were related to management and operations of Electric Utilities in the new era of deregulation and increased competition. Topics presented included: (1) Competition at the retail and wholesale levels. (2) Quality assurance of goods and services. (3) Relationships with retail and wholesale customers. (4) Load management through incentive rate structures. (5) Customer oriented service policies. (6) Negotiation of rates and sources for wholesale power. (7) Opportunities in telecommunications. (8) Marketing of services. (9) Benchmarking operation functions to improve performance.

  5. Optical power source control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husbands, C. R.

    1984-05-01

    An optical power source control system having a four port optical coupler, an optical receiver and associated comparator circuits operably connected to the optical transmission line connecting the source to an output connector. When the output connector is mated with another connector, the receiver senses the optical energy reflected from the glass/air and air/glass interfaces of the connectors and provides an appropriate signal. This signal is sufficiently high when compared to a threshold voltage level to permit the power source to operate. When the output connector is in the unmated condition the reflected optical power from the air/glass interface is no longer present and therefore the signal from the receiver falls below the threshold voltage level. With this reduced signal level, power flow to the optical source is removed or reduced thereby controlling the operation of the optical power source.

  6. Hybrid power source

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  7. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  8. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  9. Lifecycle Cost Assessment of Fuel Cell Technologies for Soldier Power System Applications. Paper and Presentation for the 43rd Power Sources Conference held 8-9 July 2008, Philadelphia, PA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-09

    PEMFC in Federal Markets,” 2007 Fuel Cell Seminar, San Antonio, TX, 17 October 2007. 7. Fok, K., “Metal Hydride Fuel Cells: Increases in Power...Lauderdale, FL, March 17-20, 2008. 10. Zhao J., et al, “Reclaim/recycle of Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC ,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 48...hydrogen PEMFC or SOFC systems – Baratto et al, Journal of Power Sources – Citigroup, Dist. Telecom Backup – Battelle, Fuel Cell Seminar 2007 • Fuel

  10. Industrial and commercial power systems technical conference (Conference Record)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: A Relational Database Approach to Design of Power Plant and Large Industrial Electrical Facilities; Power Quality Site Surveys: Facts, Fiction, and Fallacies; An Application Design Guide for the Selection of Low Voltage Protection Equipment Used in Power Systems with High Level Fault Currents; and Saving Electricity in Commercial Buildings with Adjustable Speed Drives.

  11. Eighth international conference on MHD electrical power generation. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation was convened at the initiative of the International Liaison Group on MHD Electrical Power Generation by the USSR Academy of Sciences (Institute of High Temperatures) and under the sponsorship of: UNESCO; Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON); Energoinvest (Yugoslavia); Control Data Corporation (USA); and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India). Considerable emphasis is placed in the Conference proceedings on the problems of testing, designing and mathematical modeling of MHD channels, as well as on the studies into MHD flows, heat transfer, properties and physical processes in plasma, electrode phenomena and diagnostics. The various MHD components are described from the standpoint of their development, namely, compressors, air preheaters, systems for seed injection and recovery, combustors, cooling systems, steam generators, superconducting magnets, loading systems etc. Problems related to high-temperature materials, operation of the equipment under conditions of slagging, and suppression of nitrogen and sulfur oxides are discussed. All but one of the papers have been entered into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources.

  12. Pulsed Beamless High Power Microwave (HPM) Source with Integrated Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    gral part of t utilized for source ope d. The peak asured to be 2 ns. SS HIGH IN kach Institu .Mironenk iv 04073, U SA; Ya. T 1 er Microwave W...Pulsed Beamless High Power Microwave (HPM) Source With Integrated Antenna 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES See also ADM002371. 2013 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Digest of Technical Papers 1976-2013, and Abstracts of the 2013 IEEE International

  13. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel... engine is used as a source of electrical power, a vessel speed change, throttle movement or change...

  14. Compact High Power THz Source

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-08-01

    In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes is discussed.

  15. Power sources in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sutton, C

    1995-08-01

    The power sources used in endoscopic surgery are varied and numerous, and will continue to improve as technology progresses. Early attempts at operative laparoscopy were crude, limited by the available instrumentation, and tended to be frustrating: scissors that had to be frequently sharpened and endocoagulators that took a seemingly interminable time to achieve their tissue effect. New developements in ultrasonic energy and different wavelengths of laser energy are used alongside increasingly sophisticated electrosurgical tools, employing both monopolar and bipolar systems, and innovative delivery systems such as the argon beam coagulator and the Helica Thermal Coagulator. All of these systems have their advocates and their detractors, but in the end the choice of power source is determined by the type of equipment that the operator feels most comfortable with. The surgeon must have a detailed knowledge of the physical concepts required to generate the power source, and be able to understand the complications that can be created by the energy, how to avoid them, how and to deal with them if they occur. Although there are subtle differences in the reaction of the different energy sources with human tissue, the clinical outcome appears to be much the same, and depends more on the skill of the individual surgeon than the power source employed.

  16. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  18. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 183.310 Section 183.310 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can...

  19. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 129.310 Section 129.310 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least...

  20. Backup power sources for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This standard establishes fundamental requirements and guidance for backup power sources at DOE facilities. Purpose is to document good engineering practices for installation, testing, and maintenance of these backup power sources, which also covers emergency power sources. Examples are those which supply power to nuclear safety systems, radiation monitors and alarms, fire protection systems, security systems, and emergency lighting.

  1. Conventional power sources for colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    At SLAC we are developing high peak-power klystrons to explore the limits of use of conventional power sources in future linear colliders. In an experimental tube we have achieved 150 MW at 1 ..mu..sec pulse width at 2856 MHz. In production tubes for SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) we routinely achieve 67 MW at 3.5 ..mu..sec pulse width and 180 pps. Over 200 of the klystrons are in routine operation in SLC. An experimental klystron at 8.568 GHz is presently under construction with a design objective of 30 MW at 1 ..mu..sec. A program is starting on the relativistic klystron whose performance will be analyzed in the exploration of the limits of klystrons at very short pulse widths.

  2. Eighth international conference on MHD electrical power generation. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation was convened at the initiative of the International Liaison Group on MHD Electrical Power Generation by the USSR Academy of Sciences (Institute of High Temperature) and under the sponsorship of: UNESCO; Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON); Energoinvest (Yugoslavia), Control Data Corporation (USA); and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India). The proceedings of the VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation contain the results of most recent R and D work aimed at practical realization of this advanced method of electrical power generation. The papers presented to the Conference deal with heat-generating schemes and cycles, conceptual and detail designs of MHD power plants, including that of the first commercial 500-MW power generating unit presently under construction in the USSR. Research results obtained in pilot and experimental facilities in the USSR, USA, Poland, Japan, Netherlands and other countries are described. Volume 4 was concerned with Materials, Combined-Cycle, Liquid-Metal MHD, and Closed-Cycle Disk-Type MHD Generator. This DOE report contains full translations in English of all the papers in Volume 4. These have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  4. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity...

  5. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power sources. 120.310 Section 120.310 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to...

  6. Thulium heat sources for space power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, C. J.

    1992-10-01

    Reliable electrical power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration activities on planet surfaces. A potential power source is available through the use of thulium, a rare earth metal. Heat sources can be produced by neutron activation of naturally occurring thulium (Tm-169) targets in the base station nuclear power reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications systems located at remote sites. Combined with a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle conversion system, the heat source can power a lightweight electrical source for rovers or other surface transportation systems.

  7. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  8. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  9. Using structural power sources to increase influence.

    PubMed

    Hoezel, C B

    1989-11-01

    To be more effective in the health care system of the 1990s, nursing administrators must understand organizational sources of structural power. After analyzing structural power sources, the nursing administrator must develop a plan to use them and, finally, must be willing to acquire that power which is available. The author explores three sources of structural power: centrality, control of uncertainty and control over resources, and analyzes their relevance for nursing administrators.

  10. The 2015 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC 2015).

    PubMed

    Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Lapp, Hilmar; Chapman, Brad; Davey, Rob; Fields, Christopher; Hokamp, Karsten; Munoz-Torres, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a nonprofit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of open source software development and open science within the biological research community. Since its inception in 2000, BOSC has provided bioinformatics developers with a forum for communicating the results of their latest efforts to the wider research community. BOSC offers a focused environment for developers and users to interact and share ideas about standards; software development practices; practical techniques for solving bioinformatics problems; and approaches that promote open science and sharing of data, results, and software. BOSC is run as a two-day special interest group (SIG) before the annual Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference. BOSC 2015 took place in Dublin, Ireland, and was attended by over 125 people, about half of whom were first-time attendees. Session topics included "Data Science;" "Standards and Interoperability;" "Open Science and Reproducibility;" "Translational Bioinformatics;" "Visualization;" and "Bioinformatics Open Source Project Updates". In addition to two keynote talks and dozens of shorter talks chosen from submitted abstracts, BOSC 2015 included a panel, titled "Open Source, Open Door: Increasing Diversity in the Bioinformatics Open Source Community," that provided an opportunity for open discussion about ways to increase the diversity of participants in BOSC in particular, and in open source bioinformatics in general. The complete program of BOSC 2015 is available online at http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2015_Schedule.

  11. ONE WATT 30-DAY PLUS POWER SOURCES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Four alternative power sources are considered as replacements for the mercury cells which are currently used. Of these, silver-zinc batteries can...percent. Hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells offer no advantage over present power sources . Solar cell-battery power systems are advisable for some applications. (Author)

  12. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  13. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  14. High power millimeter wave source development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. V.

    1989-01-01

    High power millimeter wave sources for fusion program; ECH source development program strategy; and 1 MW, 140 GHz gyrotron experiment design philosophy are briefly outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  15. Special Application Thermoelectric Micro Isotope Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, Ben; Lieberman, Al; Khayat, Mo; Leanna, Andrew; Dobry, Ted

    2008-01-21

    Promising design concepts for milliwatt (mW) size micro isotope power sources (MIPS) are being sought for use in various space and terrestrial applications, including a multitude of future NASA scientific missions and a range of military applications. To date, the radioisotope power sources (RPS) used on various space and terrestrial programs have provided power levels ranging from one-half to several hundred watts. In recent years, the increased use of smaller spacecraft and planned new scientific space missions by NASA, special terrestrial and military applications suggest the need for lower power, including mW level, radioisotope power sources. These power sources have the potential to enable such applications as long-lived meteorological or seismological stations distributed across planetary surfaces, surface probes, deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites, terrestrial sensors, transmitters, and micro-electromechanical systems. The power requirements are in the range of 1 mW to several hundred mW. The primary technical requirements for space applications are long life, high reliability, high specific power, and high power density, and those for some special military uses are very high power density, specific power, reliability, low radiological induced degradation, and very low radiation leakage. Thermoelectric conversion is of particular interest because of its technological maturity and proven reliability. This paper summarizes the thermoelectric, thermal, and radioisotope heat source designs and presents the corresponding performance for a number of mW size thermoelectric micro isotope power sources.

  16. Power source considerations for Grand Tour missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, O. S.; Weber, W. B.; Leonard, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    At the present time, there exists no known power source that will satisfy the power, weight, lifetime, and other stringent requirements of an extended outer-planet mission. Exploratory studies indicate the need for a solar-independent power source capable of supplying approximately 500 W of power over mission lifetimes of up to 12 years. The only known power source which can possibly meet these requirements, in the 1975 to 1979 time period, is a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). In 1969 a program began to develop a long-life, plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric power system. Aspects of spacecraft configuration are discussed together with power source requirements, RTG/spacecraft integration, operational details, and problems of safety.

  17. Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.

  18. Very High Power THz Radiation Sources.

    PubMed

    Carr, G L; Martin, M C; McKinney, W R; Jordan, K; Neil, G R; Williams, G P

    2003-06-01

    We report the production of high power (20watts average, ∼ 1 Megawatt peak) broadbandTHz light based on coherent emission fromrelativistic electrons. Such sources areideal for imaging, for high power damagestudies and for studies of non-linearphenomena in this spectral range. Wedescribe the source, presenting theoreticalcalculations and their experimentalverification. For clarity we compare thissource with one based on ultrafast lasertechniques.

  19. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power sources. 129.310 Section 129.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS... by a propulsion engine is used as a source of electrical power, no speed change, throttle...

  20. AMTEC power systems for remote site applications Conference on alternative powere from space; Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Ivanenok, Joseph F.; Sievers, Robert K.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Defense, US Forest Service and the University of Alaska operate more than 200 remote sites in the Arctic. Most of these sites are now operated on fuel-burning thermoelectric converters with an efficiency of less than 4%. The cost of supplying even moderate electric power requirements to remote environmental, treaty monitoring and communication sites is strongly dependent on the fuel delivery requirements. In the Arctic where solar input is frequently unreliable, the problem is particularly severe. On average, these sites need only about 60 watts of electrical power but will burn over 2,200 kg of propane per year for continuous operation. At these power levels, Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) systems with their projected 20% to 25% thermal to electric conversion efficiency can provide power for these remote sites with potential annual logistics cost savings (primarily in reduced fuel supply costs) reaching tens of millions of dollars.

  1. A Subtle Source of Power: The Effect of Having an Expectation on Anticipated Interpersonal Power

    PubMed Central

    BALDWIN, AUSTIN S.; KIVINIEMI, MARC T.; SNYDER, MARK

    2009-01-01

    In 2 studies, the authors tested the hypothesis that having information about another person can be a source of power in interpersonal interactions. In Study 1, the authors randomized participants to receive an expectation about an interaction partner, and the expectation provided an informational advantage for some participants but not for others. Participants with an advantage reported higher perceptions of power than did those who had information that did not confer an advantage; however, the effect was isolated to feelings of informational power. In Study 2, the authors examined whether the effect extended to different types of power when the information did not provide an explicit advantage. In this case, participants who received a more ambiguous expectation reported more diffuse feelings of power. The authors discuss implications for understanding the dynamics of power in social interactions. PMID:19245049

  2. Very high power THz radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Jordan, K.; Neil, George R.; Williams, G.P.

    2002-10-31

    We report the production of high power (20 watts average, {approx} 1 Megawatt peak) broadband THz light based on coherent emission from relativistic electrons. Such sources are ideal for imaging, for high power damage studies and for studies of non-linear phenomena in this spectral range. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. For clarity we compare this source to one based on ultrafast laser techniques.

  3. Very High Power THz Radiation Sources

    SciTech Connect

    G.L. Carr; Michael C. Martin; Wayne R. McKinney; Kevin Jordan; George R. Neil; Gwyn P. Williams

    2002-10-01

    We report the production of high power (20 watts average, {approx}1 Megawatt peak) broadband THz light based on coherent emission from relativistic electrons. Such sources are ideal for imaging, for high power damage studies and for studies of non-linear phenomena in this spectral range. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. For clarity, we compare this sources with one based on ultrafast laser techniques.

  4. Power Sources 18: Research and Development in Non-Mechanical Electrical Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Power Sources 18 is an edited record of the papers and posters submitted for presentation at the 22nd International Power Sources Symposium that was...session concentrating on power sources for communications equipment ranging from military manpack radios to remote telemetry.

  5. Low Power Polysilicon Sources for IR Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, N. C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1998-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated polysilicon thin film infrared (IR) sources by micromachining technology. These sources are made with a lightly doped middle region for light emission and heavy doping of the supporting legs. The sources are fabricated on a 10 mm thick, low temperature process parameters in the fabrication of these silicon dioxide layer. Different doping levels were used to achieve various source resistances. From the power requirement to reach the required light emission versus source resistance curve it is seen that there exists a resistance value which minimizes the necessary input power.

  6. Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Druxman, Lee Daniel

    2007-09-01

    As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

  7. How to Integrate Variable Power Source into a Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hiroshi

    This paper discusses how to integrate variable power source such as wind power and photovoltaic generation into a power grid. The intermittent renewable generation is expected to penetrate for less carbon intensive power supply system, but it causes voltage control problem in the distribution system, and supply-demand imbalance problem in a whole power system. Cooperative control of customers' energy storage equipment such as water heater with storage tank for reducing inverse power flow from the roof-top PV system, the operation technique using a battery system and the solar radiation forecast for stabilizing output of variable generation, smart charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for load frequency control (LFC), and other methods to integrate variable power source with improving social benefits are surveyed.

  8. The Railgun and Its Power Source,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    inductor 66 3.1.3 The ANU homopolar generator power source 67 3.1.4 Features of an ideal power source 69 3.1.5 Desirable power source pulse energy...3.3.2 Homopolar generators 75 3.3.3 Ordinary large alternators 77 3.3.4 The compulsator 77 3.4 Explosive magnetic flux compression 80 3.5 Minimum mass of...discharge of lead-acid batteries 99 4.4.4 Design and performance of a high rate lead-acid cell 101 4.5 Motor -generator instead of batteries 103 4.5.1

  9. High Power Josephson Effect Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    large spacing was nsed ,along with cooling water, os Iao a d$ to ensure the substrate temperature did not rise durn theCox flow Osiltr.adsaljnto ry~ h m...Here two arra’s. a 400 s.m Josephson effect detector and an SIS mixer are "I integrated on a single silicon substrate . One array func- tions as the...junction’s shunt resistor, on array’s output power and detector’s current- voltage characteristics are also discussed. I. INTRODUCTION - U Phb &z locked

  10. Advanced information technologies for assessing nonpoint source pollution in the vadose zone: Conference overview

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Loague, K.; Ellsworth, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    The information age has ushered in an awareness of and concern for global environmental problems such as climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Nonpoint source pollution is the single greatest threat to surface and subsurface drinking water resources. Nonpoint source pollutants also pose a threat to sustainable agriculture, which is viewed as the most viable means of meeting the food demands of a world population that is expected to reach 9.4 billion by the middle of the next century. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales would provide a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities. Assessing NPS pollutant is a multidisciplinary problem. To address the problem, advanced information technologies and methodologies are needed that draw from all areas of science and are applied in a spatial context. It was from this setting that the 1997 Joint AGU Chapman/SSSA Outreach Conference Application of GIS, Remote Sensing, Geostatistics, and Solute Transport Modeling for Assessing Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Vadose Zone (19--24 Oct. 1997, Riverside, CA) materialized. The objective of the conference was to examine current multidisciplinary technologies and methodologies for assessing NPS pollutants in the vadose zone, and to explore new conceptual approaches. It was the conference`s goal to provide a forum to stimulate multidisciplinary interaction to enhance the development of techniques for the real-time measurement and modeling of NPS pollution in the vadose zone and subsurface waters.

  11. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOEpatents

    Zuppero, Anthony C.; Krawetz, Barton; Barklund, C. Rodger; Seifert, Gary D.

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  12. On source radiation. [power output computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.

    1980-01-01

    The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (farfield) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distributions. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis rotates in a plane, on a full or partial angular range, with prescribed frequency. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pair of orthogonal directions in the plane and, through the farfield representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

  13. On source radiation. [power output computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.

    1980-01-01

    The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (farfield) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distributions. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis rotates in a plane, on a full or partial angular range, with prescribed frequency. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pair of orthogonal directions in the plane and, through the farfield representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

  14. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500/sup 0/C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370/sup 0/C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs.

  15. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  16. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  17. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2016-07-12

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  18. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2009-09-30

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  19. New developments in RF power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.

    1994-06-01

    The most challenging rf source requirements for high-energy accelerators presently being studied or designed come from the various electron-positron linear collider studies. All of these studies except TESLA (the superconducting entry in the field) have specified rf sources with much higher peak powers than any existing tubes at comparable high frequencies. While circular machines do not, in general, require high peak power, the very high luminosity electron-positron rings presently being designed as B factories require prodigious total average rf power. In this age of energy conservation, this puts a high priority on high efficiency for the rf sources. Both modulating anodes and depressed collectors are being investigated in the quest for high efficiency at varying output powers.

  20. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  1. Power sources manufactures association : power technology roadmap workshop - 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John S.

    2006-03-01

    The Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA) is pleased to announce the release of the latest Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report. This Fifth Edition Workshop Report includes presentations and discussions from the workshop as seen by the participants that included many of the industry's most influential members representing end-users, power supply manufacturers, component suppliers, consultants and academia. This report provides detailed projections for the next three to four years of various technologies in a quantitative form. There was special emphasis on how the increasing use of digital technologies will affect the industry in the next four years. The technology trend analysis and the roadmap is provided for the following specific product families expected to be the areas of largest market growth: (1) Ac-dc front end power supplies--1 kW from a single phase ac source; (2) External ac-dc power supplies; (3) Dc-dc bus converters; and (4) Non-isolated dc-dc converters. Bruce Miller, Chairman of PSMA, stated that 'the Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is an extensive document that analyzes and provides projections for most major technical parameters for a specific power supply. It is a unique document as it contains technology/parametric trends in a roadmap fashion from a variety of diverse sources, giving significant depth to its content. No such information is available from any other source'. The Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is available at no cost as to PSMA Regular and Associate members and at a reduced price to Affiliate members as a benefit of membership. The report will be offered to non-members at a price of $2490. For further information or to buy a copy of the report, please visit the publications page or the PSMA website or contact the Association Office.

  2. Current status of pacemaker power sources.

    PubMed

    Tyers, G F; Brownlee, R R

    1978-06-01

    After years during which pacers of very similar design and capabilities were provided by a small number of manufactures, many different lithium, halogen, rechargeable, and nuclear power sources are now available. The variety of chemistries, methods of construction, and sealing techniques used in the batteries of the different manufacturers is almost unlimited. This has made it necessary for physicians who implant and follow pacer to acquire a general knowledge of the field if they are to make an informed choice of pacemaker power source for implantation and if they are to manage recalls with a minimum of patient and physician trauma. More experience is required before it can be definitely determined which of the new pacer power sources will prove superior, but when coupled with well-designed, hermetically sealed pulse generators, all are capable of providing continuous pacing for at least 5 years and the 10-year pacemaker is now a probability.

  3. Implantable power-sources: a review.

    PubMed

    Greatbatch, W

    1984-01-01

    It has now been 25 years since the first pacemakers were implanted. It is indeed fascinating to see the breadth and the vision of the early investigators on both sides of the ocean, most of them friends of the author, in the almost desperate search for a power source that would enable the pacemaker to last as long as the expected lifetime of the average patient. Every conceivable method of power generation, power storage, and energy conservation was studied. The result was an orderly transition from zinc-mercury batteries, to lithium-iodine batteries, to the newest lithium oxyhalide systems of the coming decade, all of which coincided with tentative sidesteps into rechargeable batteries and nuclear batteries. This paper traces this 25 years of progress and salutes the many investigators who have brought the implantable pacemaker and its power source to their present state of acceptance by the medical profession.

  4. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  5. Advanced RF power sources for linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1996-10-01

    In order to maintain a reasonable over-all length at high center-of-mass energy, the main linac of an electron-positron linear collider must operate at a high accelerating gradient. For copper (non-superconducting) accelerator structures, this implies a high peak power per unit length and a high peak power per RF source, assuming a limited number of discrete sources are used. To provide this power, a number of devices are currently under active development or conceptual consideration: conventional klystrons with multi-cavity output structures, gyroklystrons, magnicons, sheet-beam klystrons, multiple-beam klystrons and amplifiers based on the FEL principle. To enhance the peak power produced by an rf source, the SLED rf pulse compression scheme is currently in use on existing linacs, and new compression methods that produce a flatter output pulse are being considered for future linear colliders. This paper covers the present status and future outlook for the more important rf power sources and pulse compression systems. It should be noted that high gradient electron linacs have applications in addition to high-energy linear colliders; they can, for example, serve as compact injectors for FEL`s and storage rings.

  6. Power Transfer Efficiency of Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery

    2004-09-01

    There are many devices to produce gas discharge plasmas. They differ by the method of plasma coupling to the electrical energy source. In order to create self-sustained gas-discharge plasma with given gas pressure and plasma density, a certain amount of power Pp has to be delivered to plasma electrons to compensate for electron energy losses. As shown in this presentation, this power does not depend on the specifics of electron interaction with electromagnetic field and is basically the same for all types of discharges. Some additional power loss Pc associated with power dissipation in the plasma supporting means (like thermionic cathode, cathode fall, rf antenna and matching network) is unavoidable to maintain self-sustained plasma. That is accounted for by the power transfer efficiency η =Pp /(Pp +Pc ). Efficiency analysis of different plasma sources is given in this presentation. It is shown that the largest values of efficiency are found in the plasma sources for lighting and the lowest in the plasma for processing of materials. The presentation explains this disparity and challenges some wide spread mythology about unique efficiency of some plasma sources.

  7. Control for nuclear thermionic power source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A control for a power source which includes nuclear fuel interspersed with thermionic converters, is described. A power regulator maintains a substantially constant output voltage to a variable load, and a control circuit drives a neutron flux regulator in accordance with the current supplied to the power regulator and the neutron flux density in the region of the converters. The control circuit generates a control signal which is the difference between the neutron flux density and a linear function of the current, and drives the neutron regulator in a direction to decrease or increase the neutron flux according to the polarity of the control signal.

  8. 46 CFR 112.01-20 - Final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-20 Final emergency power source. A final emergency power source is one that functions after the temporary emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final emergency power source. 112.01-20 Section 112.01...

  9. 46 CFR 112.01-20 - Final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-20 Final emergency power source. A final emergency power source is one that functions after the temporary emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final emergency power source. 112.01-20 Section 112.01...

  10. 46 CFR 112.01-20 - Final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-20 Final emergency power source. A final emergency power source is one that functions after the temporary emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final emergency power source. 112.01-20 Section 112.01...

  11. 46 CFR 112.01-20 - Final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-20 Final emergency power source. A final emergency power source is one that functions after the temporary emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final emergency power source. 112.01-20 Section 112.01...

  12. 46 CFR 112.01-20 - Final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-20 Final emergency power source. A final emergency power source is one that functions after the temporary emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final emergency power source. 112.01-20 Section 112.01...

  13. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospects for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  14. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to... electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 119.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public address system required under § 121.610...

  15. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least two sources of electricity: (i) Any system identified as a vital system in § 128.130(a) of this subchapter. (ii) Interior lights. (iii) Communication systems. (iv) Navigational equipment and lights. (v)...

  16. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least two sources of electricity: (i) Any system identified as a vital system in § 128.130(a) of this subchapter. (ii) Interior lights. (iii) Communication systems. (iv) Navigational equipment and lights. (v)...

  17. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from two sources of electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 182.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public...

  18. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to... electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 119.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public address system required under § 121.610...

  19. 46 CFR 120.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Distribution Systems § 120.310 Power sources. (a)(1) Each vessel that relies on electricity to... electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 119.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public address system required under § 121.610...

  20. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from two sources of electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 182.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public...

  1. 46 CFR 183.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that relies on electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from two sources of electricity: (i) The vital systems listed in § 182.710 of this chapter; (ii) Interior lighting except for decorative lights; (iii) Communication systems including a public...

  2. 46 CFR 129.310 - Power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electricity to power the following loads must be arranged so that the loads can be energized from at least two sources of electricity: (i) Any system identified as a vital system in § 128.130(a) of this subchapter. (ii) Interior lights. (iii) Communication systems. (iv) Navigational equipment and lights. (v)...

  3. High power THz sources for nonlinear imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tekavec, Patrick F.; Kozlov, Vladimir G.

    2014-02-18

    Many biological and chemical compounds have unique absorption features in the THz (0.1 - 10 THz) region, making the use of THz waves attractive for imaging in defense, security, biomedical imaging, and monitoring of industrial processes. Unlike optical radiation, THz frequencies can pass through many substances such as paper, clothing, ceramic, etc. with little attenuation. The use of currently available THz systems is limited by lack of highpower, sources as well as sensitive detectors and detector arrays operating at room temperature. Here we present a novel, high power THz source based on intracavity downconverison of optical pulses. The source delivers 6 ps pulses at 1.5 THz, with an average power of >300 μW and peak powers >450 mW. We propose an imaging method based on frequency upconverison that is ideally suited to use the narrow bandwidth and high peak powers produced by the source. By upconverting the THz image to the infrared, commercially available detectors can be used for real time imaging.

  4. Clinical assessment of pacemaker power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bilitch, M.; Parsonnet, V.; Furman, S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power sources for cardiac pacemakers has progressed from a 15-year usage of mercury-zinc batteries to widely used and accepted lithium cells. At present, there are about 6 different types of lithium cells incorporated into commercially distributed pacemakers. The authors reviewed experience over a 5-year period with 1711 mercury-zinc, 130 nuclear (P238) and 1912 lithium powered pacemakers. The lithium units have included 698 lithium-iodide, 270 lithium-silver chromate, 135 lithium-thionyl chloride, 31 lithium-lead and 353 lithium-cupric sulfide batteries. 57 of the lithium units have failed (91.2% component failure and 5.3% battery failure). 459 mercury-zinc units failed (25% component failure and 68% battery depletion). The data show that lithium powered pacemaker failures are primarily component, while mercury-zinc failures are primarily battery related. It is concluded that mercury-zinc powered pulse generators are obsolete and that lithium and nuclear (P238) power sources are highly reliable over the 5 years for which data are available. 3 refs.

