Science.gov

Sample records for power train phase

  1. Occupational Safety. Power Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on safety when using power tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with general safety rules and uses of commonly used electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and powder-actuated tools. The module may contain some or…

  2. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    A. R. Jones

    1985-08-01

    This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.

  3. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  4. MHD advanced power train. Phase 1, Final report: Volume 3, Power train system description and specification for 200MWe Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.R.

    1985-08-01

    This System Design Description and Specification provides the basis for the design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Train (PT) for a nominal 200 MWe early commercial tiHD/Steam Power Plant. This document has been developed under Task 2, Conceptual Design, of Contract DE-AC22-83PC60575 and is to be used by the project as the controlling and coordinating documentation during future design efforts. Modification and revision of this specification will occur as the design matures, and tiie-Westinghouse MHD Project Manager will be the focal point for maintaining this document and issuing periodic revisions. This document is intended to delineate the power train and-power train components requirements and assumptions that properly reflect the MHD/Steam Power Plant in the PT design. The parameters discussed in this document have been established through system calculations as well as through constraints set by technology and by limitations on materials, cost, physical processes associated with MHD, and the expected operating data for the plant. The specifications listed in this document have precedence over all referenced documents. Where this specification appears to conflict with the requirements of a reference document, such conflicts should be brought to the attention of the Westinghouse MHD Project Manager for resolution.

  5. Study of multi-phase flow characteristics in an MHD power train

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1993-08-01

    Computer simulation was used to predict two-phase flow processes in the CDIF MHD power train system. The predictions were used to evaluate the effects of operating and design parameters on the performance of the system and a parametric evaluation provides information to enhance the performance of the system. Major components of the system under investigation are the two-stage combustor, the converging/diverging nozzle, the supersonic MHD channel, and the diffuser. Flow in each component was simulated using a computer code. Integrating the computer codes, the two-phase flow processes in the system was calculated. Recently, the computer codes were used to investigate problems of nozzle erosion and the non-uniform iron oxide coverage on the cathode wall in the channel. A limited parametric study was conducted. The results indicated that (1) among the three nozzle geometries under investigation a {number_sign}5 nozzle has the smoothest flow development in the nozzle and has the lowest droplet deposition on wall and (2) smaller particle size and lower injection velocity tend to disperse the iron oxide particles more uniformly in the nozzle.

  6. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  7. High power phase shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Makarov, A.; Solyak, N.; Terechkine, I.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    One of the approaches to power distribution system of a superconducting proton linac under discussion at FNAL requires development of a fast-action, megawatt-range phase shifter. Using a couple of this kind of devices with a waveguide hybrid junction can allow independent control of phase and amplitude of RF power at the input of each superconducting cavity, which will result in significant saving in number of klystrons and modulators required for the accelerator. A prototype of a waveguide version of the shifter that uses Yttrium-Iron Garnet (YIG) blocks was developed and tested. This report presents design concept of the device, and main results of simulation and proof-of-principle tests.

  8. Power Trains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This power trains manual is one of a series of power mechanics for training in the servicing of transmissions, etc., on farm and industrial machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Power Trains: How They Work; (2)…

  9. Training Continued through Plant Phase-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, James H.

    1976-01-01

    Even when one of its plants was phased out, the Union Carbide Corp. Program continued with regular training programs and also put two additional programs into motion: Training for employees who would be re-entering the job market and training for employees eligible for retirement benefits. (ABM)

  10. Alabama Power Company HVAC Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Lovvorn, N.

    1996-06-01

    Alabama Power Company`s (APCo`s) HVAC training Center began in 1986 and serves people from around the country. The staff has a combined field experience of over 75 years. This paper describes the training facility and program.

  11. Tilesetting. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausland, Greg

    These 24 Student Training Modules on tilesetting comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 563.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  12. Plumbing. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brath, Ed

    These 26 Student Training Modules on plumbing comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 577.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  13. Painting. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kracht, Shannon

    These 21 Student Training Modules on painting comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 561.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  14. Drywall. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Doug

    These 18 Student Training Modules on drywall comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 573.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  15. Private Security Training. Phase 4: Firearms Training. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for the firearms training phase of a private security training course of study. The seven units in the course cover the following topics: safety; revolver nomenclature and maintenance; inspecting revolvers and holsters; fundamentals of revolver shooting; legal issues and deadly force; range…

  16. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  17. Multichannel Phase and Power Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Samuel; Lux, James; McMaster, Robert; Boas, Amy

    2006-01-01

    An electronic signal-processing system determines the phases of input signals arriving in multiple channels, relative to the phase of a reference signal with which the input signals are known to be coherent in both phase and frequency. The system also gives an estimate of the power levels of the input signals. A prototype of the system has four input channels that handle signals at a frequency of 9.5 MHz, but the basic principles of design and operation are extensible to other signal frequencies and greater numbers of channels. The prototype system consists mostly of three parts: An analog-to-digital-converter (ADC) board, which coherently digitizes the input signals in synchronism with the reference signal and performs some simple processing; A digital signal processor (DSP) in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board, which performs most of the phase- and power-measurement computations on the digital samples generated by the ADC board; and A carrier board, which allows a personal computer to retrieve the phase and power data. The DSP contains four independent phase-only tracking loops, each of which tracks the phase of one of the preprocessed input signals relative to that of the reference signal (see figure). The phase values computed by these loops are averaged over intervals, the length of which is chosen to obtain output from the DSP at a desired rate. In addition, a simple sum of squares is computed for each channel as an estimate of the power of the signal in that channel. The relative phases and the power level estimates computed by the DSP could be used for diverse purposes in different settings. For example, if the input signals come from different elements of a phased-array antenna, the phases could be used as indications of the direction of arrival of a received signal and/or as feedback for electronic or mechanical beam steering. The power levels could be used as feedback for automatic gain control in preprocessing of incoming signals

  18. Training at the Optimum Power Zone Produces Similar Performance Improvements to Traditional Strength Training

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key points Training at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements. Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen. PMID:24149733

  19. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  20. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  1. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  2. Plyometrics: A Legitimate Form of Power Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    Plyometric exercises or drills combine speed and strength to produce an explosive-reactive movement or increased power. Some world-class athletes have used plyometric-training in sports such as high-jumping, hurdles, football, baseball, and hockey. The method is still considered experimental. Sample exercises are described. (JL)

  3. Comparison of different vehicle power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizsey, Peter; Newson, Esmond

    Four different alternatives of mobile power train developments (hybrid diesel, fuel cell operating with hydrogen produced on a petrochemical basis, methanol reformer-fuel cell system, gasoline reformer-fuel cell system), are compared with the gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE), for well-to-wheel efficiencies, CO 2 emissions, and investment costs. Although the ICE requires the lowest investment cost, it is not competitive in well-to-wheel efficiencies and less favourable than the above alternatives for CO 2 emissions. The hybrid diesel power train has the highest well-to-wheel efficiency (30%), but its well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission is similar to that of the fuel cell power train operated with compressed hydrogen produced on a centralised petrochemical basis. This latter case, however, has the advantage over the hybrid diesel power train that the carbon dioxide emission is concentrated and easier to control than the several point-like sources of emissions. Among the five cases studied only the on-board reforming of methanol offers the possibility of using a renewable energy source (biomass).

  4. Power inverter implementing phase skipping control

    DOEpatents

    Somani, Utsav; Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Jourdan, Charles; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-10-18

    A power inverter includes a DC/AC inverter having first, second and third phase circuitry coupled to receive power from a power source. A controller is coupled to a driver for each of the first, second and third phase circuitry (control input drivers). The controller includes an associated memory storing a phase skipping control algorithm, wherein the controller is coupled to receive updating information including a power level generated by the power source. The drivers are coupled to control inputs of the first, second and third phase circuitry, where the drivers are configured for receiving phase skipping control signals from the controller and outputting mode selection signals configured to dynamically select an operating mode for the DC/AC inverter from a Normal Control operation and a Phase Skipping Control operation which have different power injection patterns through the first, second and third phase circuitry depending upon the power level.

  5. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  6. Electronic Equipment Maintenance Training (EEMT) System: System Definition Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, S. M.; And Others

    The second in a series of four reports on the Electronic Equipment Maintenance Training (EEMT) project, this document summarizes the system definition phase of the EEMT program. The purpose of this phase of the project was to define a comprehensive set of functions and training requirements that the EEMT must satisfy within the training mission of…

  7. T-4G Methodology: Undergraduate Pilot Training T-37 Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Robert R.; And Others

    The report's brief introduction describes the application of T-4G methodology to the T-37 instrument phase of undergraduate pilot training. The methodology is characterized by instruction in trainers, proficiency advancement, a highly structured syllabus, the training manager concept, early exposure to instrument training, and hands-on training.…

  8. C-130 Phase I Pilot Training Program (CCTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jack B.; And Others

    This is a detailed study of the C-130 Phase I (CCTS) pilot training program conducted by the 4442nd Combat Crew Training Wing at Stewart Air Force Base, Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to determine the most effective training program that will continue to produce highly qualified pilots at the least cost. The program was evaluated and…

  9. Trowel Trades. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on trowel trades, four of which are available separately as CE 032 869-872. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship and its three phases of training, a recommended procedure for conducting pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline.…

  10. Auto Mechanics. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on auto mechanics, one of which is available separately as CE 032 867. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship and its three phases of training, a recommended preocedure for conducting pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline. Teaching…

  11. Design of Training Systems Phase I Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, William H.; And Others

    A summary is provided of the status of Phase I of the three-stage project, "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The purpose of the overall project is described as being to introduce the technologies of education, psychology, management and operations research into the management of Navy training. Phase I of the effort is designed to provide a…

  12. The Influence of Training Phase on Error of Measurement in Jump Performance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kristie-Lee; Hopkins, Will G; Chapman, Dale W; Cronin, John B

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the coefficients of variation in jump performance for individual participants in multiple trials over time to determine the extent to which there are real differences in the error of measurement between participants. The effect of training phase on measurement error was also investigated. Six subjects participated in a resistance-training intervention for 12 wk with mean power from a countermovement jump measured 6 d/wk. Using a mixed-model meta-analysis, differences between subjects, within-subject changes between training phases, and the mean error values during different phases of training were examined. Small, substantial factor differences of 1.11 were observed between subjects; however, the finding was unclear based on the width of the confidence limits. The mean error was clearly higher during overload training than baseline training, by a factor of ×/÷ 1.3 (confidence limits 1.0-1.6). The random factor representing the interaction between subjects and training phases revealed further substantial differences of ×/÷ 1.2 (1.1-1.3), indicating that on average, the error of measurement in some subjects changes more than in others when overload training is introduced. The results from this study provide the first indication that within-subject variability in performance is substantially different between training phases and, possibly, different between individuals. The implications of these findings for monitoring individuals and estimating sample size are discussed.

  13. Phase detector for three-phase power factor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A phase detector for the three phase power factor controller (PFC) is described. The phase detector for each phase includes an operational amplifier which senses the current phase angle for that phase by sensing the voltage across the phase thyristor. Common mode rejection is achieved by providing positive feedback between the input and output of the voltage sensing operational amplifier. this feedback preferably comprises a resistor connected between the output and input of the operational amplifier. The novelty of the invention resides in providing positive feedback such that switching of the operational amplifier is synchronized with switching of the voltage across the thyristor. The invention provides a solution to problems associated with high common mode voltage and enables use of lower cost components than would be required by other approaches.

  14. Noncompatibility of power and endurance training among college baseball players.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Oliverson, Jeff R; Marshall, Greg; Peterson, Mark D; Kenn, Joseph G; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio

    2008-01-01

    Exercise professionals seeking to develop evidence-based training programs rely on several training principles demonstrated through research and professional experience. In an effort to further research examining these principles, an investigation was designed and completed to evaluate the compatibility of cardiovascular endurance and neuromuscular power training. Sixteen Division-I collegiate baseball players were divided into two training groups with lower body power measured before and after their college playing season. The two groups differed in training in that one group performed moderate- to high-intense cardiovascular endurance training 3-4 days per week throughout the season, while the other group participated in speed/speed endurance training. A significant difference between groups (P < .05) was identified in the change in lower body power during the baseball season. During the season, the endurance training group decreased an average of 39.50 +/- 128.03 watts while the speed group improved an average of 210.63 +/- 168.96 watts. These data demonstrate that moderate- to high-intense cardiovascular endurance and neuromuscular power training do not appear to be compatible when performed simultaneously. For baseball players, athletes who rely heavily on power and speed, conventional baseball conditioning involving significant amounts of cardiovascular endurance training should be altered to include more speed/power interval training.

  15. Enhancing FEL Power with Phase Shifters

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2010-07-30

    Tapering the undulator parameter is a well-known method for maintaining the resonant condition past saturation, and increasing Free Electron Laser (FEL) efficiency. In this paper, we demonstrate that shifting the electron bunch phase relative to the radiation is equivalent to tapering the undulator parameter. Using discrete phase changes derived from optimized undulator tapers for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL, we show that appropriate phase shifts between undulator sections can reproduce the power enhancement of undulator tapers. Phase shifters are relatively easy to implement and operate, and could be used to aid or replace undulator tapers in optimizing FEL performance.

  16. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  1. Common Worker Benefits. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This student training module on worker benefits is one of the general work information modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Rather than relating to a specific trade, this module is designed to impart to the student general knowledge of worker benefits needed by all workers and can be used in all the trade module series. This…

  2. Boring and Drilling Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on boring and drilling tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, select, and understand the proper use of many common awls, bits, and drilling tools. The module may contain some or all of the following: a…

  3. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  4. Cement Finishing. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nama, Joe

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on cement finishing, available separately as CE 031 576. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, discussion of teacher's role in students' completion of the modules, and scope and contents of Phase 2 training. Each…

  5. Trowel Trade Materials. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on trowel trade materials is part of the course, Trowel Trades, which was developed for Preapprenticeship Phase 1 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 032 868.) The course is designed to provide students with an orientation to the trade and an opportunity to explore it. The…

  6. Drywall. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Doug

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on drywall available separately as CE 031 574. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, discussion of teacher's role in students' completion of the modules, and scope and contents of Phase 2 training. Each of the 18…

  7. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  8. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  9. Early phase changes by concurrent endurance and strength training.

    PubMed

    Balabinis, Christos P; Psarakis, Charalampos H; Moukas, Markos; Vassiliou, Miltos P; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2003-05-01

    To compare regimens of concurrent strength and endurance training, 26 male basketball players were matched for stature, body composition, and physical activity level. Subjects completed different training programs for 7 weeks, 4 days per week. Groups were as follows: (a) the strength group (S; n = 7) did strength training; (b) the endurance group (E; n = 7) did endurance training; (c) the strength and endurance group (S + E; n = 7) combined strength and endurance training; and (d) the control group (C; n = 5) had no training. The S + E group showed greater gains in Vo(2)max than the E group did (12.9% vs. 6.8%), whereas the S group showed a decline (8.8%). Gains were noted in strength and vertical jump performance for the S + E and S groups. The S + E group had better posttraining anaerobic power than the S group did (6.2% vs. 2.9%). No strength, power, or anaerobic power gains were present for the E and C groups. We conclude that concurrent endurance and strength training is more effective in terms of improving athletic performance than are endurance and strength training apart.

  10. Plyometrics: A Legitimate Form of Power Training?

    PubMed

    Duda, M

    1988-03-01

    More and more athletes are training with plyometric exercises, which involve explosive movements such as jumping. Proponents swear by the drills, but researchers have yet to substantiate the risks and benefits.

  11. Parts Counter. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James A.

    These 23 Student Training Modules on parts counter comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 571.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  12. Floor Covering. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, Ron

    These 21 Student Training Modules on floor covering comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 565.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  13. Cement Finishing. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nama, Joe

    These 20 Student Training Modules on cement finishing comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 575.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of…

  14. Power system identification toolbox: Phase two progress

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes current progress on a project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to develop a set of state-of-the-art analysis software (termed the Power System Identification [PSI] Toolbox) for fitting dynamic models to measured data. The project is being conducted as a three-phase effort. The first phase, completed in late 1992, involved investigating the characteristics of the analysis techniques by evaluating existing software and developing guidelines for best use. Phase Two includes extending current software, developing new analysis algorithms and software, and demonstrating and developing applications. The final phase will focus on reorganizing the software into a modular collection of documented computer programs and developing user manuals with instruction and application guidelines. Phase Two is approximately 50% complete; progress to date and a vision for the final product of the PSI Toolbox are described. The needs of the power industry for specialized system identification methods are particularly acute. The industry is currently pushing to operate transmission systems much closer to theoretical limits by using real-time, large-scale control systems to dictate power flows and maintain dynamic stability. Reliably maintaining stability requires extensive system-dynamic modeling and analysis capability, including measurement-based methods. To serve this need, the BPA has developed specialized system-identification computer codes through in-house efforts and university contract research over the last several years. To make full integrated use of the codes, as well as other techniques, the BPA has commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to further develop the codes and techniques into the PSI Toolbox.

  15. Power mobility driving training for seniors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Karen; Partnoy, Jacqueline; Tenenbaum, Sheryl; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2005-01-01

    This article describes two power mobility training protocols used with seniors and compares posttraining driving performance. Twelve users of power mobility were consecutively recruited from two residential facilities in Toronto, Canada. The aim of training at both sites was to make clients comfortable with and safe at driving power mobility devices. The content of training was similar, but training protocols differed significantly in terms of the number of sessions (means of 3.43 vs. 9.80; p < or = .05) and the time frame over which the sessions were offered (means of 1.57 vs. 5.10 weeks; p < or = .01). Participants at the two sites differed significantly in terms of overall driving performance (p < or = .05), gender (p < or = .01), and type of device used (p < or = .05). Overall, driving performance was significantly associated with facility, gender, type of device used, and training duration (p < or = .05). When these variables were entered into an exploratory hierarchical regression, facility accounted for 64% of the variance in driving performance. When facility was controlled for, the correlations between device and duration of training with driving performance were no longer significant. The determinants of driving performance are difficult to clearly specify as the variable facility encompasses gender as well as all other differences between the two training protocols. Nevertheless, these data provide direction for future research in this area.

  16. Survival Skills. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructors Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide contains the 43 Survival Skills modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Introductory materials include a description of components of the pre-apprenticeship project, recommendations for module implementation, and synopses of the modules that were developed to prompt social skills development. Each module…

  17. High power phase conjugated solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.; Hermann, M.R.

    1994-07-01

    Three laser systems that are being developed for use in x-ray generation which incorporate SBS phase conjugate mirrors are described. A 25J/pulse Nd:glass laser is being developed for commercial proximity print x-ray lithography; a 0.5J/pulse, 1.3 kHz pulse repetition frequency laser is being built for soft x-ray projection lithography; and a 1 kJ/pulse laser driver for a table top x-ray laser has been designed. The results of prototypical experimental investigations are presented and the basic design principles for high average power phase conjugated laser systems shared by each of these lasers are discussed.

  18. Communication: Phase incremented echo train acquisition in NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltisberger, Jay H.; Walder, Brennan J.; Keeler, Eric G.; Kaseman, Derrick C.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2012-06-01

    We present an improved and general approach for implementing echo train acquisition (ETA) in magnetic resonance spectroscopy, particularly where the conventional approach of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) acquisition would produce numerous artifacts. Generally, adding ETA to any N-dimensional experiment creates an N + 1 dimensional experiment, with an additional dimension associated with the echo count, n, or an evolution time that is an integer multiple of the spacing between echo maxima. Here we present a modified approach, called phase incremented echo train acquisition (PIETA), where the phase of the mixing pulse and every other refocusing pulse, ϕP, is incremented as a single variable, creating an additional phase dimension in what becomes an N + 2 dimensional experiment. A Fourier transform with respect to the PIETA phase, ϕP, converts the ϕP dimension into a Δp dimension where desired signals can be easily separated from undesired coherence transfer pathway signals, thereby avoiding cumbersome or intractable phase cycling schemes where the receiver phase must follow a master equation. This simple modification eliminates numerous artifacts present in NMR experiments employing CPMG acquisition and allows "single-scan" measurements of transverse relaxation and J-couplings. Additionally, unlike CPMG, we show how PIETA can be appended to experiments with phase modulated signals after the mixing pulse.

  19. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative modification has been made to a previously patented design for the Phase Change Material (PCM) Thermal Generator, which works in water where ocean temperature alternatively melts wax in canisters, or allows the wax to re-solidify, causing high-pressure oil to flow through a hydraulic generator, thus creating electricity to charge a battery that powers the vehicle. In this modification, a similar thermal PCM device has been created that is heated and cooled by the air and solar radiation instead of using ocean temperature differences to change the PCM from solid to liquid. This innovation allows the device to use thermal energy to generate electricity on land, instead of just in the ocean.

  20. High-powered vehicle drive train

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, C.E.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a vehicle comprising: an engine having an infinitely variable transmission operatively coupled for transmitting engine power to the transmission's input shaft with the transmission output shaft being operatively connected to the vehicle's drive wheels. The transmission comprising a planetary drive structure includes a drive ring gear carrying a first gear in engagement with a drive gear on the input shaft for rotation of the drive ring gear with the input shaft, a central sun gear and planetary gear members disposed in the annular space between, and in engagement with the drive ring gear and the sun gear and rotatably supported on a planetary carrier. The carrier is supported for rotation with the transmission output shaft and an infinitely variable toroidal traction roller transmission structure including two parallel toridal transmissions having a central input toric disc structure common to both toroidal transmissions and operatively connected to the input shaft. The output toric discs being mounted on a shaft associated with the sun gear of the planetary drive.

  1. Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kight, Scott; Gaynor, John J.; Adams, Sandra D.

    2006-01-01

    We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their own ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits…

  2. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Jalil; Koozehchian, Majid S; Kreider, Richard B; Zuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu) and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the strength and

  3. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu) and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the strength and

  4. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  5. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  6. Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

    2013-09-01

    Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ˜250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

  7. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  8. Rest Interval Required for Power Training With Power Load in the Bench Press Throw Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, Jose L; Solana, Rafael Sabido; Sarabia Marín, Jose M; Fernández Fernández, Jaime; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to test the influence of various rest interval (RI) durations used between sets on power output performance and physiological and perceptual variables during a strength training session using 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press throw exercise. Thirty-one college students (18 males and 13 females) took part in the study. The experimental protocol consists of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of the bench press throw exercise with a load representing 40% of 1RM. Subjects performed the experimental protocol on 3 different occasions, differing by the RI between sets (1, 2, or 3 minutes). During the sessions, power data (mean power and peak power), physiological (lactate concentration [La]) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness was reported 24 and 48 hours after the training session. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that 1-minute RI entailed higher power decreases and greater increases in values of physiological and perceptual variables compared with both 2- and 3-minute RIs. Nevertheless, no differences were found between 2- and 3-minute RIs. Therefore, this study showed that, when training with 40% of 1RM in the bench press throw exercise, a 2-minute RI between sets can be enough to avoid significant decreases in power output. Consequently, training sessions' duration could be reduced without causing excessive fatigue, allowing additional time to focus on other conditioning priorities.

  9. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  10. Power scaling of passively phased fiber amplifier arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Sami A.; Culver, Bill; Nelson, Burke; Starcher, Yuji; Bates, George M.; Hedrick, Jerry W., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    Passive phasing of fiber amplifier arrays are promising for the power scaling of high power fiber laser systems. The broadband operation of passively phased systems mitigates nonlinear effects such as Stimulated Brillouin Scattering. This leads to the possibility of scaling the individual fiber amplifiers in the passively phased arrays to multi-kilowatt power levels. In effect, a smaller number of fiber amplifiers can be used compared to other methods of fiber amplifiers combining. We report the passive phasing of 16 Yb-doped fiber amplifiers at 5W each for a total of 80W.

  11. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  12. Solar power satellite system definition study, phase 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A program plan for the Solar Power Satellite Program is presented. The plan includes research, development, and evaluation phase, engineering and development and cost verification phase, prototype construction, and commercialization. Cost estimates and task requirements are given for the following technology areas: (1) solar arrays; (2) thermal engines and thermal systems; (3) power transmission (to earth); (4) large space structures; (5) materials technology; (6) system control; (7) space construction; (8) space transportation; (9) power distribution, and space environment effects.

  13. Microwave power transmitting phased array antenna research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    An initial design study and the development results of an S band RF power transmitting phased array antenna experiment system are presented. The array was to be designed, constructed and instrumented to permit wireless power transmission technology evaluation measurements. The planned measurements were to provide data relative to the achievable performance in the state of the art of flexible surface, retrodirective arrays, as a step in technically evaluating the satellite power system concept for importing to earth, via microwave beams, the nearly continuous solar power available in geosynchronous orbit. Details of the microwave power transmitting phased array design, instrumentation approaches, system block diagrams, and measured component and breadboard characteristics achieved are presented.

  14. Power train for front and rear wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, M.; Shinozaki, T.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a power train for a front and rear wheel drive vehicle comprising: an engine having a crankshaft and an engine case; a first output shaft on a first side of the crankshaft and parallel thereto in the engine case; a second output shaft on a second side to the crankshaft and parallel thereto in the engine case; and a speed change transmission coupled between the crankshaft and the second output shaft, the first output shaft being driven by the second output shaft.

  15. High-power phase locking of a fiber amplifier array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, T. M.; Baker, J. T.; Sanchez, A. D.; Robin, C. A.; Vergien, C. L.; Zeringue, C.; Gallant, D.; Lu, Chunte A.; Pulford, Benjamin; Bronder, T. J.; Lucero, Arthur

    2009-02-01

    We report high power phase locked fiber amplifier array using the Self-Synchronous Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-detector Electronic-frequency Tagging technique. We report the first experimental results for a five element amplifier array with a total locked power of more than 725-W. We will report on experimental measurements of the phase fluctuations versus time when the control loop is closed. The rms phase error was measured to be λ/60. Recent results will be reported. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the highest fiber laser power to be coherently combined.

  16. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation: Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement requires not only adequate frequency response but must also address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. The implications of these problems are assessed.

  17. Effects of endurance training on the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation phases in professional cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Chicharro, J.; Hoyos, J.; Lucia, A.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the changes produced in both the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation (HHV) phases of professional cyclists (n = 11) in response to endurance training, and to compare the results with those of amateur cyclists (n = 11). Methods—Each professional cyclist performed three laboratory exercise tests to exhaustion during the active rest (autumn: November), precompetition (winter: January), and competition (spring: May) periods of the sports season. Amateur cyclists only performed one exercise test during the competition period. The isocapnic buffering and HHV ranges were calculated during each test and defined as VO2 and power output (W). Results—No significant differences were found in the isocapnic buffering range in each of the periods of the sports season in professional cyclists. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in the HHV range (expressed in W) during both the competition (p<0.01) and precompetition(p<0.05) periods compared with the rest period. On the other hand, a longer HHV range (p<0.01) was observed in amateur cyclists than in professional cyclists (whether this was expressed in terms of VO2 or W). Conclusions—No change is observed in the isocapnic buffering range of professional cyclists throughout a sports season despite a considerable increase in training loads and a significant reduction in HHV range expressed in terms of power output. Key Words: training; cycling; isocapnic buffering; hypocapnic hyperventilation PMID:11131234

  18. Dissemination of the Coping Power Program: Importance of Intensity of Counselor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline; Powell, Nicole; Qu, Lixin; Wells, Karen; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined an important but rarely investigated aspect of the dissemination process: the intensity of training provided to practitioners. Counselors in 57 schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: Coping Power-training plus feedback (CP-TF), Coping Power-basic training (CP-BT), or a comparison condition. CP-TF counselors…

  19. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  20. Trellis phase codes for power-bandwith efficient satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Highfill, J. H.; Hsu, C. D.; Harkness, R.