  5. 49 CFR 193.2613 - Auxiliary power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary power sources. 193.2613 Section 193.2613...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2613 Auxiliary power sources. Each auxiliary power source must... would have to be served by that power source in an emergency. ...

  6. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent power source. 161.013-9 Section 161.013-9... source. (a) Each independent power source must be capable of powering the light so that it meets the... signal. (b) If the independent power source is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger designed...

  7. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  8. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  9. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  10. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  11. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  12. New quantum cascade laser sources for sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troccoli, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    In this presentation we will review our most recent results on development of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for analytical and industrial applications. QCLs have demonstrated the capability to cover the entire range of Mid-IR, Far-IR, and THz wavelengths by skillful tuning of the material design and composition and by use of intrinsic material properties via a set of techniques collectively called "bandgap engineering". The use of MOCVD, pioneered on industrial scale by AdTech Optics, has enabled the deployment of QCL devices into a diverse range of environments and applications. QCLs can be tailored to the specific application requirements due to their unprecedented flexibility in design and thanks to the leveraging of well-known III-V fabrication technologies inherited from the NIR domain. Nevertheless, several applications and new frontiers in R and D need the constant support of new developments in device features, capabilities, and performances. We have developed a wide range of devices, from high power, high efficiency multi-mode sources, to narrow-band, single mode devices with low-power consumption, and from non-linear, multi-wavelength generating devices to broadband sources and multi-emitter arrays. All our devices are grown and processed using MOCVD technology and allow us to attain competitive performances across the whole mid-IR spectral range. This talk will present an overview of our current achievements. References 1. M. Troccoli, "High power emission and single mode operation of quantum cascade lasers for industrial applications", J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron., 21 (6), 1-7 (2015). Invited Review. 2. Seungyong Jung, Aiting Jiang, Yifan Jiang, Karun Vijayraghavan, Xiaojun Wang, Mariano Troccoli, and Mikhail A. Belkin, "Broadly Tunable Monolithic Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources", Nature Comm. 5, 4267 (2014).. 3. Mariano Troccoli, Arkadiy Lyakh, Jenyu Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Richard Maulini, Alexei G Tsekoun, Rowel Go, C Kumar N Patel, "Long

  13. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power plant aging, availability factor and reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear power plant life extension. Topics considered at the conference included availability, accelerated aging techniques, the qualification of electrical equipment, probabilistic risk assessment, reactor maintenance, outages, reliability, computer-aided design, seismic effects, mechanical vibrations, fatigue monitoring, steam generators, and materials degradation by aging and embrittlement.

  14. Kindergartners Use PowerPoint to Lead Their Own Parent-Teacher Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dianne; Behounek, Lynn M.

    2006-01-01

    Student-led parent-teacher conferences help young children make sense of what hey know and what they need to learn at school. Just ask them! For the past two years, the kindergarten children at Seymour Elementary School in Ralston, Nebraska, have used PowerPoint to tell their parents how they are doing in school, and the conferences have been a…

  15. Powerful politics at the XI International Conference on AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, D J

    1996-01-01

    The XI International Conference on AIDS, held in Vancouver from July 7 to 12, 1996, produced encouraging signs of significant progress in basic, clinical and preventive science in the field of HIV infection and AIDS. The largest conference ever held on the global AIDS epidemic, it featured political and media highlights that served to focus the attention of participants and the public on controversial issues. Such political activity has become an expected part of international AIDS conferences and serves to remind participants and observers of the urgent need to continue the fight against AIDS. PMID:8823217

  16. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  17. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, James R.

    2006-01-03

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  18. National Conference on Mining-Influenced Waters: Approaches for Characterization, Source Control and Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conference goal was to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current and emerging approaches to assessing characterization, monitoring, source control, treatment and/or remediation on mining-influenced waters. The conference was aimed at mining remedi...

  19. National Conference on Mining-Influenced Waters: Approaches for Characterization, Source Control and Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conference goal was to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current and emerging approaches to assessing characterization, monitoring, source control, treatment and/or remediation on mining-influenced waters. The conference was aimed at mining remedi...

  20. Nuclear power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.; Stapfer, G.; Hsieh, T.

    1979-01-01

    A low specific weight (20 to 40 Kg/Kwe), long life (6 to 10 year), 100 to 400 KWe nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system can deliver 2,000 to 10,000 Kg payloads for intensive study of our solar system. The nuclear power source is about 80% of the NEP system mass, thus the NASA program is focused on developing the power source technology. Because of the long life requirements, direct thermal to electric energy conversion technology (thermionic and thermoelectric) is being pursued. In order to meet the low specific weight it is necessary to develop a 10 to 15% conversion module with a 875 K minimum heat rejection temperature and a 1675 K maximum input temperature. The thermoionic converter is about 9% efficient at these temperatures. The thermoelectric converter is limited to a 1300 K input temperature. So, the thermionic program is focused on improving the efficiency while the thermoelectric program is focused on increasing the temperature.

  1. Emissivity Tuned Emitter for RTPV Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carl M. Stoots; Robert C. O'Brien; Troy M. Howe

    2012-03-01

    Every mission launched by NASA to the outer planets has produced unexpected results. The Voyager I and II, Galileo, and Cassini missions produced images and collected scientific data that totally revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and the formation of the planetary systems. These missions were enabled by the use of nuclear power. Because of the distances from the Sun, electrical power was produced using the radioactive decay of a plutonium isotope. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in the past and currently used Multi-Mission RTGs (MMRTGs) provide power for space missions. Unfortunately, RTGs rely on thermocouples to convert heat to electricity and are inherently inefficient ({approx} 3-7% thermal to electric efficiency). A Radioisotope Thermal Photovoltaic (RTPV) power source has the potential to reduce the specific mass of the onboard power supply by increasing the efficiency of thermal to electric conversion. In an RTPV, a radioisotope heats an emitter, which emits light to a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which converts the light into electricity. Developing an emitter tuned to the desired wavelength of the photovoltaic is a key part in increasing overall performance. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have built a Thermal Photovoltaic (TPV) system, that utilizes a simulated General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) from a MMRTG to heat a tantalum emitter. The GPHS is a block of graphite roughly 10 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm. A fully loaded GPHS produces 250 w of thermal power and weighs 1.6 kgs. The GRC system relies on the GPHS unit radiating at 1200 K to a tantalum emitter that, in turn, radiates light to a GaInAs photo-voltaic cell. The GRC claims system efficiency of conversion of 15%. The specific mass is around 167 kg/kWe. A RTPV power source that utilized a ceramic or ceramic-metal (cermet) matrix would allow for the combination of the heat source, canister, and emitter into one compact unit, and allow variation in size

  2. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  3. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  4. Restrictive loads powered by separate or by common electrical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    In designing a multiple load electrical system, the designer may wish to compare the performance of two setups: a common electrical source powering all loads, or separate electrical sources powering individual loads. Three types of electrical sources: an ideal voltage source, an ideal current source, and solar cell source powering resistive loads were analyzed for their performances in separate and common source systems. A mathematical proof is given, for each case, indicating the merit of the separate or common source system. The main conclusions are: (1) identical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (2) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (3) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal current sources have higher performance in separate source systems, and (4) nonidentical resistive loads powered by solar cells have higher performance in a common source system for a wide range of load resistances.

  5. 77 FR 22312 - Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical... Conference on Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System on Monday, April 30, 2012, from 11 a.m. to 4... issues related to reliability of the Bulk-Power System as affected by geomagnetic disturbances. The...

  6. 77 FR 24952 - Staff Technical Conference on Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    .... to 4:00 p.m. to discuss issues related to the reliability of the Bulk-Power System as affected by... currents to transformers and other equipment on the Bulk-Power System, as well as, options for addressing... Energy Regulatory Commission Staff Technical Conference on Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power...

  7. The JLab high power ERL light source

    SciTech Connect

    G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

    2005-03-19

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made

  8. The JLab high power ERL light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, G. R.; Behre, C.; Benson, S. V.; Bevins, M.; Biallas, G.; Boyce, J.; Coleman, J.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Douglas, D.; Dylla, H. F.; Evans, R.; Grippo, A.; Gruber, D.; Gubeli, J.; Hardy, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Jordan, K.; Kelley, M. J.; Merminga, L.; Mammosser, J.; Moore, W.; Nishimori, N.; Pozdeyev, E.; Preble, J.; Rimmer, R.; Shinn, M.; Siggins, T.; Tennant, C.; Walker, R.; Williams, G. P.; Zhang, S.

    2006-02-01

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz ˜ half cycle pulse whose average brightness is >5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted [Carr, et al., Nature 420 (2002) 153]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [Neil, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 662]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 μm in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 ms long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the

  9. Meeting power requirements for organic printed sensor tags (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Mei, Ping; Schwartz, David E.; Veres, Janos; Broms, Per; Karlsson, Christer

    2016-11-01

    In electronic systems, components often require different supply voltage for operation. In order to meet this requirement and to optimize power consumption for flexible electronics, we demonstrate a pulsed voltage multiplier that boosts the voltage at specific circuit nodes above the supply voltage. A five-stage pulsed voltage multiplier is shown to provide an output voltage up to 18 V from a supply voltage of 10 V, with minimum 10 ms pulse rise time for a 70 pF load. A key requirement for the pulsed voltage multiplier circuit is low device leakage to boost the output voltage level. To minimize leakage, the composition of the organic semiconducting layer is modified by blending an insulating polymer with the small molecule semiconductor. This modification allows control over the transistor turn-on voltage, which enables low leakage current required for operation of the circuits. The printed multiplier allows a single power source to deliver multiple voltage levels and enables integration of lower voltage logic with components that require higher operating voltage, for example, in the case of recording data into memory cells in sensor tags.

  10. Multi-source energy harvester power management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Alexander D.; Tiwari, Rashi; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-03-01

    Much of the work on improving energy harvesting systems currently focuses on tasks beyond geometric optimization and has shifted to using complex feedback control circuitry. While the specific technique and effectiveness of the circuits have varied, an important goal is still out of reach for many desired applications: to produce sufficient and sustained power. This is due in part to the power requirements of the control circuits themselves. One method for increasing the robustness and versatility of energy harvesting systems which has started to receive some attention would be to utilize multiple energy sources simultaneously. If some or all of the present energy sources were harvested, the amount of constant power which could be provided to the system electronics would increase dramatically. This work examines two passive circuit topologies, parallel and series, for combining multiple piezoelectric energy harvesters onto a single storage capacitor using an LTspice simulation. The issue of the relative phase between the two piezoelectric signals is explored to show that the advantages of both configurations are significantly affected by increased relative phase values.

  11. 46 CFR 28.375 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.375 Section 28... power. (a) Each vessel must have an emergency source of electrical power which is independent of the main sources of electrical power and which is located outside the main machinery space. (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 28.375 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.375 Section 28... power. (a) Each vessel must have an emergency source of electrical power which is independent of the main sources of electrical power and which is located outside the main machinery space. (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 28.375 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.375 Section 28... power. (a) Each vessel must have an emergency source of electrical power which is independent of the main sources of electrical power and which is located outside the main machinery space. (b)...

  14. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  15. 49 CFR 193.2445 - Sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of power. 193.2445 Section 193.2445...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Equipment Vaporization Equipment § 193.2445 Sources of power. (a) Electrical... two sources of power which function so that failure of one source does not affect the capability...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2445 - Sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sources of power. 193.2445 Section 193.2445...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Equipment Vaporization Equipment § 193.2445 Sources of power. (a) Electrical... two sources of power which function so that failure of one source does not affect the capability of...

  17. 46 CFR 112.05-5 - Emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-5 Emergency power source. (a) The emergency power source must meet... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency power source. 112.05-5 Section 112.05-5... with § 112.05-1(c). Table 112.05-5(a) Size of vessel and service Type of emergency power source or...

  18. 46 CFR 112.05-5 - Emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-5 Emergency power source. (a) The emergency power source must meet... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency power source. 112.05-5 Section 112.05-5... with § 112.05-1(c). Table 112.05-5(a) Size of vessel and service Type of emergency power source or...

  19. 46 CFR 112.05-5 - Emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-5 Emergency power source. (a) The emergency power source must meet... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency power source. 112.05-5 Section 112.05-5... with § 112.05-1(c). Table 112.05-5(a) Size of vessel and service Type of emergency power source or...

  20. 46 CFR 112.05-5 - Emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-5 Emergency power source. (a) The emergency power source must meet... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency power source. 112.05-5 Section 112.05-5... with § 112.05-1(c). Table 112.05-5(a) Size of vessel and service Type of emergency power source or...

  1. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  2. History of power sources in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Christopher; Abbott, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The history of energy sources used in surgery is inextricably linked to the history of electricity. Milestones include identification of safe electrical waveforms that can be used in the human body, patient isolation to prevent alternate-site burns, bipolar energy sources to negate capacitance injuries, laser energy, and the combination vessel sealing devices commonly used today. Engineering efforts to eliminate many of the hazards of electrosurgery are critical to how we practice modern gynecologic surgery. The introduction of bipolar instruments, increasing the safety of monopolar electrosurgery by not using hybrid trocars, and introduction of active shielding of the instruments from stray radiofrequency energy using intelligent secondary conductors have led to the re-emergence of electrosurgery as the universal surgical energy source. The low ongoing costs and the presence of electrosurgical generators in all hospitals readily enables electrosurgery to be the mainstay. Expensive lasers are confined to specialized centers, where they continue to be used, but for a long while filled a gap created by complications of electrosurgery. Sophisticated power sources continue to be introduced and include the ultrasonic scalpel, plasma surgery, and various devices for sealing vessels, all of which have advantages and disadvantages that are recognized as they begin to be subjected to scientific validation in randomized trials.

  3. Power Relationships on the Unionized Campus. Proceedings, Annual Conference (17th, April 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    Papers from the 17th Annual Conference present observations and analysis of how the power equation has, or has not, been altered by the introduction of faculty and support staff unionism. The first section on power relationships between professors and senates contains: "The Academic as Political Man or Woman" (Seymour Lipset); "Governance: Senates…

  4. A Study of Conventional and Unconventional RADIAC Power Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Feasible substitutes for RADIAC power sources are identified and evaluated. The experimental methods and the results are described. Cautions that...should be observed in the selection of RADIAC power sources are described. Cost comparisons are made of power sources considered to be suitable D-cell...substitutes and conventional D-cells. Recommendations are made for RADIAC power sources and for further study topics. (Author)

  5. 77 FR 18872 - Availability of Electric Power Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Availability of Electric Power Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory... 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.93, ``Availability of Electric Power Sources.'' This guide describes actions the NRC staff considers acceptable when available electric power sources are less than the number...

  6. 46 CFR 112.05-5 - Emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with § 112.05-1(c). Table 112.05-5(a) Size of vessel and service Type of emergency power source or... power source (automatically connected storage battery or an automatically started generator) 36 hours.1... power source (automatically connected storage battery or an automatically started generator) 8 hours or...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting...

  8. 46 CFR 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.870 Section 28... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.870 Emergency source of electrical power. (a) The following electrical loads must be connected to an independent emergency source of power...

  9. 46 CFR 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.870 Section 28... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.870 Emergency source of electrical power. (a) The following electrical loads must be connected to an independent emergency source of power...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a) General... seek alternative sources of power. RUS will determine, based on information provided by the borrower or...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a) General... seek alternative sources of power. RUS will determine, based on information provided by the borrower or...

  12. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a) General... seek alternative sources of power. RUS will determine, based on information provided by the borrower or...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting and...

  14. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs. (a) The requirements of...

  15. The central power source in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptak, Roger; Stoner, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Potential sources for the central power in AGN are examined. The continuum, emission line profiles, and time variability and broad emission line region for AGN are analyzed. The supermassive black hole hypothesis, the supermassive magnetized core model of Kundt (1978), and the model of Stoner and Ptak (1984) in which the supermassive stars maintain a kind of long-term quasi-stability, but accretion is balanced by mass loss and spherical bursts rather than in jets are considered. It is argued that the hypothesis that the supermassive blackholes are the central engines for AGN is based on theoretical principles; however, AGN emission line profiles and variability suggest a spherical geometry for the observed components of these engines. Also the supermassive black hole models do not account for all the AGN observations.

  16. Spacecraft Power Source Installation at Launch Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytal, Paul; Hoffman, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For certain space missions, an assembly must be integrated onto the spacecraft as late as possible in the launch vehicle processing flow. 12This late integration can be driven for a variety of reasons including thermal or hazardous materials constraints. This paper discusses the process of integrating an assembly onto a spacecraft as late as one week prior to the opening of the launch window. Consideration is given to achieving sufficient access for hardware integration, methods of remotely securing hardware to the spacecraft, maintaining spacecraft cleanliness throughout the integration process, and electrically integrating the component to the spacecraft. Specific examples are taken from the remote mechanical, electrical, and fluid cooling system integration of the power source onto the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover at the Atlas V Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

  17. Spacecraft Power Source Installation at Launch Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytal, Paul; Hoffman, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For certain space missions, an assembly must be integrated onto the spacecraft as late as possible in the launch vehicle processing flow. 12This late integration can be driven for a variety of reasons including thermal or hazardous materials constraints. This paper discusses the process of integrating an assembly onto a spacecraft as late as one week prior to the opening of the launch window. Consideration is given to achieving sufficient access for hardware integration, methods of remotely securing hardware to the spacecraft, maintaining spacecraft cleanliness throughout the integration process, and electrically integrating the component to the spacecraft. Specific examples are taken from the remote mechanical, electrical, and fluid cooling system integration of the power source onto the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover at the Atlas V Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

  18. High Pressure Microwave Powered UV Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cekic, M.; Frank, J. D.; Popovic, S.; Wood, C. H.

    1997-10-01

    Industrial microwave powered (*electrodeless*) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of 300 Torr of buffer gas and metal- halide fills. Recently developed multi-atmospheric electronegative bu lb fills (noble gas-halide excimers, metal halide) require electric field s for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. For these fills an auxiliary ignition system is necessary. The most successful scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to it's operating poin t Standard diagnostic techniques of high density discharges are inapplicable to the excimer bulbs, because of the ionic molecular exci ted state structure and absence of self-absorption. The method for temperature determination is based on the equilibrium population of certain vibrational levels of excimer ionic excited states. Electron d ensity was determined from the measurements of Stark profiles of H_β radiation from a small amount of hydrogen mixed with noble gas and halogens. At the present time, high pressure (Te 0.5eV, ne 3 x 10^17 cm-3) production bulbs produce over 900W of radiation in a 30nm band, centered at 30nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce 1 kW of radiation in 30nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  19. Proceedings of the 36th Power Sources Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    The contents are divided into the following sessions: Capacitors, Primary Aqueous Batteries, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries I, Fuel Cells, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries II, Metal/Air Batteries, Photovoltaic/Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion, Military Applications/Dual Use, Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries I, Lithium/Polymer Batteries, Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries II, High-Temperature/Thermal Batteries, Primary Lithium Batteries I, Thermal Batteries, and Primary Lithium Batteries II.

  20. High Intensity Tactical Power Sources for the 1990 Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conceptual or physical study which may become feasible as high intensity power sources . These considerations include present state of the art of...requirements, energy and power output capabilities, and fixed costs. From these tables, it may be seen that a variety of electrical power sources would be...required to satisfy diverse requirements, but an attempt is made to categorize possible high intensity power sources into their areas of optimum

  1. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to

  2. Research on power source structure optimization for East China Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingjun; Sang, Da; Zhang, Jianping; Tang, Chunyi; Xu, Da

    2017-05-01

    The structure of east china power grid is not reasonable for the coal power takes a much higher proportion than hydropower, at present the coal power takes charge of most peak load regulation, and the pressure of peak load regulation cannot be ignored. The nuclear power, wind power, photovoltaic, other clean energy and hydropower, coal power and wind power from outside will be actively developed in future, which increases the pressure of peak load regulation. According to development of economic and social, Load status and load prediction, status quo and planning of power source and the characteristics of power source, the peak load regulation balance is carried out and put forward a reasonable plan of power source allocation. The ultimate aim is to optimize the power source structure and to provide reference for power source allocation in east china.

  3. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and dependable source of power is available to meet the consumers' needs; or (ii) Where the rates offered by other power sources would result in a higher cost of power to the consumers than the cost from... facilities bears a significant relationship to the amount of the proposed loan. (2) If a borrower...

  4. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  5. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  6. 46 CFR 28.355 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.355 Section 28.355... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.355 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability. Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have at...

  7. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  8. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have...

  9. 46 CFR 28.355 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.355 Section 28.355... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.355 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability. Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have at...

  10. 46 CFR 28.355 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.355 Section 28.355... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.355 Main source of electrical power. (a) Applicability. Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have at...

  11. Identification of Alternative Power Sources for Dredged Material Processing Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    This report provides a basis for selecting alternative, renewable power sources specifically for operating dredged material processing systems. A...obtaining power from solid waste (such as incineration of trash), but was discarded. Of all the alternative power sources studied, wind electric generation seems to be the most practical and versatile to apply at this time.

  12. High Power Helicon Plasma Source for Plasma Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2015-09-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is developing a high power helicon plasma source. The high power nature and pulsed neutral gas make this source unique compared to traditional helicon source. These properties produce a plasma flow along the magnetic field lines, and therefore allow the source to be decoupled from the reaction chamber. Neutral gas can be injected downstream, which allows for precision control of the ion-neutral ratio at the surface of the sample. Although operated at high power, the source has demonstrated very low impurity production. This source has applications to nanoparticle productions, surface modification, and ionized physical vapor deposition.

  13. 77 FR 11109 - Reactive Power Resources; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... interconnecting asynchronous generators and raises questions concerning the need and efficacy of continuing the... by which reactive power is currently secured such as through self-supply; and how a technology that... accessibility@ferc.gov or call toll free 1-866-208- 3372 (voice) or 202-208-8659 (TTY); or send a fax to...

  14. Development of a Publications and Conferences Data Base in the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripoll, C. Lopez Cerdan; And Others

    This paper describes the development by the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas or IIE) over a 10-year period of a publications and conferences database (PCDB) of research and development output of the institute. The paper begins by listing the objectives of the database and describing data coverage…

  15. Development of a Publications and Conferences Data Base in the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripoll, C. Lopez Cerdan; And Others

    This paper describes the development by the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas or IIE) over a 10-year period of a publications and conferences database (PCDB) of research and development output of the institute. The paper begins by listing the objectives of the database and describing data coverage…

  16. 1996 international conference on power electronics, drives and energy systems for industrial growth: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S.; Roy, S.; Divan, D.; Doradla, S.R.; Murthy, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    This is volume 2 of the proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth held during January 1996, in New Delhi, India. The topics of this volume include AC/DC and AC/AC converters, induction generators, traction and electric vehicle drives, application of neural networks and fuzzy logic systems, power electronics converters and drives, machine analysis and other topics.

  17. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  18. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  19. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  20. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  1. 46 CFR 112.20-5 - Failure of power from the normal source or final emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary.... (b) For systems in which a reduction of frequency of the normal source or final emergency power... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source or final...

  2. Yosemite conference on ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere: sources, mechanisms and consequences, meeting report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.L.; Burch, J.L.; Klumpar, D.M.; Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    The sixth biennial Yosemite topical conference and the first as a Chapman Conference was held on February 3 to 6, 1986. Although the solar wind was once thought to dominate the supply of plasma in the Earth's magnetosphere, it is now thought that the Earth's ionosphere is a significant contributor. Polar wind and other large volume outflows of plasma have been seen at relatively high altitudes over the polar cap and are now being correlated with outflows found in the magnetotail. The auroral ion fountain and cleft ion fountain are examples of ionospheric sources of plasma in the magnetosphere, observed by the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) spacecraft. The conference was organized into six sessions: four consisting of prepared oral presentations, one poster session, and one session for open forum discussion. The first three oral sessions dealt separately with the three major topics of the conference, i.e., the sources, mechanisms, and consequences of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere. A special session of invited oral presentations was held to discuss extraterrestrial ionospheric/magnetospheric plasma processes. The poster session was extended over two evenings during which presenters discussed their papers on a one-on-one basis. The last session of the conferences was reserved for open discussions of those topics or ideas considered most interesting or controversial.

  3. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-9 Independent power... signal. (b) If the independent power source is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger...

  4. Economic Comparison of Four Electric Power Sources for Forklift Trucks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this project is twofold. First, it is to provide a general method of comparing electric power sources (EPS). Secondly, it is to...compare two power sources , the lithium chloride storage battery and a hybrid system of a storage battery and a fuel cell, currently under development at...between power sources . The results show that the lithium chloride battery is the most cost effective EPS considered.

  5. Development of Lightweight Prime Power Source Components for Pulsed Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    lbs, 22 11 long, 18" diameter, 7 lbsjsec mass flow rate, 1, 700 degree F turbine inlet temperature. (1] ALTERNATOR CONSIDERATIONS The choice of...provides an overview of system integration for the 1 MW power source components and power source integration with the pulsed load . This will...indicated that peak power flow into the capacitor occurs about midway through the charge cycle. The varying power flow gives rise to cyclic

  6. A portable high power microwave source with permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Jian-Hua

    2016-06-15

    A high power microwave source with permanent magnets is proposed in this paper. The source has the length 330 mm, maximum diameter 350 mm, and total weight 50 kg, including 25 kg of permanent magnets. 1 GW of microwave power with Gaussian radiation pattern and 24% of microwave power generation efficiency in a pulse duration of 75 ns are obtained in the experiment. Operating frequency of the source is 2.32 GHz. Such a small size, light weight, and highly stable in operation source will be used in portable repetitive high power microwave generation systems.

  7. Advanced Power Sources for Space Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    baseload operation of the space platform, including communication, station-keeping, and surveillance systems. A typical household consumes energy at the...RESEARCH CENTER, CLEVELAND, OHIO June 25,1987 NASA space power need» and programs SDI space power architecture studies SDI nonnuclear baseload

  8. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  9. The Power and Potential of Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Denise N.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    Using primary sources with students has untapped potential for expanding and deepening the reading experiences of elementary and middle grade students. Primary sources expands teachers' palette of reading materials, allows students to connect more closely to topics for learning, and deepens their understanding of the past. This article argues for…

  10. The Power and Potential of Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Denise N.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    Using primary sources with students has untapped potential for expanding and deepening the reading experiences of elementary and middle grade students. Primary sources expands teachers' palette of reading materials, allows students to connect more closely to topics for learning, and deepens their understanding of the past. This article argues for…

  11. Powerful Radio Sources with Simbol-X: The Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandi, Paola

    2009-05-01

    The black holes in the hearts of bright elliptical galaxies are commonly observed to be associated with powerful relativistic jets. The mechanism by which material entering the accretion radius is converted into jet power remains the subject of much debate. At the same time, the interplay between the relativistic jet and the interstellar/intergalactic medium is the topic of intense discussions, being such knowledge essential for understanding the nature of the accretion process, galaxy formation and the growth of supermassive black holes. Simbol-X can play a fundamental role in addressing at least three important questions: I) the link between accretion and relativistic outflow at conference ) III) the interaction of the relativistic plasma with the intergalactic medium at kpc scales (Migliori et al., this conference)

  12. 14 CFR 23.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Power source capacity and distribution. 23.1310 Section 23.1310 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1310 Power source capacity and distribution. (a) Each installation whose...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Power source capacity and distribution. 23.1310 Section 23.1310 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1310 Power source capacity and distribution. (a) Each installation whose...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Power source capacity and distribution. 23.1310 Section 23.1310 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1310 Power source capacity and distribution. (a) Each installation whose...

  15. 46 CFR 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency source of electrical power. 28.870 Section 28.870 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.870 Emergency source of electrical power...

  16. 46 CFR 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main source of electrical power. 28.850 Section 28.850 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.850 Main source of electrical power. (a...

  17. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  18. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3 must...