    1981-01-01

    Support work on improved power and spectrum utilization on digital satellite channels was performed. Specific attention is given to the class of signalling schemes known as continuous phase modulation (CPM). The specific work described in this report addresses: analytical bounds on error probability for multi-h phase codes, power and bandwidth characterization of 4-ary multi-h codes, and initial results of channel simulation to assess the impact of band limiting filters and nonlinear amplifiers on CPM performance.

  1. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  2. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, S. K.; Stoltzman, D.; Knowles, G.; Lin, R.

    1981-01-01

    A subscale model of the spectral splitting concentrator system with 10" aperture is defined and designed. The model is basically a scaled down version of Phase 1 design with an effective concentration ratio up to 1000:1. The system performance is predicted to be 21.5% for the 2 cell GaAs/Si system, and 20% for Si/GaAs at AM2 using realistic component efficiencies. Component cost of the model is projected in the $50K range. Component and system test plans are also detailed.

  3. Space power demonstrator engine, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design, analysis, and preliminary test results for a 25 kWe Free-Piston Stirling engine with integral linear alternators are described. The project is conducted by Mechanical Technology under the direction of LeRC as part of the SP-100 Nuclear Space Power Systems Program. The engine/alternator system is designed to demonstrate the following performance: (1) 25 kWe output at a specific weight less than 8 kg/kW; (2) 25 percent efficiency at a temperature ratio of 2.0; (3) low vibration (amplitude less than .003 in); (4) internal gas bearings (no wear, no external pump); and (5) heater temperature/cooler temperature from 630 to 315 K. The design approach to minimize vibration is a two-module engine (12.5 kWe per module) in a linearly-opposed configuration with a common expansion space. The low specific weight is obtained at high helium pressure (150 bar) and high frequency (105 Hz) and by using high magnetic strength (samarium cobalt) alternator magnets. Engine tests began in June 1985; 16 months following initiation of engine and test cell design. Hydrotest and consequent engine testing to date has been intentionally limited to half pressure, and electrical power output is within 15 to 20 percent of design predictions.

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  5. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a state-of-the-art electric power train is part of a national effort to reap the potential benefit of useful urban electric passenger vehicles. Outlined in a detailed presentation are: (1) assessment of the state-of-the-art in electric vehicle technology; (2) state-of-the-art power train design; (3) improved power train; and (4) summary and recommendations.

  6. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    PubMed

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase

  7. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Daria; Hermes, Dora; Jensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz) is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs) reflects a window of excitability. PMID:19098986

  8. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training lesson plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This volume provides lesson plans for training radiological control technicians. Covered here is basic radiological documentation, counting errors, dosimetry, environmental monitoring, and radiation instruments.

  9. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  10. Power shift transmission power train having a forward low speed gear train with dual reduction gear set means

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1986-04-29

    A power train for a power shift transmission is described which consists of: a hollow first input shaft coaxially and rotatably disposed on a first output shaft on a first axis therewith, the first input shaft and the first output shaft being selectively engaged and disengaged with each other through a forward driving first speed clutch; a second input shaft and a hollow second output shaft coaxially and rotatably disposed on the second input shaft on a second axis therewith, the second input shaft and the second output shaft being selectively engaged and disengaged with each other through a forward driving second speed clutch; a driving shaft disposed in parallel relation with the first input shaft, the first output shaft, the second input shaft and the second output shaft, the driving shaft being interconnected through transmission gears to the second input shaft; a driven shaft directly interconnected through transmission gears with the second output shaft; a forward driving first speed first reduction gear set interconnecting the first input shaft with the second imput shaft; and a forward driving first speed second reduction gear set interconnecting the first output shaft with the second output shaft.

  11. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  12. Influence of atmospheric phase compensation on optical heterodyne power measurements.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Aniceto

    2008-04-28

    The simulation of beam propagation is used to examine the uncertainty inherent to the process of optical power measurement with a practical heterodyne receiver because of the presence of refractive turbulence. Phase-compensated heterodyne receivers offer the potential for overcoming the limitations imposed by the atmosphere by the partial correction of turbulence-induced wave-front phase aberrations. However, wave-front amplitude fluctuations can limit the compensation process and diminish the achievable heterodyne performance.

  13. Lower extremity power training in elderly subjects with moderate mobility limitations: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults were randomized to either high-velocity high-power training (POW), slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR) or a control group of lower extremity stretching (CON). Training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks and subjects completed t...

  14. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  15. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  16. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4: Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The phase control system is described. Potential sources of phase error are identified and the performance leading to selection of the allowable phase error for each source is summarized. The pilot transmitter, the effects of ionospheric, the master slave returnable timing system (MSRTS), the SPS receiver, and the high power amplifier for dc to microwave conversion are considered separately. Design parameters of the pilot transmitter and spacetenna transponder are presented.

  17. Effects of short-term training using SmartCranks on cycle work distribution and power output during cycling.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Harald; Siebert, Stefan; Walsh, Mark

    2008-05-01

    SmartCranks use a free running bearing to promote independent pedal work by each leg during cycling. This system is designed for training the upstroke phase during cycling. The effects of training with SmartCranks on the power output (PO) and on cycle work distribution at the anaerobic threshold and the maximum power level were examined. Twenty male, non-professional cyclists were randomly assigned into intervention and control group, training 5 weeks with SmartCranks and conventional cranks, respectively. Before and after the training period the subjects performed an incremental test to exhaustion. Lactate was measured to determine the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and forces at the pedal were recorded to quantify changes in the work distribution over the full revolution. We observed no significant statistical difference for peak power (PO; 333.3+/-32.8 W vs. 323.3+/-21.8 W) and PO at IAT (229.6+/-30.1 W vs. 222.7+/-25.2 W) for SmartCrank and control conditions, respectively (P>0.05). However, we did observe that work distribution in the downward phase was significantly reduced in the SmartCranks training group at peak PO (from 70.0+/-4.9% to 64.3+/-5.8%; P<0.05). Although the possible implications of the change in the work distribution of sectors are not known, for the success in cycling performance-indicated by the PO-training with the SmartCranks was not more advantageous than training with conventional bicycle cranks.

  18. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of...

  19. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of...

  20. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of...

  1. Power System Electrician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The graduate of the Power System Electrician apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyman; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) read and interpret drawing,…

  2. Mobility Outcomes Following Five Training Sessions with a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Dalley, Skyler; Clausen, Mike; Wilson, Edgar; Morrison, Scott; Etheridge, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss of legged mobility due to spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with multiple physiological and psychological impacts. Powered exoskeletons offer the possibility of regained mobility and reversal or prevention of the secondary effects associated with immobility. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate mobility outcomes for individuals with SCI after 5 gait-training sessions with a powered exoskeleton, with a primary goal of characterizing the ease of learning and usability of the system. Methods: Sixteen subjects with SCI were enrolled in a pilot clinical trial at Shepherd Center, Atlanta, Georgia, with injury levels ranging from C5 complete to L1 incomplete. An investigational Indego exoskeleton research kit was evaluated for ease of use and efficacy in providing legged mobility. Outcome measures of the study included the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as well as measures of independence including donning and doffing times and the ability to walk on various surfaces. Results: At the end of 5 sessions (1.5 hours per session), average walking speed was 0.22 m/s for persons with C5-6 motor complete tetraplegia, 0.26 m/s for T1-8 motor complete paraplegia, and 0.45 m/s for T9-L1 paraplegia. Distances covered in 6 minutes averaged 64 meters for those with C5-6, 74 meters for T1-8, and 121 meters for T9-L1. Additionally, all participants were able to walk on both indoor and outdoor surfaces. Conclusions: Results after only 5 sessions suggest that persons with tetraplegia and paraplegia learn to use the Indego exoskeleton quickly and can manage a variety of surfaces. Walking speeds and distances achieved also indicate that some individuals with paraplegia can quickly become limited community ambulators using this system. PMID:26364278

  3. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The preliminary safety assessment report analyzes the potential radiological risk of the integrated MSNPS with the launch vehicle including interface with the weapon system. Most emphasis will be placed the prime power concept design. Safety problems can occur any time during the entire life cycle of the system including contingency phases. The preliminary safety assessment report is to be delivered at the end of phase 2. This assessment will be the basis of the safety requirements which will be applied to the design of the MSNPS as it develops in subsequent phases. The assessment also focuses design activities on specific high-risk scenarios and missions that may impact safety.

  4. Analysis of Commercial Contract Training for the Navy (Phase II) [And] Commercial Contract Training Navy Area VOTEC Support Center (AVSC) Guidelines. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    The two-part report describing the Phase 2 findings of a two-phase study demonstrates the utility of the commercial contract training concept for satisfying certain Navy skill training requirements. Part 1 concerns source evaluation, skill analysis and selection, contractual considerations, and comparative training capability evaluation. It…

  5. Analysis of Commercial Contract Training for the Marine Corps (Phase II) [And] Commercial Contract Training Marine Corps Area VOTEC Support Center (AVSC) Guidelines. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    The two-part report describing the Phase 2 findings of a two-phase study demonstrates the utility of the commercial contract training concept for satisfying certain Marine Corps skill training requirements. Part 1 concerns source evaluation, skill analysis and selection, contractual considerations, and comparative training capability evaluation.…

  6. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  7. Engineering study for the phase 1 privatization facilities electrical power

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    This engineering study evaluates the availability of electric power from the existing 13.8 kV substation, BPA 115 kV system,and RL 230 kV transmission line; for supporting the Privatization Phase I Facilities. 230 kV system is a preferable alternative.

  8. Three-phase power factor controller with induced EMF sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A power factor controller for an ac induction motor is provided which is of the type comprising thyristor switches connected in series with the motor, phase detectors for sensing the motor current and voltage and providing an output proportional to the phase difference between the motor voltage and current, and a control circuit, responsive to the output of the phase detector and to a power factor command signal, for controlling switching of the thyristor. The invention involves sensing the induced emf produced by the motor during the time interval when the thyristor is off and for producing a corresponding feedback signal for controlling switching of the thyristor. The sensed emf is also used to enhance soft starting of the motor.

  9. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  10. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  11. Training and Technology Project: Listing of Documents and Reports for Training and Technology--Phase I. An Experimental Manpower Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    This annotated bibliography of 148 citations ranging in date from June 1, 1966 to September 30, 1968, reports all major publications (reports, documents, news releases, articles, and brochures) issued during Phase I of the Training and Technology (TAT) Project. The information on each publication includes title, TAT code number, status of the…

  12. Cutting Tools, Files and Abrasives. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on cutting tools, files, and abrasives is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify and explain the proper use and care of various knives, saws, snips, chisels, and abrasives. The module may contain some or all of the…

  13. An Evaluation System for Training Programs: A Case Study Using a Four-Phase Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingham, Tony; Richley, Bonnie; Rezania, Davar

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: With the increased importance of training in organizations, creating important and meaningful programs are critical to an organization and its members. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a four-phase systematic approach to designing and evaluating training programs that promotes collaboration between organizational leaders, trainers,…

  14. Nuclear power plant simulators: their use in operator training and requalification

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Baer, D.K.; Francis, C.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the capabilities and use of nuclear power plant simulators either built or being built by the US nuclear power industry; to determine the adequacy of existing standards for simulator design and for the training of power plant operators on simulators; and to assess the issues about simulator training programs raised by the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2.

  15. Benefit-Cost Analysis of TAT Phase I Worker Training. Training and Technology Project. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Frederick C.; Castagna, Paul A.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate costs and benefits and to compute alternative benefit-cost ratios for both the individuals and the Federal Government as a result of investing time and resources in the Training and Technology (TAT) Project. TAT is a continuing experimental program in training skilled workers for private industry. The five…

  16. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2016-06-13

    The technical embodiment of the Huygens-Fresnel principle, an optical phased array (OPA) is an arrangement of optical emitters with relative phases controlled to create a desired beam profile after propagation. One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources. Here we present an all-fiber architecture that stabilizes the relative output phase by inferring the relative path length differences between lasers using the small fraction of light that is back-reflected into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface, without the need for any external sampling optics. This architecture is compatible with high power continuous wave laser sources (e.g., fiber amplifiers) up to 100 W per channel. The high-power compatible internally sensed OPA was implemented experimentally using commercial 15 W fiber amplifiers, demonstrating an output RMS phase stability of λ/194, and the ability to steer the beam at up to 10 kHz. PMID:27410363

  17. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2016-06-13

    The technical embodiment of the Huygens-Fresnel principle, an optical phased array (OPA) is an arrangement of optical emitters with relative phases controlled to create a desired beam profile after propagation. One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources. Here we present an all-fiber architecture that stabilizes the relative output phase by inferring the relative path length differences between lasers using the small fraction of light that is back-reflected into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface, without the need for any external sampling optics. This architecture is compatible with high power continuous wave laser sources (e.g., fiber amplifiers) up to 100 W per channel. The high-power compatible internally sensed OPA was implemented experimentally using commercial 15 W fiber amplifiers, demonstrating an output RMS phase stability of λ/194, and the ability to steer the beam at up to 10 kHz.

  18. Analysis of acute explosive training modalities to improve lower-body power in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Daniel J; Alvar, Brent A

    2007-11-01

    Complex training is the simultaneous combination of heavy resistance training and plyometrics. The objective of this study was to test the effects of complex training vs. heavy resistance or plyometric interventions alone on various power-specific performance measures. Forty-five male division II junior college baseball players participated in 3 separate 4-week resistance training interventions. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups. In a counterbalanced rotation design, each group participated in complex, heavy resistance, and plyometric training interventions. Each individual was tested in 20-yd (SP20), 40-yd (SP40), 60-yd (SP60), vertical jump, standing broad jump, and T-agility measures pre- and post-4-week training interventions. There was no statistical significant difference (p = 0.11) between groups across all performance measures. Review of each distinct training intervention revealed greater percent improvements in SP20 (0.55; -0.49; -0.12), SP40 (0.26; -0.72; -1.33), SP60 (0.27; 0.15; -0.27), standing broad jump (1.80; 0.67; 1.1), and T-agility (2.33; 1.23; -0.04) with complex training interventions than with the heavy resistance or plyometric training interventions, respectively. Plyometric-only training showed greater percent changes in vertical jump (1.90) than with complex (0.97) or heavy resistance training (0.36). The present results indicate that complex training can provide strength and conditioning professionals equal, if not slightly greater, improvements in muscular power than traditional heavy resistance- and plyometric-only interventions in moderately trained athletes. Complex training can be another valuable method for short-term power and speed improvements in athletes in isolation or in conjunction with other power development methods.

  19. Welding. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on welding, three of which are available separately as CE 032 889-891. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, a discussion of the teacher's role in conducting the course, and scope and contents of the four phases…

  20. Combined Analysis of Phase I and Phase II Data to Enhance the Power of Pharmacogenetic Tests.

    PubMed

    Tessier, A; Bertrand, J; Chenel, M; Comets, E

    2016-03-01

    We show through a simulation study how the joint analysis of data from phase I and phase II studies enhances the power of pharmacogenetic tests in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. PK profiles were simulated under different designs along with 176 genetic markers. The null scenarios assumed no genetic effect, while under the alternative scenarios, drug clearance was associated with six genetic markers randomly sampled in each simulated dataset. We compared penalized regression Lasso and stepwise procedures to detect the associations between empirical Bayes estimates of clearance, estimated by nonlinear mixed effects models, and genetic variants. Combining data from phase I and phase II studies, even if sparse, increases the power to identify the associations between genetics and PK due to the larger sample size. Design optimization brings a further improvement, and we highlight a direct relationship between η-shrinkage and loss of genetic signal. PMID:27069775

  1. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-06-01

    Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p < 0.05). Additionally, their change rate abilities were substantially superior to those of the traditional resistance training (p < 0.05). The low-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p < 0.05). However, traditional resistance training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that jump performance, speed, and muscle power significantly improved after 10 weeks of PLP training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to

  2. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-03-10

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

  3. Strength and power training did not modify cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, H; Queiroz, A C C; Chehuen, M R; Costa, L A R; Wallerstein, L F; Mello, M T; Ugrinowitsch, C; Forjaz, C L M

    2011-09-01

    Resistance training increases muscle strength in older adults, decreasing the effort necessary for executing physical tasks, and reducing cardiovascular load during exercise. This hypothesis has been confirmed during strength-based activities, but not during aerobic-based activities. This study determined whether different resistance training regimens, strength training (ST, constant movement velocity) or power training (PT, concentric phase performed as fast as possible) can blunt the increase in cardiovascular load during an aerobic stimulus. Older adults (63.9 ± 0.7 years) were randomly allocated to: control (N = 11), ST (N = 13, twice a week, 70-90% 1-RM) and PT (N = 15, twice a week, 30-50% 1-RM) groups. Before and after 16 weeks, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured during a maximal treadmill test. Resting SBP and RPP were similarly reduced in all groups (combined data = -5.7 ± 1.2 and -5.0 ± 1.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Maximal SBP, HR and RPP did not change. The increase in measured VO(2), HR and RPP for the increment in estimated VO(2) (absolute load) decreased similarly in all groups (combined data = -9.1 ± 2.6, -14.1 ± 3.9, -14.2 ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.05), while the increments in the cardiovascular variables for the increase in measured VO(2) did not change. In elderly subjects, ST and PT did not blunt submaximal or maximal HR, SBP and RPP increases during the maximal exercise test, showing that they did not reduce cardiovascular stress during aerobic tasks.

  4. Phased Array Technology with Phase and Amplitude Controlled Magnetron for Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    We need a microwave power transmitter with light weight and high DC-RF conversion efficiency for an economical SSPS (Space Solar Power System). We need a several g/W for a microwave power transmission (MPT) system with a phased array with 0.0001 degree of beam control accuracy (=tan-1 (100m/36,000km)) and over 80 % of DC-RF conversion efficiency when the weight of the 1GW-class SPS is below a several thousand ton - a several tens of thousand ton. We focus a microwave tube, especially magnetron by economical reason and by the amount of mass-production because it is commonly used for microwave oven in the world. At first, we have developed a phase controlled magnetron (PCM) with different technologies from what Dr. Brown developed. Next we have developed a phase and amplitude controlled magnetron (PACM). For the PACM, we add a feedback to magnetic field of the PCM with an external coil to control and stabilize amplitude of the microwave. We succeed to develop the PACM with below 10-6 of frequency stability and within 1 degree of an error in phase and within 1% of amplitude. We can control a phase and amplitude of the PACM and we have developed a phased array the PCMs. With the PCM technology, we have developed a small light weight MPT transmitter COMET (Compact Microwave Energy Transmitter) with consideration of heat radiation for space use and with consideration of mobility to space.

  5. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2013-11-20

    This study evaluated how five weeks of inertial training using two different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The two training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training three times per week for five weeks using the new Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included three exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), while the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2% and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2% and 27%), CMJ (3.8% and 6.7%), SJ (2.2% and 6.1%), PVT (8% and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8% and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:24263657

  6. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  7. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on diesel-powered equipment. 75.1915 Section 75.1915 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment. (a) To be qualified to perform maintenance, repairs, examinations and tests on...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... on diesel-powered equipment. 75.1915 Section 75.1915 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment. (a) To be qualified to perform maintenance, repairs, examinations and tests on...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on diesel-powered equipment. 75.1915 Section 75.1915 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment. (a) To be qualified to perform maintenance, repairs, examinations and tests on...

  10. Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-08-17

    In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge

  11. Phase synchronized quasiperiodicity in power electronic inverter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Andriyanov, Alexey I.; Shein, Vladimir V.

    2014-02-01

    The development of switch-mode operated power electronic converter systems has provided a broad range of new effective approaches to the conversion of electric power. In this paper we describe the transitions from regular periodic operation to quasiperiodicity and high-periodic resonance behavior that can be observed in a pulse-width modulated DC/AC converter operating with high feedback gain. We demonstrate the occurrence of two different types of torus birth bifurcations and present a series of phase portraits illustrating the appearance of phase-synchronized quasiperiodicity. Our numerical findings are verified through comparison with an experimental inverter system. The results shed light on the transitions to quasiperiodicity and to various forms of three-frequency dynamics in non-smooth systems.

  12. High power l-band fast phase shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Terechkine, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    Following successful testing of a concept prototype of a waveguide-based high power phase shifter, a design of a fast, high power device has been developed. The shifter uses two magnetically biased blocks of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) positioned along the side walls of a rectangular waveguide. The cross-section of the waveguide is chosen to suppress unwanted RF modes that could otherwise compromise performance of the phase shifter. Static bias field in the YIG blocks is created by employing permanent magnets. Low inductance coils in the same magnetic circuit excite fast component of the bias field. Design of the device ensures effective heat extraction from the YIG blocks and penetration of the fast magnetic field inside the waveguide with minimum delay. This paper summarizes main steps in this development and gives brief description of the system.

  13. Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.

  14. On the Spike Train Variability Characterized by Variance-to-Mean Power Relationship.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    We propose a statistical method for modeling the non-Poisson variability of spike trains observed in a wide range of brain regions. Central to our approach is the assumption that the variance and the mean of interspike intervals are related by a power function characterized by two parameters: the scale factor and exponent. It is shown that this single assumption allows the variability of spike trains to have an arbitrary scale and various dependencies on the firing rate in the spike count statistics, as well as in the interval statistics, depending on the two parameters of the power function. We also propose a statistical model for spike trains that exhibits the variance-to-mean power relationship. Based on this, a maximum likelihood method is developed for inferring the parameters from rate-modulated spike trains. The proposed method is illustrated on simulated and experimental spike trains.

  15. Optimizing Soft Magnetic Composites for Power Frequency Applications and Power-Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Guthrie, Roderick; Isac, Mihaiela

    2012-03-01

    A new approach, together with a new family of soft magnetic composites (SMCs), has been developed and optimized for power alternating-current applications. The different technological and economic restrictions needed to maximize a composite's performance-to-cost ratio are presented. The experimental procedures to produce sintered lamellar SMCs are reported, together with magnetic results and the effects of different processing parameters on their performance. The present results are compared with corresponding data available for soft magnetic materials available on the market (laminations and composites). Data on the mechanical strength of these new SMC structures are also given. The new process results in magnetic and mechanical properties of different alloy systems that are better than those of any of the SMCs available. The present materials' energetic losses can be under 2 W/kg at 60 Hz, at 1 T, whilst their permeability exceeds 2000, while maintaining maximum induction above 1.7 T. These properties are very close to the best results for standard laminations on the market. The present process has the potential to be very inexpensive, owing to its simplicity. Even though not fully isotropic, recent three-dimensional machine designs and process advantages conferred by powder metallurgy techniques can be applied to this new family of lamellar particle composites. Through theoretical calculations and modeling exercises, it is briefly shown that this new kind of material can result in an improvement to the transportation sector where weight and efficiency of newly emerging electrical and hybrid power-trains are of prime importance.

  16. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.

  17. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4. Volume 2: Analytical simulation of SPS system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The pilot signal parameter optimization and power transponder analyses are presented. The SPS antenna phase control system is modeled and the hardware simulation study described. Ionospheric and system phase error effects and the effects of high power amplifier phase and amplitude jitters are considered. Parameter optimization of the spread spectrum receiver, consisting of the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking loop, is described.

  18. High-speed power training in older adults: A shift of the external resistance at which peak power is produced

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that power training increases peak power in older adults. Evaluating the external resistance (% one repetition-maximum [1RM]) at which peak power is developed is critical given that changes in the components of peak power (force and velocity) are dependent on the %1RM at which peak power occurs. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in peak power (and the external resistance at which peak power occurred) after 12 weeks of high-speed power training versus traditional slow-speed strength training. Seventy-two older men and women were randomized to high-speed power training at 40% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n=24 [70.8±6.8 yrs]); traditional RT at 80% 1RM (STR: n=22 [68.6±7.8 yrs]); or control (CON: n=18 [71.5±6.1 yrs]). Measures of muscle performance were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week training intervention. Changes in muscle power and 1RM strength improved similarly with both HSPT and SSST, but HSPT shifted the external resistance at which peak power was produced to a lower external resistance (from 67%1RM to 52%1RM) compared to SSST (from 65%1RM to 62%1RM)(p<0.05), thus increasing the velocity component of peak power (change: HSPT=0.18±0.21m/s; SSST=−0.03±0.15 m/s)(p<0.05). Because sufficient speed of the lower limb is necessary for functional tasks related to safety (crossing a busy intersection, fall prevention), HSPT should be implemented in older adults to improve power at lower external resistances, thus increasing the velocity component of power and making older adults safer in their environment. These data provide clinicians with the necessary information to tailor exercise programs to the individual needs of the older adult, affecting the components of power. PMID:23897022

  19. Time Course of Improvements in Power Characteristics in Elite Development Netball Players Entering a Full-Time Training Program.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Ian; Chapman, Dale W; Taylor, Kristie Lee; Ball, Nick B

    2016-05-01

    We describe the time course of adaptation to structured resistance training on entering a full-time high-performance sport program. Twelve international caliber female netballers (aged 19.9 ± 0.4 years) were monitored for 18 weeks with countermovement (CMJ: performed with body weight and 15 kg) and drop jumps (0.35-m box at body weight) at the start of each training week. Performance did not improve linearly or concurrently with loaded CMJ power improving 11% by Week 5 (effect size [ES] 0.93 ± 0.72) in contrast, substantial positive changes were observed for unloaded CMJ power (12%; ES 0.78 ± 0.39), and CMJ velocity (unloaded: 7.1%; ES 0.66 ± 0.34; loaded: 7.5%; ES 0.90 ± 0.41) by week 7. Over the investigation duration, large improvements were observed in unloaded CMJ power (24%; ES 1.45 ± 1.11) and velocity (12%; ES 1.13 ± 0.76). Loaded CMJ power also showed a large improvement (19%; ES 1.49 ± 0.97) but only moderate changes were observed for loaded CMJ velocity (8.4%; ES 1.01 ± 0.67). Jump height changes in either unloaded or loaded CMJ were unclear over the 18-week period. Drop jump performance improved throughout the investigation period with moderate positive changes in reactive strength index observed (35%; ES 0.97 ± 0.69). The adaptation response to a structured resistance training program does not occur linearly in young female athletes. Caution should be taken if assessing jump height only, as this will provide a biased observation to a training response. Frequently assessing CMJ performance can aid program design coaching decisions to ensure improvements are seen past the initial neuromuscular learning phase in performance training. PMID:26439781

  20. Enhanced INL Power Grid Test Bed Infrastructure – Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Carol Ann; West, Grayson Shawn; McBride, Scott Alan

    2014-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, owns, operates, and maintains transmission and distribution power grid infrastructure to support the INL multi program mission. Sections of this power infrastructure, known as the INL Power Grid Test Bed, have been and are being used by government and industry to develop, demonstrate, and validate technologies for the modern grid, including smart grid, on a full scale utility test bed. INL’s power grid includes 61 miles of 140 MW, 138 kV rated electrical power transmission supplying seven main substations, each feeding a separate facility complex (or ‘city’) within the INL’s 890 square mile Site. This power grid is fed by three commercial utilities into the INL’s main control substation, but is operated independently from the commercial utility through its primary substation and command and control center. Within the INL complex, one of the seven complexes, the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC), has been designated as the INL complex for supporting critical infrastructure research and testing. This complex includes its own substation and 13.8kV distribution network, all configurable and controlled by the INL research and development programs. Through investment partnership with the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE), INL is enhancing its existing distribution infrastructure to expand the types of testing that can be conducted and increase flexibility for testing configurations. The enhancement of the INL Power Grid Test Bed will enable development and full scale testing of smart-grid-related technologies and smart devices including testing interoperability, operational performance, reliability, and resiliency contribution at multiple distribution voltage classes, specifically 15kV, 25kV, and 35kV. The expected time frame for completion of the Phase I portion of the enhancement would be 4th quarter fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  1. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  2. Neuromuscular and Blood Lactate Responses to Squat Power Training with Different Rest Intervals Between Sets

    PubMed Central

    Martorelli, André; Bottaro, Martim; Vieira, Amilton; Rocha-Júnior, Valdinar; Cadore, Eduardo; Prestes, Jonato; Wagner, Dale; Martorelli, Saulo

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the effect of rest interval length (RI) between sets on neuromuscular performance and metabolic response during power training are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare maximal power output, muscular activity and blood lactate concentration following 1, 2 or 3 minutes RI between sets during a squat power training protocol. Twelve resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.2 years; 1.79 ± 0.08 cm; 81.8 ± 11.3 kg) performed 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squat exercise at 60% of their 1 repetition maximum. Peak and average power were obtained for each repetition and set using a linear position transducer. Muscular activity and blood lactate were measured pre and post-exercise session. There was no significant difference between RI on peak power and average power. However, peak power decreased 5.6%, 1.9%, and 5.9% after 6 sets using 1, 2 and 3 minutes of RI, respectively. Average power also decreased 10.5% (1 min), 2.6% (2 min), and 4.3% (3 min) after 6 sets. Blood lactate increased similarly during the three training sessions (1-min: 5.5 mMol, 2-min: 4.3 mMol, and 3-min: 4.0 mMol) and no significant changes were observed in the muscle activity after multiple sets, independent of RI length (pooled ES for 1-min: 0.47, 2-min: 0.65, and 3-min: 1.39). From a practical point of view, the results suggest that 1 to 2 minute of RI between sets during squat exercise may be sufficient to recover power output in a designed power training protocol. However, if training duration is malleable, we recommend 2 min of RI for optimal recovery and power output maintenance during the subsequent exercise sets. Key points This study demonstrates that 1 minute of RI between sets is sufficient to maintain maximal power output during multiple sets of a power-based exercise when it is composed of few repetitions and the sets are not performed until failure. Therefore, a short RI should be considered when designing training programs for the development of

  3. Effect of isokinetic cycling versus weight training on maximal power output and endurance performance in cycling.

    PubMed

    Koninckx, Erwin; Van Leemputte, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a weight training program for the leg extensors with isokinetic cycling training (80 rpm) on maximal power output and endurance performance. Both strength training interventions were incorporated twice a week in a similar endurance training program of 12 weeks. Eighteen trained male cyclists (VO(2peak) 60 +/- 1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were grouped into the weight training (WT n = 9) or the isokinetic training group (IT n = 9) matched for training background and sprint power (P (max)), assessed from five maximal sprints (5 s) on an isokinetic bicycle ergometer at cadences between 40 and 120 rpm. Crank torque was measured (1 kHz) to determine the torque distribution during pedaling. Endurance performance was evaluated by measuring power, heart rate and lactate during a graded exercise test to exhaustion and a 30-min performance test. All tests were performed on subjects' individual race bicycle. Knee extension torque was evaluated isometrically at 115 degrees knee angle and dynamically at 200 degrees s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer. P (max) at 40 rpm increased in both the groups (~15%; P < 0.05). At 120 rpm, no improvement of P (max) was found in the IT training group, which was possibly related to an observed change in crank torque at high cadences (P < 0.05). Both groups improved their power output in the 30-min performance test (P < 0.05). Isometric knee extension torque increased only in WT (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at low cadences, P (max) improved in both training groups. However, in the IT training group, a disturbed pedaling technique compromises an improvement of P (max) at high cadences.

  4. Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

    Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

  5. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  6. Power in Staff Development through Research on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Showers, Beverly

    Mastering alternative models of teaching helps build competence and effectiveness in the repertoire of classroom teachers. However, because the attainment of new skills does not by itself ensure transfer to classroom use, teacher training programs should incorporate study of the transfer process itself, reinforced by team effort. Accordingly,…

  7. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R. Lee; Miller, William C.; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W.; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants 116 powered wheelchair users. Intervention Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Main Outcome Measures Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). Results There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Conclusions Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. PMID:26232684

  8. Does Powerful Language Training Affect Student Participation, Impression Formation, and Gender Communication in Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Crystal Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether powerful language training affected student participation, impression formation, and gender communication style in online discussions. Powerful language was defined as a lack of the use of powerless language. Participants in this study were 507 freshmen taking a first-year college…

  9. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment. 75.1915 Section 75.1915 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment. 75.1915 Section 75.1915 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915...

  11. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  12. A ground based phase control system for the solar power satellite. Executive summary, volume 1, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept and the reference phase control system investigated in earlier efforts are reviewed. A summary overview of the analysis and selection of the pilot signal and power transponder design is presented along with the SOLARSIM program development and the simulated SPS phase control performance. Evaluations of the ground based phase control system as an alternate phase control concept are summarized.

  13. The Effects of POWER Training in Young and Older Adults after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Stacey E.; Embry, Aaron E.; Cence, Brian; Morgan, Patrick; Gregory, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 35,000 strokes occur annually in adults below the age of 40, and there is disappointingly little data describing their responses to rehabilitation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance (POWER) training in young (<40 years) and older (>60 years) adults and to describe relationships between training-induced improvements in muscular and locomotor function. Methods. Data was analyzed from 16 individuals with chronic stroke who participated in 24 sessions of POWER training. Outcomes included muscle power generation, self-selected walking speed (SSWS), 6-minute walk test, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment, Berg Balance Scale, and Dynamic Gait Index. Results. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Within-group comparisons revealed significant improvements in paretic and nonparetic knee extensor muscle power generation in both groups. Additionally, young participants significantly improved SSWS. Improvements in SSWS were more strongly associated with improvements in power generation on both sides in young versus older participants. Conclusions. Younger adults after stroke seem to preferentially benefit from POWER training, particularly when increasing gait speed is a rehabilitation goal. Future research should aim to further understand age-related differences in response to training to provide optimal treatments for all individuals following stroke. PMID:27493828

  14. Specificity of leg power changes to velocities used in bicycle endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rösler, K; Conley, K E; Howald, H; Gerber, C; Hoppeler, H

    1986-07-01

    Increases in leg power production resulting from 8 wk of bicycle endurance training (30 min/day, 5 times/wk) were studied using an isokinetic dynamometer. In addition, biopsies of vastus lateralis were analyzed to characterize muscle ultrastructural changes. Performance increased on the dynamometer specifically near the estimated average knee angular velocity used during the bicycle training (200 degrees/s). Power measurements were made during the first 5 contractions (maximal power: Pmax) and last 5 contractions (final power: Pend) of 25 and 50 consecutive contractions (at 60 and 240 degrees/s, respectively). Pmax and Pend increased only at 240 degrees/s but not at 60 degrees/s. These increases in Pmax (86 W) and Pend (78 W) resulted primarily from longer torque maintenance but also from increased peak torque during each contraction and were close to the increase in mechanical power output maintained on the bicycle (Pb; 78 W) during the training sessions. The specificity of these changes to the angular velocities used in the bicycle training indicates a neural basis to these adaptations. We suggest that these neural adaptations, coupled with the observed enhancement of muscle mitochondrial and capillary density (+41 and +15%, respectively) underlie the increased ability to maintain power production on a bicycle after endurance training.

  15. The Effects of POWER Training in Young and Older Adults after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hunnicutt, Jennifer L; Aaron, Stacey E; Embry, Aaron E; Cence, Brian; Morgan, Patrick; Bowden, Mark G; Gregory, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 35,000 strokes occur annually in adults below the age of 40, and there is disappointingly little data describing their responses to rehabilitation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance (POWER) training in young (<40 years) and older (>60 years) adults and to describe relationships between training-induced improvements in muscular and locomotor function. Methods. Data was analyzed from 16 individuals with chronic stroke who participated in 24 sessions of POWER training. Outcomes included muscle power generation, self-selected walking speed (SSWS), 6-minute walk test, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment, Berg Balance Scale, and Dynamic Gait Index. Results. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Within-group comparisons revealed significant improvements in paretic and nonparetic knee extensor muscle power generation in both groups. Additionally, young participants significantly improved SSWS. Improvements in SSWS were more strongly associated with improvements in power generation on both sides in young versus older participants. Conclusions. Younger adults after stroke seem to preferentially benefit from POWER training, particularly when increasing gait speed is a rehabilitation goal. Future research should aim to further understand age-related differences in response to training to provide optimal treatments for all individuals following stroke. PMID:27493828

  16. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  18. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: crystal phases.

    PubMed

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed. PMID:25362319

  19. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  20. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  1. Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p≤0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

  2. Squat jump training at maximal power loads vs. heavy loads: effect on sprint ability.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Cronin, John B; Hopkins, Will G; Hansen, Keir T

    2008-11-01

    Training at a load maximizing power output (Pmax) is an intuitively appealing strategy for enhancement of performance that has received little research attention. In this study we identified each subject's Pmax for an isoinertial resistance training exercise used for testing and training, and then we related the changes in strength to changes in sprint performance. The subjects were 18 well-trained rugby league players randomized to two equal-volume training groups for a 7-week period of squat jump training with heavy loads (80% 1RM) or with individually determined Pmax loads (20.0-43.5% 1RM). Performance measures were 1RM strength, maximal power at 55% of pretraining 1RM, and sprint times for 10 and 30 m. Percent changes were standardized to make magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between changes in these variables were expressed as correlations. Sprint times for 10 m showed improvements in the 80% 1RM group (-2.9 +/- 3.2%) and Pmax group (-1.3 +/- 2.2%), and there were similar improvements in 30-m sprint time (-1.9 +/- 2.8 and -1.2 +/- 2.0%, respectively). Differences in the improvements in sprint time between groups were unclear, but improvement in 1RM strength in the 80% 1RM group (15 +/- 9%) was possibly substantially greater than in the Pmax group (11 +/- 8%). Small-moderate negative correlations between change in 1RM and change in sprint time (r approximately -0.30) in the combined groups provided the only evidence of adaptive associations between strength and power outputs, and sprint performance. In conclusion, it seems that training at the load that maximizes individual peak power output for this exercise with a sample of professional team sport athletes was no more effective for improving sprint ability than training at heavy loads, and the changes in power output were not usefully related to changes in sprint ability.

  3. Subpicosecond electron bunch train production using a phase-space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E.; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Our recent experimental demonstration of a photoinjector electron bunch train with sub-picosecond structures is reported in this paper. The experiment is accomplished by converting an initially horizontal beam intensity modulation into a longitudinal phase space modulation, via a beamline capable of exchanging phase-space coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The initial transverse modulation is produced by intercepting the beam with a multislit mask prior to the exchange. We also compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.

  4. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  5. Passive Two-Phase Cooling for Automotive Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated and tested using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245 fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator concept that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce its size was designed. Simulation results indicate the concept's thermal resistance can be 58% to 65% lower than automotive dual-side-cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers-plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  6. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p < 0.05) and meaningful difference between power development among the 2 groups, with the VertiMax eliciting a greater treatment effect (effect size = 0.54) over conventional resistance and plyometric training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  7. Conducting Effective Simulator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerling, Kenneth D.

    This paper describes the simulator phase of Commonwealth Edison's program for training and licensing operators of nuclear power stations. Topics covered include (1) preparing the students before starting the simulator phase; (2) the simulator schedule and the number of students that can be trained effectively in a class; (3) format and structure…

  8. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  9. Numerical analysis of phase change materials for thermal control of power battery of high power dissipations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Zhang, H. Y.; Deng, Y. C.

    2016-08-01

    Solid-fluid phase change materials have been of increasing interest in various applications due to their high latent heat with minimum volume change. In this work, numerical analysis of phase change materials is carried out for the purpose of thermal control of the cylindrical power battery cells for applications in electric vehicles. Uniform heat density is applied at the battery cell, which is surrounded by phase change material (PCM) of paraffin wax type and contained in a metal housing. A two-dimensional geometry model is considered due to the model symmetry. The effects of power densities, heat transfer coefficients and onset melting temperatures are examined for the battery temperature evolution. Temperature plateaus can be observed from the present numerical analysis for the pure PCM cases, with the temperature level depending on the power densities, heat transfer coefficients, and melting temperatures. In addition, the copper foam of high thermal conductivity is inserted into the copper foam to enhance the heat transfer. In the modeling, the local thermal non-equilibrium between the metal foam and the PCM is taken into account and the temperatures for the metal foam and PCM are obtained respectively.

  10. Effects of PECS Phase III Application Training on Independent Mands in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica June

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PECS phase III application training on independent mands in young children with autism. Participants were five children with autism ranging from ages 2 to 4 years old. A multiple baseline across participants was used to evaluate acquisition of independent correct mands across baseline and…

  11. Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with segmented pulse trains

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo

    2011-06-15

    We present a modified scheme of differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) for improving its performance. A transmitter sends a weak coherent pulse train segmented with vacant pulses. Then, a receiver can find eavesdropping by monitoring the photon detection rate at particular time slots. Simulations show that the proposed scheme is robust against a sequential attack and a general individual attack.

  12. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    Phase two of the Orthopaedic Training Study was designed to examine time, sequence, and content requirements of existing orthopaedic programs. Specifically, the proposal was designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to provide a model of individualized graduate education in medicine in which the demonstration of individual competence marks…

  13. Methods of Upper Body Training to Increase Overhand Throwing Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura; Tonkin, Shea

    2009-01-01

    Those who have taught motor skills would most likely agree that the overhand throw may be the most difficult skill for students to master and for instructors or coaches to teach. The timing involved when generating power to performing the overhand throw begins in the toes/feet and moves up the leg, hip, thorax (core muscles), arm, and ends in the…

  14. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.; Ha, G.; Dolgashev, V.; et al

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to themore » interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.« less

  15. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W-Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Antipov, S; Jing, C; Power, J G; Conde, M; Wisniewski, E; Liu, W; Qiu, J; Ha, G; Dolgashev, V; Tang, C; Gai, W

    2016-02-01

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method. PMID:26894715

  16. A Simple Instant-Estimation Method for Time-Average Quantities of Single-Phase Power and Application to Single-Phase Power Grid Connection by Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Shinji

    This paper presents and analyzes a new simple instant-estimation method for time-average quantities such as rms-values of voltage and current, active and reactive powers, and power factor for single-phase power with the fundamental component of constant or nearly-constant frequency by measuring instantaneous values of voltage and current. According to the analyses, the method can instantly estimate time average values with accuracy of the fundamental frequency, and estimation accuracy of power factor is about two times better than that of voltage, current, and powers. The instant-estimation method is simple and can be easily applied to single-phase power control systems that are expected to control instantly and continuously power factor on a single-phase grid by inverter. Based on the proposed instant-estimation method, two-methods for such power control systems are also proposed and their usefulness is verified through simulations.

  17. Analysis of the reliabilities of maglev train power system with FTA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Zhiqiang; Lu, Zhiquo; Chen, Huixing; Liu, Shaoke

    2003-09-01

    As to the high safeties and reliabilities of the magnetic suspension train, the most fundamental rule is that under all supposed running disturbances, faults, and other urgent conditions, and at any time, the running train can all stop at any given point, where the passengers can get off the train completely and can all find a safe stopping place. The object studied in this paper is the CMS-3 type electromagnetic suspension sample train developed in the National University of Defense Technology. Based on the method of fault tree analysis, the safeties and the reliabilities of the key part (the power system) of the train are analyzed systematically. And the instructive viewpoints and the improving measures are put forward.

  18. Phase 1 results from the Stirling-powered vehicle project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization (TU) Office is sponsoring a multiyear, multiphase demonstration program to assess the technology developed under the DOE/NASA automotive Stirling engine (ASE) program with engines installed in various Air Force vehicles while being evaluated by independent third parties under realistic conditions. This paper reviews the operational history of Phase 1 with a Mod 1 Stirling engine installed in an Air Force multistop van in a variety of missions. Ten months of operation were with Air Force personnel at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, where over 1100 hr and 4000 mi were logged on the Langley flight line. The Stirling-powered van operated on unleaded gasoline, JP-4 aircraft fuel, and diesel fuel at Langley Air Force Base. Two months of operation were completed with Deere and Company personnel in the Moline, Illinois area where over 175 hr and 2650 mi were logged on a Deere mail delivery route.

  19. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  20. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighdoll, P.; Hahn, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Power train designs which can be implemented within the current state-of-the-art were identified by means of a review of existing electric vehicles and suitable off-the-shelf components. The affect of various motor/transmission combinations on vehicle range over the SAE J227a schedule D cycle was evaluated. The selected, state-of-the-art power train employs a dc series wound motor, SCR controller, variable speed transmission, regenerative braking, drum brakes and radial ply tires. Vehicle range over the SAE cycle can be extended by approximately 20% by the further development of separately excited, shunt wound DC motors and electrical controllers. Approaches which could improve overall power train efficiency, such as AC motor systems, are identified. However, future emphasis should remain on batteries, tires and lightweight structures if substantial range improvements are to be achieved.

  1. Utilization of the Philippine Research Reactor as a training facility for nuclear power plant operators

    SciTech Connect

    Palabrica, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Philippines has a 1-MW swimming-pool reactor facility operated by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The reactor is light-water moderated and cooled, graphite reflected, and fueled with 90% enriched uranium. Since it became critical in 1963 it has been utilized for research, radioisotope production, and training. It was used initially in the training of PAEC personnel and other research institutions and universities. During the last few years, however, it has played a key role in training personnel for the Philippine Nuclear Power Project (PNPP).

  2. Influence of resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle power and strength in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Radovanovic, D; Stankovic, R; Marković, Z; Kocic, J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of additional resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance in young (15.8 ± 0.8 yrs) male basketball players. Experimental group subjects (n=23) trained twice per week for 12 weeks using a variety of general free-weight and machine exercises designed for strength acquisition, beside ongoing regular basketball training program. Control group subject (n=23) participated only in basketball training program. Oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and related gas exchange measures were determined continuously during maximal exercise test using an automated cardiopulmonary exercise system. Muscle power of the extensors and flexors was measured by a specific computerized tensiometer. Results from the experimental group (VO(2max) 51.6 ± 5.7 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) pre vs. 50.9 ± 5.4 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) post resistance training) showed no change (p>0.05) in cardiorespiratory endurance, while muscle strength and power of main muscle groups increased significantly. These data demonstrate no negative cardiorespiratory performance effects on adding resistance training to ongoing regular training program in young athletes.

  3. Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

  4. Effects of Stable and Unstable Resistance Training in an Altered-G Environment on Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Oddsson, L

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of combined resistance-balance training and resistance training alone in a 90° tilted environment on muscle power. Two groups of healthy young subjects performed leg extensions while in a supine position, either on a firm surface along a linear track or on an unstable surface requiring mediolateral balancing movements. Power and force during squats were measured at isokinetic velocities of 10 and 35 deg/s. Results showed significantly greater gains in peak force (44.1%; F(1,21)=8.876, p=0.026), mean force (58.6%; F(1,21)=16.136, p=0.013), peak power (58.7%; F(1,21)=18.754, p=0.009), and mean power (59.2%; F(1,21)=23.114, p=0.007) at the velocity of 35 deg/s after stable than unstable resistance training. However, there were no significant between-groups differences in pre-post training gains in peak force (10.4%; F(1,21)=1.965, p=0.74), mean force (10.3%; F(1,21)=1.889, p=0.80), peak power (12.9%; F(1,21)=2.980, p=0.49), and mean power (19.1%; F(1,21)=3.454, p=0.36) during squats at the velocity of 10 deg/s. Resistance exercises under stable conditions performed in a 90° tilted environment are more effective in the improvement of high velocity muscle power than their use in combination with balance exercises. Such training may be applicable in pre- and in-flight exercise regimens for astronauts and in functional rehabilitation of bed-ridden patients. PMID:26667929

  5. Theta phase synchrony and conscious target perception: impact of intensive mental training.

    PubMed

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the attentional blink-a deficit in identifying the second of two targets (T1 and T2) presented in close succession. This deficit is thought to result from an overinvestment of limited resources in T1 processing. We previously reported that intensive mental training in a style of meditation aimed at reducing elaborate object processing, reduced brain resource allocation to T1, and improved T2 accuracy [Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J., et al. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PloS Biology, 5, e138, 2007]. Here we report EEG spectral analyses to examine the possibility that this reduction in elaborate T1 processing rendered the system more available to process new target information, as indexed by T2-locked phase variability. Intensive mental training was associated with decreased cross-trial variability in the phase of oscillatory theta activity after successfully detected T2s, in particular, for those individuals who showed the greatest reduction in brain resource allocation to T1. These data implicate theta phase locking in conscious target perception, and suggest that after mental training the cognitive system is more rapidly available to process new target information. Mental training was not associated with changes in the amplitude of T2-induced responses or oscillatory activity before task onset. In combination, these findings illustrate the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind by revealing the neural mechanisms that enable the brain to successfully represent target information.

  6. Electrical heating of soils using high efficiency electrode patterns and power phases

    DOEpatents

    Buettner, Harley M.

    1999-01-01

    Powerline-frequency electrical (joule) heating of soils using a high efficiency electrode configuration and power phase arrangement. The electrode configuration consists of several heating or current injection electrodes around the periphery of a volume of soil to be heated, all electrodes being connected to one phase of a multi-phase or a single-phase power system, and a return or extraction electrode or electrodes located inside the volume to be heated being connected to the remaining phases of the multi-phase power system or to the neutral side of the single-phase power source. This electrode configuration and power phase arrangement can be utilized anywhere where powerline frequency soil heating is applicable and thus has many potential uses including removal of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and tricholorethylene (TCE) from contaminated areas.

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

  8. Quasi-phase-matching high harmonic generation using trains of pulses produced using an array of birefringent plates.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Kevin; Robinson, Tom; Hooker, Simon M

    2012-03-12

    Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation using trains of up to 8 counter-propagating pulses is explored. For trains of up to 4 pulses the measured enhancement of the harmonic signal scales with the number of pulses N as (N + 1)², as expected. However, for trains with N > 4, no further enhancement of the harmonic signal is observed. This effect is ascribed to changes of the coherence length Lc within the generating medium. Techniques for overcoming the variation of Lc are discussed. The pressure dependence of quasi-phase-matching is investigated and the switch from true-phase-matching to quasi-phase-matching is observed.

  9. Artificial Intelligence Based Control Power Optimization on Tailless Aircraft. [ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank; Vicroy, Dan D.; Mulani, Sameer B.; Chhabra, Rupanshi; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Schetz, Joseph A.; Brown, Derrell; Princen, Norman H.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of control allocation optimization have shown difficulties in exploiting the full potential of controlling large arrays of control devices on innovative air vehicles. Artificial neutral networks are inspired by biological nervous systems and neurocomputing has successfully been applied to a variety of complex optimization problems. This project investigates the potential of applying neurocomputing to the control allocation optimization problem of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts to minimize control power, hinge moments, and actuator forces, while keeping system weights within acceptable limits. The main objective of this project is to develop a proof-of-concept process suitable to demonstrate the potential of using neurocomputing for optimizing actuation power for aircraft featuring multiple independently actuated control surfaces. A Nastran aeroservoelastic finite element model is used to generate a learning database of hinge moment and actuation power characteristics for an array of flight conditions and control surface deflections. An artificial neural network incorporating a genetic algorithm then uses this training data to perform control allocation optimization for the investigated aircraft configuration. The phase I project showed that optimization results for the sum of required hinge moments are improved by more than 12% over the best Nastran solution by using the neural network optimization process.

  10. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  11. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    PubMed Central

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches

  12. Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Songgang

    2013-05-15

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop and validate an innovative, scalable phase change salt thermal energy storage (TES) system that can interface with Infinia’s family of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE). This TES technology is also appropriate for Rankine and Brayton power converters. Solar TES systems based on latent heat of fusion rather than molten salt temperature differences, have many advantages that include up to an order of magnitude higher energy storage density, much higher temperature operation, and elimination of pumped loops for most of Infinia’s design options. DOE has funded four different concepts for solar phase change TES, including one other Infinia awarded project using heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the salt. The unique innovation in this project is an integrated TES/pool boiler heat transfer system that is the simplest approach identified to date and arguably has the best potential for minimizing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Phase 1 objectives are to design, build and test a 1-hour TES proof-of-concept lab demonstrator integrated with an Infinia 3 kW Stirling engine, and to conduct a preliminary design of a 12-hour TES on-sun prototype.

  13. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Research Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment by identifying, collecting and analyzing existing test data from various sources. In Phase I of this program, BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical devices of various manufacturers and models. This report provides an assessment and evaluation of the data collected in Phase I. The fragility data for medium voltage and low voltage switchgears and motor control centers are analyzed using the test response spectra (TRS) as a measure of the fragility level. The analysis reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of TRS curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower-bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage; whereas, the upper-bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes. High level test data for some components are included in the report. These data indicate that some components are inherently strong and do not exhibit any failure mode even when tested at the vibration limit of a shake table. The common failure modes are identified in the report. The fragility levels determined in this report have been compared with those used in the PRA and Seismic Margin Studies. It appears that the BNL data better correlate with the HCLPF (High Confidence of a Low Probability of Failure) level used in Seismic Margin Studies and can improve this level as high as 60% for certain applications. Specific recommendations are provided for proper application of BNL fragility data to other studies.

  14. High power THz source based on coherent radiation of picosecond relativistic electron bunch train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yan; Yan, LiXin; Du, YingChao; Hua, JianFei; Huang, WenHui; Tang, ChuanXiang

    2011-12-01

    Tunable and compact high power terahertz (THz) radiation based on coherent radiation (CR) of the picosecond relativistic electron bunch train is under development at the Tsinghua accelerator lab. Coherent synchronization radiation (CSR) and coherent transition radiation (CTR) are researched based on an S-band compact electron linac, a bending magnet or a thin foil. The bunch train's form factors, which are the key factor of THz radiation, are analyzed by the PARMELA simulation. The effects of electron bunch trains under different conditions, such as the bunch number, bunch charges, micro-pulses inter-distance, and accelerating gradient of the gun are investigated separately in this paper. The optimal radiated THz power and spectra should take these factors as a whole into account.

  15. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  16. Effect of Vibration Training on Anaerobic Power and Quardroceps Surface EMG in Long Jumpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Bin; Luo, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anaerobic power and surface EMG (sEMG) of quardrocep muscle in lower extremities after single vibration training intervention. Methods: 8 excellent male long jumpers voluntarily participated in this study. Four intervention modes were devised, including high frequency high amplitude (HFHA,30Hz,6mm), low frequency low…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Periodized Versus Nonperiodized Strength and Power Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively combine and examine the results of studies examining the effectiveness of periodized (PER) compared to nonperiodized (Non-PER) training programs for strength and/or power development. Two analyses were conducted to (a) examine the magnitude of treatment effect elicited by PER strength training…

  18. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  19. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution. PMID:27046566

  20. Attenuated Increase in Maximal Force of Rat Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle after Concurrent Peak Power and Endurance Training

    PubMed Central

    Furrer, Regula; Jaspers, Richard T.; Baggerman, Hein L.; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Lips, Paul; de Haan, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM) is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control), peak power training (PT), or both peak power and endurance training (PET), which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training. PMID:23509812

  1. The effects of cycling cadence on the phases of joint power, crank power, force and force effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Gertjan; Lorås, Håvard; Leirdal, Stig

    2009-04-01

    We examined the influence of cadence in cycling technique by quantifying phase relationships for a number of important variables at the crank and lower extremity joints. Any difference in the effect of cadence on force, effectiveness, and power phases would indicate an essential change in coordination pattern. Cycle kinetics was recorded for 10 male competitive cyclists at five cadences (60-100 rpm) at submaximal load (260 W). Joint powers were calculated using inverse dynamics methods. All data were expressed as a function of crank position. The phase of the crank mechanical profiles (total force, crank and joint power, and effectiveness) was calculated using four methods: crank angle of maximum (MA) and minimum (MI), fitting a sine wave (SI) and by cross-correlation (XC). These methods, apart from the MA method, showed the same relative phase. The variables, however, showed different phases being expressed as time lag: force effectiveness: 0.131 (+/-0.034)s; total force: 0.149 (+/-0.021)s; power: 0.098 (+/-0.027)s. The phases in joint powers hip 0.071 (+/-0.008), knee 0.082 (+/-0.009), and hip 0.077 (+/-0.012) were only well described by XC, and were somewhat lower than the crank power phase. These differences indicate the potential effect of inertia of the lower limb in phase shifts from joints to crank. Furthermore, the differences between the various crank variables indicate a change of technique with cadence.