  20. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  1. Yosemite Conference on Ionospheric Plasma in the Magnetosphere: Sources, Mechanisms and Consequences, meeting report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Burch, J. L.; Klumpar, D. M.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The sixth biennial Yosemite topical conference and the first as a Chapman Conference was held on February 3 to 6, 1986. Due to the recent changes in our perception of the dynamics of the ionospheric/magnetospheric system, it was deemed timely to bring researchers together to discuss and contrast the relative importance of solar versus terrestrial sources of magnetospheric plasma. Although the solar wind was once thought to dominate the supply of plasma in the Earth's magnetosphere, it is now thought that the Earth's ionosphere is a significant contributor. Polar wind and other large volume outflows of plasma have been seen at relatively high altitudes over the polar cap and are now being correlated with outflows found in the magnetotail. The auroral ion fountain and cleft ion fountain are examples of ionospheric sources of plasma in the magnetosphere, observed by the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) spacecraft. The conference was organized into six sessions: four consisting of prepared oral presentations, one poster session, and one session for open forum discussion. The first three oral sessions dealt separately with the three major topics of the conference, i.e., the sources, mechanisms, and consequences of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere. A special session of invited oral presentations was held to discuss extraterrestrial ionospheric/magnetospheric plasma processes. The poster session was extended over two evenings during which presenters discussed their papers on a one-on-one basis. The last session of the conferences was reserved for open discussions of those topics or ideas considered most interesting or controversial.

  2. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  3. Review of high-power microwave source research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Steven H.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    1997-11-01

    This article reviews the state-of-the-art in high-power microwave source research. It begins with a discussion of the concepts involved in coherent microwave generation. The main varieties of microwave tubes are classified into three groups, according to the fundamental radiation mechanism involved: Cherenkov, transition, or bremsstrahlung radiation. This is followed by a brief discussion of some of the technical fundamentals of high-power microwave sources, including power supplies and electron guns. Finally, the history and recent developments of both high-peak power and high-average power sources are reviewed in the context of four main areas of application: (1) plasma resonance heating and current drive; (2) rf acceleration of charged particles; (3) radar and communications systems; and (4) high-peak power sources for weapons-effect simulation and exploratory development.

  4. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  5. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... power interruption. (e) Vessels with electric propulsion that have two or more constant-voltage... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a...

  6. High pulse power rf sources for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1983-09-01

    RF sources with high peak power output and relatively short pulse lengths will be required for future high gradient e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear colliders. The required peak power and pulse length depend on the operating frequency, energy gradient and geometry of the collider linac structure. The frequency and gradient are in turn constrained by various parameters which depend on the beam-beam collision dynamics, and on the total ac wall-plug power that has been committed to the linac rf system. Various rf sources which might meet these requirements are reviewed. Existing source types (e.g., klystrons, gyrotrons) and sources which show future promise based on experimental prototypes are first considered. Finally, several proposals for high peak power rf sources based on unconventional concepts are discussed. These are an FEL source (two beam accelerator), rf energy storage cavities with switching, and a photocathode device which produces an rf current by direct emission modulation of the cathode.

  7. Expert Assessment of Advanced Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    developments include: ydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ( PEMFC ): gh- own. There is renewed interest in lithium/air, aluminum/air and carbon...of the small format fuel cells are of the PEM type, b H Because of the intense development of hydrogen fueled PEMFCs , largely for automotive... PEMFC . Two classes of hydrogen source can be identified: hydrogen storage or hydroge generation sources. Within each class they can be further

  8. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  9. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Kwok, P.

    2017-04-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices, such as emergency devices or remote sensors that need to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries sometimes require more than 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources are needed to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper, the development of a hybrid reserve power source that is constructed by integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery to provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  10. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  11. The 11th Topical Conference on Radio frequency Power in Plasmas. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, R.; Chan, V.S.

    1996-03-01

    The Eleventh Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas was held in Palm Springs, California under the sponsorship of General Atomics and the American Physical Society. These proceedings represent the papers presented at the Conference. The topics discussed included mode conversion heating and current drive experiments in TFTR, the coupling of high ICRF power in JT{minus}60U(through a 15 cm gap between the antenna and the plasma) as required for ITER, and the H{minus}mode in ASDEX{minus}U, antenna design and technology was discussed in some detail as well as the interaction of plasmas and radio frequency waves for fusion and non{minus}fusion applications. There are 102 papers published in the proceedings and 101 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  12. Report of workshop on clean and inexhaustible space solar power at unispace III conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, N.; Mankins, J.; Erb, B.; Vassaux, D.; Pignolet, G.; Kassing, D.; Collins, P.

    2001-12-01

    The third United Nations Global Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held from 19 to 30 July, 1999 at Vienna, Austria. The theme of the Conference was "Space Benefits for Humanity in the Twenty-first Century". The IAF Power Committee organized the Workshop on Clean and Inexhaustible Space Solar Power (SSP) as a part of the Technical Forum. At the beginning of the workshop, current research and potential interactions of SSP with the environment were presented, together with the outlook for worldwide energy requirements. The feasibility, benefits and disadvantages of SSP were discussed for different countries, especially developing countries. Presentations included reports on field research in equatorial countries and China. Useful findings and recommendations were submitted to the relevant committees at UNISPACE concerning international cooperation and collaboration on both political and technical issues in order to realize SSP in the near future.

  13. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H. R.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

    2011-11-01

    This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  14. Pulsed pyroelectric crystal-powered gamma source

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.; Raber, T. N.; Morse, D. H.

    2013-04-19

    A compact pulsed gamma generator is being developed to replace radiological sources used in commercial, industrial and medical applications. Mono-energetic gammas are produced in the 0.4 - 1.0 MeV energy range using nuclear reactions such as {sup 9}Be(d,n{gamma}){sup 10}B. The gamma generator employs an RF-driven inductively coupled plasma ion source to produce deuterium ion current densities up to 2 mA/mm{sup 2} and ampere-level current pulses can be attained by utilizing an array extraction grid. The extracted deuterium ions are accelerated to approximately 300 keV via a compact stacked pyroelectric crystal system and then bombard the beryllium target to generate gammas. The resulting microsecond pulse of gammas is equivalent to a radiological source with curie-level activity.

  15. Combined supercontinuum source with >200 W power using a 3 × 1 broadband fiber power combiner.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Jin, A; Chen, Z; Zhang, B; Zhou, X; Chen, S; Hou, J; Chen, J

    2015-08-15

    We report an incoherently combined near-infrared supercontinuum (SC) source with >200  W output power using a 3×1 broadband fiber power combiner. A broadband fiber power combiner is designed and theoretically investigated. The power transmission efficiencies of light at different wavelengths of the combiner are calculated, and the combiner is verified to be capable of combining broadband sources efficiently. Then a combiner is fabricated. Three ∼70  W near-infrared SC sources are constructed and then, using the combiner, a >200  W near-infrared SC source is obtained. Conclusively, using incoherently combining method we can obtain a high-power SC source, and the thermo-management can be realized easily. We believe that this is a suitable method to obtain a higher-power SC source.

  16. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  17. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  18. Scoping calculations of power sources for NEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, Felix C.

    1993-01-01

    Three Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) systems are evaluated in the context of the two following criteria: (1) power levels (P)--10-50 Mw; and (2) core life (D)--2-10 yrs. The three types of reactors are as follows: (1) high temperature gas-cooled reactors of the NERVA derivative type; (2) lithium-cooled advanced fuel pin--one-phase flow; and (3) lithium-cooled Cermet--one-phase flow. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  19. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  20. Power source for wireless sensors in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddis, Sherif; Schwesinger, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present investigations on wireless sensors for fluid control inside a pipe. Autarkic sensors are in the technical trend. They are typically connected with a transceiver unit for data transmission. Sensors usually need a lower amount of energy than data transceivers. Therefore, they are commonly supplied via wires or batteries with electricity. With common technologies, this request leads to high requirements on tightness in liquids since poor sealing could easily lead to failures. Replacement of batteries inside pipes is complicated and almost accompanied by a flow interruption. The application of energy harvesters as power supply is therefore a good alternative. In our studies we used flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters of PVDF (Poly-Vinylidene-Di-Fluoride). All harvesting units consist of piezoelectric PVDF-foils as active layers and Aluminum-foils as electrodes. The layers were stacked alternating on each other and wound to a spool. A LDPE-film wraps the spool and prevents the inflow of liquids. The device has following parameters:

  21. No. of windings: 4 in air, 4, 5, 7 in water
  22. Dimensions: 15 mm Ø 22mm
  23. Materials: PDVF: 25μm Aluminimum: 6μm, LDPE: 25μm
  24. A ring shaped bluff body was placed inside the pipe to induce turbulence in the fluid stream. As the harvesters have been arranged downstream of the bluff body, they were forced to oscillate independent of the media. In each case, deformation of the active layers led to a polarization and a separation of electrical charges. Experiments were carried out in a wind channel as well as in a water pipe. In air, the spool oscillates with a frequency of about 30Hz, at a wind speed of about 7m/s. A -Voltage of about 4V (peak-peak) was measured. This delivers in case of power adjustment, power values of about 0.54μW. In water, the velocity of the fluid was limited to nearly one tenth. Oscillation starts only at a water speed above 0.6m/s. The average oscillation

  1. High-power laser source evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Back, C. A.; Decker, C. D.; Davis, J. F.; Dixit, S.; Grun, J.; Managan, R. A.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Simonson, G. F.; Suter, L. J.; Wuest, C. R.; Ze, F.

    1998-07-01

    Robust Nuclear-Weapons-Effects Testing (NWET) capability will be needed for the foreseeable future to ensure the performance and reliability, in nuclear environments, of the evolving U.S. stockpile of weapons and other assets. Ongoing research on the use of high-energy lasers to generate environments of utility in nuclear weapon radiation effects simulations is addressed in the work described in this report. Laser-driven hohlraums and a variety of other targets have been considered in an effort to develop NWET capability of the highest possible fidelity in above-ground experiments. The envelope of large-system test needs is shown as the gray region in fig. 1. It does not represent the spectrum of any device; it is just the envelope of the spectral region of outputs from a number of possible devices. It is a goal of our laser-only and ignition-capsule source development work to generate x rays that fall somewhere in this envelope. One of the earlier appearances of this envelope is in ref. 1. The Defense Special Weapons Agency provided important support for the work described herein. A total of $520K was provided in the 1997 IACROs 97-3022 for Source Development and 97-3048 for Facilitization. The period of performance specified in the Statement of Work ran from 28 February 1997 until 30 November 1997. This period was extended, by agreement with DSWA, for two reasons: 1) despite the stated period of performance, funds were not available at LLNL to begin this work until somewhat later in the fiscal year, and 2) we agreed to stretch the current resources until follow-on funds were in hand, to minimize effects of ramping down and up again. The tasks addressed in this report are the following: 1) Non-ignition-source model benchmarking and design. This involves analysis of existing and new data on laser-only sources to benchmark LASNEX predictions 2) Non-ignition-source development experiments 3) Ignition capsule design to improve total x-ray output and simplify target

  2. High Power Local Oscillator Sources for 1-2 THz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Thomas, Bertrand; Lin, Robert; Maestrini, Alain; Ward, John; Schlecht, Erich; Gill, John; Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Maiwald, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Recent results from the Heterodyne Instrument for Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Telescope have confirmed the usefulness of high resolution spectroscopic data for a better understanding of our Universe. This paper will explore the current status of tunable local oscillator sources beyond HIFI and provide demonstration of how power combining of GaAs Schottky diodes can be used to increase both power and upper operating frequency for heterodyne receivers. Availability of power levels greater than 1 watt in the W-band now makes it possible to design a 1900 GHz source with more than 100 microwatts of expected output power.

  3. Airborne/Spaceborne Pulsed Power Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    along the surfaces of such insulators or interfaces (referred to as surface flashover ) no matter what medium the 0 39 0 DIELECTRIC CONSTANT 90 W 80 70...0 45 S insulator may be in. For the gas side of the insulators of the PFN, the gas pressure can be increased to prevent surface flashover (Refs. 19...Power Conf., Arlington, VA, p. 339, 1985. 19. Laghari, J. R., and A. H. Qureshi, " Surface Flashover of Spacers in Compressed Gas Insulated Systems," IEEE

  4. High-Power Laser Source Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    uniform:«»! had been:taped. A sample beam profile at the receiver Zerodur Au-coated mirror 20 cm diameter f/6 Diode laser Diode bars 1 21 m beam...amplifiers and mirrors . This is of concern to the NIF Project and the use of unconverted 1.06 p.m light to produce these x-ray sources might require...they may result in DSWA Final Report - 34 NWET ANNUAL REPORT - QDV-99-0001 undesirable conditions at the turning mirrors or ghosts in the up-beam

  5. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  6. Nuclear power sources in outer space. [spacecraft propulsion legal aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    Legal problems associated with nuclear power sources in space are discussed with particular reference to the Cosmos 954 incident. Deliberations of the Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on this subject are discussed.

  7. PESC '81; Power Electronics Specialists Conference, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, June 29-July 3, 1981, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference focused on power electronics control techniques, components and circuits in high technology applications, dc-to-dc conversion, power semiconductor devices, high-power systems, and power electronics modeling and analysis techniques. Papers are presented on instabilities in current-mode controlled switching voltage regulators, simulation of the controlled EMC in spacecraft performance prediction, automatic fault diagnosis of a switching regulator, a gated resonant inverter power processor for pulsed loads, and stability analysis of a boost converter with nonlinear feedback.

  8. Some Characteristics of Radioisotope Power Sources in an Ocean Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-01

    AD/A-002 129 SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SOURCES IN AN OCEAN ENVIRONMENT R. C. Erdmann, et al RAND Corporation S.,nta Monica...California March 1974 DISTRIBUTED BY: NItleId Tchinlald I ferrt Svice U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE �.j I, ,- SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER ... SOURCES IN AN OCEAN ENVIRONMENT R. C. ERDMAN3 E. C. GRITTON M. J. OZEROFF March 1974 -DDC, DEC 80 1974 L=-1 B P-5056-1 fotfotrduced by NATIONAL

  9. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  10. High-power laser source evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Simonson, G.F.; Suter, L.J.

    1997-07-01

    This document reports progress in these areas: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM NOVA: TAMPED XENON UNDERDENSE X-RAY EMITTERS; MODELING MULTI-KEV RADIATION PRODUCTION OF XENON-FILLED BERYLLIUM CANS; MAPPING A CALCULATION FROM LASNEX TO CALE; HOT X RAYS FROM SEEDED NIF CAPSULES; HOHLRAUM DEBRIS MEASUREMENTS AT NOVA; FOAM AND STRUCTURAL RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR NIF NEUTRON EXPOSURE SAMPLE CASE ASSEMBLY DESIGN; NON-IGNITION X-RAY SOURCE FLUENCE-AREA PRODUCTS FOR NUCLEAR EFFECTS TESTING ON NIF. Also appended are reprints of two papers. The first is on the subject of ``X-Ray Production in Laser-Heated Xe Gas Targets.`` The second is on ``Efficient Production and Applications of 2- to 10-keV X Rays by Laser-Heated Underdense Radiators.``

  11. Tritium power source for long-lived sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, M. S.; Katsis, D. C.; Russo, J. A.; Carroll, J. J.

    2014-06-01

    A tritium-based indirect converting photovoltaic (PV) power source has been designed and prototyped as a long-lived (~15 years) power source for sensor networks. Tritium is a biologically benign beta emitter and low-cost isotope acquired from commercial vendors for this purpose. The power source combines tritium encapsulated with a radioluminescent phosphor coupled to a commercial PV cell. The tritium, phosphor, and PV components are packaged inside a BA5590-style military-model enclosure. The package has been approved by the nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) for use by DOD. The power source is designed to produce 100μW electrical power for an unattended radiation sensor (scintillator and avalanche photodiode) that can detect a 20 μCi source of 137Cs at three meters. This beta emitting indirect photon conversion design is presented as step towards the development of practical, logistically acceptable, lowcost long-lived compact power sources for unattended sensor applications in battlefield awareness and environmental detection.

  12. Proceedings: Second biennial PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) power plants utility conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This conference, jointly sponsored by EPRI and the Wisconsin Electric Power Company, was organized to review recent technical and market developments related to PFBC systems for utility applications. The conference focused on the current design thinking going into key PFBC subsystem components (viz, the combustor, hot gas cleanup, and the gas turbine). Recent operating experience reports were presented from the major PFBC pilot plant facilities in the world and contemporary thought about commercial plant design, configuration and cost was presented. The objective of the seminar was to provide electric utilities in the US with information to allow them to begin evaluating the PFBC option. Attendees included 140 representatives from a variety of organizations, including electric utilities, equipment vendors, architect/engineering companies, universities, and various government organizations. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  13. Micro-ionics: next generation power sources.

    PubMed

    Tuller, Harry L; Litzelman, Scott J; Jung, Woochul

    2009-05-07

    The desire for ever smarter systems-on-a-chip and plug-free portable electronics with longer operating times between recharge has stimulated growing interest in micro-ionic systems. The use of thin film and photolithographic processing techniques, commonly at temperatures considerably below those utilized in conventional ceramics processing methods, leads to ionic or mixed ionic-electronic materials with nanosized dimensions. The implications for nanosized grains on the conductivity of thin film solid oxide electrolytes are examined. Grain boundary engineering, as a means of controlling and ultimately enhancing transport along and across grain boundaries, becomes essential given that such boundaries often dominate the transport properties of such nano-dimensioned materials. Heterogeneous doping by selective in-diffusion along grain boundaries was introduced as a potentially powerful means of achieving this. This is coupled with the modeling of space charge distributions at such boundaries, taking into account possible dopant segregation to the boundaries. The use of lithographic methods for generating geometrically well defined structures is used to illustrate how one can achieve a much improved understanding of electrode processes in SOFC structures. Indeed, the more idealized structures achievable by application of microelectronic processing provide a marvelous opportunity to uncover the science underlying the technology of micro- and ultimately macro-ionics.

  14. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instruments using a power source. 23.1331... where it enters the instrument. For electric and vacuum/pressure instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage or the vacuum/pressure, respectively, is within approved limits. (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instruments using a power source. 23.1331 Section 23.1331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... vacuum/pressure instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage or the...

  16. High power lasers for gamma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Magali; Sangla, Damien; Trophème, Benoit; Sevillano, Pierre; Casanova, Alexis; Caillon, Laurianne; Courjaud, Antoine

    2017-02-01

    A high intensity Gamma source is required for Nuclear Spectroscopy, it will be delivered by the interaction between accelerated electron and intense laser beams. Those two interactions lasers are based on a multi-stage amplification scheme that ended with a second harmonics generation to deliver 200 mJ, 3.5 ps pulses at 515 nm and 100 Hz. A t-Pulse oscillator with slow and fast feedback loop implemented inside the oscillator cavity allows the possibility of synchronization to an optical reference. A temporal jitter of 120 fs rms is achieved, integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz. Then a regenerative amplifier, based on Yb:YAG technology, pumped by fiber-coupled QCW laser diodes, delivers pulses up to 30 mJ. The 1 nm bandwidth was compressed to 1.5 ps with a good spatial quality: M2 of 1.1. This amplifier is integrated in a compact sealed housing (750x500x150 cm), which allows a pulse-pulse stability of 0.1% rms, and a long-term stability of 1,9% over 100 hours (with +/-1°C environment). The main amplification stage uses a cryocooled Yb:YAG crystal in an active mirror configuration. The crystal is cooled at 130 K via a compact and low-vibration cryocooler, avoiding any additional phase noise contribution, 340 mJ in a six pass scheme was achieved, with 0.9 of Strehl ratio. The trade off to the gain of a cryogenic amplifier is the bandwidth reduction, however the 1030 nm pulse was compressed to 3.5 ps.

  17. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS. PMID:24351643

  18. Events as power source: wireless sustainable corrosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-12-17

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  19. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  20. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Nam Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-03

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  1. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  2. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  3. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  4. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  5. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  6. A smart repetitive-rate wideband high power microwave source

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Bao-liang; Yang, Han-wu; Zhang, Zi-cheng

    2016-01-15

    A smart repetitive-rate wideband High Power Microwave (HPM) source based on the A6 Magnetron with Diffraction Output is described in this paper. The length of the HPM source is 30 cm and its weight is 35 kg. Computer simulations show that the source can produce microwave with central frequency of 1.91 GHz and bandwidth of about 11%. Experimental measurements show that the output microwave power from the source reaches in maximum 110 MW when the input electric power from the pulsed driver is ∼500 MW, which gives the power conversion efficiency 22%. Central frequency of the output HPM in the experiment is 1.94 GHz with the bandwidth ranging from 1.82 GHz to 2.02 GHz. The jitter of the output HPM power is lower than 3 dB when the source operates in the repetition mode with 50 Hz rate.

  7. Development and Demonstration of a 25 Watt Thermophotovoltaic Power Source for a Hybrid Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Edward; Shukla, Kailash; Metcalfe, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The development of a propane-fueled, 25 W thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power source for use in a hybrid power system is described. The TPV power source uses a platinum emitting surface with an anti-reflective coating to radiate to gallium antimonide photocells, which converts the radiation to electric power. The development program started with the design and fabrication of an engineering prototype system. This was used as a component development vehicle to develop the technologies for the various components. A 25 W demonstration prototype was then designed and fabricated using the most advanced component approaches. The designs and test results from this development program are discussed.

  8. Bellagio conference and book. Symbiosis as Source of Evolutionary Innovation: Speciation and Morphogenesis. Conference--June 25-30, 1989, Bellagio Conference Center, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Fester, R.

    1991-01-01

    This conference at the Bellagio Conference Center, Italy, from June 25-30, 1989, provided a unique opportunity for evolutionary theorists and symbiosis biologists to cross the boundaries of their respective disciplines and share ideas. A major task was to address the adequacy of the prevailing neodarwinian concept of evolution with respect to the relative importance of symbiosis in the origin of morphological and evolutionary novelty.

  9. Bellagio conference and book. Symbiosis as Source of Evolutionary Innovation: Speciation and Morphogenesis. Conference--June 25-30, 1989, Bellagio Conference Center, Italy.

    PubMed

    Margulis, L; Fester, R

    1991-01-01

    This conference at the Bellagio Conference Center, Italy, from June 25-30, 1989, provided a unique opportunity for evolutionary theorists and symbiosis biologists to cross the boundaries of their respective disciplines and share ideas. A major task was to address the adequacy of the prevailing neodarwinian concept of evolution with respect to the relative importance of symbiosis in the origin of morphological and evolutionary novelty.

  10. Bellagio conference and book. Symbiosis as Source of Evolutionary Innovation: Speciation and Morphogenesis. Conference--June 25-30, 1989, Bellagio Conference Center, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Fester, R.

    1991-01-01

    This conference at the Bellagio Conference Center, Italy, from June 25-30, 1989, provided a unique opportunity for evolutionary theorists and symbiosis biologists to cross the boundaries of their respective disciplines and share ideas. A major task was to address the adequacy of the prevailing neodarwinian concept of evolution with respect to the relative importance of symbiosis in the origin of morphological and evolutionary novelty.

  11. Possible power source found for fiber optic lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-05-01

    Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory are researching ways to use a new semiconductor alloy, indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), as as photovoltaic power source for lasers in fiber optics and space communication satellites. The efficiency of electricity-generating solar cells utilizing InGaAsN is predicted to be 40%-nearly twice the efficiency rate of a standard silicon solar cell. The use of InGaAsN in solar cells is a potential power source for satellites and other space systems. (AIP) (c)

  12. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  13. High power millimeter wave ECRH source needs for fusion program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This document stems from the four-day Gyrotron Symposium held at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters on June 13-16, 1983, and serves as a position paper for the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, on high-power millimeter wave source development for Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) of plasmas. It describes the fusion program needs for gyrotron as ECH sources, their current status, and desirable development strategies.

  14. Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power Sources into the Vietnamese Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno; Thanh Viet, Dinh; von Bremen, Lueder; Heinemann, Detlev; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnamese Power system is expected to expand considerably in upcoming decades. Power capacities installed are projected to grow from 39 GW in 2015 to 129.5 GW by 2030. Installed wind power capacities are expected to grow to 6 GW (0.8 GW 2015) and solar power capacities to 12 GW (0.85 GW 2015). This goes hand in hand with an increase of the renewable penetration in the power mix from 1.3% from wind and photovoltaics (PV) in 2015 to 5.4% by 2030. The overall potential for wind power in Vietnam is estimated to be around 24 GW. Moreover, the up-scaling of renewable energy sources was formulated as one of the priorized targets of the Vietnamese government in the National Power Development Plan VII. In this work, we investigate the transition of the Vietnamese power system towards high shares of renewables. For this purpose, we jointly optimise the expansion of renewable generation facilities for wind and PV, and the transmission grid within renewable build-up pathways until 2030 and beyond. To simulate the Vietnamese power system and its generation from renewable sources, we use highly spatially and temporally resolved historical weather and load data and the open source modelling toolbox Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA). We show that the highest potential of renewable generation for wind and PV is observed in southern Vietnam and discuss the resulting need for transmission grid extensions in dependency of the optimal pathway. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing effect of wind power has several considerable beneficial effects and that the Vietnamese hydro power potential can be efficiently used to provide balancing opportunities. This work is part of the R&D Project "Analysis of the Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power into the Future Vietnamese Power System" (GIZ, 2016-2018).

  15. The cardiac implantable electronic device power source: evolution and revolution.

    PubMed

    Mond, Harry G; Freitag, Gary

    2014-12-01

    Although the first power source for an implantable pacemaker was a rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery, it was rapidly replaced by an unreliable short-life zinc-mercury cell. This sustained the small pacemaker industry until the early 1970s, when the lithium-iodine cell became the dominant power source for low voltage, microampere current, single- and dual-chamber pacemakers. By the early 2000s, a number of significant advances were occurring with pacemaker technology which necessitated that the power source should now provide milliampere current for data logging, telemetric communication, and programming, as well as powering more complicated pacing devices such as biventricular pacemakers, treatment or prevention of atrial tachyarrhythmias, and the integration of innovative physiologic sensors. Because the current delivery of the lithium-iodine battery was inadequate for these functions, other lithium anode chemistries that can provide medium power were introduced. These include lithium-carbon monofluoride, lithium-manganese dioxide, and lithium-silver vanadium oxide/carbon mono-fluoride hybrids. In the early 1980s, the first implantable defibrillators for high voltage therapy used a lithium-vanadium pentoxide battery. With the introduction of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, the reliable lithium-silver vanadium oxide became the power source. More recently, because of the demands of biventricular pacing, data logging, and telemetry, lithium-manganese dioxide and the hybrid lithium-silver vanadium oxide/carbon mono-fluoride laminate have also been used. Today all cardiac implantable electronic devices are powered by lithium anode batteries. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  17. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  18. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  19. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Vol.1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increased demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains papers presented at the plenary session and panel sessions on; international markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs); role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market; environmental issues affecting CCT deployment; and CCT deployment from today into the next millennium. In addition papers presented at the closing plenary session on powering the next millennium--CCT answers the challenge are included. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  20. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  1. Fraunhofer Diffraction Effects on Total Power for a Planckian Source.

    PubMed

    Shirley, E L

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing diffraction effects on total power in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by a circular lens or aperture is derived. The result for Fraunhofer diffraction of monochromatic radiation is well known, and this work reports the result for radiation from a Planckian source. The result obtained is valid at all temperatures.

  2. Reviewers for Journal of Power Sources January 2016-December 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    The Editors and the publisher of Journal of Power Sources gratefully acknowledge the essential contribution of the following experts for their efforts in ensuring the continuing quality of the journal. The reviewers listed in boldface have reviewed twenty-five or more manuscripts. We regret any inadvertent omissions.

  3. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power requirements, generating sources. 111.10-4 Section 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... services include cooking, heating, air conditioning (where installed), domestic refrigeration, mechanical...

  4. Impacts of nuclear power sources on space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, Eduard I.; Doschatov, Vitali V.; Nikolaev, Vadim S.; Sokolov, Nikolai A.; Nazarenko, Andrei I.; Usov, Veniamin A.

    1997-01-10

    The paper presents some results of efforts dealing with computational analyses of probability of impact of nuclear power sources (NPS) on space debris (SD), destruction of the NPS structure on the impacts, change in orbital parameters as a result of the NPS impact and reentry.

  5. 8. FACING NORTH, LOOKING UP TAILRACE TOWARD WATER POWER SOURCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FACING NORTH, LOOKING UP TAILRACE TOWARD WATER POWER SOURCE. PENSTOCK RUNS LEFT TO RIGHT. HOOD OR IRON DRAINAGE TUBE FROM TURBINE WHEELS IN VIEW. CONDUIT VISIBLE UNDER PENSTOCK IS PART OF WASTE WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM. MILL NO. 1 IS NEARER VIEWER; MILL NO. 2 IN BACKGROUND. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  6. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent power source. 161.013-9 Section 161.013-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-9 Independent...