  2. How Competency-Based Training Locks the Working Class out of Powerful Knowledge: A Modified Bernsteinian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that competency-based training in vocational education and training in Australia is one mechanism through which the working class is denied access to powerful knowledge represented by the academic disciplines. The paper presents a modified Bernsteinian analysis to argue that vocational education and training students need access…

  3. Evaluation of training programs and entry-level qualifications for nuclear-power-plant control-room personnel based on the systems approach to training

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Hanley, M J; Mercer, R T

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. Variables (performance shaping factors) of potential importance to personnel selection and training are identified, and research to more rigorously define an operationally useful taxonomy of those variables is recommended. A high-level model of the Systems Approach to Training for use in the nuclear industry, which could serve as a model for NRC evaluation of industry programs, is presented. The model is consistent with current publically stated NRC policy, with the approach being followed by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, and with current training technology. Checklists to be used by NRC evaluators to assess training programs for NPP control-room personnel are proposed which are based on this model.

  4. A Low Power Linear Phase Programmable Long Delay Circuit.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther; Logesparan, Lojini; Casson, Alexander J

    2014-06-01

    A novel linear phase programmable delay is being proposed and implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. The delay line consists of N cascaded cells, each of which delays the input signal by Td/N, where Td is the total line delay. The delay generated by each cell is programmable by changing a clock frequency and is also fully independent of the frequency of the input signal. The total delay hence depends only on the chosen clock frequency and the total number of cascaded cells. The minimum clock frequency is limited by the maximum time a voltage signal can effectively be held by an individual cell. The maximum number of cascaded cells will be limited by the effects of accumulated offset due to transistor mismatch, which eventually will affect the operating mode of the individual transistors in a cell. This latter limitation has however been dealt with in the topology by having an offset compensation mechanism that makes possible having a large number of cascaded cells and hence a long resulting delay. The delay line has been designed for scalp-based neural activity analysis that is predominantly in the sub-100 Hz frequency range. For these signals, the delay generated by a 31-cell cascade has been demonstrated to be programmable from 30 ms to 3 s. Measurement results demonstrate a 31 stage, 50 Hz bandwidth, 0.3 s delay that operates from a 1.1 V supply with power consumption of 270 nW.

  5. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  6. A training method for locomotion mode prediction using powered lower limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-05-01

    Recently developed lower-limb prostheses are capable of actuating the knee and ankle joints, allowing amputees to perform advanced locomotion modes such as step-over-step stair ascent and walking on sloped surfaces. However, transitions between these locomotion modes and walking are neither automatic nor seamless. This study describes methods for construction and training of a high-level intent recognition system for a lower-limb prosthesis that provides natural transitions between walking, stair ascent, stair descent, ramp ascent, and ramp descent. Using mechanical sensors onboard a powered prosthesis, we collected steady-state and transition data from six transfemoral amputees while the five locomotion modes were performed. An intent recognition system built using only mechanical sensor data was 84.5% accurate using only steady-state training data. Including training data collected while amputees performed seamless transitions between locomotion modes improved the overall accuracy rate to 93.9%. Training using a single analysis window at heel contact and toe off provided higher recognition accuracy than training with multiple analysis windows. This study demonstrates the capability of an intent recognition system to provide automatic, natural, and seamless transitions between five locomotion modes for transfemoral amputees using powered lower limb prostheses.

  7. Power outputs in the concentric phase of resistance exercises performed in the interval mode on stable and unstable surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Ollé, Gábor; Vilman, Tomáš; Hamar, Dušan

    2012-12-01

    The study compares power outputs in the concentric phase of chest presses and squats performed in the interval mode on stable and unstable surface, respectively. A group of 16 physical education students performed randomly on different days 6 sets of 8 repetitions of (a) chest presses on the bench and Swiss ball, respectively, and (b) squats on stable support base and Bosu ball, respectively, with 2 minutes of rest period between sets. The exercises were performed with previously established 70% of 1 repetition maximum under stable conditions. A PC-based system FiTRO Dyne Premium was used to monitor force and velocity and to calculate power. The results showed significantly lower power outputs when resistance exercises were performed on an unstable than a stable support base. In the initial set, mean power in concentric phase of lifting decreased more profoundly under unstable than under stable conditions during both chest presses (13.2 and 7.7%, respectively) and squats (10.3 and 7.2%, respectively). In the final set, the reduction rates of mean power in the concentric phase of chest presses were significantly (p < 0.05) greater on the Swiss ball than on the bench (19.9 and 11.8%, respectively). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in decline of mean power in the concentric phase of squats on the Bosu ball and on stable support base (11.4 and 9.6%, respectively). It may be concluded that power outputs during resistance exercises is more profoundly compromised under unstable than under stable conditions, and this effect is more evident for barbell chest presses on the Swiss ball than for barbell squats on the Bosu ball. These findings have to be taken into account when instability resistance exercises are implemented into the training program, namely, for sports that require production of maximal force in short time.

  8. Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Rathmacher, John A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Shelley, Mack C; Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-07-01

    Lowery, RP, Joy, JM, Rathmacher, JA, Baier, SM, Fuller, JC Jr, Shelley, MC II, Jäger, R, Purpura, M, Wilson, SMC, and Wilson, JM. Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid and adenosine triphosphate on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1843-1854, 2016-Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity or prolonged exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA (3 g) and ATP (400 mg) administration on lean body mass (LBM), strength, and power in trained individuals. A 3-phase double-blind, placebo-, and diet-controlled study was conducted. Phases consisted of an 8-week periodized resistance training program (phase 1), followed by a 2-week overreaching cycle (phase 2), and a 2-week taper (phase 3). Lean body mass was increased by a combination of HMB-FA/ATP by 12.7% (p < 0.001). In a similar fashion, strength gains after training were increased in HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented subjects by 23.5% (p < 0.001). Vertical jump and Wingate power were increased in the HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented group compared with the placebo-supplemented group, and the 12-week increases were 21.5 and 23.7%, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, strength and power declined in the placebo group (4.3-5.7%), whereas supplementation with HMB-FA/ATP resulted in continued strength gains (1.3%). In conclusion, HMB-FA and ATP in combination with resistance exercise training enhanced LBM, power, and strength. In addition, HMB-FA plus ATP blunted the typical response to overreaching, resulting in a further increase in strength during that period. It seems that the combination of HMB-FA/ATP could benefit those who

  9. Effectiveness of the Power Dry-Land Training Programmes in Youth Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Gromisz, Wilhelm; NiŸnikowski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the dry-land power training on swimming force, swimming performance and strength in youth swimmers. Twenty six male swimmers, free from injuries and training regularly at least 6 times a week, were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of two groups: experimental (n=14, mean age 14.0 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.67±0.08 m and mean body mass 55.71 ±9.55 kg) and control (n=12, mean age 14.1 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.61±0.11 m and mean body mass 49.07 ±8.25 kg). The experimental group took part in a combined swimming and dry-land power training. The control group took part in swimming training only. The training programmes in water included a dominant aerobic work in front crawl. In this research the experimental group tended to present slightly greater improvements in sprint performance. However, the stroke frequency insignificantly decreased (−4.30%, p>0.05) in the experimental group and increased (6.28%, p>0.05) in the control group. The distance per stroke insignificantly increased in the experimental group (5.98%, p>0.05) and insignificantly decreased in the control group (−5.36%, p>0.05). A significant improvement of tethered swimming force for the experimental group (9.64%, p<0.02) was found, whereas the increase was not statistically significant in the control group (2.86%, p>0.05). The main data cannot clearly state that power training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve swimming performance in tethered swimming was noticed. PMID:23486353

  10. Reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan improves muscle strength and power in football players.

    PubMed

    Rebaï, H; Chtourou, H; Zarrouk, N; Harzallah, A; Kanoun, I; Dogui, M; Souissi, N; Tabka, Z

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of maintaining or reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan-intermittent-fasting (RIF) on short-term maximal performances. 20 footballers (age: 18.4 ± 0.8 years; body-mass: 72.4 ± 4.1 kg; height: 183.4 ± 4.6 cm) were matched and randomly assigned to a normal-training-group (G1) or a tapering-group (G2). They were tested for muscular strength (maximal-voluntary-contraction) and power (squat-jump and counter-movement-jump) 1 month before RIF (T0), 1 week before RIF (T1), after 2 weeks of fasting (T2) and at the end of RIF (T3). From T1 to T2, subjects performed a whole-body resistance training program (8-repetitions × 4-sets with 4-min recovery in-between). During RIF, G1 maintained the same training program, while G2 performed a period of reduced training volume (3 sets/exercise; - 22%). Muscle strength and power increased significantly from T0 to T1, from T0 to T2 and from T0 to T3 in G1 and G2 and from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3 only in G2 (p<0.05). Performance was higher in G2 than G1 during T2 (p<0.01). Moreover, the ∆-change of performance between T0 and T2 and T3 was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (p<0.05). For young soccer players, a tapering period characterized by a reduced training volume during RIF may lead to significant improvement in muscle strength and power.

  11. Reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan improves muscle strength and power in football players.

    PubMed

    Rebaï, H; Chtourou, H; Zarrouk, N; Harzallah, A; Kanoun, I; Dogui, M; Souissi, N; Tabka, Z

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of maintaining or reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan-intermittent-fasting (RIF) on short-term maximal performances. 20 footballers (age: 18.4 ± 0.8 years; body-mass: 72.4 ± 4.1 kg; height: 183.4 ± 4.6 cm) were matched and randomly assigned to a normal-training-group (G1) or a tapering-group (G2). They were tested for muscular strength (maximal-voluntary-contraction) and power (squat-jump and counter-movement-jump) 1 month before RIF (T0), 1 week before RIF (T1), after 2 weeks of fasting (T2) and at the end of RIF (T3). From T1 to T2, subjects performed a whole-body resistance training program (8-repetitions × 4-sets with 4-min recovery in-between). During RIF, G1 maintained the same training program, while G2 performed a period of reduced training volume (3 sets/exercise; - 22%). Muscle strength and power increased significantly from T0 to T1, from T0 to T2 and from T0 to T3 in G1 and G2 and from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3 only in G2 (p<0.05). Performance was higher in G2 than G1 during T2 (p<0.01). Moreover, the ∆-change of performance between T0 and T2 and T3 was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (p<0.05). For young soccer players, a tapering period characterized by a reduced training volume during RIF may lead to significant improvement in muscle strength and power. PMID:24048913

  12. SPS pilot signal design and power transponder analysis, volume 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Scholtz, R. A.; Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of pilot signal parameter optimization and the related problem of power transponder performance analysis for the Solar Power Satellite reference phase control system are addressed. Signal and interference models were established to enable specifications of the front end filters including both the notch filter and the antenna frequency response. A simulation program package was developed to be included in SOLARSIM to perform tradeoffs of system parameters based on minimizing the phase error for the pilot phase extraction. An analytical model that characterizes the overall power transponder operation was developed. From this model, the effects of different phase noise disturbance sources that contribute to phase variations at the output of the power transponders were studied and quantified. Results indicate that it is feasible to hold the antenna array phase error to less than one degree per power module for the type of disturbances modeled.

  13. Optimal sliding guidance algorithm for Mars powered descent phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibben, Daniel R.; Furfaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Landing on large planetary bodies (e.g. Mars) with pinpoint accuracy presents a set of new challenges that must be addressed. One such challenge is the development of new guidance algorithms that exhibit a higher degree of robustness and flexibility. In this paper, the Zero-Effort-Miss/Zero-Effort-Velocity (ZEM/ZEV) optimal sliding guidance (OSG) scheme is applied to the Mars powered descent phase. This guidance algorithm has been specifically designed to combine techniques from both optimal and sliding control theories to generate an acceleration command based purely on the current estimated spacecraft state and desired final target state. Consequently, OSG yields closed-loop trajectories that do not need a reference trajectory. The guidance algorithm has its roots in the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance and its mathematical equations are naturally derived by defining a non-linear sliding surface as a function of the terms Zero-Effort-Miss and Zero-Effort-Velocity. With the addition of the sliding mode and using Lyapunov theory for non-autonomous systems, one can formally prove that the developed OSG law is globally finite-time stable to unknown but bounded perturbations. Here, the focus is on comparing the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance with the OSG law to explicitly demonstrate the benefits of the sliding mode augmentation. Results show that the sliding guidance provides a more robust solution in off-nominal scenarios while providing similar fuel consumption when compared to the non-sliding guidance command. Further, a Monte Carlo analysis is performed to examine the performance of the OSG law under perturbed conditions.

  14. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Aue Sobol, Nanna; Andersen, Lars L.; Kiel, Peter; Løfholm, Peter; Magnusson, S. Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. Methods. 31 males and 19 females were randomized to HRT (n = 24) or LRT (n = 26) from week 8–20 after ACL-reconstruction. Leg extensor power, joint laxity, and self-reported knee function were measured before and 7, 14, and 20 weeks after surgery. Hop tests were assessed before and after 20 weeks. Results. Power in the injured leg was 90% (95% CI 86–94%) of the noninjured leg, decreasing to 64% (95% CI 60–69%) 7 weeks after surgery. During the resistance training phase there was a significant group by time interaction for power (P = 0.020). Power was regained more with HRT compared to LRT at week 14 (84% versus 73% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.027) and at week 20 (98% versus 83% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.006) without adverse effects on joint laxity. No other between-group differences were found. Conclusion. High-intensity resistance training during rehabilitation after ACL-reconstruction can improve muscle power without adverse effects on joint laxity. PMID:24877078

  15. The Effects of Cold Water Immersion after Rugby Training on Muscle Power and Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tatsushi; Shintaku, Hiroto; Kato, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiko; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    During rugby game, or intensive rugby training there are many high intensity explosive exercises and eccentric muscle contractions, therefore adequate recovery is very important to rugby players. In the present study we have tested the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) after game-simulated (80 min.) rugby training on muscle power recovery and blood markers of muscle damage. Twenty well-trained collegiate male rugby players (age: 20.3 ± 0.6 years old, body height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m, body weight: 85.4 ± 2.0 kg, body fat: 18.2 ± 1.4 %) volunteered for this study. This study was conducted as a cross-over design; i.e., the subjects were randomly assigned either to CWI (n = 10) or passive rest condition (n = 10) for the 1st trial and 1 week later the subjects were switched conditions for the 2nd trial. After the simulated rugby training, including tackles and body contacts, muscle functional ability and blood markers of muscle damage were tested immediately, after CWI or passive rest, and again 24 hours later. Statistical analysis of all muscle functional tests (10 m dash, counter movement jump, reaction time, side steps) except for 10 seconds maximal pedaling power and blood makers of muscle damage (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine) revealed significant main effects for time (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant interactions were found in any of the muscle functional tests and blood markers between groups and time courses. Our results suggest that a rugby game induces muscle damage and reduces muscle function. However, CWI has no significant restorative effect after an 80-minute rugby game in terms of muscle damage. Key Points Cold water immersion study for the recovery of rugby players Muscle strength and muscle power were mainly evaluated as well as muscle enzymes of muscle break down Subjects were highly trained rugby players with control group PMID:25177190

  16. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C.; Gee, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  17. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  18. The effect of loss of visual input on muscle power in resistance trained and untrained young men and women.

    PubMed

    Killebrew, Shanna S; Petrella, John K; Jung, Alan P; Hensarling, Robert W

    2013-02-01

    Visual impairment has been shown to reduce muscle power when compared with that in sighted individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the loss of visual input affects lower limb muscle power production in sighted men and women who are resistance trained and untrained. Twenty-seven college-aged participants (19-23 years) performed a seated double-leg press with and without visual input (resulting from being blindfold) in 2 separate counterbalanced trials. Lower limb concentric power was calculated by measuring the distance and time a leg press footplate was displaced while lifting 60% of 1-repetition maximum as quickly as possible. Loss of visual input reduced power output by 22.8 W (-6.4%) in all participants (p < 0.01). When resistance training status was taken into account, resistance trained participants (n = 12, trained >2× per week) did not lose power output (4.4 W, -1.1%, p = 0.90), whereas untrained men and women (n = 15) had significantly less power when visual input was removed via blindfold (37.6 W, -11.7%, p < 0.01). Untrained women experienced the greatest decrease in power when blindfolded (39 W, -15.9%, p < 0.01). Muscle power decreases in the absence of vision, but a regular strength training program attenuates this occurrence in young men and women. In practical application, strength training interventions may be successful in protecting individuals from losses in muscle power when visual input is removed.

  19. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-04-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of multicomponent training on muscle power output, muscle mass, and muscle tissue attenuation; the risk of falls; and functional outcomes in frail nonagenarians. Twenty-four elderly (91.9 ± 4.1 years old) were randomized into intervention or control group. The intervention group performed a twice-weekly, 12-week multicomponent exercise program composed of muscle power training (8-10 repetitions, 40-60 % of the one-repetition maximum) combined with balance and gait retraining. Strength and power tests were performed on the upper and lower limbs. Gait velocity was assessed using the 5-m habitual gait and the time-up-and-go (TUG) tests with and without dual-task performance. Balance was assessed using the FICSIT-4 tests. The ability to rise from a chair test was assessed, and data on the incidence and risk of falls were assessed using questionnaires. Functional status was assessed before measurements with the Barthel Index. Midthigh lower extremity muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration were assessed using computed tomography. The intervention group showed significantly improved TUG with single and dual tasks, rise from a chair and balance performance (P < 0.01), and a reduced incidence of falls. In addition, the intervention group showed enhanced muscle power and strength (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were significant increases in the total and high-density muscle cross-sectional area in the intervention group. The control group significantly reduced strength and functional outcomes. Routine multicomponent exercise intervention should be prescribed to nonagenarians because overall physical outcomes are improved in this population.

  20. Acute negative effect of a hypertrophy-oriented training bout on subsequent upper-body power output.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    Athletes regularly combine maximal strength, power, and hypertrophy-oriented training within the same workout. Traditionally, it has been suggested that power-oriented exercises precede strength and hypertrophy-oriented training within a workout to avoid the possible negative effects that the latter types of training may have on power output. However, with regard to upper-body training, little study has been performed to verify this commonly held belief. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent, if any, of a high-repetition, short-rest-period, hypertrophy-oriented training dose on upper-body power output. Twenty-seven college-aged rugby league players were tested for average power output during bench press throws with a resistance of 40 kg (BT P40). The experimental group (Hyp, n = 15) then performed a typical hypertrophy-oriented work bout (3 x 10 at 65% 1 repetition maximum bench press, 1RM BP) before being retested for power output with the same resistance. In comparison with the control group (Con, n = 12), whose power output remained unchanged between the pre- and posttest periods, the Hyp group experienced a large, significant decrease in BT P40 power output. Even after further passive rest of 7 minutes, power output remained suppressed from the pretest values. Furthermore, the strongest 5 subjects experienced significantly larger percentage declines in power output than did the 5 less strong subjects. This study shows that a high-repetition, short-rest-period training can acutely decrease power output. Coaches should plan the order of exercises carefully when combining power and hypertrophy training.

  1. Effects of 12-week medicine ball training on muscle strength and power in young female handball players.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar M; Markovic, Zivorad M; Radovanovic, Dragan S

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the strength and power in young female handball athletes. Twenty-one young female handball players (age, 16.9 ± 1.2 years) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental group (n = 11) participated in a 12-week medicine ball training program incorporated into the regular training session, whereas controls (n = 10) participated only in the regular training. Performance in the medicine ball throws in standing and sitting positions, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench and shoulder press, and power test at 2 different loads (30 and 50% of 1RM) on bench and shoulder press were assessed at pre- and posttraining testing. The athletes participating in the medicine ball training program made significantly greater gains in all medicine ball throw tests compared with the controls (p < 0.01). Also, the experimental group made significantly greater gains in bench and shoulder press power than control group (p < 0.05). Both training groups (E) and (C) significantly (p < 0.05) increased 1RM bench and shoulder strength, with no differences observed between the groups. Additionally, medicine ball throw tests showed stronger correlation with power tests, than with 1RM tests. These data suggest that 12-week medicine ball training, when incorporated into a regular training session, can provide greater sport-specific training improvements in the upper body for young female handball players. PMID:22027860

  2. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.

  3. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  4. Satisfying winter peak-power demand with phased gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.H.; Moss, T.E.; Ravikumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study, commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration, was to investigate application of this concept to the Pacific Northwest. Coal gasification combined-cycle (GCC) plants are receiving serious attention from eastern utilities. Potomac Electric (PEPCO) has engaged Fluor Technology to perform conceptual and preliminary engineering for a nominal 375-MW coal GCC power generation facility to be located in northern Montgomery County, Maryland. Other eastern utilities are engaged in site-specific investigations of satisfying future power requirements employing this alternative, which involves an environmentally superior method of using coal. Coal is combined with oxygen to produce a medium-heating-value fuel gas as an alternative to natural gas. The fuel gas, cleaned to remove sulfur compounds, is burned in gas turbine-generator sets. The hot exhaust gas is used to generate steam for additional power generation. The gasification combined cycle plant is highly efficient and has a high level of flexibility to meet power demands. This study provided background for consideration of one alternative for satisfying winter peak-load demand. The concept is feasible, depending on the timing of the installation of the gasification system, projections of the cost and the availability of natural gas, and restrictions on the use of natural gas. It has the advantage of deferring capacity addition and capital outlay until power is needed and economics are favorable.

  5. A preliminary study of solar powdered aircraft and associated power trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Fortenbach, C. D.; Dimiceli, E. V.; Parks, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of regeneratively powered solar high altitude powered platform (HAPP) remotely piloted vehicles was assessed. Those technologies which must be pursued to make long duration solar HAPPs feasible are recommended. A methodology which involved characterization and parametric analysis of roughly two dozen variables to determine vehicles capable of fulfilling the primary mission are defined. One of these vehicles was then conceptually designed. Variations of each major design parameter were investigated along with state-of-the-art changes in power train component capabilities. The midlatitude mission studied would be attainable by a solar HAPP if fuel cell, electrolyzer and photovoltaic technologies are pursued. Vehicles will be very large and have very lightweight structures in order to attain the combinations of altitude and duration required by the primary mission.

  6. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

    PubMed Central

    de Hoyo, Moisés; Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Mateo-Cortes, Jesús; Cadenas-Sánchez, María Monserrat; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT) group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT) group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5–8 sets with 8 repetitions) and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax)) over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m), countermovement jump height (CMJH), 20 m change of direction ability (COD) and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004) was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s), CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm) and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N) in both groups (p < 0.05). However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04). In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance. PMID:26557200

  7. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks.

    PubMed

    de Hoyo, Moisés; Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Mateo-Cortes, Jesús; Cadenas-Sánchez, María Monserrat; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT) group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT) group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions) and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax)) over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m), countermovement jump height (CMJH), 20 m change of direction ability (COD) and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004) was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: -0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: -0.11 0.10 s), CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm) and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N) in both groups (p < 0.05). However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (-0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04). In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance. PMID:26557200

  8. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  9. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  10. A novel technique for electronic phasing of high power fiber amplifier arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, T. M.; Baker, J. T.; Sanchez, Anthony D.; Robin, C. A.; Vergien, C. L.; Zeringue, C.; Gallant, D.; Lu, Chunte A.; Pulford, Benjamin; Bronder, T. J.; Lucero, Arthur

    2009-06-01

    We report high power phase locked fiber amplifier array using the Self-Synchronous Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-detector Electronic-frequency Tagging technique. We report the first experimental results for a five element amplifier array with a total locked power of more than 725-W. We will report on experimental measurements of the phase fluctuations versus time when the control loop is closed. The rms phase error was measured to be λ/60. Recent results will be reported. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the highest fiber laser power to be coherently combined.

  11. Effect of interrepetition rest intervals on weight training repetition power output.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; Lindsell, Rod P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the change in weight training repetition power output as a consequence of interrepetition rest intervals. Twenty-six elite junior male basketball and soccer players performed bench presses using a 6 repetition maximum (6RM) load. The power output for each repetition was recorded using a linear encoder sampling each 10 ms (100 Hz). Subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups, differentiated by the arrangement of rest intervals within the 6 repetitions: 6 x 1 repetition with 20-second rest periods between each repetition (Singles); 3 x 2 repetitions with 50 seconds between each pair of repetitions (Doubles); or 2 x 3 repetitions with 100 seconds of rest between each 3 repetitions (Triples). A timer was used to ensure that the rest interval and duration to complete all interrepetition interventions was equated across groups (118 seconds). Significantly (p < 0.05) greater repetition power outputs (25-49%) were observed in the later repetitions (4-6) of the Singles, Doubles, and Triples loading schemes. Significantly greater total power output (21.6-25.1%) was observed for all interrepetition rest interventions when compared to traditional continuous 6RM total power output. No significant between-group differences were found (p = 0.96). We conclude that utilizing interrepetition rest intervals enables greater repetition and total power output in comparison to traditional loading parameters.

  12. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  13. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the AVESTAR Center is poised to develop a

  14. Viewpoint: power and communication: why simulation training ought to be complemented by experiential and humanist learning.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Michael; Fins, Joseph J

    2006-03-01

    The authors present an analysis of communication training for medical students using simulation patients, and its possible influence on later doctor-patient relationships. Many empirical studies have shown the various benefits of using simulation patients to teach communication skills, but theoretical sociology and humanistic reflection shed light on some fundamental differences between the student-doctor/actor-patient interactions practiced in simulation encounters and real doctor-patient relationships. In contrast to the usual power dynamics of a doctor-patient relation, those of simulation encounters are inverted and overwritten by an entirely different set of power relations, namely, those of the evaluator-student relationship. Since the power dynamics of real doctor-patient relations are generally overlooked, the altered dynamics of the simulation encounter are not readily perceived, and simulation encounters are thus often mistaken as accurate representations of clinical reality. Exclusive reliance on this pedagogic approach of simulation training may be encouraging students to become "simulation doctors" who act out a good relationship to their patients but have no authentic connection with them. The authors propose that liberal-arts learning and encounters with real patients should be used to cultivate students' abilities to create good doctor-patient relationships, as a compliment to the pedagogic benefits of simulation encounters. PMID:16501273

  15. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  16. Alterations in speed of squat movement and the use of accommodated resistance among college athletes training for power.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Kenn, Joseph G; Dermody, Bryan M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of heavy/slow movements and variable resistance training on peak power and strength development. Forty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes (age: 21.4 +/- 2.1 years, all men) were recruited for this 12-week training intervention study. Maximum strength and jumping power were assessed before and after the training program. Athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: heavy resistance/slow movement (Slow), lighter resistance and fast movement (Fast), or fast movements with accommodated resistance (FACC). All training groups performed similar training programs comprising free weight resistance training with lower-body compound exercises. The only difference among the training interventions was the speed at which subjects performed the squat exercise and the use of bands (Slow group: 0.2-0.4 meters/second; Fast group: 0.6-0.8 meters/second; FACC group trained 0.6-0.8 meters/second with the addition of accommodated resistance in the form of large elastic bands). Post-test data revealed a significant difference between power improvements between the Slow and FACC groups (p = 0.02). Percent increases and effect sizes (ES) demonstrated a much greater treatment effect in the FACC group (17.8%, ES = 1.06) with the Fast group (11.0%, ES = 0.80) adapting more than the Slow group (4.8%, ES = 0.28). The FACC and Slow groups improved strength comparatively (FACC: 9.44%, ES = 1.10; Slow: 9.59%, ES = 1.08). The Fast group improved strength considerably less, 3.20% with an effect size of only 0.38. Variable resistance training with elastic bands appears to provide greater performance benefits with regard to peak force and peak power than heavy, slow resistance exercise. Sports conditioning professionals can utilize bands, and high-speed contractions, to increase power development.