  7. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent power source. 161.013-9 Section 161.013-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-9 Independent...

  8. Power source evaluation capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.; Butler, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories maintains one of the most comprehensive power source characterization facilities in the U.S. National Laboratory system. This paper describes the capabilities for evaluation of fuel cell technologies. The facility has a rechargeable battery test laboratory and a test area for performing nondestructive and functional computer-controlled testing of cells and batteries.

  9. Impacts of nuclear power sources on space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.A.; Nazarenko, A.I.; Usov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some results of efforts dealing with computational analyses of probability of impact of nuclear power sources (NPS) on space debris (SD), destruction of the NPS structure on the impacts, change in orbital parameters as a result of the NPS impact and reentry. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. 49 CFR 193.2613 - Auxiliary power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary power sources. 193.2613 Section 193.2613 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  11. Information as An Instrument and a Source of National Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    events. Information’s History The concept of information as a source or instrument of power is not new. Leaders have used information as a tool since...economic prowess and advantages from our lVad in information technology. However, these advantages alone will not elevate information to equal status with

  12. Optical Power Source Derived from Engine Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An optical power source is disclosed that collects the spectra of the light emissions created in a combustion chamber to provide its optical output signals that serve the needs of optical networks. The light spectra is collected by a collection ring serving as an optical waveguide.

  13. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instruments using a power source. 23.1331 Section 23.1331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 23.1331 Instrument...

  14. Controllable Bidirectional dc Power Sources For Large Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Daniels, Taumi S.

    1995-01-01

    System redesigned for greater efficiency, durability, and controllability. Modern electronically controlled dc power sources proposed to supply currents to six electromagnets used to position aerodynamic test model in wind tunnel. Six-phase bridge rectifier supplies load with large current at voltage of commanded magnitude and polarity. Current-feedback circuit includes current-limiting feature giving some protection against overload.

  15. Reviewers for Journal of Power Sources January 2015 - March 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    The Editors and the publisher of Journal of Power Sources gratefully acknowledge the essential contribution of the following experts for their efforts in ensuring the continuing quality of the journal. The reviewers listed in boldface have reviewed twenty-five or more manuscripts. We regret any inadvertent omissions.

  16. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  17. Investigation of a high power electromagnetic pulse source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwei; Chen, Dongqun; Zhang, Jiande; Cao, Shengguang; Li, Da; Liu, Chebo

    2012-09-01

    A high power electromagnetic pulse source with a resonant antenna driven by a compact power supply was investigated in this paper. To match the impedance of the resonant antenna and initial power source, a compact power conditioning circuit based on electro exploding opening switch (EEOS) and pulsed transformer was adopted. In the preliminary experiments, an impulse capacitor was used to drive the system. With the opening of the EEOS at the current of 15 kA flowing trough the primary of the transformer, the resonant antenna was rapidly charged to about -370 kV within a time of about 100 ns. When the switch in the resonant antenna closed at the charging voltage of about -202 kV, the peak intensity of the detected electric field at a distance of about 10 m from the center of the source was 7.2 kV∕m. The corresponding peak power of the radiated electromagnetic field reached 76 MW, while the total radiated electromagnetic energy was about 0.65 J. The total energy efficiency of the resonant antenna was about 22% which can be improved by increasing the closing rapidity of the switch in the antenna.

  18. On an Analog Controlled Precision Heat Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seilmayer, M.; Katepally, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    The analog controlled precision heat power source is the main part of a sensor development to estimate real time properties of the primary coolant in a 300 kW process cooling system. The measurement of physical properties like thermal conductivity or thermal diffusion requires a precise and accurate heater. The constant heat flux is then applied to the liquid under test to acquire its different properties. Here, commonly established control methods of heating with constant current or constant voltage may fail because the heating resistor changes its resistance with temperature. The idea is to utilize a power monitor circuit like the LT2940, which contains an analog multiplier with a control loop around it. The initial design and its assumed uncertainties will be discussed. The first version of the power controller shows an outstanding performance in terms of precision in a steady state. Compared to conventional switching mode power sources the approach with an analog controlled heater avoids EMI issues as well. The main goal of the present design is a precise source of heat power with less than 0.5% of error.

  19. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the

  20. Space radioisotope power source requirements update and technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    The requirements for a space advanced radioisotope power source are based on potential deep space missions being investigated for the NASA Advanced Space Systems Development Program. Since deep space missions have not been approved, updating requirements is a continuos parallel process of designing the spacecraft and the science instruments to accomplish the potential missions and developing the power source technology to meet changing requirements. There are at least two potential missions, Pluto/Kuiper Express and Europa Orbiter, which may require space advanced radioisotope power sources. The Europa Orbiter has been selected as the preferred first potential mission. However the final decision will depend on the technology readiness of all the subsystems and the project must be able to switch to Pluto Kuiper Express as the first mission as late as the beginning of fiscal year 2000. Therefore the requirements for the power source will cover both potential missions. As the deep space spacecraft design evolves to meet the science requirements and the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric (AMTEC) technology matures the advanced radioisotope power source design requirements are updated The AMTEC technology developed to date uses stainless steel for the sodium containment material. The higher efficiency required for the space power system dictates that the AMTEC technology must operate at a higher temperature than possible with stainless steel. Therefore refractory materials have been selected as the baseline material for the AMTEC cell. These refractory materials are Nb1Zr for the hot side and Nb1Zr or Nb10Hf1Ti for the cold side. These materials were selected so the AMTEC cell can operate at 1150K to 1350K hot side temperature and 600K to 700K cold side temperature and meet the present power and mass requirements using four to six general purpose heat source modules as the heat source. The new containment materials and brazes will be evaluated as to lifetime

  1. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia.

  2. Electrodeless lighting RF power source development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-30

    An efficient, solid state RF power source has been developed on this NICE project for exciting low power electrodeless lamp bulbs. This project takes full advantage of concurrent advances in electrodeless lamp technology. Electrodeless lamp lighting systems utilizing the sulfur based bulb type developed by Fusion Lighting, Inc., is an emerging technology which is based on generating light in a confined plasma created and sustained by RF excitation. The bulb for such a lamp is filled with a particular element and inert gas at low pressure when cold. RF power from the RF source creates a plasma within the bulb which reaches temperatures approaching those of high pressure discharge lamp plasmas. At these temperatures the plasma radiates substantial visible light with a spectrum similar to sunlight.

  3. Improved current control makes inverters the power sources of choice

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Harada, S.; Ueyama, T.

    1997-02-01

    It is now generally understood that by increasing the operating or switching frequency of a power source the size of the main transformer and main reactor can be shrunk. Thus, a 300-A DC welding power source weighing well under 100 lb can be produced. This makes the inverter power source an ideal choice for applications requiring equipment maneuverability. It is also generally understood that due to higher switching frequencies, a smoother output is obtained from inverter power sources. In the late 1980s, the company developed a new double-inverter power source by which inverted DC weld output is inverted back to AC weld output. This product was the first of its kind in the world. Again, the small compact size of this product was of great interest. Utilizing current waveform control, it was realized that fast response switching from electrode negative to electrode positive could be accurately controlled, offering benefits such as AC GTA welding with high-frequency start only, even at a low welding current. The primary benefit is the ability to limit the electrode positive half cycle to less than 5%. The electrode positive half cycle is responsible for tungsten erosion, which also creates the balling effect of a tungsten electrode. By limiting the electrode positive portion of the AC cycle to a very low level, a rather sharp point can be maintained on the tungsten, which creates a very concentrated, focused arc column. This ability provides excellent joint penetration in fillet welding of aluminum alloys, especially on thick plate. It also reduces the heat-affected zone in AC GTA welding of aluminum.

  4. Americium As A Potential Power Source For Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordingley, Leon; Rice, Tom; Sarsfield, Mark J.; Stephenson, Keith; Tinsley, Tim

    2011-10-01

    Electrical power sources used in outer planet missions are a key enabling technology for data acquisition and communications. Power sources generate electricity from the thermal energy from alpha decay of the radioisotope 238Pu via thermoelectric conversion. Production of 238Pu requires specialist facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are expensive to build and operate, so naturally, a more economical alternative is attractive to the industry. Within Europe 241Am is a feasible alternative to 238Pu that can provide a heat source for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heating units (RHUs). Whilst there are implications associated with the differences between 238Pu and 241Am, these technological challenges are surmountable.

  5. Power combination of a self-coherent high power microwave source

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiaolu Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Yangmei; Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun

    2015-09-15

    In our previous work, generating two phase-locked high power microwaves (HPMs) in a single self-coherent HPM device has been demonstrated. In this paper, after optimizing the structure of the previous self-coherent source, we design a power combiner with a folded phase-adjustment waveguide to realize power combination between its two sub-sources. Further particle-in-cell simulation of the combined source shows that when the diode voltage is 687 kV and the axial magnetic field is 0.8 T, a combined output microwave with 3.59 GW and 9.72 GHz is generated. The impedance of the combined device is 36 Ω and the total power conversion efficiency is 28%.

  6. Power Control of New Wind Power Generation System with Induction Generator Excited by Voltage Source Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori

    This paper investigates advantages of new combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronic equipment. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantage of it is impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets is sometimes used. In proposed scheme, the diode rectifier is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc voltage, while only the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from the voltage source converter (VSC). This means that the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the system with synchronous generator. Simulation study to investigate the control strategy of proposed system is performed. The results show the reduction of the VSC rating is prospective.

  7. Continuous Source Monitoring: the Hyatt Power Plant Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrhammer, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    We explore using the generators at the Hyatt Hydroelectric Power Plant at Oroville Dam, California as a continuous source. The generators rotate at 200 rpm and they produce a coherent signal which is observed at the Oroville (BK.ORV) broadband seismic station. The observed signal, when averaged over an hour, is typically 20+ dB at 3.33326±0.001235 Hz. The Hyatt Power Plant is constructed in a cavern the size of two football fields dug in solid bedrock in the left abutment near the axis of Oroville Dam and the BK.ORV seismic station is sited on the bedrock surface approximately 1 km northwest of the power plant. The propagation path is granite. Several data processing methodologies are explored to characterize the temporal variation in the signal from the power plant.

  8. Low power energy harvesting and storage techniques from ambient human powered energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    Conventional electrochemical batteries power most of the portable and wireless electronic devices that are operated by electric power. In the past few years, electrochemical batteries and energy storage devices have improved significantly. However, this progress has not been able to keep up with the development of microprocessors, memory storage, and sensors of electronic applications. Battery weight, lifespan and reliability often limit the abilities and the range of such applications of battery powered devices. These conventional devices were designed to be powered with batteries as required, but did not allow scavenging of ambient energy as a power source. In contrast, development in wireless technology and other electronic components are constantly reducing the power and energy needed by many applications. If energy requirements of electronic components decline reasonably, then ambient energy scavenging and conversion could become a viable source of power for many applications. Ambient energy sources can be then considered and used to replace batteries in some electronic applications, to minimize product maintenance and operating cost. The potential ability to satisfy overall power and energy requirements of an application using ambient energy can eliminate some constraints related to conventional power supplies. Also power scavenging may enable electronic devices to be completely self-sustaining so that battery maintenance can eventually be eliminated. Furthermore, ambient energy scavenging could extend the performance and the lifetime of the MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems) and portable electronic devices. These possibilities show that it is important to examine the effectiveness of ambient energy as a source of power. Until recently, only little use has been made of ambient energy resources, especially for wireless networks and portable power devices. Recently, researchers have performed several studies in alternative energy sources that could provide

  9. High power low cost drive laser for LPP source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomenkov, Igor V.; Hansson, Björn A. M.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Ershov, Alex I.; Partlo, William N.; Fleurov, Vladimir B.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Rettig, Curtis L.; Hoffman, Jerzy R.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Chavez, Juan A.; Marx, William F.; Brandt, David C.

    2006-03-01

    We report on the approach for a high-power high-beam-quality drive laser system that is used for a laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. Cymer has conducted research on a number of solutions for a multi-kW drive laser system that satisfy high volume production requirements. Types of lasers to be presented include XeF at 351 nm and CO II at 10.6 micron. We report on a high efficiency XeF amplifier with a 3rd harmonic Nd:YLF master oscillator operated in the 6 to 8 kHz range and a CO II laser system with Q-switched cavity dumped master oscillator and RF pumped fast axial flow amplifiers operated in the 10 to 100 kHz range. CO II laser short pulse gain and optical isolation techniques are reported. Optical performance data and design features of the drive laser system are discussed, as well as a path to achieve output power scaling to meet high volume manufacturing (HVM) requirements and beyond. Additionally, the electrical efficiency as a component of cost of operation is presented. Development of a drive laser with sufficient output power, high beam quality, and economical cost of operation is critical to the successful implementation of a laser-produced-plasma (LPP) EUV source for HVM applications. Cymer has conducted research on a number of solutions to this critical need. We report our progress on development of a high power system with two gas-discharge power amplifiers to produce high output power with high beam quality. We provide optical performance data and design features of the drive laser as well as a path to output power scaling to meet HVM requirements. Development of a drive laser for LPP EUV source is a challenging task. It requires multi-kW laser output power with short pulse duration and diffraction limited beam quality. In addition, this system needs to be very reliable and cost-efficient to satisfy industry requirements for high volume integrated circuit manufacturing. Feasibility studies of high power laser solutions that utilize proven laser

  10. GaP betavoltaic cells as a power source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, F. S.; Stella, Paul M.; Anspaugh, B.

    1991-01-01

    Maximum power output for the GaP cells of this study was found to be on the order of 1 microW. This resulted from exposure to 200 and 40 KeV electrons at a flux of 2 x 10(exp 9) electrons/sq cm/s, equivalent to a 54 mCurie source. The efficiencies of the cells ranged from 5 to 9 percent for 200 and 40 KeV electrons respectively. The lower efficiency at higher energy is due to a substantial fraction of energy deposition in the substrate, further than a diffusion length from the depletion region of the cell. Radiation damage was clearly observed in GaP after exposure to 200 KeV electrons at a fluence of 2 x 10(exp 12) electrons/sq cm. No discernable damage was observed after exposure to 40 KeV electrons at the same fluence. Analysis indicates that a GaP betavoltaic system would not be practical if limited to low energy beta sources. The power available would be too low even in the ideal case. By utilizing high activity beta sources, such as Sr-90/Y-90, it may be possible to achieve performance that could be suitable for some space power applications. However, to utilize such a source the problem of radiation damage in the beta cell material must be overcome.

  11. Safety and Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalas, Corinne C.; Schmidt, George R.

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear power sources have been used in space applications for decades. They have been used extensively for electrical power production, and their future potential for propulsion has been recognized since the dawn of the spaceflight era. Nuclear power sources offer many advantages in terms of long duration operation and high power densities independent of distance and orientation with respect to the Sun. However, it is also broadly known that use of radioactive materials do carry more risk that must be addressed to ensure safe operation during all phases of the mission, particularly before and during launch into orbit. Almost all of the nuclear-powered missions to date have been flown by the United States and former Soviet Union, but other space-faring nations have recognized its importance for their future missions. Consequently, many in the space community have advocated the development of a broad set of principles that could be applied on an international basis. This paper examines the current guidelines by the major space-faring nations, and suggests a framework primarily based on the U.S. methodology for ensuring reduction of risk, mitigating environmental impact and promoting launch safety.

  12. In Theory: Dark Energy as a Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Russell, David; Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2017-01-01

    In theory, it is possible to use the dark energy of the universe as a power source. In practice, the amount of energy that could be liberated in a local setting is many orders of magnitude too small to be useful or even detectable. Nevertheless, in the interests of education and amusement, simple machines that could, in theory, extract local power from the gravitationally repulsive cosmological constant are discussed. The gravitational neutral buoyancy distance -- the distance where local Newtonian gravity balances cosmological dark energy in a concordance cosmology -- is computed between two point objects of low mass.

  13. High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kieu, Khanh; Saar, Brian G; Holtom, Gary R; Xie, X Sunney; Wise, Frank W

    2009-07-01

    We report a high-power picosecond fiber pump laser system for coherent Raman microscopy (CRM). The fiber laser system generates 3.5 ps pulses with 6 W average power at 1030 nm. Frequency doubling yields more than 2 W of green light, which can be used to pump an optical parametric oscillator to produce the pump and the Stokes beams for CRM. Detailed performance data on the laser and the various wavelength conversion steps are discussed, together with representative CRM images of fresh animal tissue obtained with the new source.

  14. 46 CFR 112.25-5 - Failure of power from the normal source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine Driven Emergency Power Source as the Sole Emergency Power Source § 112.25-5 Failure of power from... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source. 112.25-5...

  15. 46 CFR 112.25-5 - Failure of power from the normal source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine Driven Emergency Power Source as the Sole Emergency Power Source § 112.25-5 Failure of power from... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source. 112.25-5...

  16. 46 CFR 112.25-5 - Failure of power from the normal source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine Driven Emergency Power Source as the Sole Emergency Power Source § 112.25-5 Failure of power from... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source. 112.25-5...

  17. 46 CFR 112.25-5 - Failure of power from the normal source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine Driven Emergency Power Source as the Sole Emergency Power Source § 112.25-5 Failure of power from... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source. 112.25-5...

  18. 46 CFR 112.25-5 - Failure of power from the normal source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine Driven Emergency Power Source as the Sole Emergency Power Source § 112.25-5 Failure of power from... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source. 112.25-5...

  19. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Isotope Heat Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, NASA has used the decay of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTGs have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency and the scarcity of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14.75 Earth days), isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 W with two GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (32% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a four-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of americium-241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling- convertor-based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from tens of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a substitute for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about one-fifth while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 W of electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot

  20. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  1. Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bozhi; Zheng, Xiaolin; Kempa, Thomas J; Fang, Ying; Yu, Nanfang; Yu, Guihua; Huang, Jinlin; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-10-18

    Solar cells are attractive candidates for clean and renewable power; with miniaturization, they might also serve as integrated power sources for nanoelectronic systems. The use of nanostructures or nanostructured materials represents a general approach to reduce both cost and size and to improve efficiency in photovoltaics. Nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires have been used to improve charge collection efficiency in polymer-blend and dye-sensitized solar cells, to demonstrate carrier multiplication, and to enable low-temperature processing of photovoltaic devices. Moreover, recent theoretical studies have indicated that coaxial nanowire structures could improve carrier collection and overall efficiency with respect to single-crystal bulk semiconductors of the same materials. However, solar cells based on hybrid nanoarchitectures suffer from relatively low efficiencies and poor stabilities. In addition, previous studies have not yet addressed their use as photovoltaic power elements in nanoelectronics. Here we report the realization of p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) coaxial silicon nanowire solar cells. Under one solar equivalent (1-sun) illumination, the p-i-n silicon nanowire elements yield a maximum power output of up to 200 pW per nanowire device and an apparent energy conversion efficiency of up to 3.4 per cent, with stable and improved efficiencies achievable at high-flux illuminations. Furthermore, we show that individual and interconnected silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements can serve as robust power sources to drive functional nanoelectronic sensors and logic gates. These coaxial silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements provide a new nanoscale test bed for studies of photoinduced energy/charge transport and artificial photosynthesis, and might find general usage as elements for powering ultralow-power electronics and diverse nanosystems.

  2. Flashover lithium ion source development for large pulsed power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bieg, K.W.; Burns, E.J.T.; Gerber, R.A.; Olsen, J.N.; Lamppa, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    PBFA II, a light-ion pulsed power accelerator intended for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications, is currently under construction at Sandia National Laboratories. The accelerator will deliver a 30 MV, 5 MA lithium beam from an Applied-B diode to drive an ICF target. The ion source for this diode will require a thin (approx.1 mm), dense (10 W cm S) anode plasma layer of singly-ionized lithium over an anode area of 10T cmS. One type of source being investigated is the flashover ion source, which generates the anode plasma via vacuum flashover of a lithium-bearing dielectric material. Experiments with a LiF flashover source on the 0.03 TW Nereus accelerator have shown that contaminant ions account for as much as 70% of the extracted ion beam current. To overcome this, we have explored in-diode cleaning of the externally-prepared anode surface by glow discharge cleaning and vacuum baking as well as in-diode preparation of the anode surface by vacuum evaporation of the lithium dielectric. Lithium-bearing dielectric materials which have been investigated include LiF, LiI, LiNO3, and Li3N. These techniques have resulted in a two- to three-fold improvement in the extracted lithium ion purity. As a result, a glow-discharge cleaned LiF flashover source will be used for initial pulsed-power testing on PBFA II.

  3. Sub-Shot Noise Power Source for Microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Mansour, Kamjou

    2011-01-01

    Low-current, high-impedance microelectronic devices can be affected by electric current shot noise more than they are affected by Nyquist noise, even at room temperature. An approach to implementing a sub-shot noise current source for powering such devices is based on direct conversion of amplitude-squeezed light to photocurrent. The phenomenon of optical squeezing allows for the optical measurements below the fundamental shot noise limit, which would be impossible in the domain of classical optics. This becomes possible by affecting the statistical properties of photons in an optical mode, which can be considered as a case of information encoding. Once encoded, the information describing the photon (or any other elementary excitations) statistics can be also transmitted. In fact, it is such information transduction from optics to an electronics circuit, via photoelectric effect, that has allowed the observation of the optical squeezing. It is very difficult, if not technically impossible, to directly measure the statistical distribution of optical photons except at extremely low light level. The photoelectric current, on the other hand, can be easily analyzed using RF spectrum analyzers. Once it was observed that the photocurrent noise generated by a tested light source in question is below the shot noise limit (e.g. produced by a coherent light beam), it was concluded that the light source in question possess the property of amplitude squeezing. The main novelty of this technology is to turn this well-known information transduction approach around. Instead of studying the statistical property of an optical mode by measuring the photoelectron statistics, an amplitude-squeezed light source and a high-efficiency linear photodiode are used to generate photocurrent with sub-Poissonian electron statistics. By powering microelectronic devices with this current source, their performance can be improved, especially their noise parameters. Therefore, a room-temperature sub

  4. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs....10 of this chapter. (b) If a generator provides electrical power for any system identified as a...

  5. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs....10 of this chapter. (b) If a generator provides electrical power for any system identified as a...

  6. Development and Use of the Galileo and Ulysses Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Gary L; Hemler, Richard J; Schock, Alfred

    1994-10-01

    Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, October 1994. The Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Ulysses mission to explore the polar regions of the Sun required a new power source: the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator (GPHS-RTG), the most powerful RTG yet flow. Four flight-qualified GPHS-RTGs were fabricated with one that is being used on Ulysses, two that are being used on Galileo and one that was a common spare (and is now available for the Cassini mission to Saturn). In addition, and Engineering Unit and a Qualification Unit were fabricated to qualify the design for space through rigorous ground tests. This paper summarizes the ground testing and performance predictions showing that the GPHS-RTGs have met and will continue to meet or exceed the performance requirements of the ongoing Galileo and Ulysses missions. There are two copies in the file.

  7. Safety status of space radioisotope and reactor power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The current overall safety criterion for both radioisotope and reactor power sources is containment or immobilization in the case of a reentry accident. In addition, reactors are designed to remain subcritical under conditions of land impact or water immersion. A very extensive safety test and analysis program was completed on the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in use on the Galileo spacecraft and planned for use on the Ulysses spacecraft. The results of this work show that the RTGs will pose little or no risk for any credible accident. The SP-100 space nuclear reactor program has begun addressing its safety criteria, and the design is planned to be such as to ensure meeting the various safety criteria. Preliminary mission risk analyses on SP-100 show the expected value population dose from postulated accidents on the reference mission to be very small. It is concluded that the current US nuclear power sources are the safest flown.

  8. A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K; Ciucu, F; Lin, C; Low, SH

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy such as solar and wind generation will constitute an important part of the future grid. As the availability of renewable sources may not match the load, energy storage is essential for grid stability. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines into the grid by also accounting for energy storage. To deal with the fluctuation in both the power supply and demand, we extend and apply stochastic network calculus to analyze the power supply reliability with various renewable energy configurations. To illustrate the validity of the model, we conduct a case study for the integration of renewable energy sources into the power system of an island off the coast of Southern California. In particular, we asses the power supply reliability in terms of the average Fraction of Time that energy is Not-Served (FTNS).

  9. Innovative Ionic Liquids: Electrolytes for Ion Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    PFESI–, MMBI+TFSI–, and MMBI+PFESI–. 1,2-dimethyl-3-n-propylimidazolium-MMPI + 1,2-dimethyl-3-n-butylimidazolium-MMBI + Bis ( trifluoromethanesulfonyl ... imide -TFSI – Bis (perfluoroethanesulfonyl) imide -PFESI – (a) (b) (c) (d) 2008 NRL REVIEW 145 CHEMICAL/BIOCHEMICAL RESEARCH lithium ion power sources, but...charged ring system, and an anion, such as a perfluorinated imide . It is this thermal and electrochemical stability and the stability of the organic

  10. Scoping Calculations of Power Sources for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  11. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  12. Power Flow in a Multi-Terawatt Radiation Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    from the plasma source to the insulator stack . This presents the possibility of premature insulator flashover due to ultraviolet illumination of...at 65% of its maximum stored energy: (1) premature insulator flashover , and (2) power flow losses in the MITL. Under ideal operation the diode...steel grading rings were initiating wormholing as flashover shorted out segments of the insulator stack leading to higher stresses on the remaining

  13. X-band RF power sources for accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Mark F.; Kowalczyk, Richard D.; Wilsen, Craig B.; True, Richard B.; Simpson, Ian T.; Wray, John T.

    2011-07-01

    The majority of medical and industrial linear accelerators (LINACs) in use today operate at S-band. To reduce size and weight, these systems are gradually migrating toward X-band. The new LINACs will require suitable RF components to power them. In anticipation of this market, L-3 Communications Electron Devices Division (EDD) has recently developed a suite of RF sources operating at 9.3 GHz to complement our existing S-band product line. (author)

  14. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  15. Impedance to transesophageal atrial pacing: significance regarding power sources.

    PubMed

    Kerr, C R; Chung, D C; Wickham, G; Jameson, M; Vorderbrugge, S

    1989-06-01

    Transesophageal stimulation is an expeditious method of atrial pacing. Using pulse widths of 10 msec results in reduction of current requirement to values that are usually less than 15 mA. An unknown variable in transesophageal atrial pacing has been impedance. In this study, we investigated the impedance to transesophageal atrial pacing in ten patients using a stimulator with a 63 V power source capable of delivering constant current to 20 mA against an impedance of 2,000 ohms. A bipolar electrode was used to deliver stimuli with a current of 15 mA. Voltage across a known resistance and current were measured on an oscilloscope and the impedance was calculated. Pacing thresholds were also performed and ranged from 6.2 to 16.5 mA (mean 9.4 +/- 2.9 mA, SD). Impedance varied between 720 and 2,670 ohms (mean 1,750 +/- 540 ohms). The stimulator used to measure impedance in man and two other commercially available stimulators were bench tested against known resistances of 500 to 2,000 ohms. The other stimulators with power sources of 12.5 and 15 V had attenuation of the delivered current at resistances of between 1,000 and 2,000 ohms. Thus, this study has demonstrated that transesophageal atrial pacing incurs impedances two to five times greater than incurred with intracardiac pacing leads. Therefore stimulators with high power sources are required to deliver the programmed current against these impedances.

  16. Isotope heat source simulator for testing of space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Smith, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A reliable isotope heat source simulator was designed for use in a Brayton power system. This simulator is composed of an electrically heated tungsten wire which is wound around a boron nitride core and enclosed in a graphite jacket. Simulator testing was performed at the expected operating temperature of the Brayton power system. Endurance testing for 5012 hours was followed by cycling the simulator temperature. The integrity of this simulator was maintained throughout testing. Alumina beads served as a diffusion barrier to prevent interaction between the tungsten heater and boron nitride core. The simulator was designed to maintain a surface temperature of 1311 to 1366 K (1900 to 2000 F) with a power input of approximately 400 watts. The design concept and the materials used in the simulator make possible man different geometries. This flexibility increases its potential use.

  17. Sources of error in intraocular lens power calculation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, T

    1992-03-01

    The hypothesis that the minimum error in predicted refraction after implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) of calculated power is the sum of the random error in (1) the measurement of the axial length, (2) the measurement of the corneal power, and (3) the estimation of the pseudophakic anterior chamber depth (ACD) is proposed. Based on preoperative and postoperative biometry of 584 IOL implantations, 54% of the error was attributed to axial length errors, 8% to corneal power errors, and 38% to errors in the estimation of the postoperative ACD, when a fixed ACD was used in the IOL calculations. However, if the ACD was predicted according to a previously described regression method, the contribution of error from the ACD source was reduced to 22%, thereby reducing the total refractive prediction error from +/- 1.03 diopters (D) (+/- SD) to +/- 0.92 D (+/- SD). These predictions accord with clinical results.