  17. The effects of a maximal power training cycle on the strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration of high-level 400-meter hurdlers.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=-2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=-1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=-1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=-1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers.

  18. Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  19. A Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier 2-micron Laser Using Fiber Phase-conjugate Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Shkunov, V.; Rockwell, D.; Betin, A.; Wang, J.; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, a 2-micron master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser using a fiber based phase conjugation mirror has been demonstrated. The beam quality improvement and 56% of the PCM reflectivity have been achieved.

  20. Influence of length-restricted strength training on athlete's power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Kleinöder, Heinz; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether different length-restricted strength training regimens affect voluntary explosive concentric power-load curves of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring (HAM) muscles. Thirty-two athletes were divided into 3 different training groups (G1-G3): G1 performed isometric training at knee joint angles corresponding to long muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length for QF and HAM; G2 conducted concentric-eccentric contraction cycles that were restricted to a knee joint range of motion corresponding to predominantly long MTU length for QF and HAM; and G3 combined the protocols of G1 and G2. Knee joint angle-dependent power-load curves during maximal voluntary explosive concentric knee extensions and flexions were measured for loads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of individual 1 repetition maximum at 5 different occasions: 2 times before, after 5 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks post training. Power values of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position (percent maximum). Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for power production of QF and HAM remained unaltered throughout the course of the study for all testing loads and training groups. Therefore, different strength training regimens with a common restriction to long MTU lengths failed to induce length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors. The approach to develop strength training programs that induce systematic shifts in length-dependent power production of QF and HAM is of direct practical relevance for athletic activities such as cycling, ice skating, and skiing. However, restricting the muscle excursion range during loading seems to be an inappropriate trigger to cause length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves.

  1. Aging has greater impact on anaerobic versus aerobic power in trained masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Gent, Debra Nicole; Norton, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study measured the relative rates of change of the three human energy systems across a 30-year age range. A cross-section of highly trained masters cyclists (n = 156 males and 17 females; 35-64 years) were tested for maximal cycling performance. There were 50 (29%) track sprint cyclists and the remaining (71%) were predominantly road cycling specialists. A 10 s peak power test measured anaerobic power, a 30 s test measured anaerobic capacity, and a progressive test to volitional fatigue was used to determine peak aerobic power. Participants' exercise patterns were recorded using a physical activity recall questionnaire. Linear regression showed significant changes in anaerobic performance with aging. Peak anaerobic power (W · kg⁻¹) declined at a rate (mean ± SEE) of 8.1 ± 4.1% per decade (P < 0.0001) and anaerobic capacity (kJ · kg⁻¹) declined at 8.0 ± 3.3% per decade (P < 0.0001). Peak aerobic power [W · kg⁻¹] did not change significantly with age [-1.8 ± 1.5% per decade (P = 0.218)]. This cross-sectional study showed performance of the two anaerobic energy systems declined significantly across the age spectrum with no change in aerobic capacity.

  2. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  3. Phase diagram of softly repulsive systems: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law potentials.

    PubMed

    Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Giaquinta, Paolo V

    2005-10-01

    We redraw, using state-of-the-art methods for free-energy calculations, the phase diagrams of two reference models for the liquid state: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law repulsive potentials. Notwithstanding the different behaviors of the two potentials for vanishing interparticle distances, their thermodynamic properties are similar in a range of densities and temperatures, being ruled by the competition between the body-centered-cubic (bcc) and face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline structures and the fluid phase. We confirm the existence of a reentrant bcc phase in the phase diagram of the Gaussian-core model, just above the triple point. We also trace the bcc-fcc coexistence line of the inverse-power-law model as a function of the power exponent n and relate the common features in the phase diagrams of such systems to the softness degree of the interaction. PMID:16238377

  4. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity. PMID:27306959

  5. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  6. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-16

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  7. Dynamic Comparison of Three- and Four-Equation Reactor Core Models in a Full-Scope Power Plant Training Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Nunez-Carrera, Alejandro; Garcia-Gutierrez, Alfonso; Martinez-Mendez, Elizabeth Jeannette

    2004-02-15

    A comparative analysis of the dynamic behavior of a boiling water reactor in a full-scope power plant simulator for operator training is presented. Three- and four-equation reactor core models were used to examine three transients following tests described in acceptance test procedures: scram, loss of feedwater flow, and closure of main isolation valves. The three-equation model consists of water and steam mixture momentum, including mass and energy balances. The four-equation model is based on liquid and gas phase mass balances, together with a drift-flux approach for the analysis of phase separation. Analysis of the models showed that the scram transient was slightly different for three- and four-equation models. The drift-flux effects can explain such differences. Regarding the loss-of-feedwater transient, the predicted steam flow after scram is larger for the three-equation model. Finally, for the transient related to the closure of main steam isolation valves, the three-equation model provides slightly different results for the pressure change, which affects reactor level behavior.

  8. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  9. Training effects induced by cycling of magnetic field in ferromagnetic rich phase-separated nanocomposite manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have carried out an experimental investigation of magneto-transport and magnetic properties of charge-ordered Pr0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (PCMO) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) nanoparticles along with a nanocomposite consisting of those two types of nanoparticles. From the magneto-transport measurements, clear irreversibility is observed in the field dependence of resistance due to magnetic field cycling in the case of PCMO nanoparticles. The value of resistance increases during such a field cycling. However such an irreversibility is absent in the case of LSMO nanoparticles as well as nanocomposites. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate the gradual growth of antiferromagnetic phases in all samples leading to a decrease in magnetization. These inconsistencies between magneto-transport and magnetic behaviors are attributed to the magnetic training effects.

  10. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  11. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Job Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Job Profiles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  12. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  13. The DC-DC conversion power system of the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schmitz, St.; Wlochal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be exchanged during the year-end technical stop in 2016/2017, as part of the experiment's Phase-1 upgrade. The new device will feature approximately twice the number of readout channels, and consequently the power consumption will be doubled. By moving to a DC-DC conversion powering scheme, it is possible to power the new pixel detector with the existing power supplies and cable plant. The power system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the new components, including DC-DC converters, DC-DC converter motherboards and various power distribution boards, is detailed. The outcome of system tests in terms of electrical behaviour, thermal management and pixel module performance is discussed.

  14. Strength training increases endurance time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise despite no change in critical power.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Stokes, David G; Womack, Christopher J; Morton, R Hugh; Weltman, Arthur; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether improvements in endurance exercise performance elicited by strength training were accurately reflected by changes in parameters of the power-duration hyperbola for high-intensity exercise. Before and after 8 weeks of strength training (N = 14) or no exercise, control (N = 5), 19 males (age: 20.6 ± 2.0 years; weight: 78.2 ± 15.9 kg) performed a maximal incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer and also cycled to exhaustion during 4 constant-power exercise bouts. Critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (W') were estimated using nonlinear and linear models. Subjects in the strength training group improved significantly more than controls (p < 0.05) for strength (~30%), power at V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (7.9%), and time to exhaustion (TTE) for all 4 constant-power tests (~39%). Contrary to our hypothesis, CP did not change significantly after strength training (p > 0.05 for all models). Strength training improved W' (mean range of improvement = +5.8 to +10.0 kJ; p < 0.05) for both linear models. Increases in W' were consistently positively correlated with improvements in TTE, whereas changes in CP were not. Our findings indicate that strength training alters the power-duration hyperbola such that W' is enhanced without any improvement in CP. Consequently, CP may not be robust enough to track changes in endurance capacity elicited by strength training, and we do not recommend it to be used for this purpose. Conversely, W' may be the better indicator of improvement in endurance performance elicited by strength training.

  15. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  16. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  17. The effect of a complex training and detraining programme on selected strength and power variables in early pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Lee; Sleap, Mike; Tolfrey, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Complex training, a combination of resistance training and plyometrics is growing in popularity, despite limited support for its efficacy. In pre- and early pubertal children, the study of complex training has been limited, and to our knowledge an examination of its effect on anaerobic performance characteristics of the upper and lower body has not been undertaken. Furthermore, the effect of detraining after complex training requires clarification. The physical characteristics (mean+/-s) of the 54 male participants in the present study were as follows: age 12.3 +/- 0.3 years, height 1.57 +/- 0.07 m, body mass 50.3 +/- 11.0 kg. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 33) or control group (n = 21). The training, which was performed three times a week for 12 weeks, included a combination of dynamic constant external resistance and plyometrics. After training, participants completed 12 weeks of detraining. At baseline, after training and after detraining, peak and mean anaerobic power, dynamic strength and athletic performance were assessed. Twenty-six participants completed the training and none reported any training-related injury. Complex training was associated with small increases (< or =5.5%) in peak and mean power during training, followed by decreases of a similar magnitude (< or = -5.9%) during detraining (P < 0.05). No changes or minor, progressive increases (< or =1.5%) were evident in the control group (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, dynamic strength was increased by 24.3 - 71.4% (dependent on muscle group; P < 0.01), whereas growth-related changes in the control group varied from 0 to 4.4% (P > 0.05). For 40-m sprint running, basketball chest pass and vertical jump test performance, the experimental group saw a small improvement (< or =4.0%) after training followed by a decline (< or = -4.4%) towards baseline during detraining (P < 0.05), whereas the control group experienced no change (P > 0.05). In conclusion, in pre- and early

  18. Microscale phase change of fuels for MEMS power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haendler, Brenda

    As portable electronics technology advances, systems are becoming smaller and more energy intensive. While batteries are currently the only commercial power source for these applications, work is being done to create liquid fuel based portable power packs. These systems would leverage the higher energy density (W-hr/l) and specific energy (W-hr/kg) of liquid hydrocarbon fuels over available battery chemistries. For micro engines and small fuels cells there are advantages to preheating and vaporizing the fuel in a microchannel. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on understanding and characterizing the temperature and pressure signatures that result from microscale boiling of fuels in etched silicon channels approximately 100 mm in diameter. Building on previous microscale boiling work which used water as the working fluid for electronics cooling applications, the studies presented in this dissertation use both water and fuels including methanol, ethanol, and octane. Results are presented in the form of pressure and temperature measurements for a range of working fluids, volumetric flow rates, superheat temperatures and channel geometries. From a Fourier transform analysis of the pressure signatures, it was found that the frequency of the pressure fluctuations increases with superheat for ethanol as the working fluid while for methanol the frequency increases with volumetric flow rate. Tests were also conducted with sudden expansion geometries, which reduce the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations and create a localized cooling in the working fluid. Results are compared using fluid properties, including surface tension and heat of vaporization, and non-dimensional numbers including the Weber and the Jakob number. This study presents a significant contribution to the body of knowledge on microscale boiling. One application of microscale boiling for portable power technologies is also presented. Fuel cracking, breaking apart of long hydrocarbon chain

  19. Temporal Aspects of the V[o.sub.2] Response at the Power Output Associated with V[o.sub.2]peak in Well Trained Cyclists-Implications for Interval Training Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Paul B.; Shing, Cecilia M.; Jenkins, David G.

    2004-01-01

    The power output achieved at peak oxygen consumption (V[O.sub.2]peak) and the time this power can be maintained (i.e., Tmax) have been used in prescribing high-intensity interval training. In this context, the present study examined temporal aspects of the V[O.sub.2] response to exercise at the cycling power that output well trained cyclists…

  20. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  1. A Linear Model of Phase-Dependent Power Correlations in Neuronal Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, David; Vicente, Raul; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that effective interactions between two neuronal populations are supported by the phase difference between the oscillations in these two populations, a hypothesis referred to as “communication through coherence” (CTC). Experimental work quantified effective interactions by means of the power correlations between the two populations, where power was calculated on the local field potential and/or multi-unit activity. Here, we present a linear model of interacting oscillators that accounts for the phase dependency of the power correlation between the two populations and that can be used as a reference for detecting non-linearities such as gain control. In the experimental analysis, trials were sorted according to the coupled phase difference of the oscillators while the putative interaction between oscillations was taking place. Taking advantage of the modeling, we further studied the dependency of the power correlation on the uncoupled phase difference, connection strength, and topology. Since the uncoupled phase difference, i.e., the phase relation before the effective interaction, is the causal variable in the CTC hypothesis we also describe how power correlations depend on that variable. For uni-directional connectivity we observe that the width of the uncoupled phase dependency is broader than for the coupled phase. Furthermore, the analytical results show that the characteristics of the phase dependency change when a bidirectional connection is assumed. The width of the phase dependency indicates which oscillation frequencies are optimal for a given connection delay distribution. We propose that a certain width enables a stimulus-contrast dependent extent of effective long-range lateral connections. PMID:21808618

  2. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4. Volume 3: SOLARSIM users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Documentation of the interactive software package designed to predict the effect of certain electrical and mechanical imperfections on the performance of the SPS system is presented. The capabilities of the SOLARSIM program to quantify the spacetenna performance parameter values are described. The SOLARSIM package can compute the RMS pointing error, title effects, MPTX code tracking loop performance, MPTX carrier tracking loop performance, averaged power pattern, and the power transfer efficiency.

  3. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  4. Long term effects of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in young male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5(th) and 6(th) runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05). Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key PointsPower endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period.Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on

  5. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Pierre K; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment. PMID:27340808

  6. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training. PMID:26907336

  7. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Pierre K.; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment. PMID:27340808

  8. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Pierre K; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment.

  9. The effects of incline and level-grade high-intensity interval treadmill training on running economy and muscle power in well-trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2] and blood lactate [BLa] responses of submaximal running) and muscle power. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill (GHill = 12), level-grade (GFlat = 12), or control (GCon = 8) group. GHill and GFlat completed 12 interval and 12 continuous run sessions over 6 weeks, whereas GCon maintained their normal training. Dependent variables measured before and after training were VO2 and BLa at 2 separate velocities associated with lactate threshold (VLT) (VO2-60% and VO2-80%; and BLa-60% and BLa-80%, respectively); percentage of VO2max at lactate threshold (%VO2max at VLT); muscle power as assessed through a horizontal 5-jump test (5Jmax); and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 3 angular velocities (90, 180, and 300°·s(-1)). Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. All groups significantly improved 5Jmax, VO2-60%, VO2-80%, BLa-60%, and BLa-80%. Additionally, GHill and GFlat significantly improved %VO2max at VLT. Other indices of RE and muscle power did not improve. We conclude incline treadmill training effective for improving the components of RE, but insufficient as a resistance-to-movement exercise for enhancing muscle power output.

  10. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  11. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p < 0.02). Bench press (5 vs. 18%), leg press (17 vs. 28%), and Smith machine box squat (27 vs. 35%) strength increased after both compound and complex training. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle angle and gastrocnemius fascicle angle were increased with both compound and complex training. Gastrocnemius fascicle length decreased only after complex training (-11.8 ± 9.4%, p = 0.006). Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas increased only after complex training (p ≤ 0.05). Fiber type composition was not affected by either intervention. These results suggest that short-term strength and power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  12. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase II-Air Training Command, Military Airlift Command, and Strategic Air Command [and] Phase III-Electronic Warfare Trainers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Hubbard, David C.

    This document consists of an interim report and a final report which describe the second and third phases of a project designed to determine the utility and utilization of sophisticated hardware and software capabilities known as advanced instructional features (AIFs). Used with an aircrew training device (ATD), AIFs permit a simulator instructor…

  13. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  15. Influence of beam-loaded effects on phase-locking in the high power microwave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhou, Zhigang; Qiu, Rong

    2014-06-15

    Owing to the power limitation of a single device, much more attentions are focused on developing high power microwave (HPM) oscillators that can be phase-locked to the external signal in the recent HPM researches. Although the phase-locking is proved to be feasible in the conventional devices (such as magnetrons), challenges still exist in the HPM devices due to beam-loaded effects, which are more obvious in HPM devices because of its high current and the low Q-factor of the device. A simple structured HPM oscillator (Bitron) is introduced to study such effects on the phase-locking in the HPM oscillator. The self-consistent analysis is carried out to study such effects together with particle in cell simulations. Then the modified Adler equation is established for the phase-locking HPM oscillator. Finally, conditions for the phase-locking in the HPM oscillator are given.

  16. Influence of beam-loaded effects on phase-locking in the high power microwave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhou, Zhigang; Qiu, Rong

    2014-06-01

    Owing to the power limitation of a single device, much more attentions are focused on developing high power microwave (HPM) oscillators that can be phase-locked to the external signal in the recent HPM researches. Although the phase-locking is proved to be feasible in the conventional devices (such as magnetrons), challenges still exist in the HPM devices due to beam-loaded effects, which are more obvious in HPM devices because of its high current and the low Q-factor of the device. A simple structured HPM oscillator (Bitron) is introduced to study such effects on the phase-locking in the HPM oscillator. The self-consistent analysis is carried out to study such effects together with particle in cell simulations. Then the modified Adler equation is established for the phase-locking HPM oscillator. Finally, conditions for the phase-locking in the HPM oscillator are given.

  17. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  18. Effects of different resistance training volumes on strength and power in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Perez-Bibao, Txomin; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Triplett, N T

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different volume of resistance training (RT) on maximum strength and average power in college team sport athletes with no previous RT experience. Thirty-two subjects (20 men and 12 women, age = 23.1 ± 1.57 years) were randomly divided into 4 groups: low volume (LV; n = 8), 1 set per exercise and 3 sets per muscle group; moderate volume (MV; n = 8), 2 sets per exercise and 6 sets per muscle group; high volume (HV; n = 8), 3 sets per exercise and 9 sets per muscle group; and a non-RT control group (n = 8). The 3 intervention groups were trained for 6 weeks thrice weekly after a nonperiodized RT program differentiated only by the volume. Before (T1) and after training (T2), 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal average power (AP) produced on the bench press (BP), upright row (UR), and squat (SQ) were assessed by progressive resistance tests. One repetition maximum-BP and 1RM-UR increased significantly in the 3 interventions groups (p < 0.05), whereas only the HV group significantly improved 1RM-SQ (p < 0.01). The MV and HV groups increased AP-BP (p < 0.05), whereas only the LV group improved AP-SQ (p < 0.01). Moderate effect sizes (ES; >0.20 < 0.60) were observed for the 1RM-BP and 1RM-UR in the 3 training groups. High-volume group showed the larger ES for 1RM-BP (0.45), 1RM-UR (0.60), and 1RM-SQ (0.47), whereas the LV produced the higher ES for SQ-AP (0.53). During the initial adaptation period, a HV RT program seems to be a better strategy for improving strength, whereas during the season, an LV RT could be a reasonable option for maintaining strength and enhancing lower-body AP in team sport athletes. PMID:23044934

  19. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a ``IF homodyne`` receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses. 5 figs.

  20. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a "IF homodyne" receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses.

  1. Open-phase operating modes of power flow control topologies in a Smart Grid Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The power flow regulating circuit node in an alternating current system is reviewed. The circuit node is accomplished based on a thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) with controlled thyristor switch. Research results of the individual phase control of the output voltage for the TCPAR are presented. Analytical expressions for the overvoltage factor calculation in the thyristor switch circuit for open-phase operating modes are received. Based on evaluation of overvoltage in operational and emergency modes, the implementability conditions of the individual phase control of the output voltage are determined. Under these conditions, maximal performance and complete controllability are provided.

  2. Adaptations in upper-body maximal strength and power output resulting from long-term resistance training in experienced strength-power athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to observe changes in maximal upper-body strength and power and shifts in the load-power curve across a multiyear period in experienced resistance trainers. Twelve professional rugby league players who regularly performed combined maximal strength and power training were observed across a 4-year period with test data reported every 2 years (years 1998, 2000, and 2002). Upper-body strength was assessed by the 1 repetition maximum bench press and maximum power during bench press throws (BT Pmax) with various barbell resistances of 40-80 kg. During the initial testing, players also were identified as elite (n = 6) or subelite (n = 6), depending upon whether they participated in the elite first-division national league or second-division league. This subgrouping allowed for a comparison of the scope of changes dependent upon initial strength and training experience. The subelite group was significantly younger, less strong, and less powerful than the elite group, but no other difference existed in height or body mass in 1998. Across the 4-year period, significant increases in strength occurred for the group as a whole and larger increases were observed for the subelite than the elite group, verifying the limited scope that exists for strength gain in more experienced, elite resistance-trained athletes. A similar trend occurred for changes in BT Pmax. This long-term observation confirms that the rate of progress in strength and power development diminishes with increased strength levels and resistance training experience. Furthermore, it also indicates that strength and power can still be increased despite a high volume of concurrent resistance and endurance training. PMID:16937966

  3. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  4. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.

  5. The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.

  6. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  7. The effects of tai chi chuan combined with vibration training on balance control and lower extremity muscle power.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key pointsEight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population.The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism.Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other.

  8. Single Phase Passive Rectification Versus Active Rectification Applied to High Power Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Walter; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Stirling engine converters are being considered as potential candidates for high power energy conversion systems required by future NASA explorations missions. These types of engines typically contain two major moving parts, the displacer and the piston, in which a linear alternator is attached to the piston to produce a single phase sinusoidal waveform at a specific electric frequency. Since all Stirling engines perform at low electrical frequencies (less or equal to 100 Hz), space explorations missions that will employ these engines will be required to use DC power management and distribution (PMAD) system instead of an AC PMAD system to save on space and weight. Therefore, to supply such DC power an AC to DC converter is connected to the Stirling engine. There are two types of AC to DC converters that can be employed, a passive full bridge diode rectifier and an active switching full bridge rectifier. Due to the inherent line inductance of the Stirling Engine-Linear Alternator (SE-LA), their sinusoidal voltage and current will be phase shifted producing a power factor below 1. In order to keep power the factor close to unity, both AC to DC converters topologies will implement power factor correction. This paper discusses these power factor correction methods as well as their impact on overall mass for exploration applications. Simulation results on both AC to DC converters topologies with power factor correction as a function of output power and SE-LA line inductance impedance are presented and compared.

  9. [Communication in the context of phase I clinical trials in oncology: implementation and evaluation of training programs].

    PubMed

    Rouby, Pascal; Hollebecque, Antoine; Bahleda, Ratislav; Deutsch, Eric; Gomez-Rocca, Carlos; Angevin, Eric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Soria, Jean-Charles; Dauchy, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Communication training programs in oncology have demonstrated some efficacy to improve doctors' communication skills. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of such training in the particular context of phase I clinical trials. Self-satisfaction and self-efficacy scales evaluating doctor-patient communication was completed by 6 medical oncologists (3 juniors and 3 seniors) before and after their communication training for a total of sixty visits. Two types of visit have been distinguished: the visits between the oncologist and the patient alone (a dual situation) and those with a third party (a trilateral situation). For all the doctors in dual and trialateral situations, self-efficacy scores improved significantly after training. This improvement was more pronounced for juniors oncologists in trilateral situations. Before training, satisfactory scores were worst in duel versus trilateral situations (P=0.01). This was particularly pronounced for junior compared to senior doctors (P=0.035). After training, in trilateral situations, the satisfaction scores of junior doctors matched that of the senior doctors. The communication training programs appear to benefit junior oncologists to a greater extent in trilateral situations. PMID:25609484

  10. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions. PMID:24367036

  11. The relationship of maximal alactacid anaerobic power to somatotype in trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Ergen, E; Sardella, F; Dal Monte, A

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype components and maximal alactacid anaerobic power (MAAP) in trained subjects. The somatotype components (endomorphy: means = 2.66, S.D. = +/- 0.78; mesomorphy: means = 5.45, S.D. = +/- 1.12; ectomorphy: means = 2.46, S.D. = +/- 0.88) and total MAAP were measured in 40 male fencers (aged, means 21.79, S.D. = +/- 3.97) in order to determine the correlations. The results did not show any correlations between the parameters. It can be concluded that the MAAP of an individual does not depend on the somatotype; but it may also be assumed that MAAP show changes with the percentage of fibre type, enzymatic activity in these fibres involved by large muscle groups which are relatively related to musculo-skeletal development (second component of somatotype) and neuro-muscular properties of the subjects, all having a genetic basis.

  12. Effect of different bicycle body positions on power output in aerobically trained females.

    PubMed

    Hubenig, Lindsay R; Game, Alex B; Kennedy, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Aerodynamic bicycle positioning reduces drag but also reduces power output (PO) in males. The effect of aerodynamic bicycle positioning in trained endurance females is unknown. Eighteen females participants (VO2max 49.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) all with competitive experience performed cycling trials at ventilatory threshold 1 and 2 (VT-1, VT-2) in both an aerodynamic and an upright position. There was a significant difference in PO between the aerodynamic and upright positions at VT-1 (152.7 ± 28.0 Watts and 159.7 ± 33.1 Watts, respectively) but not at VT-2 (191.2 ± 39.1 Watts and 192.4 ± 40.0 Watts, respectively). There were no significant differences in heart rate, oxygen consumption, or cadence between positions at either intensity. At both intensities the individual response was varied and no trends due to years of experience or background (triathlete or cyclist) explained this variability. Therefore, despite the significant mean difference in PO at VT-1, these results indicate that in trained females the effect of aerodynamic positioning is individual.

  13. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  14. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    PubMed Central

    Rallapalli, Varsha H.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  15. Computation of inflationary cosmological perturbations in the power-law inflationary model using the phase-integral method

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Victor M.

    2007-03-15

    The phase-integral approximation devised by Froeman and Froeman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the power-law inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar and tensor power spectra are explicitly obtained up to ninth-order of the phase-integral approximation. We show that, the phase-integral approximation exactly reproduces the shape of the power spectra for scalar and tensor perturbations as well as the spectral indices. We compare the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation with the results for the power spectrum obtained with the slow-roll and uniform-approximation methods.

  16. Optimal design of minimum-power stimuli for phase models of neuron oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasanayake, Isuru; Li-Shin, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we study optimal control problems of spiking neurons whose dynamics are described by a phase model. We design minimum-power current stimuli (controls) that lead to targeted spiking times. In particular, we consider bounded control amplitude and characterize the range of possible spiking times determined by the bound, which can be chosen sufficiently small within the range where the phase model is valid. We show that for a given bound the corresponding feasible spiking times are optimally achieved by piecewise continuous controls. We present analytic expressions with numerical simulations of the minimum-power stimuli for several phase models. We demonstrate the applicability of our method with an experimentally determined phase response curve.