  18. Nonobatteries: decreasing size power sources for growing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lowy, Daniel A; Patrut, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Increasing need for portable nanoelectronic devices triggers the development of dimensionally small batteries. Nanobatteries are being designed for specific applications, including computer chips, micro-electromechanical systems (such as micro-actuators, micro-instruments, or micro-robots), or nanostructured medical devices. As the size of power source should be commensurate with the device it powers, battery miniaturization is an important design challenge faced by the battery community. Further advantages of such minute batteries include the long shelf life and a quick ramp up to full power. Hence, design may enable the nanobattery to stay dormant for several years, and then getting reactivated, so that it can provide immediately a burst of high energy.

  19. Ion heating and flows in a high power helicon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Derek S.; Agnello, Riccardo; Furno, Ivo; Howling, Alan; Jacquier, Rémy; Plyushchev, Gennady; Scime, Earl E.

    2017-06-01

    We report experimental measurements of ion temperatures and flows in a high power, linear, magnetized, helicon plasma device, the Resonant Antenna Ion Device (RAID). Parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures on the order of 0.6 eV are observed for an rf power of 4 kW, suggesting that higher power helicon sources should attain ion temperatures in excess of 1 eV. The unique RAID antenna design produces broad, uniform plasma density and perpendicular ion temperature radial profiles. Measurements of the azimuthal flow indicate rigid body rotation of the plasma column of a few kHz. When configured with an expanding magnetic field, modest parallel ion flows are observed in the expansion region. The ion flows and temperatures are derived from laser induced fluorescence measurements of the Doppler resolved velocity distribution functions of argon ions.

  20. Carbon-14 Source Terms and Generation in Fusion Power Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, V. I.; Kurbatov, D. K.; Subbotin, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    A consecutive study of the source terms of 14C as the major contributor to the external costs of fusion and its production rate was performed by system and neutron activation analysis. It shows that the specific 14C activity induced in the low activation structural materials, coolants and breeders suggested for future fusion power reactor cores is significantly dependent upon the assumption for nitrogen content. The determined range of the specific 14C activity ˜2-20 TBq/GW(e)a induced by the near-term water-cooled, gas-cooled and advanced liquid lithium and lithium-lead self-cooled fusion power reactors is given in the paper regarding the values for natural 14C background and artificial 14C sources as fission power reactors and nuclear tests. It is definitely recommended to minimize the nitrogen content below 0.01 wt.% in the beryllium multipliers and in the structural materials, SiC/SiC composite including. Then due to environmental and waste disposal reasons the 14C generation in fusion power blankets will have negligible impact on the cost.

  1. Power Sources Symposium, 31st, Atlantic City, NJ, June 11-14, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on electrochemical power sources encompasses systems of such types as the thermoelectric, advanced rechargeable, lithium reserve, rechargeable, and nonrechargeable, nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen rechargeable, lead-acid, nickel-zinc and nickel-iron rechargeable, nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen rechargeable, and fuel cells. Attention is given to Si-Ge alloy multicouple technology, sodium-sulfur battery development status, the safety aspects of a rechargeable lithium C cell, fiber-structure electrodes for nickel-cadmium batteries, energy density improvements in Li/carbon monofluoride cells, zinc-air button cell technology, catalyzed cathodes for Li/SOCl2 cells, the effect of polymer structure on the rate capability of the lithium-iodine cell, and a methanol fuel cell powerplant.

  2. Power Sources Symposium, 31st, Atlantic City, NJ, June 11-14, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The present conference on electrochemical power sources encompasses systems of such types as the thermoelectric, advanced rechargeable, lithium reserve, rechargeable, and nonrechargeable, nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen rechargeable, lead-acid, nickel-zinc and nickel-iron rechargeable, nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen rechargeable, and fuel cells. Attention is given to Si-Ge alloy multicouple technology, sodium-sulfur battery development status, the safety aspects of a rechargeable lithium C cell, fiber-structure electrodes for nickel-cadmium batteries, energy density improvements in Li/carbon monofluoride cells, zinc-air button cell technology, catalyzed cathodes for Li/SOCl2 cells, the effect of polymer structure on the rate capability of the lithium-iodine cell, and a methanol fuel cell powerplant.

  3. Geothermal, an alternate energy source for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, H.A.

    1985-02-01

    The economic development of nations depends on an escalating use of energy sources. With each passing year the dependence increases, reaching a point where the world will require, in the next six years, a volume of energetics equal to that consumed during the last hundred years. Statistics show that in 1982 about 70% of the world's energy requirements were supplied by oil, natural gas and coal. The remaining 30% came from other sources such as nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, and geothermal. In Mexico the situation is more extreme. For the same year (1982) 85% of the total energy consumed was supplied through the use of hydrocarbons, and only 15% through power generated by the other sources of electricity. Of the 15%, 65% used hydrocarbons somewhere in the power generation system. Geothermal is an energy source that can help solve the problem, particularly in Mexico, because the geological and structural characteristics of Mexico make it one of the countries in the world with a tremendous geothermal potential. The potential of geothermal energy for supplying part of Mexico's needs is discussed.

  4. Fuel cell power source for a cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

    Electric power generation at Maitri—the Indian Antarctic station is based on a conventional diesel generator. In spite of the high reliability and simplicity of operation, the main disadvantages of this kind of power source are its pollution potential and fuel transportation costs. In a place like Antarctica environmental protection requirements are of prime importance. Apart from gas pollution, they also suffer from various other problems such as degradation of performance due to sub-zero temperature of operation, noise pollution, solidification of lubricants and mechanical wear and tear. Fuel cells find an ideal application for alternate energy solution, and can maintain the pristine nature of Antarctica. With this objective in mind, Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence, Government of India joined hands with Centre for Electro-Chemical & Energy Research, SPIC Science Foundation, Chennai and developed three prototype 500 W, 12 V, PEMFC fuel cell power sources for this application. PEMFC has been chosen for study and experimentation at Antarctica because the solid electrolyte Nafion-117 is used in this cell and the electro-chemical reaction is exothermic so that the fuel cell can be activated at low temperature. PEMFC was first installed and successfully demonstrated during the XVII Indian Antarctic Expedition. Further studies continued during the XVIII Indian Antarctic Expedition and a series of scientific experiments were conducted in the areas of optimisation of humidification, temperature for reactants (hydrogen and oxygen), elimination of existing humidification system, feasibility of provision of air-cooling system in lieu of water cooling system, humidifcation of gases using membrane as a medium, charging/discharging characteristics of a metal hydride container for hydrogen storage, and performance of a dc-dc converter and static inverter under sub-zero temperature of

  5. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source For VASMIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, J. P.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Glover, T. W.; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    The VASIMR space propulsion development effort relies on a high power (greater than 10kW) helicon source to produce a dense flowing plasma (H, D and He) target for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) acceleration of the ions. Subsequent expansion in an expanding magnetic field (magnetic nozzle) converts ion lunetic energy to directed momentum. This plasma source must have critical features to enable an effective propulsion device. First, it must ionize most of the input neutral flux of gas, thus producing a plasma stream with a high degree of ionization for application of ICR power. This avoids propellant waste and potential power losses due to charge exchange. Next, the plasma stream must flow into a region of high magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T) for efficient ICR acceleration. Third, the ratio of input power to plasma flux must be low, providing an energy per ion-electron pair approaching 100 eV. Lastly, the source must be robust and capable of very long life-times (years). In our helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a ratio of input gas to plasma flux near 100%. The plasma flows from the helicon region (B approximately 0.1 T) into a region with a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T. The energy input per ion-electron pair has been measured at 300 plus or minus 100 eV. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show an enhanced efficiency mode of operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 3.5 kW of input power. An upgrade to a power level of 10 kW is underway. Much of our recent work has been with a Boswell double-saddle antenna design. We are also converting the antenna design to a helical type. With these modifications, we anticipate an improvement in the ionization efficiency. This paper presents the results from scaling the helicon in the VX-10 device from 3.5 to 10 kW. We also compare the operation with a double-saddle to a helical antenna design. Finally, we

  6. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source For VASMIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, J. P.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Glover, T. W.; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    The VASIMR space propulsion development effort relies on a high power (greater than 10kW) helicon source to produce a dense flowing plasma (H, D and He) target for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) acceleration of the ions. Subsequent expansion in an expanding magnetic field (magnetic nozzle) converts ion lunetic energy to directed momentum. This plasma source must have critical features to enable an effective propulsion device. First, it must ionize most of the input neutral flux of gas, thus producing a plasma stream with a high degree of ionization for application of ICR power. This avoids propellant waste and potential power losses due to charge exchange. Next, the plasma stream must flow into a region of high magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T) for efficient ICR acceleration. Third, the ratio of input power to plasma flux must be low, providing an energy per ion-electron pair approaching 100 eV. Lastly, the source must be robust and capable of very long life-times (years). In our helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a ratio of input gas to plasma flux near 100%. The plasma flows from the helicon region (B approximately 0.1 T) into a region with a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T. The energy input per ion-electron pair has been measured at 300 plus or minus 100 eV. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show an enhanced efficiency mode of operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 3.5 kW of input power. An upgrade to a power level of 10 kW is underway. Much of our recent work has been with a Boswell double-saddle antenna design. We are also converting the antenna design to a helical type. With these modifications, we anticipate an improvement in the ionization efficiency. This paper presents the results from scaling the helicon in the VX-10 device from 3.5 to 10 kW. We also compare the operation with a double-saddle to a helical antenna design. Finally, we

  7. Building a Continuous Source and Sink Solution for Satellite Power Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorein, Ed; Forcier, Neil

    2014-08-01

    When engineers test a satellite power conditioning and distribution unit (PCDU) or satellite battery, they need a solution that can source power and sink power to satisfy the bidirectional power capabilities of these units under test. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of three source and sink solutions for satellite power test: a nonoverlapping source-sink solution with deadband, an overlapping source-sink solution and an integrated source-sink solution. The paper provides an overview of new technologies that enable integrated source/sink power testing embodied in a switching power supply architecture.

  8. High-Voltage and High-Power Multi-Power Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Inner core temperature theory, 150 experiment CD 100 so I i i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 time (microseconds) Figure 5 Voltage generated by exploding wire action ... theory vs experiment) Further theoretical considerations relating to the modelling of the complete multi-pulse power source are presented in Section

  9. High-power 100-fs SESAM-modelocked VESCEL (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldburger, Dominik; Link, Sandro M.; Alfieri, Cesare G. E.; Golling, Matthias; Keller, Ursula

    2017-03-01

    Ultrafast vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) are versatile laser sources and feature high-power operation. To date the best modelocking results have been achieved with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). Ultrafast optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) are compact, cost-efficient and provide excellent beam quality at gigahertz pulse repetition rates for applications such as for example multi-photon imaging, ultrafast communication and in particular self-referenced gigahertz frequency combs. The highest peak power obtained with an ultrafast VECSEL is 4.35 kW in 400-fs pulses and the shortest pulses until now are 107 fs at 3 mW average output power. Here we present a SESAM-modelocked VECSEL with pulses as short as 96 fs and 100 mW average output power. These are to the best of our knowledge the shortest pulses achieved by a fundamentally modelocked SDL and result in a very high peak power of 0.56 kW at a pulse repetition rate of 1.63 GHz. The short pulse duration was achieved by introducing a small amount of positive group delay dispersion with a single path through an external 2-mm thick ZnSe window plate that compensated the initially negatively chirped 107-fs output pulses. Currently the power is limited by the transition from fundamental modelocking to multi-pulse operation, which reduces the pulse peak power and introduces additional noise. Therefore, we present a study of the multi-pulse behavior of the high-power 100-fs SDL resulting from the complex modelocking mechanism. This study also provides an insight into special issues of pulse characterization that may suggest stable fundamental modelocking even if this is not the case.

  10. Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S.; Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I.; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

    2008-09-01

    A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we

  11. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories` high power electromagnetic impulse sources

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, L.F.; Buttram, M.T.; Denison, G.J.; Lundstrom, J.M.; Crowe, W.R.; Aurand, J.F.; Patterson, P.E.

    1994-10-01

    Three impulse sources have been developed to cover a wide range of peak power, bandwidth and center frequency requirements. Each of the sources can operate in single shot, rep-rate, or burst modes. These devices are of rugged construction and are suitable for field use. This paper will describe the specifications and principals of operation for each source. The sources to be described are: SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond ImPulsE Radiator), a coaxial Blumlein pulser with an in-line (series) peaking switch; EMBL (EnantioMorphic BLurfflein), a bipolar parallel plate Blumlein with a crowbar type (parallel) peaking switch; and the LCO (L-C Oscillator) a spark-switched L-C oscillator with damped sinusoidal output. SNIPER and EMBL are ultra-wideband (UWB) sources which produce a very fast high voltage transition. When differentiated by the antenna, an impulse whose width corresponds to the transition time is radiated. The LCO operates with a center frequency up to 800 MHz and up to 100 MHz bandwidth. Because the LCO output is relatively narrow band, high gain antennas may be employed to produce very high radiated field strengths.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories' high power electromagnetic impulse sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, L. F.; Buttram, M. T.; Denison, G. J.; Lundstrom, J. M.; Crowe, W. R.; Aurand, J. F.; Patterson, P. E.

    1994-05-01

    Three impulse sources have been developed to cover a wide range of peak power, bandwidth and center frequency requirements. Each of the sources can operate in single shot, rep-rate, or burst modes. These devices are of rugged construction and are suitable for field use. This paper will describe the specifications and principals of operation for each source. The sources to be described are: SNIPER (Sub-Nanosecond ImPulsE Radiator), a coaxial Blumlein pulser with an in-line (series) peaking switch; EMBL (EnantioMorphic BLurfflein), a bipolar parallel plate Blumlein with a crowbar type (parallel) peaking switch; and the LCO (L-C Oscillator) a spark-switched L-C oscillator with damped sinusoidal output. SNIPER and EMBL are ultra-wideband (UWB) sources which produce a very fast high voltage transition. When differentiated by the antenna, an impulse whose width corresponds to the transition time is radiated. The LCO operates with a center frequency up to 800 MHz and up to 100 MHz bandwidth. Because the LCO output is relatively narrow band, high gain antennas may be employed to produce very high radiated field strengths.

  14. A powerful bursting radio source towards the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Scott D; Lazio, T Joseph W; Kassim, Namir E; Ray, Paul S; Markwardt, Craig B; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2005-03-03

    Transient astronomical sources are typically powered by compact objects and usually signify highly explosive or dynamic events. Although high-time-resolution observations are often possible in radio astronomy, they are usually limited to quite narrow fields of view. The dynamic radio sky is therefore poorly sampled, in contrast to the situation in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands in which wide-field instruments routinely detect transient sources. Here we report a transient radio source, GCRT J1745-3009, which was detected during a moderately wide-field monitoring programme of the Galactic Centre region at 0.33 GHz. The characteristics of its bursts are unlike those known for any other class of radio transient. If located in or near the Galactic Centre, its brightness temperature (approximately 10(16) K) and the implied energy density within GCRT J1745-3009 vastly exceed those observed in most other classes of radio astronomical sources, and are consistent with coherent emission processes that are rarely observed. We conclude that it represents a hitherto unknown class of transient radio sources, the first of possibly many new classes that may be discovered by emerging wide-field radio telescopes.

  15. Nonlinear characteristics (chaos) of high-power microwave (HPM) sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, John A.; Luginsland, John W.; Wallace, Christopher B.

    2000-07-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of dynamical systems and chaotic behavior have resulted in the investigation of HPM source design issues. Modern dynamical systems theory can improve our understanding of the dynamics of space charge dominated beams and the RF waveforms generated by them. This paper will review the work done to date using time series analysis techniques to study the state space dynamics of high power microwave sources using simulation (particle-in-cell) code results. Low-dimensional chaos has been observed in simulation results from a variety of HPM sources, including the MILO (Magnetically Insulated Line Oscillator). Additionally, the particle behavior within the diode portion of HPM tubes can have chaotic characteristics. Knowing when these features occur and how they develop are important first steps in our ability to control and/or eliminate them. Central to understanding source behavior is the initial use of joint time frequency analysis to assess whether the dynamics are stationary or not. Subsequently we use delay coordinate embedding techniques to reconstruct an effective state space global dynamics. From this, Poincare sections are examined. Lyapunov exponents are then calculated to determine whether the behavior of the source is noise or deterministic chaos.

  16. Evaluation of a Silicon 90Sr Betavoltaic Power Source

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jefferson; Rajan, Aravindh; Bohlemann, Steven; Coso, Dusan; Upadhyaya, Ajay D.; Rohatgi, Ajeet; Chu, Steven; Majumdar, Arun; Yee, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Betavoltaic energy converters (i.e., β-batteries) are attractive power sources because of their potential for high energy densities (>200 MWh/kg) and long duration continuous discharge (>1 year). However, conversion efficiencies have been historically low (<3%). High efficiency devices can be achieved by matching β-radiation transport length scales with the device physics length scales. In this work, the efficiency of c-Si devices using high-energy (>1 MeV) electrons emitted from 90Sr as a power source is investigated. We propose a design for a >10% efficient betavoltaic device, which generates 1 W of power. A Varian Clinac iX is used to simulate the high-energy electrons emitted from 90Sr, and a high efficiency c-Si photovoltaic cell is used as the converter. The measured conversion efficiency is 16%. This relatively high value is attributed to proper length scale matching and the generation of secondary electrons in c-Si by the primary β-particles. PMID:27905521

  17. Evaluation of a Silicon (90)Sr Betavoltaic Power Source.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jefferson; Rajan, Aravindh; Bohlemann, Steven; Coso, Dusan; Upadhyaya, Ajay D; Rohatgi, Ajeet; Chu, Steven; Majumdar, Arun; Yee, Shannon

    2016-12-01

    Betavoltaic energy converters (i.e., β-batteries) are attractive power sources because of their potential for high energy densities (>200 MWh/kg) and long duration continuous discharge (>1 year). However, conversion efficiencies have been historically low (<3%). High efficiency devices can be achieved by matching β-radiation transport length scales with the device physics length scales. In this work, the efficiency of c-Si devices using high-energy (>1 MeV) electrons emitted from (90)Sr as a power source is investigated. We propose a design for a >10% efficient betavoltaic device, which generates 1 W of power. A Varian Clinac iX is used to simulate the high-energy electrons emitted from (90)Sr, and a high efficiency c-Si photovoltaic cell is used as the converter. The measured conversion efficiency is 16%. This relatively high value is attributed to proper length scale matching and the generation of secondary electrons in c-Si by the primary β-particles.

  18. Evaluation of a Silicon 90Sr Betavoltaic Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Jefferson; Rajan, Aravindh; Bohlemann, Steven; Coso, Dusan; Upadhyaya, Ajay D.; Rohatgi, Ajeet; Chu, Steven; Majumdar, Arun; Yee, Shannon

    2016-12-01

    Betavoltaic energy converters (i.e., β-batteries) are attractive power sources because of their potential for high energy densities (>200 MWh/kg) and long duration continuous discharge (>1 year). However, conversion efficiencies have been historically low (<3%). High efficiency devices can be achieved by matching β-radiation transport length scales with the device physics length scales. In this work, the efficiency of c-Si devices using high-energy (>1 MeV) electrons emitted from 90Sr as a power source is investigated. We propose a design for a >10% efficient betavoltaic device, which generates 1 W of power. A Varian Clinac iX is used to simulate the high-energy electrons emitted from 90Sr, and a high efficiency c-Si photovoltaic cell is used as the converter. The measured conversion efficiency is 16%. This relatively high value is attributed to proper length scale matching and the generation of secondary electrons in c-Si by the primary β-particles.

  19. Flashover lithium ion source development for large pulsed power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bieg, K.W.; Burns, E.J.T.; Gerber, R.A.; Olsen, J.N.; Lamppa, K.P.

    1986-05-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II), a light-ion pulsed power accelerator intended for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications, is currently under construction at Sandia National Laboratories. The accelerator will deliver a 30 MV, 5 MA lithium beam from an Applied-B diode to drive an ICF target. The ion source for this diode will require a thin (approx.1 mm), dense (10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/) anode plasma layer of singly ionized lithium over an anode area of 10/sup 3/ cm/sup 2/. One type of source being investigated is the flashover ion source, which generates the anode plasma via vacuum flashover of a lithium-bearing dielectric material. Experiments with a LiF flashover source on the 0.03 TW Nereus accelerator have shown that contaminant ions account for as much as 70% of the extracted ion beam current. To overcome this, we have explored in-diode cleaning of the externally prepared anode surface by glow discharge cleaning and vacuum baking as well as in-diode preparation of the anode surface by vacuum evaporation of the lithium dielectric. Lithium-bearing dielectric materials which have been investigated include LiF, LiI, LiNO/sub 3/, and Li/sub 3/N. These techniques have resulted in a two to threefold improvement in the extracted lithium ion purity. As a result, a glow-discharge cleaned LiF flashover source will be used for initial pulsed-power testing on PBFA II.

  20. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112...

  1. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112...

  2. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112...

  3. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112...

  4. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112...

  5. The power spectrum of the Point Source Catalogue redshift survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, W.; Tadros, H.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.; Keeble, O.; Maddox, S.; McMahon, R. G.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Saunders, W.; White, S. D. M.

    1999-09-01

    We measure the redshift-space power spectrum P(k) for the recently completed IRAS Point Source Catalogue (PSC) redshift survey, which contains 14 500 galaxies over 84 per cent of the sky with 60-μm flux >=0.6 Jy. Comparison with simulations shows that our estimated errors on P(k) are realistic, and that systematic errors resulting from the finite survey volume are small for wavenumbers k >~ 0.03 h Mpc^-1. At large scales our power spectrum is intermediate between those of the earlier QDOT and 1.2-Jy surveys, but with considerably smaller error bars; it falls slightly more steeply to smaller scales. We have fitted families of CDM-like models using the Peacock-Dodds formula for non-linear evolution; the results are somewhat sensitive to the assumed small-scale velocity dispersion σ_V. Assuming a realistic σ_V ~ 300 km s^-1 yields a shape parameter Γ ~ 0.25 and normalization bσ_8 ~ 0.75; if σ_V is as high as 600 km s^-1 then Γ = 0.5 is only marginally excluded. There is little evidence for any `preferred scale' in the power spectrum or non-Gaussian behaviour in the distribution of large-scale power.

  6. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schirm, Karl; Curt, Stephane; Dobert, Steffen; McMonagle, Gerard; Rossat, Ghislain; Syratchev, Igor; Timeo, Luca; Haase, Andrew Jensen, Aaron; Jongewaard, Erik; Nantista, Christopher; Sprehn, Daryl; Vlieks, Arnold; Hamdi, Abdallah; Peauger, Franck; Kuzikov, Sergey; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  7. An Efficient Microwave Power Source: Free-electron Laser Afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Sessler, Andrew M.

    1993-03-04

    A kind of microwave power source, called a free-electron laser afterburner (FEL afterburner) which consists of a free-electron laser buncher and a slow-wave output structure sharing a magnetic wiggler field with the buncher, is proposed. The buncher and the slow-wave structure can operate in either a travelling-wave state or a standing-wave state. In the buncher, the wiggler field together with the radiation field makes an electron beam bunched, and in the slow-wave structure the wiggler field keeps the beam bunched while the bunched beam interacts strongly with the slow-wave structure and so produces rf power. The bunching process comes from the free-electron laser mechanism and the generating process of rf power is in a slow-wave structure. A three-dimensional, time-dependent code is used to simulate a particular standing-wave FEL afterburner and it is shown that rf power of up to 1.57 GW can be obtained, at 17.12 GHz, from a l-kA, 5-MeV electron beam.

  8. High power narrowband 589 nm frequency doubled fibre laser source.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Luke; Feng, Yan; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2009-08-17

    We demonstrate high-power high-efficiency cavity-enhanced second harmonic generation of an in-house built ultra-high spectral density (SBS-suppressed) 1178 nm narrowband Raman fibre amplifier. Up to 14.5 W 589 nm CW emission is achieved with linewidth Delta nu(589) < 7 MHz in a diffraction-limited beam, with peak external conversion efficiency of 86%. The inherently high spectral and spatial qualities of the 589 nm source are particularly suited to both spectroscopic and Laser Guide Star applications, given the seed laser can be easily frequency-locked to the Na D(2a) emission line. Further, we expect the technology to be extendable, at similar or higher powers, to wavelengths limited only by the seed-pump-pair availability. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  9. A low-power reversible alkali atom source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Songbai; Mott, Russell P.; Gilmore, Kevin A.; Sorenson, Logan D.; Rakher, Matthew T.; Donley, Elizabeth A.; Kitching, John; Roper, Christopher S.

    2017-06-01

    An electrically controllable, solid-state, reversible device for sourcing and sinking alkali vapor is presented. When placed inside an alkali vapor cell, both an increase and decrease in the rubidium vapor density by a factor of two are demonstrated through laser absorption spectroscopy on 10-15 s time scales. The device requires low voltage (5 V), low power (<3.4 mW peak power), and low energy (<10.7 mJ per 10 s pulse). The absence of oxygen emission during operation is shown through residual gas analysis, indicating that Rb is not lost through chemical reaction but rather by ion transport through the designed channel. This device is of interest for atomic physics experiments and, in particular, for portable cold-atom systems where dynamic control of alkali vapor density can enable advances in science and technology.

  10. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH 4 on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO 2 as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO 2 battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs.

  11. POWER-LAW TEMPLATE FOR INFRARED POINT-SOURCE CLUSTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Das, Sudeep; Hincks, Adam D.; Page, Lyman A.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Devlin, Mark J.; Reese, Erik D.; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Spergel, David N.; Moodley, Kavilan; Wollack, Edward

    2012-06-20

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 {approx}< l {approx}< 2200), the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m; 1000 {approx}< l {approx}< 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C{sup clust}{sub l}{proportional_to}l{sup -n} with n = 1.25 {+-} 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, {nu}{sup {beta}} B({nu}, T{sub eff}), with a single emissivity index {beta} = 2.20 {+-} 0.07 and effective temperature T{sub eff} = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be {alpha}{sub 150-220} = 3.68 {+-} 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  12. Power-Law Template for Infrared Point-Source Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addison, Graeme E; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglas; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 approx < l approx < 2200), the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350, and 500 micron; 1000 approx < l approx < 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fitted by a simple power law of the form C(sup clust)(sub l) varies as l (sub -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, ?(sup Beta)B(?, T(sub eff) ), with a single emissivity index Beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T(sub eff) = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha(sub 150-220) = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  13. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglass; Spergel, David N.; Staggs,Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 < I < 2200), the Balloonborne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST; 250, 350 and 500 microns; 1000 < I < 9000), and from correlating BLAST and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT; 148 and 218 GHz) maps. We find that the clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fit by a simple power law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  14. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  15. High Power, Millimeter-Wavelength, Coherent Radiation Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-25

    Electronics and Electron Physics (Academic, New York. 19801, put power at longer wavelengths is comparable to that of Vol. 55. other sources, such as gyrotrons ...and the peak efficiency 6J. L. Hirshfield, " Gyrotrons ," in Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Aca- demic, New York. 1979), Vol. 1.( 1-10%) is what...would be expected for a nonoptimized trav - ’A. A. Andronov, V. A. Flyagin, A. V. Gapanov, A. L. Gol’denberg, M. 1. eling wave device. It also performs

  16. High power THz sources and applications at ENEA-Frascati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallerano, G. P.; Doria, A.; Giovenale, E.; Spassovsky, I.

    2014-01-01

    ENEA has a long term expertise in the development of powerful short-pulse mm-wave and THz radiation sources driven by free electrons. Various electron-wave interaction schemes were successfully tested in the past, including Cerenkov and Smith-Purcell radiators as well as undulator devices. Two THz-FEL sources are currently available, covering altogether the spectral range from 90 GHz to 0.7 THz. Recently a novel Electro-Magnetic pulser, capable of providing both nanosecond THz electromagnetic (EM) radiation pulses and electrostatic (ES) pulses with identical time duration in one device has been designed and is currently under development. The pulser will allow, for the first time, direct comparison of EM and ES pulses on biological systems with peak electric fields that are significantly higher than any reported to date.