  17. Simple model to explain instabilities in passively-phased high-power fiber laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bochove, Erik J.; Shakir, Sami A.; Aceves, Alejandro B.; Braiman, Yehuda; Deiterding, Ralf; Miller, Casey A; Colet, Pere R.; Jacobo, Adrian; Rhodes, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple physical mechanism to explain observed instabilities in the dynamics of passively phased fiber amplifier arrays that arises from two properties: First that a weak phase disturbance of the output field of the array is converted into a strong intensity disturbance through the mode-selective feedback mechanism. Second, that this intensity fluctuation regenerates a phase fluctuation due to the nonlinear properties of the amplifying media. At sufficiently high operating power levels this cyclic disturbance continues to grow upon each cavity round trip, creating instability. This simple picture is supported by the results of a linear stability analysis of the set of propagation and population rate equations, which are in good agreement with observed critical power levels. A third level of quantitative confirmation was obtained by comparison to the results of numerical integration of the original set of nonlinear equations. This predicted instability is entirely a property of passively phased arrays of more than one element.

  18. Development of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Fimmers, C.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Rittich, D.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique will be exploited to power the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters for the CMS pixel project have been developed, based on the AMIS5 ASIC designed by CERN. The powering system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the converter prototypes is detailed, including power efficiency, stability of the output voltage, shielding, and thermal management. Results from a test of the magnetic field tolerance of the DC-DC converters are reported. System tests with pixel modules using many components of the future pixel barrel system are summarized. Finally first impressions from a pre-series of 200 DC-DC converters are presented.

  19. Development of current injection based three phase unbalanced continuation power flow for distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppo, Shilpa

    Voltage stability studies (VSS) of the electric network is a crucial factor to make the system operate in stable region and to prevent power blackouts. There are several commercial tools available for VSS of electric transmission systems (TS) but not many for distribution systems (DS). With increasing penetration of distributed renewable generations and meshed network within DS, shipboard power system (SPS) and microgrid, these VSS tools need to be extended for DS. Due to inherent characteristic like high R/X ratio, three phase and unbalanced operation, DS or SPS requires different mathematical approach than TS. Unbalanced three phase power flow and continuation power flow tools were developed using current injection and corrector predictor methods in this work for VSS. Maximum loading point for given DS or SPS can be computed using developed tools to guide required preventive and corrective actions. Developed tool was tested and validated for several different test cases.

  20. Different loading schemes in power training during the preseason promote similar performance improvements in Brazilian elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Pivetti, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated the effects of 2 different power training loading schemes in Brazilian elite soccer players. Thirty-two players participated in the study. Maximum dynamic strength (1RM) was evaluated before (B), at midpoint (i.e., after 3 weeks; T1), and after 6 weeks (T2) of a preseason strength/power training. Muscle power, jumping, and sprinting performance were evaluated at B and T2. Players were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 training groups: velocity-based (VEL: n = 16; age, 19.18 ± 0.72 years; height, 173 ± 6 cm; body mass, 72.7 ± 5.8 kg) or intensity-based (INT: n = 16; age, 19.11 ± 0.7 years; height, 172 ± 4.5 cm; body mass, 71.8 ± 4.6 kg). After the individual determination of the optimal power load, both groups completed a 3-week traditional strength training period. Afterward, the VEL group performed 3 weeks of power-oriented training with increasing velocity and decreasing intensity (from 60 to 30% 1RM) throughout the training period, whereas the INT group increased the training intensity (from 30 to 60% 1RM) and thus decreased movement velocity throughout the power-oriented training period. Both groups used loads within ±15% (ranging from 30 to 60% 1RM) of the measured optimal power load (i.e., 45.2 ± 3.0% 1RM). Similar 1RM gains were observed in both groups at T1 (VEL: 9.2%; INT: 11.0%) and T2 (VEL: 19.8%; INT: 22.1%). The 2 groups also presented significant improvements (within-group comparisons) in all of the variables. However, no between-group differences were detected. Mean power in the back squat (VEL: 18.5%; INT: 20.4%) and mean propulsive power in the jump squat (VEL: 29.1%; INT: 31.0%) were similarly improved at T2. The 10-m sprint (VEL: -4.3%; INT: -1.6%), jump squat (VEL: 7.1%; INT: 4.5%), and countermovement jump (VEL: 6.7%; INT: 6.9%) were also improved in both groups at T2. Curiously, the 30-m sprint time (VEL: -0.8%; INT: -0.1%) did not significantly improve for both groups. In summary, our data suggest that male

  1. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP.

  2. Training the powerful: issues that emerged during the evaluation of a communication skills training programme for senior cancer care professionals.

    PubMed

    Bibila, S; Rabiee, F

    2014-07-01

    'Connected' is the name of the national advanced communication skills training programme developed in 2008 for cancer care professionals in the NHS. A 3-day training course combining didactic and experiential learning elements is run by two facilitators with course participants expected to engage fully in simulated consultations with trained actors. In 2011, and as a result of participant feedback on the length of the course and increasing pressures on budgets and clinical time, the Connected team developed and piloted an alternative 2-day training course. Before its roll-out in 2012, Birmingham City University was commissioned to evaluate the effectiveness and quality of the 2-day course vis-à-vis the 'traditional' 3-day one. This article is written by the two evaluators and it discusses some of the issues that emerged during the evaluation. We broadly grouped these issues into two overlapping categories: the mandatory nature of the course and the different professional background and seniority of participants. In our discussion we consider the implications these issues have for communication skills training policy and practice and put forward suggestions for further research.

  3. Towards an Equilibrium Model for Creating Powerful Learning Environments. Validation of a Questionnaire on Creating Powerful Learning Environments during Teacher Training Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelfhout, Wouter; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Steven; Struyven, Katrien; Gielen, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Recently, many insights have been gained into how to create powerful learning environments. The goal of learning how to teach in this way has important consequences for teacher training. Firstly, scholars indicate the necessity to work out a theoretical framework for the student-teachers which is sufficiently complete, but still manageable, and…

  4. Weight lifted and countermovement potentiation of power in concentric phase of unstable and traditional resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika; Jelen, Michal; Kováciková, Zuzana; Ollé, Gábor; Vilman, Tomás; Hamar, Dusan

    2014-04-01

    The study evaluates the effect of weight lifted on power in the concentric phase of resistance exercises on stable and unstable surfaces. A group of 19 fit men performed randomly on different days 3 reps of (a) barbell chest presses on the bench and Swiss ball, and (b) barbell squats on stable base and BOSU ball. Exercises were performed without and with countermovement (CM) using maximal effort in concentric phase. Initial weight of 20 kg was increased by 10 kg or 5 kg (at higher loads) up to at least 85% of previously established 1RM under stable conditions. Results showed no significant differences in mean power in the concentric phase of stable and unstable CM chest presses at lower weights lifted (from 20 to 50 kg). However, its values were significantly higher during chest presses on the bench than on Swiss ball while lifting higher weights (from 60 to 90 kg). Similarly, mean power in the concentric phase of squats was significantly higher on stable base than on BOSU ball at higher weights lifted (from 60 to 90 kg). Though a set of data showed significant differences, the effect sizes≤0.7 suggest no practically meaningful differences. It may be concluded that unstable base compromises the power in the concentric phase of resistance exercises, however, only at higher weights lifted.

  5. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  6. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power. PMID:21912294

  7. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power.

  8. A Drive Circuit of Switched Reluctance Motors using Three-phase Power Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Hiroki; Guo, Hai-Jiao; Ichinokura, Osamu

    Switched Reluctance(SR) motors have several advantages for industrial applications. However, their drive circuits are not necessarily suitable. The drive circuit of a 3-phase SR motor has 6 switches and 6 diodes such as general 3-phase inverter, but its connection is different. So, a general 3-phase power module such as Intelligent Power Module(IPM) can't be used. We proposed a novel drive circuit for SR motors, which can be constructed using general a 3-phase power module without external inductors or devices. This drive method has several advantages including low cost, high efficiency, and compactness. It was simulated on SPICE including the controller and the driving performances were investigated. The new drive circuit allowed phase current to flow bi-directionally. So, the reluctance torque of SR motors is not affected by current direction. Then, we developed the new drive circuit for a 6/4 SR motor using a conventional 3-phase IPM. The results of the experiments indicated same performances as conventional way and higher efficiency than conventional way.

  9. Design requirements document for the phase 1 privatization electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-10-31

    The electrical system for the Phase 1 privatization facilities will support the TWRS mission by providing the electrical power to the Phase 1 privatized facilities. This system will receive power from the Department of Energy-Richland Operations (RL) A4-8 230 kV transmission system powered from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Ashe and Midway 230 kV Substations. The existing RL 230 kV transmission line will be modified and looped 1021 into the new 230 kV substation bus. The new substation will be located in the vicinity of the privatized facilities, approximately 3.2 km (2 mi) south of the existing RL A4-8 230 kV transmission line. The substation will be capable of providing up to 40 MW of electrical power to support the Phase 1 privatization facilities and has space for accommodating future expansions. The substation will require at least two 230-13.8 kV transformers, 13.8 kV split bus switchgear, switchgear building, grounding transformers, instrument transformers, control and monitoring equipment, associated protection and isolation devices, lightning protection, yard lighting, cable and raceways, and infrastructure needed to provide desired availability and reliability. The power from the 13.8 kV switchgear located in the switchgear building will be delivered at the privatization facilities site boundaries. The 13.8 kV distribution system inside the privatization facilities site boundaries is the responsibility of the privatization contract.

  10. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  11. Design of a four-phase high frequency amplitude-stable power supply.

    PubMed

    Qihua, Yang

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents a four-phase high frequency amplitude-stable power supply that acts as a rotary electric field generator in biochip research and development. Four channels of high precision frequency signals are generated by DDS(Direct Digital Synthesis). Via two-stage amplifiers these signals are amplified to 50 V(p-p) output within 100 Hz--100 MHz bandwidth on standard 50 Omega load. Via amplitude and phase detection feedback, the output amplitude and phase errors among multiple channels can be stabilized even if load is changeable.

  12. Prototype geothermal power plant summary of operation for automatic-run test phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, G.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Prototype Power Plant was built to demonstrate and learn the operation of a binary power cycle, and then serve as a test bed for pilot scale components, systems, and/or concepts that have the potential for enhancing the feasibility of power generation from a moderate temperature geothermal fluid resource. The operation to date of the prototype plant is summarized with primary emphasis on the automatic-run phase, during which the plant was operated over a five-month period with minimal operator surveillance.

  13. Vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy are not altered 6 hours after strength training in collegiate women basketball players.

    PubMed

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Bailey, Brooke Kerbs; Allsen, Philip E

    2004-08-01

    We measured vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy in 18 Division I women basketball players (age 18-22 years) 6 hours following a morning strength training routine called a lift day (LD) and on a control day in which no strength training was performed. Subjects had been strength trained for 4 weeks prior to testing. The strength training session on lift day was a full-body workout and included 7 exercises performed in 3-6 sets at loads ranging from a 5 to 12 repetition maximum (RM). There were no significant differences in jump height with 2 legs (49.5 +/- 4.8 cm and 49.0 +/- 4.8 cm, LD and control, respectively), relative mean power output over 30 seconds on a Wingate bicycle test (6.4 +/- 0.8 W.kg(-1) and 6.6 +/- 0.7 W.kg(-1), LD and control, respectively), or shooting accuracy over 60 seconds (21.5 +/- 3.8 points/min and 21.3 +/- 4.1 points/min, LD and control, respectively). These data suggest that in collegiate women basketball players, a previous bout of strength training has no negative effect on vertical jump height, anaerobic power, or shooting accuracy.

  14. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Taborri, Juri; Scalona, Emilia; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6), with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02). Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population. PMID:26404309

  15. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Taborri, Juri; Scalona, Emilia; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2015-09-23

    Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6), with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02). Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population.

  16. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Taborri, Juri; Scalona, Emilia; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6), with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02). Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population. PMID:26404309

  17. Muscle power training in the institutionalized frail: a new approach to counteracting functional declines and very late-life disability.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa

    2014-07-01

    Skeletal muscle power decreases earlier than muscle strength with advancing age and is more strongly associated with functional test performance than muscle strength in elderly populations. In addition, some studies have shown that resistance training designed to improve muscle power output (high speed of movement) enhances several functional outcomes in the healthy elderly. Therefore, muscle power has emerged as a factor that is also potentially associated with functional limitations in frail elderly adults. The purpose of this review was to provide recent evidence regarding the association between skeletal muscle power and functional capacity in physically frail individuals. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, Sport Discus and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1990 to 2014. Recently, it has been shown that functional capacity among frail elderly adults could be improved by performing resistance training at a high speed of movement with a loading stimulus that optimizes muscle power output. Routine multicomponent interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to institutionalized oldest old because such interventions improve the overall physical status of frail elderly individuals and prevent disability and other adverse outcomes. This result is especially important in frail subjects, who urgently need to improve their functional capacities to prevent adverse outcomes such as falls, hospitalizations, disability, or even death.

  18. On the structure and phase transitions of power-law Poissonian ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Oshanin, Gleb

    2012-10-01

    Power-law Poissonian ensembles are Poisson processes that are defined on the positive half-line, and that are governed by power-law intensities. Power-law Poissonian ensembles are stochastic objects of fundamental significance; they uniquely display an array of fractal features and they uniquely generate a span of important applications. In this paper we apply three different methods—oligarchic analysis, Lorenzian analysis and heterogeneity analysis—to explore power-law Poissonian ensembles. The amalgamation of these analyses, combined with the topology of power-law Poissonian ensembles, establishes a detailed and multi-faceted picture of the statistical structure and the statistical phase transitions of these elemental ensembles.

  19. Tunable subpicosecond electron bunch train generation using a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beamline capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally-separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  20. Multi-Sector General Permit Annual Industrial Storm Water Training, TA-3-22 Power and Steam Plant (Sector 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Shendo, Marwin Patrick

    2015-01-12

    This report offers training for employees who work at TA-3-22, the Power and Steam Plant that move product, metal, and other pollutants like oil, fuel, equipment, pumps, etc. outside or that work outside with industrial materials exposed to storm water.

  1. Effects of Two Instructional Techniques Used with the Ford Power Train Simulator on the Performance of Mississippi Vocational Agriculture Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perritt, Roger Dale; Shinn, Glen C.

    A Mississippi study examined the effects of two instructional techniques using the Ford power train unit as an instructional aid. Eight schools were randomly selected from a population of 33 vocational agricultural departments. Three schools with 10 students from each school were randomly selected and assigned to treatment A, traditional…

  2. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  3. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  4. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  5. Transfer effect of strength and power training to the sprinting kinematics of international rugby players.

    PubMed

    Barr, Matthew J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Agar-Newman, Dana J; Newton, Robert U

    2014-09-01

    Increasing lower-body strength is often considered to be important for improving the sprinting speed of rugby players. This concept was examined in a group (n = 40) of international rugby players in a 2-part study. The players were tested for body mass (BM), 1 repetition maximum power clean (PC), and front squat, as well as triple broad jump and broad jump. In addition, speed over 40 m was tested, with timing gates recording the 0- to 10-m and 30- to 40-m sections to assess acceleration and maximal velocity. Two video cameras recorded the 2 splits for later analysis of sprinting kinematics. The players were divided into a fast group (n = 20) and a slow group (n = 20) for both acceleration and maximal velocity. In the second part of the study, a group (n = 15) of players were tracked over a 1-year period to determine how changes in strength corresponded with changes in sprinting kinematics. The fast groups for both acceleration and maximal velocity showed greater levels of strength (d = 0.5-1.8), lower ground contact times (d = 0.8-2.1), and longer stride lengths (d = 0.5-1.3). There was a moderate improvement over 1 year in PC/BM (0.08 kg·kg, p = 0.008, d = 0.6), and this had a strong relationship with the change in maximal velocity stride length (r = 0.70). Acceleration stride length also had a large improvement over 1 year (0.09 m, p = 0.003, d = 0.81). Although increasing lower-body strength is likely important for increasing sprinting speed of players with low training backgrounds, it may not have the same effect with highly trained players.

  6. Ultra-low-power silicon photonics wavelength converter for phase-encoded telecommunication signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, C.; Ettabib, M. A.; Cristiani, I.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Richardson, D. J.; Petropoulos, P.

    2016-03-01

    The development of compact, low power, silicon photonics CMOS compatible components for all-optical signal processing represents a key step towards the development of fully functional platforms for next generation all-optical communication networks. The wavelength conversion functionality at key nodes is highly desirable to achieve transparent interoperability and wavelength routing allowing efficient management of network resources operated with high speed, phase encoded signals. All optical wavelength conversion has already been demonstrated in Si-based devices, mainly utilizing the strong Kerr effect that silicon exhibits at telecommunication wavelengths. Unfortunately, Two Photon Absorption (TPA) and Free Carrier (FC) effects strongly limit their performance, even at moderate power levels, making them unsuitable for practical nonlinear applications. Amorphous silicon has recently emerged as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon (c-Si), showing both an enhanced Kerr as well as a reduced TPA coefficient at telecom wavelengths, with respect to its c-Si counterpart. Here we present an ultra-low power wavelength converter based on a passive, CMOS compatible, 1-mm long amorphous silicon waveguide operated at a maximum pump power level of only 70 mW. We demonstrate TPA-free Four Wave Mixing (FWM)-based wavelength conversion of Binary Phase Shift Keyed (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed (QPSK) signals at 20 Gbit/s with <1 dB power penalty at BER = 10-5.

  7. Binary-phase Fresnel zone plate arrays for high-power laser beam smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepler, David A.; Danson, Colin N.; Ross, Ian N.; Rivers, S. A.; Edwards, Stanley A.; Bett, Thomas H.; Stevenson, R. M.; Jinks, P. M. R.

    1995-04-01

    Binary-phase optics have been used by a number of high-power laser laboratories in order to achieve relatively smooth focal spots. However, the intensity envelopes have in general been of a sinc form rather than `top-hat.' This paper presents work on the production of uniform `top-hat' intensity focal spot profiles obtained from Fresnel binary phase zone plate (PZP) arrays of various designs. Phase plates are used to generate large area smooth focal spots and both theoretical and experimental focal spots are presented. These demonstrate the flexibility of this technique which provides a simple method of generating both uniform `top-hat' intensity profiles and spatially shaped foci, for use with high-power lasers.

  8. Study of the EAST Fast Control Power Supply Based on Carrier Phase-Shift PWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Tang, Ke; Gao, Ge; Fu, Peng; Huang, Haihong; Dong, Lin

    2013-09-01

    EAST (experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) fast control power supply is a high-capacity single-phase AC/DC/AC inverter power supply, which traces the displacement signal of plasma, and excites coils in a vacuum vessel to produce a magnetic field that realizes plasma stabilization. To meet the requirements of a large current and fast response, the multiple structure of the carrier phase-shift three-level inverter is presented, which realizes parallelled multi-inverters, raises the equivalent switching frequency of the inverters and improves the performance of output waves. In this work the design scheme is analyzed, and the output harmonic characteristic of parallel inverters is studied. The simulation and experimental results confirm that the scheme and control strategy is valid. The power supply system can supply a large current, and has a perfect performance on harmonic features as well as the ability of a fast response.

  9. Waveform magnetic field survey in Russian DC and Swiss AC powered trains: a basis for biologically relevant exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Ptitsyna, N G; Kopytenko, Y A; Villoresi, G; Pfluger, D H; Ismaguilov, V; Iucci, N; Kopytenko, E A; Zaitzev, D B; Voronov, P M; Tyasto, M I

    2003-12-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a link between transport magnetic fields (MF) and certain adverse health effects. We performed measurements in workplaces of engineers on Russian DC and Swiss AC powered (16.67 Hz) electric trains using a computer based waveform capture system with a 200 Hz sampling rate. MF in DC and AC trains show complex combinations of static and varying components. The most probable levels of quasistatic MF (0.001-0.03 Hz) were in the range 40 microT. Maximum levels of 120 microT were found in DC powered locomotives. These levels are much higher than the geomagnetic field at the site of measurements. MF encountered both in DC and AC powered rail systems showed irregular temporal variability in frequency composition and amplitude characteristics across the whole frequency range studied (0-50 Hz); however, more than 90% of the magnetic field power was concentrated in frequencies powered trains amplitudes of field variations sharply decrease from static to approximately 3-4 Hz fields; for higher frequencies a tendency of slow decrease is observed up to 50 Hz. For frequencies higher than 1 Hz average amplitudes of magnetic field variations are less than 1 microT; maximum levels reach tens of microtesla. At frequencies lower than 15 Hz, the average magnetic field generated by Swiss AC powered locomotives was approximately 10 times greater than fields observed in Russian DC powered trains.

  10. High Power Passive Phase Locking of Four Yb-Doped Fiber Amplifiers by an All-Optical Feedback Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yu-Hao; He, Bing; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen; Fan, Yuan-Yuan; Qi, Yun-Feng; Liu, Chi; Yuan, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Lou, Qi-Hong

    2011-05-01

    We report the passive phase locking of four high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers with ring cavity. The interference patterns at different output power are observed and the Strehl ratios are measured. The maximum coherent output power of the fiber array is up to 1062 W by multi-stage amplification. The stable beam profiles of various phase relationships are observed by controlling the position of the feedback fiber, in good agreement with the calculated results. By using master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) architecture and broadband operation of passively phased systems, higher power scaling with high beam quality appears to be feasible.

  11. Half-squat or jump squat training under optimum power load conditions to counteract power and speed decrements in Brazilian elite soccer players during the preseason.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Zanetti, Vinicius; Gil, Saulo; Kitamura, Katia; Abad, Cesar Cavinato Cal; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test which specific type of exercise (i.e., jump squat (JS) or half-squat (HS)) is more effective at maintaining speed and power abilities throughout a preseason in soccer players. Twenty-three male soccer players were randomly allocated into two groups: JS and HS. The mean propulsive power, vertical jumping ability, and sprinting performance were evaluated before and after 4 weeks of a preseason period. The optimum power loads for the JS and HS exercises were assessed and were used as load-references. The soccer players performed 10 power oriented training sessions in total. Both JS and HS maintained power in JS and speed abilities (P > 0.05, for main effects and interaction effect) as indicated by ANCOVA. Both groups demonstrated reduced power during HS (ES = -0.76 vs. -0.78, for JS and HS, respectively); both groups improved acceleration (ACC) from 5 to 10 m (ES = 0.52). JS was more effective at reducing the ACC decrements over 0-5 m (ES = -0.38 vs. -0.58, for JS and HS, respectively). The HS group increased squat jump height (ES = 0.76 vs. 0.11, for HS and JS, respectively). In summary, JS is more effective in reducing the ACC capacity over very short sprints while HS is more effective in improving squat jump performance. Both strategies improve ACC over longer distances. New training strategies should be implemented/developed to avoid concurrent training effects between power and endurance adaptations during professional soccer preseasons.

  12. Assessment of a WIN Quality Training Demonstration Project. Phase 1 Report: Characteristics of Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard N.

    A group of interested and academically qualified female Aid to Families with Dependent Children recipients was identified to participate in the assessment of a demonstration program to train female Work incentive Program (WIN) participants. Training for electronics technicians was conducted at DeVry Institute of Technology (Chicago) and Ohio…

  13. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  14. Group Problem Solving, Goal-Setting and Decision-Making. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    One of a series of pre-apprenticeship training modules, this self-paced student training module deals with group problem solving, goal setting, and decision making. Included in the module are the following: cover sheet listing module title, goals, and performance indicators; introduction; cover sheet/study guide with directions for module…

  15. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times. PMID:24567698

  16. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  17. The relationship of maximal alactacid anaerobic power to somatotype in trained subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ergen, E; Sardella, F; Dal Monte, A

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype components and maximal alactacid anaerobic power (MAAP) in trained subjects. The somatotype components (endomorphy: means = 2.66, S.D. = +/- 0.78; mesomorphy: means = 5.45, S.D. = +/- 1.12; ectomorphy: means = 2.46, S.D. = +/- 0.88) and total MAAP were measured in 40 male fencers (aged, means 21.79, S.D. = +/- 3.97) in order to determine the correlations. The results did not show any correlations between the parameters. It can be concluded that the MAAP of an individual does not depend on the somatotype; but it may also be assumed that MAAP show changes with the percentage of fibre type, enzymatic activity in these fibres involved by large muscle groups which are relatively related to musculo-skeletal development (second component of somatotype) and neuro-muscular properties of the subjects, all having a genetic basis. PMID:4092145

  18. A high-power microwave circular polarizer and its application on phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hao; Hu, Yongmei; Chang, Chao; Guo, Letian

    2016-04-01

    A high-power waveguide dual circular polarizer was theoretically designed and proof-of-principle was experimentally tested. It consists of two incident rectangular waveguides with a perpendicular H-plane junction, one circular waveguide with a pair of trapezoidal grooves coupled in E-plane at the top, a spherical crown located at the bottom, and an iris at the perpendicular junction of two rectangular waveguides. When wave incidents at one of the two separated rectangular waveguides, it, respectively, generates a left-hand circular polarized wave or a right-hand circular polarized wave in the circular waveguide. By adding a dumbbell-like metal plug driven with a high speed servomotor, a movable short circuit is formed along the circular waveguide to adjust the output RF phase of the rectangular port, realizing a high-speed high-power phase shifter. The C-band high power microwave (HPM) experiments were carried out, and the power capacity of the HPM polarizer and phase shifter was demonstrated to reach gigawatt level.

  19. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a “normal” state where the motors’ mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a “stalled” state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors’ mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  20. Effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program on strength, power, and swimming performance in paralympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Andrew A; Pyne, David B; Youngson, Jamie; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program in Paralympic swimmers to increase swimming power and strength measures, and how these changes affect swimming performance. Seven elite-level Paralympic swimmers (1 man and 6 women; age: 19.4 ± 6.5 years; body mass: 57 ± 12 kg; height: 1.66 ± 0.21 m) performed a 6-week coach-prescribed strength training intervention program designed to improve power, flexibility, and postural control. Exercises targeted the main swimming movements: the start and turn, postural control in the water, and the pull and kick focusing on the gluteals, upper body, and trunk. Swimming-specific tests, involving a 50-m time trial, and timed dive starts were conducted at baseline and after the 6-week program. A bilateral swim-bench ergometer and jump tests were conducted to quantify arm and leg strength and power. After the 6-week intervention, 50-m time trials improved by 1.2%, ± 1.5% (mean, ± 90% confidence limits). Increases in both mean power (6.1%, ± 5.9%) and acceleration (3.7%, ± 3.7%) generated during the dive start enabled swimmers to substantially improve start times to the 5-m (5.5%, ± 3.2) and 15-m (1.8%, ± 1.1%) marks. The resistance training intervention resulted in a very large (r = 0.78, ± 0.37) correlation between dive start velocity and the counter movement jump mean velocity. The 6-week resistance training program for Paralympic swimmers yielded substantial improvements in dry-land measures that corresponded with improvements in both timed dive starts and 50-m time trial performance, thus highlighting the usefulness of dry-land training for enhancing swimming performance in Paralympic swimming.

  1. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components: Phase 2, Motor control center, switchboard, panelboard and power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E.

    1987-12-01

    In Phase I of the Component Fragility Program, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a procedure to establish the seismic fragility of nuclear power plant equipment by use of existing test data and demonstrated its application by considering two equipment pieces. In Phase II of the program, BNL has collected additional test data, and has further advanced and is applying the methodology to determine the fragility levels of selected essential equipment categories. The data evaluation of four equipment families, namely, motor control center, switchboard, panelboard and power supply has been completed. Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of each equipment class and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been analyzed for determination of the respective probabilistic fragility levels. To this end, a single g-value has been selected to approximately represent the test vibration level and a statistical analysis has been performed with the g-values corresponding to a particular failure mode. The zero period acceleration and the average spectral acceleration over a frequency range of interest are separately used as the single g-value. The resulting parameters are presented in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient and a randomness coefficient. Ultimately, each fragility level is expressed in terms of a single descriptor called an HCLPF value corresponding to a high (95%) confidence of a low (5%) probability of failure. The important observations made in the process of data analysis are included in this report.