  17. Unified Models and Power Sources in Radio-Loud AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, Robert; Ogle, Patrick; Whysong, David

    2004-09-01

    We propose a simple observational program that will test the unification hypothesis for quasars and FR-II radio galaxies, constrain models of the dusty torus, and determine if the AGN are powered by thermal accretion or a non-thermal (probably rotational) mechanism. Spitzer is uniquely capable of carrying out this investigation with its unprecedented sensitivity. It has been shown directly by optical spectropolarimetry that many of the most powerful FR-II radio galaxies contain quasars hidden by opaque dusty tori; there is substantial statistical evidence that this is true for most or all of them. At somewhat lower powers the situation is not yet clear. Our work and that of others suggests that only a subset of radio galaxies have hidden quasars. We seek to establish this one way or the other and to determine which radio galaxies do or do not have hidden quasars. Spitzer data will also clarify whether statistical anomolies associated with the identification of radio galaxies with quasars can be understood as effects of a large population of physically smaller radio galaxies that lack hidden quasars. This would limit and define the applicability of the Unified Model. For theory, it would determine whether there are black-hole powered sources with just kinetic luminosity and without significant radiative accretion luminosity . Such non-thermal AGN would then have to be attributed to tapping rotational energy. We will also examine and compare the other observational properties of the two types of radio galaxies (hidden quasar or not), providing insight into the physics of the two types of power (accretion and rotation).

  18. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, C.; Velásquez-García, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Greetings, and welcome to Boston, MA and PowerMEMS 2015 - the 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications! The objective of PowerMEMS 2015 is to catalyze innovation in micro- and nano-scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS range from the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. Since the first PowerMEMS in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the Conference has grown in size, reputation, impact, and technical breadth. This continuing growth is evident in this year's technical program, which includes an increasing number of papers on nanomaterials, additive manufacturing for energy systems, actuators, energy storage, harvesting strategies and integrated energy harvesting systems, for example. This year's technical program is highlighted by six plenary talks from prominent experts on piezoelectrics, robotic insects, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, nanocomposite cathodes, and thermal energy conversion systems. The contributed program received a large number of abstract submissions this year, 169 in total. After careful review by the 34-member Technical Program Committee, a total of 135 papers were selected for presentation. The 60 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 75 posters

  19. Neutral particle dynamics in a high-power RF source

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, D. Paunska, Ts.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-04-08

    Previous studies on the spatial discharge structure in the SPIDER source of negative hydrogen/deuterium ions carried out at low applied power are extended towards description of the discharge maintenance under the conditions of the actual rf power deposition of 100 kW planned for a single driver of the source. In addition to the expected higher electron density, the results show strong increase of the electron temperature and of the temperatures of the neutral species (hydrogen atoms and molecules). In the discussions, not only the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters but also that of the fluxes in the discharge (particle and energy fluxes) is involved. The obtained results come in confirmation of basic concepts for low-pressure discharge maintenance: (i) mutually related electron density and temperature as a display of the generalized Schottky condition, (ii) discharge behavior governed by the fluxes, i.e. strong nonlocality in the discharge, and (iii) a non-ambipolarity in the discharge regime, which originates from shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature and shows evidence in a vortex electron flux and in a dc current in a rf discharge, the latter resulting from a shift in the positions of the maxima of the electron density and plasma potential.

  20. Neutral particle dynamics in a high-power RF source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, D.; Paunska, Ts.; Tarnev, Kh.; Shivarova, A.

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies on the spatial discharge structure in the SPIDER source of negative hydrogen/deuterium ions carried out at low applied power are extended towards description of the discharge maintenance under the conditions of the actual rf power deposition of 100 kW planned for a single driver of the source. In addition to the expected higher electron density, the results show strong increase of the electron temperature and of the temperatures of the neutral species (hydrogen atoms and molecules). In the discussions, not only the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters but also that of the fluxes in the discharge (particle and energy fluxes) is involved. The obtained results come in confirmation of basic concepts for low-pressure discharge maintenance: (i) mutually related electron density and temperature as a display of the generalized Schottky condition, (ii) discharge behavior governed by the fluxes, i.e. strong nonlocality in the discharge, and (iii) a non-ambipolarity in the discharge regime, which originates from shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature and shows evidence in a vortex electron flux and in a dc current in a rf discharge, the latter resulting from a shift in the positions of the maxima of the electron density and plasma potential.

  1. High power semiconductor laser source for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, A. R.; Whiteaway, J. E. A.; Collar, A. J.

    1986-07-01

    Semiconductor laser sources for optical communication links between geostationary and low Earth orbiting satellites were investigated. Phase locked arrays of coupled stripes or related devices offer single mode operation at much lower optical and current density than other techniques. The highest powers are expected using GaAlAs, the best reliability using InGaAsP. Use of very thin highly doped p-InP buffer layers in planar growth, wide mesas, long cavities, and facet coating for DCPBH lasers are suggested. Continuous output power values up to 340 mW can be generated by unoptimized multimode InGaAsP lasers emitting at 1.3 microns. It should be possible to generate continuous power levels greater than 1000 mW by optimizing facet reflectivity and thermal impedance. The Y-coupled array is the most promising concept. The addition of flared output guides, and the positioning of the couplers close to the facet with the larger number of emitters, should improve performance.

  2. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.; Bonn, R.; Bower, W.

    1994-07-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT`s with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  3. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  4. Proceedings of the 2. MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to try to attract a variety of points of view from well-informed people to debate issues concerning nuclear power. Hopefully from that process a better understanding of what one should be doing will emerge. In organizing the conference lessons learned from the previous one were applied. A continuous effort was made to see to it that the arguments for the alternatives to nuclear power were given abundant time for presentation. This is ultimately because nuclear power is going to have to compete with all of the energy technologies. Thus, in discussing energy strategy all of the alternatives must be considered in a reasonable fashion. The structure the conference used has seven sessions. The first six led up to the final session which was concerned with what the future nuclear power strategy should be. Each session focused upon a question concerning the future. None of these questions has a unique correct answer. Rather, topics are addressed where reasonable people can disagree. In order to state some of the important arguments for each session`s question, the combination of a keynote paper followed by a respondent was used. The respondent`s paper is not necessarily included to be a rebuttal to the keynote; but rather, it was recognized that two people will look at a complex question with different shadings. Through those two papers the intention was to get out the most important arguments affecting the question for the session. The purpose of the papers was to set the stage for about an hour of discussion. The real product of this conference was that discussion.

  5. Inertial electrostatic confinement as a power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satsangi, A.; Gu, Y.; Heck, P.; Nebel, R.; Schulze, N.; Christensen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The potential use of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, in the present study, we consider an alternate approach, using the IEC to drive a conventional electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Present experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (less than 60-cm. dia.) have demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing approximately 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status will be presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.

  6. Inertial electrostatic confinement as a power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.; Burton, R.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satsangi, A; Gu, Y.; Heck, P.; Nebel, R.; Schulze, N.; Christensen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The potential use of an INERTIAL ELECTROSTATIC CONFINEMENT (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, an alternate approach is considered, using the IEC to drive a 'conventional' electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (is less than 60 cm. dia.) demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status are presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.

  7. Inertial electrostatic confinement as a power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satsangi, A.; Gu, Y.; Heck, P.; Nebel, R.; Schulze, N.; Christensen, J.

    1993-12-01

    The potential use of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, in the present study, we consider an alternate approach, using the IEC to drive a conventional electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Present experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (less than 60-cm. dia.) have demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing approximately 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status will be presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.

  8. A novel "gain chip" concept for high-power lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Zhenguo; Yan, Xiongwei; Jiang, Xinying; Zheng, Jiangang; Cui, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2017-05-01

    High-power lasers, including high-peak power lasers (HPPL) and high-average power lasers (HAPL), attract much interest for enormous variety of applications in inertial fusion energy (IFE), materials processing, defense, spectroscopy, and high-field physics research. To meet the requirements of high efficiency and quality, a "gain chip" concept is proposed to properly design the pumping, cooling and lasing fields. The gain chip mainly consists of the laser diode arrays, lens duct, rectangle wave guide and slab-shaped gain media. For the pumping field, the pump light will be compressed and homogenized by the lens duct to high irradiance with total internal reflection, and further coupled into the gain media through its two edge faces. For the cooling field, the coolant travels along the flow channel created by the adjacent slabs in the other two edge-face direction, and cool the lateral faces of the gain media. For the lasing field, the laser beam travels through the lateral faces and experiences minimum thermal wavefront distortions. Thereby, these three fields are in orthogonality offering more spatial freedom to handle them during the construction of the lasers. Transverse gradient doping profiles for HPPL and HAPL have been employed to achieve uniform gain distributions (UGD) within the gain media, respectively. This UGD will improve the management for both amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and thermal behavior. Since each "gain chip" has its own pump source, power scaling can be easily achieved by placing identical "gain chips" along the laser beam axis without disturbing the gain and thermal distributions. To detail our concept, a 1-kJ pulsed amplifier is designed and optical-to-optical efficiency up to 40% has been obtained. We believe that with proper coolant (gas or liquid) and gain media (Yb:YAG, Nd:glass or Nd:YAG) our "gain chip" concept might provide a general configuration for high-power lasers with high efficiency and quality.

  9. Goddard contributions to the Los Alamos Conference on Transient Cosmic Gamma and X-ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers, covering the orgin and instrumentation for measuring the position of cosmic gamma ray bursts, are presented. Summaries cover gamma ray detectors, energy speectra, and the stellar super flare hypothesis.

  10. High-Power Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rej, D. J.

    2002-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be the world’s most intense source of neutrons for fundamental science and industrial applications. Design and construction of this facility, located at Oak Ridge, is a joint venture between six DOE laboratories. Construction began in 1999 and is currently ahead of the scheduled 2006 completion date. Injecting a high-power, pulsed proton beam into a mercury target produces neutrons. In this talk, we review the physics requirements, design, and status of the construction of the 1-GeV, 1.4-MW average power RF linac for SNS. The accelerator consists of a drift tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and a superconducting rf (SRF) linac. The phase and quadrupole settings are set to avoid structure and parametric resonances, with coherent resonances posing minimal risk for emittance growth. The DTL is 37 m long and accelerates the ions to 87 MeV. The CCL is 55 m long and accelerates the ions to 186 MeV. The rf structure design and stability for both the DTL and CCL have been validated with scale models. The SRF linac has a modular design to accelerate ions to 1000 MeV, with a straightforward upgrade to 1.3 GeV at a later date. 3D particle-in-cell simulations of beam dynamics are performed to validate performance. The accelerator utilizes 93 MW of pulsed power operating continuously at 60-Hz with an 8factor. Approximately one hundred 402.5 or 805-MHz klystrons, with outputs between 0.55 and 5 MW, are used. The klystrons are powered by a novel converter-modulator that takes advantage of recent advances in IGBT switch plate assemblies and low-loss material cores for boost transformer. Beam diagnostics include position, phase, profile, and current monitors. They are designed to enable accurate beam steering and matching, and to minimize beam loss that would lead to activation and prevent hands-on maintenance.

  11. A Report on the Performance Characteristics of Power Sources for Remote Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report summarizes performance characteristics of candidate power sources planned particularly for use by indigenous forces of friendly...underdeveloped nations. Older types of power sources , such as heat engines, hydroelectric and magnetohydrodynamic, are suggested for continued research and...summarizes in detail the status of technologic development of power sources is included.

  12. Concussion Management Plan Compliance: A Study of NCAA Power 5 Conference Schools.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas A; Baugh, Christine M; Meehan, William P; DiFabio, Melissa S

    2017-04-01

    In response to concerns over concussions and repeated head impacts that occur during sports, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) mandated that all member institutions enact a concussion management plan (CMP). Although institutional and health care provider self-reports have been investigated, compliance with NCAA protocol recommendations has not been examined. To examine the CMPs from the 65 institutions within the NCAA Power 5 conferences for compliance with the NCAA 2015 concussion guidelines. Descriptive epidemiology study. Each institution's publicly available CMP was obtained in 2015, reviewed, and coded for compliance with each of the required 47 components. Overall compliance rate, item-level, category-level, and institution-level compliance was assessed. Independent predictors of compliance, including each institution's athletic training staff size, academic performance, and athletic performance, were examined with quasi-binomial regression. CMPs varied substantially in length and level of detail. The overall compliance rate for all components across all institutions was 94.3% (2880/3055). Twelve components achieved 100% (65/65) compliance, and the lowest levels of compliance were clustered in "return to learn." There were 22 institutions that achieved a 100% compliance rate; the lowest institutional compliance was 59.6%. There were no significant associations between the independent predictors and institutional compliance. Overall compliance with NCAA concussion management requirements was high, but there remains room for improvement. The lowest level of compliance was clustered in the return-to-learn section. There were limited details provided in the reducing head trauma component. Items with lower compliance (reducing head trauma, return to learn) tended to be outside the core competencies of the medical staff, indicating an area for improvement. Encouragingly, many institutions and specific components demonstrated full compliance.

  13. Concussion Management Plan Compliance: A Study of NCAA Power 5 Conference Schools

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas A.; Baugh, Christine M.; Meehan, William P.; DiFabio, Melissa S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In response to concerns over concussions and repeated head impacts that occur during sports, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) mandated that all member institutions enact a concussion management plan (CMP). Although institutional and health care provider self-reports have been investigated, compliance with NCAA protocol recommendations has not been examined. Purpose: To examine the CMPs from the 65 institutions within the NCAA Power 5 conferences for compliance with the NCAA 2015 concussion guidelines. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Each institution’s publicly available CMP was obtained in 2015, reviewed, and coded for compliance with each of the required 47 components. Overall compliance rate, item-level, category-level, and institution-level compliance was assessed. Independent predictors of compliance, including each institution’s athletic training staff size, academic performance, and athletic performance, were examined with quasi-binomial regression. Results: CMPs varied substantially in length and level of detail. The overall compliance rate for all components across all institutions was 94.3% (2880/3055). Twelve components achieved 100% (65/65) compliance, and the lowest levels of compliance were clustered in “return to learn.” There were 22 institutions that achieved a 100% compliance rate; the lowest institutional compliance was 59.6%. There were no significant associations between the independent predictors and institutional compliance. Conclusion: Overall compliance with NCAA concussion management requirements was high, but there remains room for improvement. The lowest level of compliance was clustered in the return-to-learn section. There were limited details provided in the reducing head trauma component. Items with lower compliance (reducing head trauma, return to learn) tended to be outside the core competencies of the medical staff, indicating an area for improvement. Encouragingly, many

  14. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  15. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  16. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  17. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  18. 46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10 Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary emergency power source, the loads...

  19. Compact, high power electron beam based terahertz sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.; Lewellen, J. W.; Milton, S. V.; Gopalsami, N.; Schneider, J. F.; Skubal, L.; Li, Y. L.; Virgo, M.; Gallerano, G. P.; Doria, A.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Spasovsky, I. P.; Office of The Director-Applied Science and Technology; Univ. of Maryland; ENEA

    2007-08-01

    Although terahertz (THz) radiation was first observed about 100 years ago, this portion of the electromagnetic spectrum at the boundary between the microwaves and the infrared has been, for a long time, rather poorly explored. This situation changed with the rapid development of coherent THz sources such as solid-state oscillators, quantum cascade lasers, optically pumped solid-state devices, and novel coherent radiator devices. These in turn have stimulated a wide variety of applications from material science to telecommunications, from biology to biomedicine. Recently, there have been two related compact coherent radiation devices invented able to produce up to megawatts of peak THz power by inducing a ballistic bunching effect on the electron beam, forcing the beam to radiate coherently. An introduction to the two systems and the corresponding output photon beam characteristics will be provided.

  20. Flexible and stretchable power sources for wearable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Zamarayeva, Alla M.; Ostfeld, Aminy E.; Wang, Michael; Duey, Jerica K.; Deckman, Igal; Lechêne, Balthazar P.; Davies, Greg; Steingart, Daniel A.; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Flexible and stretchable power sources represent a key technology for the realization of wearable electronics. Developing flexible and stretchable batteries with mechanical endurance that is on par with commercial standards and offer compliance while retaining safety remains a significant challenge. We present a unique approach that demonstrates mechanically robust, intrinsically safe silver-zinc batteries. This approach uses current collectors with enhanced mechanical design, such as helical springs and serpentines, as a structural support and backbone for all battery components. We show wire-shaped batteries based on helical band springs that are resilient to fatigue and retain electrochemical performance over 17,000 flexure cycles at a 0.5-cm bending radius. Serpentine-shaped batteries can be stretched with tunable degree and directionality while maintaining their specific capacity. Finally, the batteries are integrated, as a wearable device, with a photovoltaic module that enables recharging of the batteries. PMID:28630897

  1. Radiative excitation of molecules near powerful compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rees, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Barvainis & Antonucci searched for and failed to detect CO J = 1 goes to 0 absorption from the obscuring torus in the nearby powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A. We show that a plausible explanation for the lack of absorption (assuming that the ionization parameter within the torus is low enough for the gas to be molecular) is that radiative excitation of the CO molecules by the nonthermal radio continuum increases the excitation temperature of the lower rotational levels substantially, reducing the optical depths. The excitation temperature may approach the brightness temperature of the radio source at high enough flux-to-density ratios. Heating of the gas by the nonthermal excitation may also be important. We discuss the region of parameter space in which this excitation mechanism will be important and the implications for observations of obscuring tori.

  2. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  3. Flexible and stretchable power sources for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Zamarayeva, Alla M; Ostfeld, Aminy E; Wang, Michael; Duey, Jerica K; Deckman, Igal; Lechêne, Balthazar P; Davies, Greg; Steingart, Daniel A; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2017-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable power sources represent a key technology for the realization of wearable electronics. Developing flexible and stretchable batteries with mechanical endurance that is on par with commercial standards and offer compliance while retaining safety remains a significant challenge. We present a unique approach that demonstrates mechanically robust, intrinsically safe silver-zinc batteries. This approach uses current collectors with enhanced mechanical design, such as helical springs and serpentines, as a structural support and backbone for all battery components. We show wire-shaped batteries based on helical band springs that are resilient to fatigue and retain electrochemical performance over 17,000 flexure cycles at a 0.5-cm bending radius. Serpentine-shaped batteries can be stretched with tunable degree and directionality while maintaining their specific capacity. Finally, the batteries are integrated, as a wearable device, with a photovoltaic module that enables recharging of the batteries.

  4. Filling the THz Gap - High Power Sources and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn Williams

    2006-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves centered at a frequency of 1 THz lie between photonics on the one hand and electronics on the other, and are very hard to generate and detect. However, since the THz part of the spectrum is energetically equivalent to many important physical, chemical and biological processes including superconducting gaps and protein dynamical processes, it is of great interest to facilitate experimental research in this region. This has stimulated major steps in the past decade for filling this gap in the usable spectrum. In this review paper we describe the evolution of a new generation of sources that boost the average power available in the THz region by more than a million-fold, making this region routinely accessible for the first time. This is achieved using two enhancement factors, namely relativistic electrons and super-radiance. We will also point to the scientific potential for discovery that is now enabled in this region.

  5. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  6. Material issues relating to high power spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futakawa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Innovative researches using neutrons are being performed at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), in which a mercury target system is installed for MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. In order to produce neutrons by the spallation reaction, proton beams are injected into the mercury target. At the moment, when the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel, leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall, i.e. on the interface between liquid and solid metals. On the other hand, the structural materials are subjected to irradiation damage due to protons and neutrons, very high cycle fatigue damages and so-called "liquid metal embrittlement". That is, the structural materials must be said to be exposed to the extremely severe environments. In the paper, research and development relating to the material issues in the high power spallation neutron sources that has been performed so far at J-PARC is summarized.

  7. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. The Power Source(s) of Nearby Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Mallory; Eracleous, Michael; Maoz, Dan; Barth, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle; Ho, Luis C.; Shields, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of low-ionization nuclear emission regions (LINERs) harbor supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with very low accretion rates. Since SMBHs spend most of their lifetimes in these low-accretion rate states, understanding LINERs is important for understanding active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the context of galaxy evolution. On scales of ~100 pc, the energy budget of LINERs appears to be deficient when the only source of power considered is the AGN. Thus, other energy sources are likely to contribute to the excitation of the emission-line gas. To probe these sources, we observed three nearby, bright LINERs, NGC 1052, NGC 4278 and NGC 4579, with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We specifically looked at the 0.1-1 arcsecond (corresponding to 5-50 pc) scale to find what and how far from the nucleus these other energy sources are. After subtracting both the unresolved nuclear light and the spatially-extended starlight, we measured a number of diagnostic emission line ratios. We find that line ratios, such as [O III]/[O II] and [O III]/H-beta change as a function of distance from the nucleus. Within 5 pc, the line ratios suggest AGN photoionization. At larger distances the line ratios seem to be inconsistent with AGN photoionization, but they appear to be consistent with excitation by hot stars or shocks.

  9. Proceedings of the First InterAmerican Conference on Renewable Sources of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The texts of presentations made at the conference are included in this volume. Government decision makers and entrepreneurs from 51 nations were in attendance. Discussed are: the US outlook on alcohol fuels; national appproaches to alcohol fuels in Brazil, Central America, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, India, Sweden, and Austria; alcohol fuel technologies; economic impact; and the development of international and domestic public policy.

  10. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Farahmand, Hossein; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Rinne, Erkka; Söder, Lennart; Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo; Martínez, Sergio Martín; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Estanqueiro, Ana; Rodrigues, Luis; Carr, Luis; van Roon, Serafin; Orths, Antje Gesa; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Forcione, Alain; Menemenlis, Nickie

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  11. A high-power synthesized ultrawideband radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, A. M.; Koshelev, V. I.; Plisko, V. V.; Sevostyanov, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    A high-power ultrawideband radiation source has been developed which is capable of synthesizing electromagnetic pulses with different frequency bands in free space. To this end, a new circuit design comprising a four-channel former of bipolar pulses of durations 2 and 3 ns has been elaborated and conditions for the stable operation of gas gaps of independent channels without external control pulses have been determined. Each element of the 2 × 2 array of combined antennas is driven from an individual channel of the pulse former. Antennas excited by pulses of the same duration are arranged diagonally. Two radiation synthesis modes have been examined: one aimed to attain ultimate field strength and the other aimed to attain an ultimate width of the radiation spectrum. The modes were changed by changing the time delay between the 2-ns and 3-ns pulses. For the first mode, radiation pulses with a frequency band of 0.2-0.8 GHz and an effective potential of 500 kV have been obtained. The synthesized radiation pulses produced in the second mode had an extended frequency band (0.1-1 GHz) and an effective potential of 220 kV. The pulse repetition frequency was 100 Hz.

  12. A Low-Power and Portable Biomedical Device for Respiratory Monitoring with a Stable Power Source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachen; Chen, Bobo; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-08-11

    Continuous respiratory monitoring is an important tool for clinical monitoring. Associated with the development of biomedical technology, it has become more and more important, especially in the measuring of gas flow and CO2 concentration, which can reflect the status of the patient. In this paper, a new type of biomedical device is presented, which uses low-power sensors with a piezoresistive silicon differential pressure sensor to measure gas flow and with a pyroelectric sensor to measure CO2 concentration simultaneously. For the portability of the biomedical device, the sensors and low-power measurement circuits are integrated together, and the airway tube also needs to be miniaturized. Circuits are designed to ensure the stability of the power source and to filter out the existing noise. Modulation technology is used to eliminate the fluctuations at the trough of the waveform of the CO2 concentration signal. Statistical analysis with the coefficient of variation was performed to find out the optimal driving voltage of the pressure transducer. Through targeted experiments, the biomedical device showed a high accuracy, with a measuring precision of 0.23 mmHg, and it worked continuously and stably, thus realizing the real-time monitoring of the status of patients.

  13. A Low-Power and Portable Biomedical Device for Respiratory Monitoring with a Stable Power Source

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiachen; Chen, Bobo; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous respiratory monitoring is an important tool for clinical monitoring. Associated with the development of biomedical technology, it has become more and more important, especially in the measuring of gas flow and CO2 concentration, which can reflect the status of the patient. In this paper, a new type of biomedical device is presented, which uses low-power sensors with a piezoresistive silicon differential pressure sensor to measure gas flow and with a pyroelectric sensor to measure CO2 concentration simultaneously. For the portability of the biomedical device, the sensors and low-power measurement circuits are integrated together, and the airway tube also needs to be miniaturized. Circuits are designed to ensure the stability of the power source and to filter out the existing noise. Modulation technology is used to eliminate the fluctuations at the trough of the waveform of the CO2 concentration signal. Statistical analysis with the coefficient of variation was performed to find out the optimal driving voltage of the pressure transducer. Through targeted experiments, the biomedical device showed a high accuracy, with a measuring precision of 0.23 mmHg, and it worked continuously and stably, thus realizing the real-time monitoring of the status of patients. PMID:26270665

  14. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  15. 46 CFR 190.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electric power. 190.05-15 Section 190.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing either the...

  16. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  17. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  18. 46 CFR 190.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electric power. 190.05-15 Section 190.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) When a compartment containing the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing either the...

  19. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  20. 46 CFR 92.05-15 - Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electric power. 92.05-15 Section 92.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Segregation of spaces containing the emergency source of electric power. (a) The provisions of this section... the emergency source of electric power, or vital components thereof, adjoins a space containing...

  1. Lithium Carbon Monofluoride: The Next Primary Chemistry for Soldier Portable Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    LITHIUM CARBON MONOFLUORIDE: THE NEXT PRIMARY CHEMISTRY FOR SOLDIER PORTABLE POWER SOURCES Arek Suszko RDECOM, CERDEC, Army Power Division...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lithium Carbon Monofluoride: The Next Primary Chemistry For Soldier Portable Power Sources 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Effect of Physical and Geometric Factors on the Impedance of Electrochemical Power Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Short-time transient behavior in the charge/discharge of small electrochemical power sources does not scale up for large systems. calculations are...resulting from the cell geometry. Keywords: Impedance, Electrochemical Power Sources , Computer Modeling, Electrochemical Cells, Pulsed High Power Batteries.

  3. MASKING VERSUS REMOVING POINT SOURCES IN CMB DATA: THE SOURCE-CORRECTED WMAP POWER SPECTRUM FROM NEW EXTENDED CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K. E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no

    2012-12-20

    In Scodeller et al., a new and extended point source catalog obtained from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data was presented. It includes most of the sources included in the standard WMAP seven-year point source catalogs as well as a large number of new detections. Here, we study the effects on the estimated CMB power spectrum when taking the newly detected point sources into consideration. We create point source masks for all the 2102 sources that we detected as well as a smaller one for the 665 sources detected in the Q, V, and W bands. We also create WMAP7 maps with point sources subtracted in order to compare with the spectrum obtained with source masks. The extended point source masks and point source cleaned WMAP7 maps are made publicly available. Using the proper residual correction, we find that the CMB power spectrum obtained from the point source cleaned map without any source mask is fully consistent with the spectrum obtained from the masked map. We further find that the spectrum obtained masking all 2102 sources is consistent with the results obtained using the standard WMAP seven-year point source mask (KQ85y7). We also verify that the removal of point sources does not introduce any skewness.

  4. Rf power systems for the national synchrotron light source

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, T.; Rheaume, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The booster synchrotron and the two storage rings at the NSLS are provided with rf power systems of 3 kW, 50 kW, and 500 kW nominal output power, all at 53 MHz. This power is supplied by grounded grid tetrode amplifiers designed for television broadcast service. These amplifiers and associated power supplies, control and interlock systems, rf controls, and computer interface are described.

  5. Proceedings of the first InterAmerican conference on renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The texts of presentations made at the conference are included in this volume. Government decision makers and entrepreneurs from 51 nations were in attendance. Discussed are: the US outlook on alcohol fuels; national approaches to alcohol fuels in Brazil, Central America, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, India, Sweden, and Austria; alcohol fuels technologies; economic impact; and the development of international and domestic public policy. Selected papers have been abstracted for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  6. The Naive Misuse of Power: Nonconscious Sources of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargh, John A.; Raymond, Paula

    1995-01-01

    Considers sexual harassment from the perspective of abuse of power, and discusses the possibility of having power within a situation that automatically and nonconsciously triggers a sexuality schema, just as racial or gender features automatically trigger stereotypes of that group. The possible origins of the automatic power/sex linkage and its…

  7. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... separate power indicator to indicate when power is not adequate to sustain proper instrument performance. If a separate indicator is used, it must be located so that the pilot using the instruments can monitor the indicator with minimum head and eye movement. The power must be sensed at or near the point...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... separate power indicator to indicate when power is not adequate to sustain proper instrument performance. If a separate indicator is used, it must be located so that the pilot using the instruments can monitor the indicator with minimum head and eye movement. The power must be sensed at or near the point...

  9. Simplified method for measuring the impedance of RF power sources - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, E. C.

    1970-01-01

    Bolometer detector and bridge circuit measure the RF power. A varied bridge reference resistor achieves maximum power transfer allowing the output impedance of the RF source to be determined from the known circuit parameters.

  10. Review of nuclear power plant offsite power source reliability and related recommended changes to the NRC rules and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R.E.; Clark, F.H.; Reddoch, T.W.

    1980-05-01

    The NRC has stated its concern about the reliability of the offsite power system as the preferred emergency source and about the possible damage to a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that could result from a rapid decay of power grid frequency. ORNL contracted with NRC to provide technical assistance to establish criteria that can be used to evaluate the offsite power system for the licensing of a nuclear power plant. The results of many of the studies for this contract are recommendations to assess and control the power grid during operation. This is because most of the NRC regulations pertaining to the offsite power system are related to the design of the power grid, and we believe that additional emphasis on monitoring the power grid operation will improve the reliability of the nuclear plant offsite power supply. 46 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Novel piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-04-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources is presented for gun-fired munitions and other similar applications that require very high G survivability. The power sources are designed to harvest energy from the firing acceleration as well as vibratory motion of munitions during the flight and convert it to electrical energy to power onboard electronics. The developed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting power sources produce enough electrical energy for applications such as fuzing. The power sources are designed to withstand firing accelerations in excess of 100,000 G. In certain applications such as fuzing, the developed power sources have the potential of completely eliminating the need for chemical batteries. In fuzing applications, the developed power sources have the added advantage of providing additional safety, since with such power sources the fuzing electronics are powered only after the munitions have exited the barrel and have traveled a safe distance from the weapon platform. The design of a number of prototypes, including their packaging for high G hardening, and the results of laboratory and air-gun testing are presented. Methods to increase the efficiency of such energy-harvesting power sources and minimize friction and damping losses are discussed.

  12. UPS with input commutation between ac and dc sources of power

    SciTech Connect

    Severinsky, A.J.

    1993-08-31

    An uninterruptible power supply is described, said power supply comprising: AC input terminal means for receiving a first AC voltage from an AC power source; DC input terminal means for receiving a first DC voltage from a DC power source; AC output terminal means for connecting to a load; converter means for converting said first AC voltage to a second DC voltage across electrical charge storage means coupled to said converter means, said second DC voltage being larger than the maximum peak voltage of said first AC voltage and said first DC voltage; switching means coupled to said AC power source and said DC power source for selectively connecting said AC power source or said DC power source to said converter means; inverter means coupled to said electrical charge storage means for receiving said second DC voltage and inverting said second DC voltage to a second AC voltage, said second AC voltage being coupled to said AC output terminal means; and control means coupled to said switching means for controlling the operation of said switching means, said control means operating said switching means to connect said AC power source to said converter means only when said first AC voltage is within a predetermined range and operating to connect said DC power source to said converter means when said first AC voltage is outside of said range.

  13. 75 FR 52528 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System; Notice of... ] 61,053 (2007). \\2\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System, 130 FERC ] 61,218... a frequency response requirement.'' \\3\\ \\1\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power...

  14. Organic permeable-base transistors - superb power efficiency at highest frequencies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Markus P.; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Scholz, Reinhard; Lüssem, Björn; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFET) are important elements in thin-film electronics, being considered for flat-panel or flexible displays, radio frequency identification systems, and sensor arrays. To optimize the devices for high-frequency operation, the channel length, defined as the horizontal distance between the source and the drain contact, can be scaled down. Here, an architecture with a vertical current flow, in particular the Organic Permeable-Base Transistors (OPBT), opens up new opportunities, because the effective transit length in vertical direction is precisely tunable in the nanometer range by the thickness of the semiconductor layer. We present an advanced OPBT, competing with best OFETs while a low-cost, OLED-like fabrication with low-resolution shadow masks is used (Klinger et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2015). Its design consists of a stack of three parallel electrodes separated by two semiconductor layers of C60 . The vertical current flow is controlled by the middle base electrode with nano-sized openings passivated by an native oxide. Using insulated layers to structure the active area, devices show an on/off ratio of 10⁶ , drive 11 A/cm² at an operation voltage of 1 V, and have a low subthreshold slope of 102 mV/decade. These OPBTs show a unity current-gain transit frequency of 2.2 MHz and off-state break-down fields above 1 MV/cm. Thus, our optimized setup does not only set a benchmark for vertical organic transistors, but also outperforms best lateral OFETs using similar low-cost structuring techniques in terms of power efficiency at high frequencies.

  15. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-12-31

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.

  16. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J. ); Murray, J. )

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.

  17. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  18. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  19. Open Source Initiative Powers Real-Time Data Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Under an SBIR contract with Dryden Flight Research Center, Creare Inc. developed a data collection tool called the Ring Buffered Network Bus. The technology has now been released under an open source license and is hosted by the Open Source DataTurbine Initiative. DataTurbine allows anyone to stream live data from sensors, labs, cameras, ocean buoys, cell phones, and more.

  20. Solid-state Isotopic Power Source for Computer Memory Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in materials technology now make it possible to fabricate nonthermal thin-film radioisotopic energy converters (REC) with a specific power of 24 W/kg and a 10 year working life at 5 to 10 watts. This creates applications never before possible, such as placing the power supply directly on integrated circuit chips. The efficiency of the REC is about 25 percent which is two to three times greater than the 6 to 8 percent capabilities of current thermoelectric systems. Radio isotopic energy converters have the potential to meet many future space power requirements for a wide variety of applications with less mass, better efficiency, and less total area than other power conversion options. These benefits result in significant dollar savings over the projected mission lifetime.

  1. Reliable compact electrical power source systems for space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Described herein are several key technologies utilized in the design of a family of direct-drive turboalternator systems for space launch vehicles. These systems automatically provide conditioned and regulated electrical power at various voltages, powering actuators, valves, and avionics throughout the vehicle. The simple and robust ring-wound two-pole toothless alternator operates at peripheral speeds, making it suitable to be driven directly by a turbine, thereby eliminating the weight, reliability, zero ``g`` lubrication, and cooling issues of a speed-reducing gearbox, while allowing the turbine to operate at reasonable efficiency. Additionally, the use of self-aligning foil bearing and catalytic combustors or cold gas propellants enhance the reliability. The power conditioner and electronic controller provide hands-off regulated ac or dc power on demand, maintaining critical parameters within established limits and performance while reporting on built-in health-monitoring tests.

  2. Utility aspects of space power: Load management versus source management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, B.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical power, as an area of study, is relatively young as compared to language, chemistry, physics, mathematics, philosophy, metallurgy, textiles, transportation, or farming. Practically all of the technology that has enabled the huge, continent-spanning power grids that have become ubiquitous in developed countries was developed in the last 150 years. In fact, Tesla's advocacy of alternating current for transmission just won out in the beginning of this century. Despite the novelty of the field as a whole, space power applications are, of course, much newer. This paper looks at the history of space power, and compares it to its older sibling on earth, forming a basis for determining appropriate transitions of technology from the terrestrial realm to space applications.

  3. A Power Source for Sunless Lunar Missions Using Lithium Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. F.; Paul, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    Some lunar exploration targets require non-solar power due to shading. Batteries provide very brief excursions into sunless areas. Undersea powerplants that burn metals have significantly higher specific energy than primary batteries and no exhaust.

  4. Milliwatt Electric Power Sources Would Last For Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur; Borshchevsky, Alexander; Vining, Cronin

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses design of proposed radioisotope thermoelectric generators, each of which produces about 30 mW of electric power for decades, fits in package about the size of D cell, and would have mass of only 70 g.

  5. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power source. 56.6404 Section 56.6404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source....

  6. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power source. 56.6404 Section 56.6404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source....

  7. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. 1919.22 Section 1919.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be...

  8. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. 1919.22 Section 1919.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be...

  9. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. 1919.22 Section 1919.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be...

  10. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. 1919.22 Section 1919.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be...

  11. Teacher Views on School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources and Their Change Management Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Türkan; Dilekçi, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine school administrators' organizational power sources and change management behaviours based on Bolu central district primary and secondary school teachers' views. The study conducted with relational screening model reached 286 teachers. School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources Scale and Change Management…

  12. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. 1919.22 Section 1919.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be...

  13. High Power Broadband Multispectral Source on a Hybrid Silicon Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-14

    insulator (SONOI) waveguide platform are demonstrated and emit over 200 mW pulsed output power at room temperature. Improvements are made to the 1.5-µm...silicon-on-nitride-on-insulator (SONOI) waveguide platform are demonstrated and emit over 200 mW pulsed output power at room temperature. Improvements are...threshold current at room temperature. Continuous-wave (CW) lasing up to 105 °C is observed. More recently, improved performance is shown with an 18

  14. Hybrid Antenna Amplifier: A Controllable High Power Microwave Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    relativistic traveling wave tubes (TWT), wide - bandwidth dielectric and plasma Cherenkov maser amplifiers [4-6] are developed as well. In all these...controllable power, frequency spectrum, phase, and also extracted microwave beam. The device may have wide bandwidth and high directivity. This could...of microwave antenna measurements were employed, with the use of low power X-band frequency tunable generator, to determine the level of reflections

  15. The design of high power, external antennas for radio frequency multicusp ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Roseberry, R. T.; Kang, Y.; Keller, R.

    2004-05-01

    The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver H- beam pulses of 45 mA to the SNS accelerator, with a pulse length of 1 ms and a repetition rate of 60 Hz. In order to achieve this performance the source must operate with both high peak rf power, ˜45 kW, and high average rf power, ˜3 kW, over an operational run period of 3 weeks. The most critical source component in this respect is the plasma-immersed, porcelain coated rf antenna which can be susceptible to damage during high power operation. The DESY group has developed an external antenna configuration utilizing an Al2O3 plasma chamber which has demonstrated a very long operational period exceeding 25 000 h. Their source operates with peak rf powers comparable to the SNS source but with greatly reduced average rf powers, ˜50 W. In order to explore the applicability of this external antenna concept to high average power ion sources like the SNS source, we have performed thermal, mechanical, and electromagnetic analyses of the Al2O3 plasma chamber. This article discusses the final design which has resulted from these studies as well as estimates of the power limitations of such devices.

  16. Note: A new regulation method of stable operation of high power cathode ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. C.; Xie, Y. H. Hu, C. D.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, S.; Liang, L. Z.; Liu, Z. M.

    2015-05-15

    The hot cathode ion source will tend to be unstable when operated with high power and long pulse. In order to achieve stable operation, a new regulation method based on the arc power (discharge power) feedback control was designed and tested on the hot cathode ion source test bed with arc discharge and beam extraction. The results show that the new regulation method can achieve stable arc discharge and beam extraction. It verifies the success of feedback control of arc source with arc power.

  17. Army Science Conference 2006 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOLDIER & MAN PORTABLE FUEL CELL POWER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-27

    Research Development Engineering Center (CERDEC) Fuel Cell Technology Team initiated several development contracts to address multiple areas where fuel cell technologies... fuel cell technology focuses specifically on Soldier worn power equipment, mainly from the sub to 100 Watt range. Man Portable Power fuel cell technology

  18. Facilitating Constructive Alignment in Power Systems Engineering Education Using Free and Open-Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanfretti, L.; Milano, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how the use of free and open-source software (FOSS) can facilitate the application of constructive alignment theory in power systems engineering education by enabling the deep learning approach in power system analysis courses. With this aim, this paper describes the authors' approach in using the Power System Analysis Toolbox…

  19. Facilitating Constructive Alignment in Power Systems Engineering Education Using Free and Open-Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanfretti, L.; Milano, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how the use of free and open-source software (FOSS) can facilitate the application of constructive alignment theory in power systems engineering education by enabling the deep learning approach in power system analysis courses. With this aim, this paper describes the authors' approach in using the Power System Analysis Toolbox…

  20. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Myles, K.M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1994-11-01

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  1. Regime dependence of photo-darkening-induced modal degradation in high power fiber amplifier (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boullet, Johan; Vincont, Cyril; Jolly, Alain; Pierre, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Thermally induced transverse modal instabilities (TMI) have attracted these five years an intense research efforts of the entire fiber laser development community, as it represents the current most limiting effect of further power scaling of high power fiber laser. Anyway, since 2014, a few publications point out a new limiting thermal effect: fiber modal degradation (FMD). It is characterized by a power rollover and simultaneous increase of the cladding light at an average power far from the TMI threshold together with a degraded beam which does not exhibit temporal fluctuations, which is one of the main characteristic of TMI. We report here on the first systemic experimental study of FMD in a high power photonic crystal fiber. We put a particular emphasis on the dependence of its average power threshold on the regime of operation. We experimentally demonstrate that this dependence is intrinsically linked to regime-dependent PD-saturated losses, which are nearly three times higher in CW regime than in short pulse picosecond regime. We make the hypothesis that the existence of these different PD equilibrium states between CW regime and picosecond QCW pulsed regime is due to a partial photo-bleaching of color centers in picosecond regime thanks to a higher probability of multi-photon process induced photobleaching (PB) at high peak power. This hypothesis is corroborated by the demonstration of the reversibility of the FMD induced in CW regime by simply switching the seed CW 1064 nm light by a short pulse, picosecond oscillator.

  2. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source for VASIMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Glover, Timothy W.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; Baity, F. Wally; Carter, Mark D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    In the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a plasma flux to input gas rate ratio near 100% for both helium and deuterium at power levels up to 10 kW. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show enhanced efficiency operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 10 kW of input power. The data here uses a Boswell double-saddle antenna design with a magnetic cusp just upstream of the antenna. Similar to ORNL, for deuterium at near 10 kW, we find an enhanced performance of operation at magnetic fields above the lower hybrid matching condition.

  3. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source for VASIMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Glover, Timothy W.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; Baity, F. Wally; Carter, Mark D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    In the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a plasma flux to input gas rate ratio near 100% for both helium and deuterium at power levels up to 10 kW. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show enhanced efficiency operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 10 kW of input power. The data here uses a Boswell double-saddle antenna design with a magnetic cusp just upstream of the antenna. Similar to ORNL, for deuterium at near 10 kW, we find an enhanced performance of operation at magnetic fields above the lower hybrid matching condition.

  4. Harvesting energy an sustainable power source, replace batteries for powering WSN and devices on the IoT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Latinovic, T.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2017-05-01

    Harvesting energy from nonconventional sources in the environment has received increased attention over the past decade from researchers who study these alternative energy sources for low power applications. Although that energy harvested is small and in the order of milliwatt, it can provide enough power for wireless sensors and other low-power applications. In the environment there is a lot of wasted energy that can be converted into electricity to power the various circuits and represents a potentially cheap source of power. Energy harvesting is important because it offers an alternative power supply for electronic devices where is does not exist conventional energy sources. This technology applied in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and devices on the IoT, will eliminate the need for network-based energy and conventional batteries, will minimize maintenance costs, eliminate cables and batteries and is ecological. It has the same advantage in applications from remote locations, underwater, and other hard to reach places where conventional batteries and energy are not suitable. Energy harvesting will promote environmentally friendly technologies that will save energy, will reduce CO2 emissions, which makes this technology indispensable for achieving next-generation smart cities and sustainable society. In response to the challenges of energy, in this article we remind the basics of harvesting energy and we discuss the various applications of this technology where traditional batteries cannot be used.

  5. A Feasibility Study of Solar Thermal Power Generation as the Pumping Power Source for Pumped Storage in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funatsu, Tetsuya; Natsume, Hiroaki

    A pumped storage hydroelectric generation (PSHG) has been studied as alternative peak power source of the oil-fired power generation in Indonesia. However, because there is no surplus base load electricity even in the night, the economic advantage can not be found. The possibility of solar thermal power generation (STPG) is investigated to restrain the increase of fuel consumption by the existing peak power source. The optimum system simulation and the analysis of economy and environmental impact by a multiobjective optimization method provide the following results. The optimum aperture area and thermal storage capacity of STPG are found by the simulation based on the climate and the solar condition in West Java. PSHG with STPG as the power source of storage pump shows lower generation cost and CO2 emission than PSHG with existing oil fired peak power sources. Even if the fuel switch from oil to gas is supposed in future, PSHG with STPG will achieve the lower generation cost and CO2 emission than PSHG with the oil/gas fired combined cycle by sharing the peak electricity supply with the oil/gas fired combined cycle in an appropriate ratio. Furthermore, if the crude oil price hike in future is considered, PSHG with STPG may be the optimal solution for the peak electricity supply of Java-Bari grid.

  6. Science and Technology Text Mining: Electric Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    indices are employed to quantify the strength of this relationship. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are performed by the topical expert for each...Components, and Systems. Processes include COMBUSTION, PYROLYSIS, CATALYSIS, and INCINERATION. Products generated include EMISSIONS, CHAR , POWER, HEAT...AGGREGATION, COMPRESSION , DIFFRACTION, DISTILLATION, DEMINERALIZATION, DESORPTION, INHIBITION, LATENT HEAT STORAGE, PRECIPITATION, CHEMISORPTION

  7. 300-Watt Power Source Development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the JPL program to develop a 300 Watt direct methanol fuel cell. The immediate use of the fuel cell is to power test instrumentation on armored vehicles. It reviews the challenges, the system design and the system demonstration.

  8. Secondary Power Source: High School Students as Participatory Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Deirdre M.

    Conditions that foster and hinder participatory research are examined, using examples from one such research project aimed at dropout reduction undertaken with students in a "last chance" high school. The 13 student researchers sometimes used racial, gender, and social class differences to gain power and display undemocratic behavior within the…

  9. 14 CFR 25.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1310 Power... storage device. (3) Essential loads after failure of— (i) Any one engine on two-engine airplanes; and (ii) Any two engines on airplanes with three or more engines. (4) Essential loads for which an...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1310 Power... storage device. (3) Essential loads after failure of— (i) Any one engine on two-engine airplanes; and (ii) Any two engines on airplanes with three or more engines. (4) Essential loads for which an...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1310 Power... storage device. (3) Essential loads after failure of— (i) Any one engine on two-engine airplanes; and (ii) Any two engines on airplanes with three or more engines. (4) Essential loads for which an...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1310 Power... storage device. (3) Essential loads after failure of— (i) Any one engine on two-engine airplanes; and (ii) Any two engines on airplanes with three or more engines. (4) Essential loads for which an...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1310 - Power source capacity and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1310 Power... storage device. (3) Essential loads after failure of— (i) Any one engine on two-engine airplanes; and (ii) Any two engines on airplanes with three or more engines. (4) Essential loads for which an...

  14. Laser driven plasmas based incoherent x-ray sources at PALS and ELI Beamlines (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlová, Michaela

    2017-05-01

    We will present data on a various X-ray production schemes from laser driven plasmas at the PALS Research Center and discuss the plan for the ELI Beamlines project. One of the approaches, how to generate ultrashort pulses of incoherent X-ray radiation, is based on interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with solid or liquid targets. So-called K-alpha source depending on used targets emits in hard X-ray region from micrometric source size. The source exhibits sufficient spatial coherence to observe phase contrast. Detailed characterization of various sources including the x-ray spectrum and the x-ray average yield along with phase contrast images of test objects will be presented. Other method, known as laser wakefield electron acceleration (LWFA), can produce up to GeV electron beams emitting radiation in collimated beam with a femtosecnond pulse duration. This approach was theoretically and experimentally examined at the PALS Center. The parameters of the PALS Ti:S laser interaction were studied by extensive particle-in-cell simulations with radiation post-processors in order to evaluate the capabilities of our system in this field. The extensions of those methods at the ELI Beamlines facility will enable to generate either higher X-ray energies or higher repetition rate. The architecture of such sources and their considered applications will be proposed.

  15. Model predictive direct power control for active power decoupled single-phase quasi-Z -source inverter

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Abu-Rub, Haitham; ...

    2016-06-14

    In this study, the active power filter (APF) that consists of a half-bridge leg and an ac capacitor is integrated in the single-phase quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) in this paper to avoid the second harmonic power flowing into the dc side. The capacitor of APF buffers the second harmonic power of the load, and the ac capacitor allows highly pulsating ac voltage, so that the capacitances of both dc and ac sides can be small. A model predictive direct power control (DPC) is further proposed to achieve the purpose of this newtopology through predicting the capacitor voltage of APF at eachmore » sampling period and ensuring the APF power to track the second harmonic power of single-phase qZSI. Simulation and experimental results verify the model predictive DPC for the APF-integrated single-phase qZSI.« less

  16. Model predictive direct power control for active power decoupled single-phase quasi-Z -source inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Sun, Hexu; Peng, Fang Zheng; Xue, Yaosuo

    2016-06-14

    In this study, the active power filter (APF) that consists of a half-bridge leg and an ac capacitor is integrated in the single-phase quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) in this paper to avoid the second harmonic power flowing into the dc side. The capacitor of APF buffers the second harmonic power of the load, and the ac capacitor allows highly pulsating ac voltage, so that the capacitances of both dc and ac sides can be small. A model predictive direct power control (DPC) is further proposed to achieve the purpose of this newtopology through predicting the capacitor voltage of APF at each sampling period and ensuring the APF power to track the second harmonic power of single-phase qZSI. Simulation and experimental results verify the model predictive DPC for the APF-integrated single-phase qZSI.

  17. Power Sources Conference, 29th, Atlantic City, NJ, June 9-12, 1980, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Fuel systems are considered along with thermal batteries, primary batteries, lithium primary batteries, lithium/sulfur dioxide primary batteries, lithium/oxychloride primary batteries, high temperature secondary batteries, advanced secondary batteries, and nickel secondary batteries. Attention is given to a Ni-Fe battery with gas recombination device and state-of-charge indication, the development of the nickel-iron battery system for electric vehicle propulsion, improved lead-acid batteries, the behavior of the lead-acid batteries used to start the military vehicles at low temperatures, a life cycle energy analysis of the lead-acid battery, and the anodic corrosion of fiber reinforced lead composites for use in lead-acid submarine batteries. A description is presented of the key physical characteristics for predicting Zr powder burn times, the production of zirconium metal powder for rapid rise time thermal battery application, and high rate lithium-iron disulfide batteries.

  18. Design of a nuclear isotope heat source assembly for a spaceborne mini-Brayton power module.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wein, D.; Gorland, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study to develop a feasible design definition of a heat source assembly (HSA) for use in nominal 500-, 1200-, or 2000-W(e) mini-Brayton spacecraft power systems. The HSA is a modular design which is used either as a single unit to provide thermal energy to the 500-W(e) mini-Brayton power module or in parallel with one or two additional HSAs for the 1200- or 2000-W(e) power module systems. Principal components consist of a multihundred watt RTG isotope heat source, a heat source heat exchanger which transfers the thermal energy from the heat source to the mini-Brayton power conversion system, an auxiliary cooling system which provides requisite cooling during nonoperation of the power conversion module and an emergency cooling system which precludes accidental release of isotope fuel in the event of system failure.

  19. Laser power meters as x-ray intensity monitors for LCLS-II (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Philip A.; Moeller, Stefan P.; Carbajo Garcia, Sergio; Song, Sanghoon; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Fritz, David M.

    2017-06-01

    For the LCLS-II instruments we are developing laser power meters as compact intensity monitors that can operate at soft and tender X-ray photon energies. There is a need to monitor the relative X-ray intensity at various locations along an X-ray FEL beamline in order to observe a possible decrease in the reflectivity of X-ray mirrors. In addition for experiments, it is valuable to know the absolute intensity at the sample. There are two types of laser power meters based on thermopile and pyroelectric sensors. The thermopile power meters measure an average temperature and are compatible with the high repetition rates of LCLS-II. Pyroelectric power meters provide a pulse-by-pulse response. Ultra-high vacuum compatibility is being tested by residual gas analysis. An in-house development beamtime is being conducted at the LCLS SXR instrument. Measurements using both thermopile and pyroelectric power meters will be conducted at a set of photon energies in the soft X-ray range. The detectors' response will be compared with the gas monitor detector installed at the SXR instrument.

  20. A novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient micro w-EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Chen, Chi-Hung

    2015-07-01

    The study presents the development of a novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient machining of micropart microstructures using micro wire electrical discharge machining (w-EDM). A novel power source based on a pluri resistance-capacitance (pRC) circuit that can generate a high-frequency, high-peak current with a short pulse train is proposed and designed to enhance the performance of micro w-EDM processes. Switching between transistors is precisely controlled in the designed power source to create a high-frequency short-pulse train current. Various microslot cutting tests in both aluminum and copper alloys are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the pRC power source creates instant spark erosion resulting in markedly less material for removal, diminishing discharge crater size, and consequently an improved surface finish. A new evaluation approach for spark erosion ability (SEA) to assess the merits of micro EDM power sources is also proposed. In addition to increasing the speed of micro w-EDM by increasing wire feed rates by 1.6 times the original feed rate, the power source is more appropriate for machining micropart microstructures since there is less thermal breaking. Satisfactory cutting of an elaborate miniature hook-shaped structure and a high-aspect ratio microstructure with a squared-pillar array also reveal that the developed pRC power source is effective, and should be very useful in the manufacture of intricate microparts.

  1. Plasma x-ray sources powered by megajoule magnetocumulative generators.

    PubMed

    Popkov, N F; Ya Averchenkov, V; Pikar', A S; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Lazarev, S A; Borovkov, V V

    1995-01-01

    We have performed experiments using magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) to power three different types of high-energy-density plasma discharges suitable for intense x-ray generation. They include the H-pressed discharge, the capillary z-pinch, and the θ-pinch. The MCGs were operated with, and without, plasma opening switches. The characteristic currents were approximately 10 MA and characteristic time scales approximately 1 μs. In this paper we describe the characteristics of these experiments.

  2. Science in 60 – A Clean, Renewable Power Source

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rod

    2016-10-06

    Fuel cells have long been one of the most tantalizing clean-energy solutions. They offer electricity from an abundant energy source—hydrogen. Compared to internal combustion engines, fuel cells are more than twice as efficient at converting fuel to power, but are currently dependent on costly platinum. Rod Borup and his team at Los Alamos National Lab are leading efforts to reduce the cost of fuel cells and are exploring alternatives that could eliminate platinum all together.

  3. Piezoelectric-nanowire-enabled power source for driving wireless microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Hansen, Benjamin J; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-10-19

    Harvesting energy from irregular/random mechanical actions in variable and uncontrollable environments is an effective approach for powering wireless mobile electronics to meet a wide range of applications in our daily life. Piezoelectric nanowires are robust and can be stimulated by tiny physical motions/disturbances over a range of frequencies. Here, we demonstrate the first chemical epitaxial growth of PbZr(x)Ti(1-x)O(3) (PZT) nanowire arrays at 230 °C and their application as high-output energy converters. The nanogenerators fabricated using a single array of PZT nanowires produce a peak output voltage of ~0.7 V, current density of 4 μA cm(-2) and an average power density of 2.8 mW cm(-3). The alternating current output of the nanogenerator is rectified, and the harvested energy is stored and later used to light up a commercial laser diode. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using nanogenerators for powering mobile and even personal microelectronics.

  4. IEEE Conference Record of 1982 Fifteenth Power Modulator Symposium, 14-16 June 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Intensity of the SPS, Cliii SS/AC/ 77-12. c~raalu bm3) H. Kuhn, G.H. Schr ~ der , High Power Pulse Generators f or Fast Pulsed Magnets - Development and...Opera- tionaL Experience. 14th Pulse Power Modulator Sym- posium, Orlando, 1980. 4) H. Kuhn, G.M. Schr ~ der , J-C. Souli6, SPS Inflector a) for...calibrated for ders that the only energy which counts is that both wavelengths were used to control the output which is in the risetime portion of the

  5. A new compact self-coherent high power microwave source based on dual beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiaolu Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Yangmei; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a compact self-coherent high power microwave source based on dual beams is presented. It consists of a two-cavity triaxial klystron amplifier (TKA) (noted as the outer sub-source below) and a multiwave Cerenkov generators (noted as the inner sub-source) inserted in the TKA's inner conductor. These two sub-sources share a common cathode and the magnetic field. The injected signals to the outer sub-source are leakage microwaves from the inner sub-source through the anode-cathode gap (A-K gap). Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 687 kV and the axial magnetic field is 0.8 T, two microwaves with power of 1.02 GW and 2.65 GW and the same frequency of 9.72 GHz are generated in the inner and the outer sub-source, respectively; the corresponding power efficiencies are 24% and 31%. Two sub-sources reach the phase locking at 23 ns with a phase difference fluctuation within ±3°. The fast and stable phase locking in the voltage ranging from 665 kV to 709 kV further suggests that the proposed source is promising for coherent power combination and to export a higher power of combined microwaves.