  2. Title IV - Phase II NO{sub x} compliance strategy for Minnesota Power

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzi, E.; Rossi-Lane, C.; Himes, R.; Scharnott, M.

    1995-12-31

    Minnesota Power`s (MP) coal-fired generation system is comprised of Title IV-Phase II boilers. Although Phase II boilers are not required to meet emission limits until January 1, 2000, the standards may be more stringent than Phase I NO{sub x} limits. MP is investigating the merits of foregoing system averaging under a yet to be determined Phase II rule, and pursuing an early election option with current Phase I NO{sub x} limits. Boswell Station is comprised of two Riley Stoker face-fired boilers of nominally 74 gross MW generation that went on-line in 1958-60, and two CE tangentially-fired boilers of 372 MW (1973 operation) and 565 MW (1980 operation). All units are balanced draft. Carnot conducted baseline characterizations of MP`s four units at the Boswell Station as the first step in an assessment of the best course of action. This paper will present the baseline data collected and the approach taken in preparing the NO{sub x} compliance strategy for all boilers within the MP system. The approach takes into accounted the projected system load profile and capacity factors for individual units and the cost effectiveness and system flexibility inherent with NO{sub x} compliance achieved on an individual unit basis or with system averaging.

  3. Influence of output power of a spin torque oscillator on phase locked loop operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the influence of the output power of a spin torque oscillator (STO) on the operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. Timing jitter and minimum output power for stable PLL operation determined by Johnson noise and shot noise are first theoretically calculated, and compared with experimental results. The theory and experiment show a reasonably good agreement, indicating that smaller than -50 dBm (10 nW), or -60 dBm (1 nW) when a low pass filter is used, of output power is sufficient for stable PLL operation if a large timing jitter is acceptable. However, it is also shown that a large output power is needed to suppress timing jitter down to the level comparable to state-of-the-art commercial PLL circuits. The estimate of minimum output power for stable PLL operation is verified by intentionally attenuating the STO output signal down to -55 dBm (3.2 nW) and demonstrating a stable phase locked oscillation.

  4. Influence of output power of a spin torque oscillator on phase locked loop operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the influence of the output power of a spin torque oscillator (STO) on the operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. Timing jitter and minimum output power for stable PLL operation determined by Johnson noise and shot noise are first theoretically calculated, and compared with experimental results. The theory and experiment show a reasonably good agreement, indicating that smaller than ‑50 dBm (10 nW), or ‑60 dBm (1 nW) when a low pass filter is used, of output power is sufficient for stable PLL operation if a large timing jitter is acceptable. However, it is also shown that a large output power is needed to suppress timing jitter down to the level comparable to state-of-the-art commercial PLL circuits. The estimate of minimum output power for stable PLL operation is verified by intentionally attenuating the STO output signal down to ‑55 dBm (3.2 nW) and demonstrating a stable phase locked oscillation.

  5. Propagation of the power-exponent-phase vortex beam in paraxial ABCD system.

    PubMed

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-08-01

    The general analytical formula for the propagation of the power-exponent-phase vortex (PEPV) beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived. On that basis the evolution of the intensity distribution of such a beam in free space and the focusing system is investigated. In addition, some experiments are carried out, which verify the theoretical predictions. Both of the theoretical and experimental results show that the beam's profile can be modulated by the topological charge and the power order of the PEPV beam. PMID:27505774

  6. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a three phase study of the Solar Power Satellite System are summarized. Various options and alternate systems were considered and the following conclusions were reached: antenna mounted solid state transmitters are potentially as cost effective as the klystron approach, althrough limited to 2500 megawatts net output; the free electron laser and optical diode laser appear most promising for laser power transmission; ground antenna siting need not be restricted to below 35 degrees of latitude; and nonrecurring cost reductions attainable by using a smaller Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle are highly attractive.

  7. Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

  8. Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: the incremental load power profile.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Cormack, Stuart; Taylor, Kristie-Lee; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the methodology of an iso-inertial force-velocity assessment utilizing a range of loads and a group of high-performance athletes. A total of 26 subjects (19.8 +/- 2.6 years, 196.3 +/- 9.6 cm, 88.6 +/- 8.9 kg) participated in this study. Interday reliability of various force-time measures obtained during the performance of countermovement jumps with a range of loads was examined, followed by a validity assessment of the various measures' ability to discriminate among performance levels, while the ability of the test protocol to detect training-induced changes was assessed by comparing results before and after an intensive 12-week training period. Force and velocity variables were observed to be reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.74-0.99). Large effect size statistic (ES > 0.50) differences among player groups were observed for peak power (1.36-2.25), relative peak power (1.57-2.42), and peak force (0.74-0.95). Significant (p < 0.05) and large (ES > 0.50) improvements were observed in the kinetic values after the intensive training period. The results of this study indicate that the incremental load power profile is an acceptably reliable, valid, and sensitive method of assessing force and power capabilities of the leg extensors in high-performance and elite volleyball players.

  9. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Tasman, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism. PMID:26834615

  10. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population.

  11. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population. PMID:26565019

  12. A low power MICS band phase-locked loop for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiawei; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2013-08-01

    Ultra low power dissipation is essential in retinal prosthesis and many other biomedical implants. Extensive research has been undertaken in designing low power biomedical transceivers, however to date, most effort has been focused on low frequency inductive links. For higher frequency, more robust and more complex applications, such as Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band multichannel transceivers, power consumption remains high. This paper explores the design of micro-power data links at 400 MHz for a high resolution retinal prosthesis. By taking advantage of advanced small geometry CMOS technology and precise transistor-level modeling, we successfully utilized subthreshold FET operation, which has been historically limited to low frequency circuits due to the inadequate transistor operating speed in and near weak inversion; we have implemented a low power MICS transceiver. Particularly, a low power, MICS band multichannel phase-locked loop (PLL) that employs a subthreshold voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and digital synchronous dividers has been implemented on a 65-nm CMOS. A design methodology is presented in detail with the demonstration of EKV model parameters extraction. This PLL provides 600- mVpp quadrature oscillations and exhibits a phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at 200-kHz offset, while only consuming 430- μW from a 1-V supply. The VCO has a gain (KVCO) of 12 MHz/V and is designed to operate in the near-weak inversion region and consumes 220- μA DC current. The designed PLL has a core area of 0.54 mm(2). It satisfies all specifications of MICS band operation with the advantage of significant reduction in power which is crucial for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

  13. Two-phase power-law modeling of pipe flows displaying shear-thinning phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes work in modeling concentrated liquid-solids flows in pipes. COMMIX-M, a three-dimensional transient and steady-state computer program developed at Argonne National Laboratory, was used to compute velocities and concentrations. Based on the authors` previous analyses, some concentrated liquid-solids suspension flows display shear-thinning rather than Newtonian phenomena. Therefore, they developed a two-phase non-Newtonian power-law model that includes the effect of solids concentration on solids viscosity. With this new two-phase power-law solids-viscosity model, and with constitutive relationships for interfacial drag, virtual mass effect, shear lift force, and solids partial-slip boundary condition at the pipe walls, COMMIX-M is capable of analyzing concentrated three-dimensional liquid-solids flows.

  14. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  15. High-power, high-brightness, phase-locked broad-stripe diode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, C.; Josefsson, A.; Franklin, G.; Milton, M.; Nyberg, C.

    1988-08-15

    A novel superlinear graded index separate confinement laser diode structure is proposed. Single stripe diode lasers with 210 ..mu..m emitting aperture generate 3.2 W cw, and 6.3 W quasi-cw of light-output power in a phase-locked operation. The catastrophic optical density (30 W/mm) obtained for these lasers is better than that reported for devices with nonabsorbing mirrors.

  16. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  17. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F M; Bangsbo, J

    2010-10-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump α-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.

  18. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.

  19. Constraining minimum-norm inverse by phase synchronization and signal power of the scalp EEG channels.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Kaushik

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the goal is to further improve the output of the scalp EEG source localization by the Euclidean minimum-norm (MN) inverse during single trials. Trials have been selected based on signal power at specific time intervals in specific locations. Then the source localization has been performed by MN. It has been observed that close to a dominant cortical source of EEG, as determined by the MN, both pairwise phase synchronization of a channel with its nearest neighbors and the cumulative signal power of the channels within that neighborhood become high (normalized values remain above certain thresholds). This has also been verified through simulations on the subject's real head model. The conclusion of our study is that only those sources are to be chosen for which MN inverse, and signal power and phase synchronization profile converge. A novel fast Fourier transform (FFT) based phase synchronization measuring algorithm between a pair of signals has been developed whose time complexity is no more than that of the FFT.

  20. Enhanced power factor via the control of structural phase transition in SnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hulei; Dai, Shuai; Chen, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Tin selenide has attracted much research interest due to its unprecedentedly high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). For real applications, it is desirable to increase the ZT value in the lower-temperature range, as the peak ZT value currently exists near the melting point. It is shown in this paper that the structural phase transition plays an important role in boosting the ZT value of SnSe in the lower-temperature range, as the Cmcm phase is found to have a much higher power factor than the Pnma phase. Furthermore, hydrostatic pressure is predicted to be extremely effective in tuning the phase transition temperature based on ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations; a remarkable decrease in the phase transition temperature is found when a hydrostatic pressure is applied. Dynamical stabilities are investigated based on phonon calculations, providing deeper insight into the pressure effects. Accurate band structures are obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson correction, allowing reliable prediction of the electrical transport properties. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermal transport properties are also discussed. Hydrostatic pressure is shown to be efficient in manipulating the transport properties via the control of phase transition temperature in SnSe, paving a new path for enhancing its thermoelectric efficiency.

  1. Enhanced power factor via the control of structural phase transition in SnSe.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hulei; Dai, Shuai; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Tin selenide has attracted much research interest due to its unprecedentedly high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). For real applications, it is desirable to increase the ZT value in the lower-temperature range, as the peak ZT value currently exists near the melting point. It is shown in this paper that the structural phase transition plays an important role in boosting the ZT value of SnSe in the lower-temperature range, as the Cmcm phase is found to have a much higher power factor than the Pnma phase. Furthermore, hydrostatic pressure is predicted to be extremely effective in tuning the phase transition temperature based on ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations; a remarkable decrease in the phase transition temperature is found when a hydrostatic pressure is applied. Dynamical stabilities are investigated based on phonon calculations, providing deeper insight into the pressure effects. Accurate band structures are obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson correction, allowing reliable prediction of the electrical transport properties. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermal transport properties are also discussed. Hydrostatic pressure is shown to be efficient in manipulating the transport properties via the control of phase transition temperature in SnSe, paving a new path for enhancing its thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:27193260

  2. Enhanced power factor via the control of structural phase transition in SnSe

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hulei; Dai, Shuai; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Tin selenide has attracted much research interest due to its unprecedentedly high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). For real applications, it is desirable to increase the ZT value in the lower-temperature range, as the peak ZT value currently exists near the melting point. It is shown in this paper that the structural phase transition plays an important role in boosting the ZT value of SnSe in the lower-temperature range, as the Cmcm phase is found to have a much higher power factor than the Pnma phase. Furthermore, hydrostatic pressure is predicted to be extremely effective in tuning the phase transition temperature based on ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations; a remarkable decrease in the phase transition temperature is found when a hydrostatic pressure is applied. Dynamical stabilities are investigated based on phonon calculations, providing deeper insight into the pressure effects. Accurate band structures are obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson correction, allowing reliable prediction of the electrical transport properties. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermal transport properties are also discussed. Hydrostatic pressure is shown to be efficient in manipulating the transport properties via the control of phase transition temperature in SnSe, paving a new path for enhancing its thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:27193260

  3. Simulation and Analysis of Three-Phase Rectifiers for Aerospace Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the nature of planned planetary missions, fairly large advanced power systems are required for the spacecraft. These future high power spacecrafts are expected to use dynamic power conversion systems incorporating high speed alternators as three-phase AC electrical power source. One of the early design considerations in such systems is the type of rectification to be used with the AC source for DC user loads. This paper address the issues involved with two different rectification methods, namely the conventional six and twelve pulses. Two circuit configurations which involved parallel combinations of the six and twelve-pulse rectifiers were selected for the simulation. The rectifier s input and output power waveforms will be thoroughly examined through simulations. The effects of the parasitic load for power balancing and filter components for reducing the ripple voltage at the DC loads are also included in the analysis. Details of the simulation circuits, simulation results, and design examples for reducing risk from damaging of spacecraft engines will be presented and discussed.

  4. Limitations of the Conventional Phase Advance Method for Constant Power Operation of the Brushless DC Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-10-29

    The brushless dc motor (BDCM) has high-power density and efficiency relative to other motor types. These properties make the BDCM well suited for applications in electric vehicles provided a method can be developed for driving the motor over the 4 to 6:1 constant power speed range (CPSR) required by such applications. The present state of the art for constant power operation of the BDCM is conventional phase advance (CPA) [1]. In this paper, we identify key limitations of CPA. It is shown that the CPA has effective control over the developed power but that the current magnitude is relatively insensitive to power output and is inversely proportional to motor inductance. If the motor inductance is low, then the rms current at rated power and high speed may be several times larger than the current rating. The inductance required to maintain rms current within rating is derived analytically and is found to be large relative to that of BDCM designs using high-strength rare earth magnets. Th us, the CPA requires a BDCM with a large equivalent inductance.

  5. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.

  6. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network. PMID:25278869

  7. Analysis and design of modular three-phase power factor correction schemes for utility interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Jae-Hong

    The extensive use of non-linear and electronically switched loads in power system has lead to higher incidences of harmonic distortion of the voltage and current waveforms. Harmonic currents degrade power quality and are considered the main source of many system malfunctions. Technical guidelines and standards regarding suppressions of system harmonic contents have been enacted. This dissertation proposes several new three-phase power factor correction (PFC) schemes using single-phase PFC modules. An integrated single-switch approach is first proposed. This is essentially an add-on solution to standard ASD's. This approach is based on circulating third harmonic current between neutral and DC mid-point by utilizing a lossless resistor. Single-phase PFC emulates this resistor to control the amplitude of the current, which is implemented by the dynamic breaking chopper available in standard adjustable speed drives (ASD's). This approach is also capable of reducing harmonic distortion in multiple drives. Analysis, design and simulations are conducted to determine the performance of the proposed scheme with different line impedances and with and without dc-link inductance in the ASD. Experimental results are presented using commercial ASD retrofitted with the proposed approach. Second scheme proposes a three-phase PFC using two standard single-phase PFC modules. In this approach, three-phase input is transformed into two-phase by means of 0.14 pu autotransformer. Two standard single-phase PFC modules are employed to process two-phase power to do output. Split inductors and diodes are employed to limit the interaction between the two phases. A method to eliminate the interaction between phases is also described. Due to cascade operation of two PFC stages, low frequency (120Hz) ripple in dc-link is cancelled. An active interphase transformer (IPT) scheme is proposed to draw sinusoidal input line currents, in the third study. This scheme utilizes a unique combination of a

  8. Phase transition cooled window studies for high average power electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loda, G.; Forcier, D.

    1980-12-01

    The window used to transmit electron beams for use in high average power UV/visible lasers has been a critical technology issue. The window structure must satisfy a number of conflicting requirements including: vacuum integrity, strength to overcome both the static and dynamic pressure loads of the laser gas and a low mass density to minimize energy loss by the electron beam. In addition, it must not perturb the laser gas flow and must be able to dissipate the power deposited by the electron beam. Two experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of phase transition cooling for high power laser systems. In the first of these a full width 50 cm module was tested with a constant input heat source. The second experiment used a pulsed e-beam source to demonstrate cooling for a low duty cycle high peak power pulsed system. The applicability of phase transition cooling for a dual foil geometry was clearly demonstrated. Cooling rates in excess of 100 W/(sq cm)/foil surface with mass flow rates consistent with low areal mass density were achieved. This represents a factor of ten improvement over pre-existing state of the art.

  9. Absence of amorphous phase in high power femtosecond laser-ablated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matthew S.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2009-01-05

    As femtosecond lasers emerge as viable tools for advanced microscale materials processing, it becomes increasingly important to understand the characteristics of materials resulting from femtosecond laser microablation or micromachining. We conducted transmission electron microscopy experiments to investigate crater structures in silicon produced by repetitive high power femtosecond laser ablation. Comparable experiments of nanosecond laser ablation of silicon were also performed. We found that an amorphous silicon layer that is typically produced in nanosecond laser ablation is absent when the material is irradiated by high power femtosecond laser pulses. Instead, only a defective single crystalline layer was observed in the high power femtosecond laser-ablated silicon crater. Possible mechanisms underlying the formation of the defective single crystalline phase are discussed.

  10. 77 FR 16559 - Large Power Transformers From Korea: Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea: Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation... imports from Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheading 8504.23.00 of the Harmonized... Commerce has defined the subject merchandise as ``large liquid dielectric power transformers (LPTs)...

  11. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  12. The Power of the Internet: Training Speech Pathology Assistants on Indian Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William R.; Tanner, Dennis C.

    This paper describes a pilot project to train rural native American paraprofessional personnel to deliver routine speech-language services to children under the overall supervision of a certified professional. The program had three components: on-site visits, desk-top conferencing, and distance training. The program was implemented at one…

  13. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  14. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  15. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  16. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, contains the documents considered to be important in providing the background for the study. The materials are organized into four major areas: initial correspondence, instrumentation, special reports, and psychomotor skills. See also HE 003 275 and HE 003 276.…

  17. Online Teacher Training: The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System--Phase 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daytner, Gary; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Johanson, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Legislation, research, and practice support access to technology by young children with disabilities. Yet barriers to technology use--lack of training, inadequate funding, failure to acknowledge technology as a relevant issue, or disbelief that technology can positively impact young children with disabilities--often prevail among many disciplines…

  18. High-intensity, occupation-specific training in a series of firefighters during phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Berbarie, Rafic F

    2013-04-01

    Six male firefighters who were referred to phase II cardiac rehabilitation after coronary revascularization participated in a specialized regimen of high-intensity, occupation-specific training (HIOST) that simulated firefighting tasks. During each session, the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure were monitored, and the patients were observed for adverse symptoms. No patient had to discontinue HIOST because of adverse arrhythmias or symptoms. For physicians who must make decisions about return to work, the information collected over multiple HIOST sessions might be more thorough and conclusive than the information gained during a single treadmill exercise stress test (the recommended evaluation method).

  19. A grid-connected photovoltaic power conversion system with single-phase multilevel inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Beser, Ersoy; Arifoglu, Birol; Camur, Sabri; Beser, Esra Kandemir

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power conversion system based on a single-phase multilevel inverter. The proposed system fundamentally consists of PV arrays and a single-phase multilevel inverter structure. First, configuration and structural parts of the PV assisted inverter system are introduced in detail. To produce reference output voltage waves, a simple switching strategy based on calculating switching angles is improved. By calculated switching angles, the reference signal is produced as a multilevel shaped output voltage wave. The control algorithm and operational principles of the proposed system are explained. Operating PV arrays in the same load condition is a considerable point; therefore a simulation study is performed to arrange the PV arrays. After determining the number and connection types of the PV arrays, the system is configured through the arrangement of the PV arrays. The validity of the proposed system is verified through simulations and experimental study. The results demonstrate that the system can achieve lower total harmonic distortion (THD) on the output voltage and load current, and it is capable of operating synchronous and transferring power values having different characteristic to the grid. Hence, it is suitable to use the proposed configuration as a PV power conversion system in various applications. (author)

  20. Estimating divergently routed nonlinearly interfering channel powers using cross phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Chin, Hou-Man; Thakur, Manoj P; Thomsen, Benn C; Savory, Seb J

    2014-10-20

    The deployment of coherent transceivers in legacy networks requires significant investment in installation. We propose a method enabling autonomous (re-)configuration of an optical channel, which would be advantageous in legacy networks and necessary in proposed future networks utilizing a flexible frequency grid and software defined components such as reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers (ROADM). We consider potential interfering optical channels propagating with the prospective channel along part of the fiber link which are dropped before arrival at the receiver. The method uses a commercially available line card transmitting a 40Gbit/s polarization multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) probe channel to characterize an optical channel. The power of the nearest neighboring channels is then inferred by examining its bit error rate (BER) which is impacted by cross phase modulation (XPM) from the aggressor channels. In a 4 node network with 2 ROADMs using up to 6 aggressor OOK channels, we successfully deduce the neighboring channel power down to -2 dBm, and an extra improvement down to -3.5 dBm is gained, by measuring at an offset to the international telecommunication union (ITU) grid which also reveals inequality in neighbor channel powers.

  1. Analysis and design of a high power laser adaptive phased array transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mevers, G. E.; Soohoo, J. F.; Winocur, J.; Massie, N. A.; Southwell, W. H.; Brandewie, R. A.; Hayes, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of delivering substantial quantities of optical power to a satellite in low earth orbit from a ground based high energy laser (HEL) coupled to an adaptive antenna was investigated. Diffraction effects, atmospheric transmission efficiency, adaptive compensation for atmospheric turbulence effects, including the servo bandwidth requirements for this correction, and the adaptive compensation for thermal blooming were examined. To evaluate possible HEL sources, atmospheric investigations were performed for the CO2, (C-12)(O-18)2 isotope, CO and DF wavelengths using output antenna locations of both sea level and mountain top. Results indicate that both excellent atmospheric and adaption efficiency can be obtained for mountain top operation with a micron isotope laser operating at 9.1 um, or a CO laser operating single line (P10) at about 5.0 (C-12)(O-18)2um, which was a close second in the evaluation. Four adaptive power transmitter system concepts were generated and evaluated, based on overall system efficiency, reliability, size and weight, advanced technology requirements and potential cost. A multiple source phased array was selected for detailed conceptual design. The system uses a unique adaption technique of phase locking independent laser oscillators which allows it to be both relatively inexpensive and most reliable with a predicted overall power transfer efficiency of 53%.

  2. A Standalone Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation using Cuk Converter and Single Phase Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kaushika, S. C.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a standalone solar photovoltaic (SPV) power generating system is designed and modeled using a Cuk dc-dc converter and a single phase voltage source inverter (VSI). In this system, a dc-dc boost converter boosts a low voltage of a PV array to charge a battery at 24 V using a maximum power point tracking control algorithm. To step up a 24 V battery voltage to 360 V dc, a high frequency transformer based isolated dc-dc Cuk converter is used to reduce size, weight and losses. The dc voltage of 360 V is fed to a single phase VSI with unipolar switching to achieve a 230 Vrms, 50 Hz ac. The main objectives of this investigation are on efficiency improvement, reduction in cost, weight and size of the system and to provide an uninterruptible power to remotely located consumers. The complete SPV system is designed and it is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulated results are presented to demonstrate its satisfactory performance for validating the proposed design and control algorithm.

  3. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on leg power, jump and sprint performance in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozbar, Nurper; Ates, Seda; Agopyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week plyometric training (PT) on the leg power and jump and sprint performance in female soccer players. Eighteen female soccer players from Women Second League (age = 18.2 ± 2.3 years, height = 161.3 ± 5.4 cm, body mass = 56.6 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and plyometric (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued together with regular technical and tactical soccer training for 4 days a week. Additionally, the plyometric group underwent PT for 8 weeks, 1 day per week, 60-minute session duration. During the 8-week period, the control group was hindered from any additional conditioning training. All players' jumps (triple hop, countermovement jump, and standing broad jump), running speed (20 m), and peak power were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between the groups at pretest variables (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were found in the posttest of both the groups (p ≤ 0.05), except for 20-m sprint test in the control group (p > 0.05). Triple hop distance, countermovement jump, standing broad jump, peak power, and 20-m sprint test values were all significantly improved in the plyometric group, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We concluded that short duration PT is an improved important component of athletic performance in female soccer players. The results indicate that safe, effective, and alternative PT can be useful to strength and conditioning coaches, especially during competition season where less time is available for training.

  4. Effect of a novel pedal design on maximal power output and mechanical efficiency in well-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Koninckx, Erwin; van Leemputte, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of a novel pedal design, characterized by a downward and forward shift of the cleat fixing platform relative to the pedal axle, on maximal power output and mechanical efficiency in 22 well-trained cyclists. Maximal power output was measured during a series of short (5-s) intermittent sprints on an isokinetic cycle ergometer at cadences from 40 to 120 rev min(-1). Mechanical efficiency was evaluated during a submaximal incremental exercise test on a bicycle ergometer using continuous VO(2) and VCO(2) measurement. Similar tests with conventional pedals and the novel pedals, which were mounted on the individual racing bike of the participant, were randomized. Maximal power was greater with novel pedals than with conventional pedals (between 6.0%, s(x) = 1.5 at 40 rev min(-1) and 1.8%, s(x) = 0.7 at 120 rev min(-1); P = 0.01). Torque production between crank angles of 60 degrees and 150 degrees was higher with novel pedals than with conventional pedals (P = 0.004). The novel pedal design did not affect whole-body VO(2) or VCO(2). Mechanical efficiency was greater with novel pedals than with conventional pedals (27.2%, s(x) = 0.9 and 25.1%, s(x) = 0.9% respectively; P = 0.047; effect size = 0.9). In conclusion, the novel pedals can increase maximal power output and mechanical efficiency in well-trained cyclists.

  5. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  6. Coherent beam combination using self-phase locked stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors with a rotating wedge for high power laser generation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2016-04-18

    The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7. PMID:27137299

  7. Coherent beam combination using self-phase locked stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors with a rotating wedge for high power laser generation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2016-04-18

    The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7.

  8. Contributions of force and velocity to improved power with progressive resistance training in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Petrella, John K; Kim, Jeong-Su; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the effects of age on changes in the force and velocity components of knee extension (KE) power during 16 weeks of traditional progressive resistance training (PRT). Thirty-one young (27 +/- 1 years, 16 men, 15 women) and 30 older (64 +/- 1 years, 14 men, 16 women) adults trained by KE, leg press, and squat 3 days/week. PRT consisted of three sets with an appropriate load for 8-12 repetitions to fatigue. Testing occurred at baseline, 8, and 16 weeks. Thigh lean mass (TLM) was measured by DEXA. KE load-power and load-velocity curves were generated from peak concentric contractions against loads equivalent to 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) force. Quadriceps neural activation relative to maximum was assessed during a sit-to-stand task. Participants increased KE 1RM (P < 0.05) by 8 weeks with young adults also increasing strength from 8 to 16 weeks. Adjusting for TLM, all groups increased KE specific strength (P < 0.05). MVC improved by 8 weeks in older adults and by 16 weeks in young subjects (P < 0.05). Neural activation requirements during standing and sitting declined in older adults by 8 weeks (P < 0.05). The KE load-power curve improved for all groups (P < 0.05) by 8 weeks with only young adults improving from 8 to 16 weeks. Peak concentric velocity increased only in older adults (P < 0.05). Training improvements in power resulted primarily from increases in strength both early and late for young adults while older adults realized early improvements in both strength and peak concentric velocity. PMID:17165058

  9. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; Czarkowski, Dariusz; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm xmore » 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.« less

  10. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; Czarkowski, Dariusz; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm x 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.