  6. A new compact self-coherent high power microwave source based on dual beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaolu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Yangmei; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a compact self-coherent high power microwave source based on dual beams is presented. It consists of a two-cavity triaxial klystron amplifier (TKA) (noted as the outer sub-source below) and a multiwave Cerenkov generators (noted as the inner sub-source) inserted in the TKA's inner conductor. These two sub-sources share a common cathode and the magnetic field. The injected signals to the outer sub-source are leakage microwaves from the inner sub-source through the anode-cathode gap (A-K gap). Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 687 kV and the axial magnetic field is 0.8 T, two microwaves with power of 1.02 GW and 2.65 GW and the same frequency of 9.72 GHz are generated in the inner and the outer sub-source, respectively; the corresponding power efficiencies are 24% and 31%. Two sub-sources reach the phase locking at 23 ns with a phase difference fluctuation within ±3°. The fast and stable phase locking in the voltage ranging from 665 kV to 709 kV further suggests that the proposed source is promising for coherent power combination and to export a higher power of combined microwaves.

  7. Advances in welding processes: A user`s view of welding power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Siewert, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    Power sources and their controllers perhaps offer the greatest potential for improving welding processes. Recently introduced features, such as high-frequency inverters and digital controls, have broadened the performance capabilities of power sources. Yet, for many users, these improvements have led to only modest gains in performance because the technical advances do not necessarily lead to better weldability. The author discusses the needs of the welding engineer and suggests how they might be fulfilled with these new power sources. Areas where the needs are not being met provide an opportunity for researchers to make major contributions. 120 refs., 5 figs.

  8. United Nations deliberations of the use of nuclear power sources in space: 1978-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Rashkow, Bruce C.

    1988-01-01

    The United Nations (U.N.) is continuing its deliberations on the use of nuclear power sources (NPS) in space. Although no complete set of legal principles has yet been agreed upon, certain scientific and technical criteria for the safe design and use of NPS have been accepted. In this respect, it should be noted that in its 1981 report, the Working Group on the Use of Power Sources in Outer Space concluded that power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety requirements are met. This is also a succinct statement of the U.S. position.

  9. United Nations deliberations of the use of nuclear power sources in space: 1978-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Rashkow, Bruce C.

    1988-01-01

    The United Nations (U.N.) is continuing its deliberations on the use of nuclear power sources (NPS) in space. Although no complete set of legal principles has yet been agreed upon, certain scientific and technical criteria for the safe design and use of NPS have been accepted. In this respect, it should be noted that in its 1981 report, the Working Group on the Use of Power Sources in Outer Space concluded that power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety requirements are met. This is also a succinct statement of the U.S. position.

  10. Voronoi Diagram Based Optimization of Dynamic Reactive Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Weihong; Sun, Kai; Qi, Junjian; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic var sources can effectively mitigate fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) issues or even voltage collapse. This paper proposes a new approach to optimization of the sizes of dynamic var sources at candidate locations by a Voronoi diagram based algorithm. It first disperses sample points of potential solutions in a searching space, evaluates a cost function at each point by barycentric interpolation for the subspaces around the point, and then constructs a Voronoi diagram about cost function values over the entire space. Accordingly, the final optimal solution can be obtained. Case studies on the WSCC 9-bus system and NPCC 140-bus system have validated that the new approach can quickly identify the boundary of feasible solutions in searching space and converge to the global optimal solution.

  11. A nuclear source term analysis for spacecraft power systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1998-12-01

    All US space missions involving on board nuclear material must be approved by the Office of the President. To be approved the mission and the hardware systems must undergo evaluations of the associated nuclear health and safety risk. One part of these evaluations is the characterization of the source terms, i.e., the estimate of the amount, physical form, and location of nuclear material, which might be released into the environment in the event of credible accidents. This paper presents a brief overview of the source term analysis by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel for the NASA Cassini Space Mission launched in October 1997. Included is a description of the Energy Interaction Model, an innovative approach to the analysis of potential releases from high velocity impacts resulting from launch aborts and reentries.

  12. A new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao; Qian, Baoliang

    2014-05-01

    We present a new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams, which combines a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) (noted as the inner sub-source below) and a coaxial transit-time oscillator (TTO) (noted as the outer sub-source). The cathode consists of an inner and an outer annular cathode, which provides the inner and the outer annular electron beam for the sub-sources, respectively. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies of the two sub-sources with an identical frequency of 9.74 GHz are 29% and 25%, respectively. It is furthermore found that phase locking between the inner and the outer sub-sources can be realized, which suggests a feasibility to obtain a higher power output if the two microwave signals are coherently combined.

  13. A new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yangmei Zhang, Xiaoping; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao; Qian, Baoliang

    2014-05-15

    We present a new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams, which combines a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) (noted as the inner sub-source below) and a coaxial transit-time oscillator (TTO) (noted as the outer sub-source). The cathode consists of an inner and an outer annular cathode, which provides the inner and the outer annular electron beam for the sub-sources, respectively. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies of the two sub-sources with an identical frequency of 9.74 GHz are 29% and 25%, respectively. It is furthermore found that phase locking between the inner and the outer sub-sources can be realized, which suggests a feasibility to obtain a higher power output if the two microwave signals are coherently combined.

  14. The ATS-6 power system - An optimized design for maximum power source utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavigna, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The modified power system design adopted for the ATS-6 satellite is described. This design featured a shunt-boost configuration to provide direct power from the solar array to the loads for maximum efficiency. In addition, shunt power dissipators were used, not only as a means of power system regulation, but also for thermal control. A brief description of the spacecraft and of the initial series regulator power system design (which was unable to meet mission requirements) precede the discussion. The shunt boost system provides excellent utilization of array power with an 8 to 10% increase in efficiency over the original configuration; good array-battery static and dynamic load sharing; excellent flexibility in accommodating mission requirements; and low electromagnetic interference.

  15. 77 FR 21555 - Reactive Power Resources; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Interconnection Studies. This panel will discuss: Methods used to determine the reactive power requirements for a... Robert Jenkins, Director--Utility Interconnection, First Solar Kris Zadlo, Vice President, Invenergy..., Director--Utility Interconnection, First Solar Michael Jacobs, Director Market and Regulatory Policy...

  16. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  17. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  18. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources.

  19. Mobile Electric Power Technologies for the Army of the Future: Engines, Power Source, and Electrical Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    engine design . The second level of systems integration is that of the engine -generator set and its load. Military standards on power quality for... power despite variations in engine speed. The introduction of one or more storage batteries into the design makes it possible for such a system to...1,500 to 3,000 psi. The major components of the modern Stirling engine are (Figure E-1): 1. Power piston 2. Displacer 3. Compression space in

  20. The Power of Information: Transforming the World. Professional Papers from the Annual Conference of the Special Libraries Association (86th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 10-15, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, Washington, DC.

    These papers are intended to relate to a number of issues suggested by the overall conference theme of the power of information and how it is transforming the world. Most of the 11 papers cover a number of related issues--managing information, technological advances and their impacts, and new roles for librarians. Titles include: "The…

  1. The Power of Information: Transforming the World. Professional Papers from the Annual Conference of the Special Libraries Association (86th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 10-15, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, Washington, DC.

    These papers are intended to relate to a number of issues suggested by the overall conference theme of the power of information and how it is transforming the world. Most of the 11 papers cover a number of related issues--managing information, technological advances and their impacts, and new roles for librarians. Titles include: "The…

  2. Proceedings of the International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams (12th) Held in Haifa, Israel on June 7-12, 1998. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-12

    Kovalyov, A.I. Kormilitsin et al. "Proceedings of the Higher Education Institutions. Physics", Tomsk, volume 38, #12, 1995, pp. 84-92. 3. A.I... Kormilitsin , V.S. Diyankov. "Controlled Multiple Channel Switch" Proceedings of the 1 Ph International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, 1996

  3. Combustion-based power source for Venus surface missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Paul, Michael V.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2016-10-01

    The National Research Council has identified in situ exploration of Venus as an important mission for the coming decade of NASA's exploration of our solar system (Squyers, 2013 [1]). Heavy cloud cover makes the use of solar photovoltaics extremely problematic for power generation for Venus surface missions. In this paper, we propose a class of planetary exploration missions (for use on Venus and elsewhere) in solar-deprived situations where photovoltaics cannot be used, batteries do not provide sufficient specific energy and mission duration, and nuclear systems may be too costly or complex to justify or simply unavailable. Metal-fueled, combustion-based powerplants have been demonstrated for application in the terrestrial undersea environment. Modified or extended versions of the undersea-based systems may be appropriate for these sunless missions. We describe systems carrying lithium fuel and sulfur-hexafluoride oxidizer that have the potential for many days of operation in the sunless craters of the moon. On Venus a system level specific energy of 240 to 370 We-hr/kg should be possible if the oxidizer is brought from earth. By using either lithium or a magnesium-based alloy fuel, it may be possible to operate a similar system with CO2 derived directly from the Venus atmosphere, thus providing an estimated system specific energy of 1100 We+PV-hr/kg (the subscript refers to both electrical and mechanical power), thereby providing mission durations that enable useful scientific investigation. The results of an analysis performed by the NASA Glenn COMPASS team describe a mission operating at 2.3 kWe+PV for 5 days (120 h), with less than 260 kg power/energy system mass total. This lander would be of a size and cost suitable for a New Frontiers class of mission.

  4. Draught animal power as a source of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswamy, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art of Draught Animal Power (DAP) system is surveyed. Specific proposals are presented to modernize the whole DAP system by way of improvements to: animal breeds and raising programmes; feed and pasture development; health and veterinary services; agricultural implements and equipment; vehicles and carrying methods; harnesses and hitching devices; biogas generation; credit and cooperatives; slaughter methods; recovery of by-products; and organization and management of RandD. When implemented, these will help the development of this massive renewable energy for increased food production and small scale transportation.

  5. High-radiance LDP source for mask inspection and beam line applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramoto, Yusuke; Santos, Bárbara; Mertens, Guido; Kops, Ralf; Kops, Margarete; von Wezyk, Alexander; Bergmann, Klaus; Yabuta, Hironobu; Nagano, Akihisa; Ashizawa, Noritaka; Taniguchi, Yuta; Yamatani, Daiki; Shirai, Takahiro; Kasama, Kunihiko

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput actinic mask inspection tools are needed as EUVL begins to enter into volume production phase. One of the key technologies to realize such inspection tools is a high-radiance EUV source of which radiance is supposed to be as high as 100 W/mm2/sr. Ushio is developing laser-assisted discharge-produced plasma (LDP) sources. Ushio's LDP source is able to provide sufficient radiance as well as cleanliness, stability and reliability. Radiance behind the debris mitigation system was confirmed to be 120 W/mm2/sr at 9 kHz and peak radiance at the plasma was increased to over 200 W/mm2/sr in the recent development which supports high-throughput, high-precision mask inspection in the current and future technology nodes. One of the unique features of Ushio's LDP source is cleanliness. Cleanliness evaluation using both grazing-incidence Ru mirrors and normal-incidence Mo/Si mirrors showed no considerable damage to the mirrors other than smooth sputtering of the surface at the pace of a few nm per Gpulse. In order to prove the system reliability, several long-term tests were performed. Data recorded during the tests was analyzed to assess two-dimensional radiance stability. In addition, several operating parameters were monitored to figure out which contributes to the radiance stability. The latest model that features a large opening angle was recently developed so that the tool can utilize a large number of debris-free photons behind the debris shield. The model was designed both for beam line application and high-throughput mask inspection application. At the time of publication, the first product is supposed to be in use at the customer site.

  6. Modeling and interpreting speckle pattern formation in swept-source optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, I. Alex; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We report on the development of a unified Monte-Carlo based computational model for exploring speckle pattern formation in swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is a well-established optical imaging modality capable of acquiring cross-sectional images of turbid media, including biological tissues, utilizing back scattered low coherence light. The obtained OCT images include characteristic features known as speckles. Currently, there is a growing interest to the OCT speckle patterns due to their potential application for quantitative analysis of medium's optical properties. Here we consider the mechanisms of OCT speckle patterns formation for swept-source OCT approaches and introduce further developments of a Monte-Carlo based model for simulation of OCT signals and images. The model takes into account polarization and coherent properties of light, mutual interference of back-scattering waves, and their interference with the reference waves. We present a corresponding detailed description of the algorithm for modeling these light-medium interactions. The developed model is employed for generation of swept-source OCT images, analysis of OCT speckle formation and interpretation of the experimental results. The obtained simulation results are compared with selected analytical solutions and experimental studies utilizing various sizes / concentrations of scattering microspheres.

  7. EUV source power and lifetime: the most critical issues for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Birner, Henry; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Bolshukhin, Denis; Brudermann, Jesko; Chinh, Tran Duc; Flohrer, Frank; Goetze, Sven; Hergenhan, Guido; Kloepfel, Diethard; Korobotchko, Vladimir; Mader, Bjorn; Mueller, Rainer; Ringling, Jens; Schriever, Guido; Ziener, Christian

    2004-05-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturers are expecting to use extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for high volume manufacturing of DRAMs and ICs starting by the end of this decade. Among all the technologies and modules which have to be developed EUV sources at 13.5 nm are considered to be the most critical issue. Specifically the required output power of 115 W at the entrance of the illuminator system in combination with the required lifetimes of source components and collector optics make the source technology critical for EUV lithography. The present paper gives an update of the development status of EUV light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Goettingen, and Jenoptik LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results on both laser produced plasma (LPP) and gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are given. The LPP EUV sources use xenon-jet target systems and pulsed lasers with 500 W average power at up to 10 kHz developed at XTREME technologies. The maximum conversion efficiency from laser power into EUV in-band power is 1.0 % into 2p solid angle. 2.0 W EUV radiation is generated at 13.5 nm in 2p sr solid angle. The small source volume of < 0.3 mm diameter will allow large collection angles of 5 sr. The intermediate focus power is estimated to 1 W. Collector mirror lifetime tests showed 5 million pulses lifetime without debris mitigation. With debris mitigation in place lifetimes of more than 1 billion pulses are estimated. For the next generation of higher power EUV LPP sources a laser driver has been tested at 1.3 kW average laser power. This will lead to 5 W EUV power in intermediate focus. The GDPP EUV sources use the Z-pinch principle with efficient sliding discharge pre-ionization. Prototype commercial gas discharge sources with an EUV power of 35W in 2p sr were already delivered for integration into EUV microsteppers. These sources are equipped with a debris-filter which results in an optics lifetime

  8. 2.1 μm high-power laser diode beam combining(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrou, Antoine P. C.; Elder, Ian F.; Lamb, Robert A.; Esser, M. J. Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Laser power and brightness scaling, in "eye safe" atmospheric transmission windows, is driving laser system research and development. High power lasers with good beam quality, at wavelength around 2.1 µm, are necessary for optical countermeasure applications. For such applications, focusing on efficiency and compactness of the system is mandatory. In order to cope with these requirements, one must consider the use of laser diodes which emit directly in the desired spectral region. The challenge for these diodes is to maintain a good beam quality factor as the output power increases. 2 µm diodes with excellent beam quality in both axes are available with output powers of 100 mW. Therefore, in order to reach multi-watt of average output power, broad-area single emitters and beam combining becomes relevant. Different solutions have been implemented in the 1.9 to 2 µm wavelength range, one of which is to stack multiple emitter bars reaching more than one hundred watt, while another is a fibre coupled diode module. The beam propagation factor of these systems is too high for long atmospheric propagation applications. Here we describe preliminary results on non-coherent beam combining of 2.1 µm high power Fabry-Perot GaSb laser diodes supplied by Brolis Semiconductors Ltd. First we evaluated single mode diodes (143 mW) with good beam quality (M2 < 1.5 for slow axis and < 1.1 for fast axis). Then we characterized broad-area single emitter diodes (808 mW) with an electrical-to-optical efficiency of 19 %. The emitter width was 90 µm with a cavity length of 1.5 mm. In our experiments we found that the slow axis multimode output beam consisted of two symmetric lobes with a total full width at half maximum (FWHM) divergence angle of 25 degrees, corresponding to a calculated beam quality factor of M2 = 25. The fast axis divergence was specified to be 44 degrees, with an expected beam quality factor close to the diffraction limit, which informed our selection of collimation

  9. High-power, low-pressure, inductively coupled RF plasma source using a FET-based inverter power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komizunai, Shota; Oikawa, Kohei; Saito, Yuta; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2015-01-01

    A high-density plasma of density greater than 1019 m-3 is successfully produced in 1.5 Pa argon by an inductively coupled RF discharge with a 70-mm-diameter source cavity, where a 10-turn water-cooled RF loop antenna is wound onto the source tube and an axial magnetic field of ˜70 G is applied by two solenoids to reduce plasma loss onto the source cavity. The RF antenna is powered from a frequency-tunable field-effect-transistor-based inverter power supply, which does not require variable capacitors to match the impedance, at a frequency of ˜350 kHz and the RF power can be increased up to ˜8 kW. It is also demonstrated that the source is operational with an axial magnetic field provided by permanent magnet (PM) arrays; then the density in the case of the PM arrays is higher than that in the case of the solenoids. The role of the magnetic filter downstream of the source tube is demonstrated; a radially uniform plasma density exceeding 1018 m-3 and an electron temperature of ˜1-2 eV are obtained at ˜100 mm downstream of the open exit of the source tube.

  10. Wind power as an electrical energy source in Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, W. M.

    1982-03-01

    A preliminary estimate of the total wind power available in Illinois was made using available historical data, and projections of cost savings due to the presence of wind-generated electricity were attempted. Wind data at 10 m height were considered from nine different sites in the state, with three years data nominally being included. Wind-speed frequency histograms were developed for day and night periods, using a power law function to extrapolate the 10 m readings to 20 m. Wind speeds over the whole state were found to average over 8 mph, the cut-in point for most wind turbines, for from 40-63% of the time. A maximum of 75% run-time was determined for daylight hours in April-May. A reference 1.8 kW windpowered generator was used in annual demand projections for a reference one family home, using the frequency histograms. The small generator was projected to fulfill from 25-53% of the annual load, and, based on various cost assumptions, exhibited paybacks taking from 14-27 yr.

  11. The analysis of photon pair source at telecom wavelength based on the BBO crystal (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Andrzej; Kolenderski, Piotr L.

    2016-10-01

    There are several problems that must be solved in order to increase the distance of quantum communication protocols based on photons as an information carriers. One of them is the dispersion, whose effects can be minimized by engineering spectral properties of transmitted photons. In particular, it is expected that positively correlated photon pairs can be very useful. We present the full characterization of a source of single photon pairs at a telecom wavelength based on type II spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) process in a beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal. In the type II process, a pump photon, which is polarized extraordinarily, splits in a nonlinear medium into signal and idler photons, which are polarized perpendicularly to each other. In order for the process to be efficient a phase matching condition must be fulfilled. These conditions originate from momentum and energy conservation rules and put severe restrictions on source parameters. Seemingly, these conditions force the photon pair to be negatively correlated in their spectral domain. However, it is possible to achieve positive correlation for pulsed pumping. The experimentally available degrees of freedom of a source are the width of the pumping beam, the collected modes' widths, the length of the nonlinear crystal and the duration of the pumping pulse. In our numerical model we use the following figures of merit: the pair production rate, the efficiency of photon coupling into a single mode fiber, the spectral correlation of the coupled photon pair. The last one is defined as the Pearson correlation parameter for a joint spectral distribution. The aim here is to find the largest positive spectral correlation and the highest coupling efficiency. By resorting to the numerical model Ref. [1] we showed in Ref. [2], that by careful adjustment of the pump's and the collected modes' characteristics, one can optimize any of the source's parameters. Our numerical outcomes conform to the

  12. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2008-01-01

    Reports were presented covering a selection of topics on the safety of fusion power plants. These included a review on licensing studies developed for ITER site preparation surveying common and non-common issues (i.e. site dependent) as lessons to a broader approach for fusion power plant safety. Several fusion power plant models, spanning from accessible technology to more advanced-materials based concepts, were discussed. On the topic related to fusion-specific technology, safety studies were reported on different concepts of breeding blanket modules, tritium handling and auxiliary systems under normal and accident scenarios' operation. The testing of power plant relevant technology in ITER was also assessed in terms of normal operation and accident scenarios, and occupational doses and radioactive releases under these testings have been determined. Other specific safety issues for fusion have also been discussed such as availability and reliability of fusion power plants, dust and tritium inventories and component failure databases. This study reveals that the environmental impact of fusion power plants can be minimized through a proper selection of low activation materials and using recycling technology helping to reduce waste volume and potentially open the route for its reutilization for the nuclear sector or even its clearance into the commercial circuit. Computational codes for fusion safety have been presented in support of the many studies reported. The on-going work on establishing validation approaches aiming at improving the prediction capability of fusion codes has been supported by experimental results and new directions for development have been identified. Fusion standards are not available and fission experience is mostly used as the framework basis for licensing and target design for safe operation and occupational and environmental constraints. It has been argued that fusion can benefit if a specific fusion approach is implemented, in particular

  13. LED based powerful nanosecond light sources for calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Poleshuk, R. V.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.; Vyatchin, Y. E.

    2009-04-01

    Powerful nanosecond light sources based on LEDs have been developed for use in calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes. The light sources use either matrixes of ultra bright blue InGaN LEDs or new generation high power blue LEDs. It is shown that such light sources have light yield of up to 1010-1012 photons per pulse with very fast light emission kinetics. The developed light sources are currently used in a number of astroparticle physics experiments, namely: the lake Baikal neutrino experiment, the TUNKA EAS experiment, etc.

  14. Hybrid master oscillator power amplifier high-power narrow-linewidth nanosecond laser source at 257 nm.

    PubMed

    Délen, Xavier; Deyra, Loïc; Benoit, Aurélien; Hanna, Marc; Balembois, François; Cocquelin, Benjamin; Sangla, Damien; Salin, François; Didierjean, Julien; Georges, Patrick

    2013-03-15

    We report on a high-power narrow-linewidth pulsed laser source emitting at a wavelength of 257 nm. The system is based on a master oscillator power amplifier architecture, with Yb-doped fiber preamplifiers, a Yb:YAG single crystal fiber power amplifier used to overcome the Brillouin limitation in glass fiber and nonlinear frequency conversion stages. This particularly versatile architecture allows the generation of Fourier transform-limited 15 ns pulses at 1030 nm with 22 W of average power and a diffraction-limited beam (M(2)<1.1). At a repetition rate of 30 kHz, 106 μJ UV pulses are generated corresponding to an average power of 3.2 W.

  15. Optical power diodes based on phase-transition materials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chenghao; Horak, Erik H.; Zhou, You; Zhang, Zhen; Salman, Jad; Roney, Patrick; Rensberg, Jura; Gundlach, Bradley; Ramanathan, Shriram; Goldsmith, Randall H.; Ronning, Carsten; Kats, Mikhail A.

    2017-03-01

    We present several designs and experimental implementations of optical power diodes - devices that are designed to be transparent from one direction, but opaque from the other, when illuminated by a beam with sufficient intensity. Optical power diodes can be used to protect optical devices that both detect and transmit light. Our designs are based on phase-change material vanadium dioxide (VO2), which undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) that can be triggered thermally or optically. Here, VO2 films serve as nonlinear elements that can be transformed from transparent to opaque by intense illumination. We build thin-film metallic structures on top of the VO2 films such that the optical absorption becomes asymmetric - light impinging from one direction is absorbed at a higher rate than from the other direction, triggering the transition, and turning the device opaque. This results in asymmetric transmission. The designs are optimized with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, using optical constants of VO2 extracted using ellipsometry, and are shown to be scalable across the near- and mid-infrared. Our initial experimental results using a simple design comprised of metal and VO2 films on sapphire, designed for an operating wavelength of 1.35µm, show a transmission asymmetry ratio of 2, and experiments with superior designs are ongoing. Future work will include the use of defect-engineered VO2 to engineer the intensity threshold of optical power diodes.

  16. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Theiss, T J; Conklin, J. C.; Thomas, John F.; Armstrong, T. R.

    2000-04-18

    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  17. Numerical investigations of self- and cross-phase modulation effects in high-power fiber amplifiers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunoubi, Mohammad R.; Anderson, Brian; Naderi, Shadi A.; Madden, Timothy J.; Dajani, Iyad

    2017-03-01

    The development of high-power fiber lasers is of great interest due to the advantages they offer relative to other laser technologies. Currently, the maximum power from a reportedly single-mode fiber amplifier stands at 10 kW. Though impressive, this power level was achieved at the cost of a large spectral linewidth, making the laser unsuitable for coherent or spectral beam combination techniques required to reach power levels necessary for airborne tactical applications. An effective approach in limiting the SBS effect is to insert an electro-optic phase modulator at the low-power end of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system. As a result, the optical power is spread among spectral sidebands; thus raising the overall SBS threshold of the amplifier. It is the purpose of this work to present a comprehensive numerical scheme that is based on the extended nonlinear Schrodinger equations that allows for accurate analysis of phase modulated fiber amplifier systems in relation to the group velocity dispersion and Kerr nonlinearities and their effect on the coherent beam combining efficiency. As such, we have simulated a high-power MOPA system modulated via filtered pseudo-random bit sequence format for different clock rates and power levels. We show that at clock rates of ≥30 GHz, the combination of GVD and self-phase modulation may lead to a drastic drop in beam combining efficiency at the multi-kW level. Furthermore, we extend our work to study the effect of cross-phase modulation where an amplifier is seeded with two laser sources.

  18. Multi-physics analysis of hybrid graphene/semiconductor plasmonic terahertz sources (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafari, Mona; Aizin, Gregory R.; Jornet, Josep M.

    2017-05-01

    Wireless data rates have doubled every eighteen months for the last three decades. Following this trend, Terabit-per-second links will become a reality within the next five years. In this context, Terahertz (THz) band (0.1-10 THz) communication is envisioned as a key technology of the next decade. Despite major progress towards developing THz sources, compact signal generators above 1 THz able to efficiently work at room temperature are still missing. Recently, the use of hybrid graphene/semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT) has been proposed as a way to generate Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) waves at THz frequencies. Compact size, room-temperature operation and tunability of the graphene layer, in addition to possibility for large scale integration, motivate the exploration of this approach. In this paper, a simulation model of hybrid graphene/semiconductor HEMT-based THz sources is developed. More specifically, first, the necessary conditions for the so-called Dyakonov-Shur instability to arise within the HEMT channel are derived, and the impact of imperfect boundary conditions is analyzed. Second, the required conditions for coupling between a confined plasma wave in the HEMT channel and a SPP wave in graphene are derived, by starting from the coupling analysis between two 2DEG. Multi-physics simulation are conducted by integrating the hydrodynamic equations for the description of the HEMT device with Maxwell's equations for SPP modeling. Extensive results are provided to analyze the impact of different design elements on the THz signal source. This work will guide the experimental fabrication and characterization of the devices.

  19. Rotational motion based, electrostatic power source and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Michael D.

    2007-05-01

    A power system includes a member with two or more sections and at least one pair of electrodes. Each of the two or more sections has a stored static charge. Each of the pair of electrodes is spaced from and on substantially opposing sides of the member from the other electrode and is at least partially in alignment with the other electode. At least one of the member and the at least one pair of electrodes is moveable with respect to the other. When at least one of the sections is at least partially between the pair of electrodes, the at least one of the sections has the stored static electric charge closer to one of the pair of electrodes. When at least one of the other sections is at least partially between the pair of electrodes, the other section has the stored static electric charge closer to the other one of the pair of electrodes.

  20. High power microwave source for a plasma wakefield experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafir, G.; Shlapakovski, A.; Siman-Tov, M.; Bliokh, Yu.; Leopold, J. G.; Gleizer, S.; Gad, R.; Rostov, V. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the generation of a high-power microwave (˜550 MW, 0.5 ns, ˜9.6 GHz) beam and feasibility of wakefield-excitation with this beam in under-dense plasma are presented. The microwave beam is generated by a backward wave oscillator (BWO) operating in the superradiance regime. The BWO is driven by a high-current electron beam (˜250 keV, ˜1.5 kA, ˜5 ns) propagating through a slow-wave structure in a guiding magnetic field of 2.5 T. The microwave beam is focused at the desired location by a dielectric lens. Experimentally obtained parameters of the microwave beam at its waist are used for numerical simulations, the results of which demonstrate the formation of a bubble in the plasma that has almost 100% electron density modulation and longitudinal and transverse electric fields of several kV/cm.