  11. Phase-Noise and Amplitude-Noise Measurement of Low-Power Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubiola, Enrico; Salik, Ertan; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the phase fluctuation between a pair of low-power microwave signals, the signals must be amplified before detection. In such cases the phase noise of the amplifier pair is the main cause of 1/f background noise of the instrument. this article proposes a scheme that makes amplification possible while rejecting the close in 1/f (flicker) noise of the two amplifiers. Noise rejection, which relies upon the understanding of the amplifier noise mechanism does not require averaging. Therefore, our scheme can also be the detector of a closed loop noise reduction system. the first prototype, compared to a traditional saturated mixer system under the same condition, show a 24 dB noise reduction of the 1/f region.

  12. Triphenylmethane dye-doped gelatin films for low-power optical phase-conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethakrishnan, T.; Sakthivel, P.; Palanisamy, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) based optical phase-conjugation (OPC) in few triphenylmethane (Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green) dye-doped gelatin films using a 633 nm He-Ne laser radiation of total power 35 mW. Phase-conjugate (PC) reflectivity from the dye films was measured by varying the experimental parameters such as incident angle between the pump-probe beams in the DFWM geometry, dopant concentrations of the gelatin film, probe beam intensity and read-out beam intensity. The maximum PC reflectivity was observed in the Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green sensitized gelatin films were 0.22%, 0.24%, 0.07% and 0.13%, respectively. The origin of the mechanism of the PC wave generation from these dye films is also reported.

  13. Power Spectrum of Uplink Array Signals with Random Phase and Delay Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Link Array signals emanating from different antennas must be compensated for Doppler and delay in order to achieve the N(sup 2) array gain predicted by theory. However compensation is never perfect, leaving residual errors that cause losses in array gain and degradation in signal quality. Here we develop a mathematical model for Uplink Array signals in the presence of phase and delay errors, similar to well-known multipath analyses but with features unique to this problem. The resulting losses and distortions are described, and the power spectral density of the array signal derived first conditioned on a given error vector, then averaged over distributions deemed suitable for Uplink Array applications. The impact of phase and delay errors on array gain and signal distortion are addressed, and the maximum data throughput is quantified in terms of the assumed error statistics.

  14. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  15. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S. . Center for Productivity and Mfg. Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  16. Development of scalable frequency and power Phase-Locked Loop in 130 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moroń, J.; Świentek, K.

    2014-02-01

    The design and measurements results of a prototype very low power Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) ASIC for applications in readout systems of particle physics detectors are presented. The PLL was fabricated in 130 nm CMOS technology. It was designed and simulated for frequency range 10 MHz-3.5 GHz. Four division factors i.e. 6, 8, 10 and 16 were implemented in the PLL feedback loop. The main PLL block-voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) should work in 16 frequency ranges/modes, switched either manually or automatically. Preliminary measurements done in frequency range 20 MHz-1.6 GHz showed that the ASIC is functional and generates proper clock signal. The automatic VCO mode switching, one of the main design goals, was positively verified. Power consumption of around 0.6 mW was measured at 1 GHz for a division factor equal to 10.

  17. Power-Law Entanglement Spectrum in Many-Body Localized Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbyn, Maksym; Michailidis, Alexios A.; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Papić, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The entanglement spectrum of the reduced density matrix contains information beyond the von Neumann entropy and provides unique insights into exotic orders or critical behavior of quantum systems. Here, we show that strongly disordered systems in the many-body localized phase have power-law entanglement spectra, arising from the presence of extensively many local integrals of motion. The power-law entanglement spectrum distinguishes many-body localized systems from ergodic systems, as well as from ground states of gapped integrable models or free systems in the vicinity of scale-invariant critical points. We confirm our results using large-scale exact diagonalization. In addition, we develop a matrix-product state algorithm which allows us to access the eigenstates of large systems close to the localization transition, and discuss general implications of our results for variational studies of highly excited eigenstates in many-body localized systems.

  18. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  19. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  20. Effect of Reference Scheme on Power and Phase of the Local Field Potential.

    PubMed

    Shirhatti, Vinay; Borthakur, Ayon; Ray, Supratim

    2016-05-01

    Brain signals are often analyzed in the spectral domain, where the power spectral density (PSD) and phase differences and consistency can reveal important information about the network. However, for proper interpretation, it is important to know whether these measures depend on stimulus/behavioral conditions or the reference scheme used to analyze data. We recorded local field potential (LFP) from an array of microelectrodes chronically implanted in area V1 of monkeys under different stimulus/behavioral conditions and computed PSD slopes, coherence, and phase difference between LFPs as a function of frequency and interelectrode distance while using four reference schemes: single wire, average, bipolar, and current source density. PSD slopes were dependent on reference scheme at low frequencies (below 200 Hz) but became invariant at higher frequencies. Average phase differences between sites also depended critically on referencing, switching from 0 degrees for single-wire to 180 degrees for average reference. Results were consistent across different stimulus/behavioral conditions. We were able to account for these results based on the coherence profile across sites and properties of the spectral estimator. Our results show that using different reference schemes can have drastic effects on phase differences and PSD slopes and therefore must be interpreted carefully to gain insights about network properties.

  1. Single and three-phase AC losses in HTS superconducting power transmission line prototype cables

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Fleshler, S.

    1997-11-01

    AC losses in two, one-meter-long lengths of HTS prototype multi-strand conductors (PMC`s) are measured with a temperature-difference calorimeter. Both single-phase and three-phase losses are examined with ac currents up to 1,000 A rms. The calorimeter, designed specifically for these measurements, has a precision of 1 mW. PMC {number_sign}1 has two helically-wound, non-insulated layers of HTS tape (19 tapes per layer), each layer wrapped with opposite pitch. PMC {number_sign}2 is identical except for insulation between the layers. The measured ac losses show no significant effect of interlayer insulation and depend on about the third power of the current--a result in agreement with the Bean-Norris model adapted to the double-helix configuration. The three-phase losses are a factor of two higher than those exhibited by a single isolated conductor, indicating a significant interaction between phases.

  2. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  3. Laser power supply with a newly designed thyristor three-phase rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shikang; Xue Bin

    1987-11-01

    A new design of thyristor full-wave rectifier is introduced. Differing from the traditional synchronizing and triggering modes, the rectifier uses an opto-electric coupler as the isolator and a counter-EPROM set as the pulse controller. Though both the analogue and digital modes are involved in the processing of signal transmission, the main process which included the series-phase-shifting and the parallel-triggering is done with digital circuits. So, in addition to the merits of simplicity and reliability, a key advantage is the high stability against disturbance. It can be the first choice for laser power supplies.

  4. Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifan; Lan, Yi-fen; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhu, Ruidong; Xu, Daming; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Lu, Jen-Kuei; Sugiura, Norio; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-04-01

    Macroscopically, a polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) is assumed to be an optically isotropic medium. Our experiment challenges this assumption. Our results indicate that the optical rotatory power (ORP) of some nano-scale double-twist cylinders in a BPLC composite causes the polarization axis of the transmitted light to rotate a small angle, which in turn leaks through the crossed polarizers. Rotating the analyzer in azimuthal direction to correct this ORP can greatly improve the contrast ratio. A modified De Vries equation based on a thin twisted-nematic layer is proposed to explain the observed phenomena.

  5. Power and Sample Size for Randomized Phase III Survival Trials under the Weibull Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Two parametric tests are proposed for designing randomized two-arm phase III survival trials under the Weibull model. The properties of the two parametric tests are compared with the non-parametric log-rank test through simulation studies. Power and sample size formulas of the two parametric tests are derived. The impact on sample size under mis-specification of the Weibull shape parameter is also investigated. The study can be designed by planning the study duration and handling nonuniform entry and loss to follow-up under the Weibull model using either the proposed parametric tests or the well known non-parametric log-rank test. PMID:24895942

  6. Space debris proximity analysis in powered and orbital phases during satellite launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyankar; Sharma, R. K.; Adimurthy, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the space debris proximity analysis in powered and orbital phase at the time of a satellite launch. The details of the SPADEPRO analysis package, developed for this purpose, are presented. It consists of modules which provide the functions related to ephemeris generation and reconstruction of primary object (launch vehicle or its payload upon insertion), determination of close approaches with resident space objects, computation of the state vector variance of the primary and the secondary objects to represent the knowledge uncertainty, and computation of the collision risk given the variance. This has been successfully applied during the recent launches of the Indian Space Research Organization.

  7. Trace anomaly, thermal power corrections, and dimension two condensates in the deconfined phase

    SciTech Connect

    Megias, E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz; Salcedo, L. L.

    2009-09-01

    The trace anomaly of gluodynamics on the lattice shows clear fingerprints of a dimension two condensate above the phase transition. The condensate manifests itself through even powers of the inverse temperature while the total perturbative contribution corresponds to a mild temperature dependence and turns out to be compatible with zero within errors. We try several resummation methods based on a renormalization group improvement. The trace anomaly data are analyzed and compared with other determinations of the dimension two condensate based on the Polyakov loop and the heavy qq free energy, yielding roughly similar numerical values. The role of glueballs near the transition is also discussed.

  8. The Power of Phase I Studies to Detect Clinical Relevant QTc Prolongation: A Resampling Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Täubel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Concentration-effect (CE) models applied to early clinical QT data from healthy subjects are described in the latest E14 Q&A document as promising analysis to characterise QTc prolongation. The challenges faced if one attempts to replace a TQT study by thorough ECG assessments in Phase I based on CE models are the assurance to obtain sufficient power and the establishment of a substitute for the positive control to show assay sensitivity providing protection against false negatives. To demonstrate that CE models in small studies can reliably predict the absence of an effect on QTc, we investigated the role of some key design features in the power of the analysis. Specifically, the form of the CE model, inclusion of subjects on placebo, and sparse sampling on the performance and power of this analysis were investigated. In this study, the simulations conducted by subsampling subjects from 3 different TQT studies showed that CE model with a treatment effect can be used to exclude small QTc effects. The number of placebo subjects was also shown to increase the power to detect an inactive drug preventing false positives while an effect can be underestimated if time points around tmax are missed. PMID:26509147

  9. Power trench gate MOSFET with an integrated 6-pack configuration for a 3-phase inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong-Il; Koo, Jin-Gun; Cho, Doo-Hyung; Park, Kun-Sik; Yang, Yil-Suk; Kim, Sang-Gi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new 6-pack power module for a 3-phase inverter that is integrated with the six trench gate double diffused metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (TDMOS) on a single chip. An integration of each power device is performed through a trench isolation technique using deep reactive-ion etching trench technologies. Through this new technology, the integrated power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) produces a high current of above 30 A at a gate bias of 10 V. In addition, each trench power MOSFET (1-pack) has a minimum specific on-resistance of 21 mohm.cm2 and a typical breakdown voltage of 95 V. The trench isolation provides good isolation up to 120 V. The measurement results show that this 6-pack structure can successfully be integrated with other analog/driver integrated circuit on a single chip. Furthermore, to monitor the operating current of the MOSFET under an inverter-operating condition, sensing FET is integrated a FET into the main MOSFET source region without compromising either the area or the operation of the MOSFET.

  10. A DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Fleck, M.; Friedrichs, M.; Hensch, R.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2013-02-01

    The CMS pixel detector was designed for a nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1ṡ1034 cm-2s-1. During Phase-1 of the LHC upgrade, the instantaneous luminosity will be increased to about twice this value. To preserve the excellent performance of the pixel detector despite the increase in particle rates and track densities, the CMS Collaboration foresees the exchange of its pixel detector in the shutdown 2016/2017. The new pixel detector will be improved in many respects, and will comprise twice the number of readout channels. A powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion will be adopted, which will enable the provision of the required power with the present cable plant. The powering scheme of the CMS pixel detector will be described, and the performance of prototype DC-DC buck converters will be presented, including power efficiency, system tests with DC-DC converters and pixel modules, thermal management, reliability at low temperature, and studies of potential frequency locking between DC-DC converters.

  11. Effects of an eight-week training program on upper-body power in women cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Downing, Julie J; Wilcox, Anthony R

    2003-11-01

    A distinguishing feature of elite cross-country skiers is their superlative upper-body power (UBP). Recently, roller board training was shown to be superior for improving UBP in cross-country skiers; however, the newly developed wind machine had not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to determine if wind machine training was as effective as roller board training at increasing UBP. Forty-four women cross-country skiers, age 23-59 years, were matched on initial UBP, measured in watts (W), and placed into 1 of 2 experimental groups (roller board or wind machine). All women underwent 8 weeks of UBP training. Although both groups improved significantly pre-post (p < 0.05) in UBP, t-tests indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the 2 groups' improvements (roller board, pre 74.5 +/- 30.9, post 95.9 +/- 29.8 W; wind machine, pre 74.5 +/- 33.5, post 99.3 +/- 34.3 W). Thus the wind machine was as effective at enhancing UBP as the roller board.

  12. [Health-related strength and power training in seniors: Purpose and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bopp, Micha; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    The proportion of older people in western societies rapidly increases. Aging-induced disease conditions accompanied with declines in cardiocirculatory and neuromuscular performance constitute a major individual and economic health burden. Besides decreasing vascular and cardiac function during the process of aging, a loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle structure and function seem to mainly account for decreasing maximal strength, strength development and strength endurance. These findings adversely interfer with static and dynamic postural control and may lead to an increased risk of falling with impairments of autonomy and quality of life. Traditional strength training recommendations basing on health-related exercise prescriptions for elderly people have been proven to counteract or at least attenuate aging-induced declines of neuromuscular muscular function. Multimodal and combined strength and balance training deliver additional improvements of neuromuscular capacity. Recent evidence additionally underpin the need of trunk muscle training and claimed for regimes considering explosive and high-velocity strength training in seniors. High quality RCTs revealed notable strength training effects on mobility, autonomy, quality of life and the reduction of the risk of falling (up to 50%). Available evidence also indicates that various strength training regimes elicit preventive and therapeutic effects on osteoporosis, diabetes type 2 and other chronic diseases, with effect sizes comparable to medication intake. Thus, health care providers, health insurances, Employers' Liability Insurance Associations and politicians should promote infrastructural developments that enable feasible and cost-effective access to health-related fitness centers or other sport facilities (e. g. sport clubs). These environmental requirements should be embedded in multi-centric education programs and campaigns that might enable regularly conducted strength and endurance training perceived as

  13. Three-phase power conversion system for utility-interconnected PV applications. Phase 1 technical progress report, 1 October 1995--17 April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.G.; Meyer, H.; Leang, W.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes work performed by Omnion Power Corporation under Phase 1 of a two-phase subcontract. During this phase, Omnion researchers: designed an advanced product specification to guide prototype design and development; analyzed field failure data with Omnion`s hard-switched insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor technology hardware to better understand where design improvements were needed; presented and reviewed product specifications with key customers/users; drafted a working product specification to serve as a baseline in developing the new power conversion system; developed the core-resonant converter technology in conjunction with Soft Switching Technologies Corp.; designed a 100-kW prototype power conversion system; designed a prototype system package; initiated interaction with vendors to optimize component selection and specifications; initiated the preparation of design documentation; built the prototype core-resonant converter and initiated preliminary testing; and initiated the assembly of a 1-kW prototype power conversion system. This work has demonstrated the potential of the soft-switching resonant DC link (RDCL) inverter and its application to a three-phase utility-interconnected PV power conversion system. The RDCL inverter has demonstrated its advantage over hard-switching pulse-width modulated inverters in terms of efficiency and audible noise. With proper package design and manufacturing process design and implementation, the RDCL power conversion system has the potential to be low-cost and reliable with superior performance.

  14. 75 FR 62530 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...; EG10-55-000; EG10-56-000] Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC; Solar Partners I, LLC; Solar Partners II, LLC; Solar Partners VIII, LLC; Notice...

  15. Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Smith, Webb A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing, and to determine the impact of exercise training with or without glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) in attenuating the oxidative stress response. Thirty-two subjects were assigned (double blind) to placebo, GPLC-1 (1g PLC/d), GPLC-3 (3g PLC/d) for 8 weeks, plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic (graded exercise test: GXT) and anaerobic (Wingate cycle) power tests were performed before and following the intervention. Blood was taken before and immediately following exercise tests and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and xanthine oxidase activity (XO). No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.

  16. Understanding the Power Source in Type Ia Supernovae with Nebular Phase Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Melissa L.; Sand, David; Parrent, Jerod; Howell, D. Andrew; Valenti, Stefano; Mazzali, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) will not be above suspicion as standard candles until their progenitor scenario and explosion mechanism are well understood. Nebular phase spectra, taken once the ejecta is optically thin, provide several unique diagnostics and are the only way to directly observe the power source in SNeIa: radioactive nickel-56. We propose to obtain 1-2 epochs of nebular phase spectroscopy for 4 bright SNeIa with GMOS. Our science goals are threefold: 1) identify the binary companion star type in the progenitor system by constraining the amount of hydrogen in the circumstellar medium, 2) explore the physical cause of the width-luminosity relation (through which SNeIa are standardized) by investigating the discrepancy between nickel mass estimates from peak luminosity and nebular spectra, and 3) evaluate the asymmetric explosion model by comparing the silicon line velocity at early times with shifts of the iron lines in nebular spectra. This proposal leverages both the wide-field low-z discovery power of recent surveys, and the new robotic capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network with which requisite early-time spectroscopic and photometric monitoring is done or underway. Every rare nebular spectrum provides unique constraints on SNIa explosion models; these data will advance our understanding of SNeIa and help improve their use as cosmological probes.

  17. Ultralow-power switching via defect engineering in germanium telluride phase-change memory devices

    PubMed Central

    Nukala, Pavan; Lin, Chia-Chun; Composto, Russell; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal–amorphous transformation achieved via the melt-quench pathway in phase-change memory involves fundamentally inefficient energy conversion events; and this translates to large switching current densities, responsible for chemical segregation and device degradation. Alternatively, introducing defects in the crystalline phase can engineer carrier localization effects enhancing carrier–lattice coupling; and this can efficiently extract work required to introduce bond distortions necessary for amorphization from input electrical energy. Here, by pre-inducing extended defects and thus carrier localization effects in crystalline GeTe via high-energy ion irradiation, we show tremendous improvement in amorphization current densities (0.13–0.6 MA cm−2) compared with the melt-quench strategy (∼50 MA cm−2). We show scaling behaviour and good reversibility on these devices, and explore several intermediate resistance states that are accessible during both amorphization and recrystallization pathways. Existence of multiple resistance states, along with ultralow-power switching and scaling capabilities, makes this approach promising in context of low-power memory and neuromorphic computation. PMID:26805748

  18. Ultralow-power switching via defect engineering in germanium telluride phase-change memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukala, Pavan; Lin, Chia-Chun; Composto, Russell; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal-amorphous transformation achieved via the melt-quench pathway in phase-change memory involves fundamentally inefficient energy conversion events; and this translates to large switching current densities, responsible for chemical segregation and device degradation. Alternatively, introducing defects in the crystalline phase can engineer carrier localization effects enhancing carrier-lattice coupling; and this can efficiently extract work required to introduce bond distortions necessary for amorphization from input electrical energy. Here, by pre-inducing extended defects and thus carrier localization effects in crystalline GeTe via high-energy ion irradiation, we show tremendous improvement in amorphization current densities (0.13-0.6 MA cm-2) compared with the melt-quench strategy (~50 MA cm-2). We show scaling behaviour and good reversibility on these devices, and explore several intermediate resistance states that are accessible during both amorphization and recrystallization pathways. Existence of multiple resistance states, along with ultralow-power switching and scaling capabilities, makes this approach promising in context of low-power memory and neuromorphic computation.

  19. Sun Valley Photovoltaic Power Project, Phase 1. Final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Jr, F R

    1980-03-01

    An application experiment was devised for fabrication, installation, operation, and evaluation of a concentrating photovoltaic system for direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. If the experiment is performed, the photovoltaic system will be connected to an electric motor load and to an electric utility system. Provisions will be made to allow the motor load to be supplied with power from either the photovoltaic system or the utility system. When the demand of the motor load is low, the photovoltaic system will deliver excess power to the utility system for use elsewhere. Thus, the experimental installation has been designed with sufficient flexibility to enable several modes of operation to be evaluated. This type of application is a typical example of on-site power generation at an individual load center involving two-way energy exchange with the adjacent utility system. Because a growing market for photovoltaic systems in this type of application is expected in the 1980's, the experiment will provide needed information in a timely manner. The experiment was devised jointly by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) and its subcontractor, Spectrolab, Inc. LADWP will furnish a site and operate the equipment after installation. The subcontractor will manufacture and furnish a concentrating photovoltaic array with a power rating of approximately 200 kilowatts at one kilowatt per square meter of insolation. Other required equipment will be purchased to specification from appropriate suppliers. The photovoltaic system represents a state-of-the-art design at the time this report was prepared. However, minor design improvements may be made prior to and during system installation. All phases of fabrication, installation and operation will be documented through formal reports. The results of the experiment will contribute to the goals of the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program.

  20. Community Based Model for Training Ex-Offenders in Entrepreneurial Competencies, Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springfield Urban League, Inc., IL.

    An Urban League project in Springfield, Illinois, provided instruction in small business management to persons who had been convicted of a crime. Phase II of the project required designing a self-instructional workbook and tape to be used when classes were not available. A resource guide listing agencies providing assistance to business persons…

  1. Phase-field modeling of epitaxial growth: Applications to step trains and island dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengzheng; Lowengrub, John S.; Wise, Steven M.; Voigt, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new phase-field model including combined effects of edge diffusion, the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, deposition and desorption to simulate epitaxial growth. A new free energy function together with a correction to the initial phase variable profile is used to efficiently capture the morphological evolution when a large deposition flux is imposed. A formal matched asymptotic analysis is performed to show the reduction of the phase-field model to the classical sharp interface Burton-Cabrera-Frank model for step flow when the interfacial thickness vanishes. The phase-field model is solved by a semi-implicit finite difference scheme, and adaptive block-structured Cartesian meshes are used to dramatically increase the efficiency of the solver. The numerical scheme is used to investigate the evolution of perturbed circularly shaped small islands. The effect of edge diffusion is investigated together with the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. We also investigate the linear and nonlinear regimes of a step meandering instability. We reproduce the predicted scaling law for the growth of the meander amplitude, which was based on an analysis of a long wavelength regime. New nonlinear behavior is observed when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width. In particular, a previously unobserved regime of coarsening dynamics is found to occur when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width.

  2. COMMERCIALIZATION OF AN ATMOSPHERIC IRON-BASED CDCL PROCESS FOR POWER PRODUCTION. PHASE I: TECHNOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) is an advanced oxy-combustion technology that has potential to enable substantial reductions in the cost and energy penalty associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-fired power plants. Through collaborative efforts, the Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and The Ohio State University (OSU) developed a conceptual design for a 550 MWe (net) supercritical CDCL power plant with greater than 90% CO2 capture and compression. Process simulations were completed to enable an initial assessment of its technical performance. A cost estimate was developed following DOE’s guidelines as outlined in NETL’s report “Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance”, (2011/1455). The cost of electricity for the CDCL plant without CO2 Transportation and Storage cost resulted in $ $102.67 per MWh, which corresponds to a 26.8 % increase in cost of electricity (COE) when compared to an air-fired pulverized-coal supercritical power plant. The cost of electricity is strongly depending on the total plant cost and cost of the oxygen carrier particles. The CDCL process could capture further potential savings by increasing the performance of the particles and reducing the plant size. During the techno-economic analysis, the team identified technology and engineering gaps that need to be closed to bring the technology to commercialization. The technology gaps were focused in five critical areas: (i) moving bed reducer reactor, (ii) fluidized bed combustor, (iii) particle riser, (iv) oxygen-carrier particle properties, and (v) process operation. The key technology gaps are related to particle performance, particle manufacturing cost, and the operation of the reducer reactor. These technology gaps are to be addressed during Phase II of project. The project team is proposing additional lab testing to be completed on the particle and a 3MWth pilot facility

  3. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals: Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  4. A new state-space model for three-phase systems for Kalman filtering with application to power quality estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Anh Tuan; Ho, Duc Du; Hermann, Gilles; Wira, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    For power quality issues like reducing harmonic pollution, reactive power and load unbalance, the estimation of the fundamental frequency of a power lines in a fast and precise way is essential. This paper introduces a new state-space model to be used with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for estimating the frequency of distorted power system signals in real-time. The proposed model takes into account all the characteristics of a general three-phase power system and mainly the unbalance. Therefore, the symmetrical components of the power system, i.e., their amplitude and phase angle values, can also be deduced at each iteration from the proposed state-space model. The effectiveness of the method has been evaluated. Results and comparisons of online frequency estimation and symmetrical components identification show the efficiency of the proposed method for disturbed and time-varying signals.

  5. Validity and reliability of the Axiom PowerTrain cycle ergometer when compared with an SRM powermeter.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, W; Duc, S; Villerius, V; Grappe, F

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and the reliability of a stationary electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer (Axiom PowerTrain) against the SRM power measuring crankset. Nineteen male competitive cyclists completed four tests on their bicycle equipped with a 20-strain gauges SRM crankset: a maximal aerobic power (MAP) test and three 10-min time trials (TTs) with three different simulated slopes (0, 3, and 6 %). The Axiom ergometer overestimated (p <0.05) the SRM power output during the last stage of the MAP test and during TTs, by 5 % and 12 %, respectively. Power output (PO) of the Axiom ergometer drifted significantly (p <0.05) with the time during TT. These findings indicate that the Axiom ergometer does not provide a valid measure of PO compared with SRM. However, the small coefficient of variation (2.2 %) during the MAP test indicates that the Axiom provides a reliable PO and that it can be used e.g. for relative PO comparisons with competitive cyclists during a race season. PMID:15643536

  6. Validity and reliability of the Axiom PowerTrain cycle ergometer when compared with an SRM powermeter.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, W; Duc, S; Villerius, V; Grappe, F

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and the reliability of a stationary electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer (Axiom PowerTrain) against the SRM power measuring crankset. Nineteen male competitive cyclists completed four tests on their bicycle equipped with a 20-strain gauges SRM crankset: a maximal aerobic power (MAP) test and three 10-min time trials (TTs) with three different simulated slopes (0, 3, and 6 %). The Axiom ergometer overestimated (p <0.05) the SRM power output during the last stage of the MAP test and during TTs, by 5 % and 12 %, respectively. Power output (PO) of the Axiom ergometer drifted significantly (p <0.05) with the time during TT. These findings indicate that the Axiom ergometer does not provide a valid measure of PO compared with SRM. However, the small coefficient of variation (2.2 %) during the MAP test indicates that the Axiom provides a reliable PO and that it can be used e.g. for relative PO comparisons with competitive cyclists during a race season.

  7. Knowledge Is Power: Empowering the Autism Community through Parent-Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Ackerman-Spain, Karen; Williams, Ellen U.; Ryley, Anderia T.

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships for Autism through Collaborative Community Choice and Empowerment (Project PACE) was developed to empower parents and professionals (e.g., general or special education teachers, therapists, social workers, school counselors, psychologists) through training and education. Project PACE was designed to provide participants with basic…

  8. The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Teams for Developing First Responder Training in TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Jo L.; Cappiccie, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Misunderstanding of the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leaves first responders ill-equipped to handle encounters involving subjects with brain injury. This paper details a cross-disciplinary project to develop and disseminate a training curriculum designed to increase first responders' knowledge of and skills with TBI survivors.…

  9. The Power of ROFO Principle Together with Companywide Training in Executing Lean Production Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Ah Bee; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the case study conducted at Schaffner Thailand (ST) factory regarding the application of the ROFO principle coupled with companywide training on the execution of Lean Production (LP) strategy. The case study was motivated by 3 main objectives: 1) to examine the effectiveness of the ROFO principle and companywide…

  10. Evaluation of a Nuclear Power Skill Related Training Program for Job Corps Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabchi, Gloria; Petry, John R.

    An evaluation of the Nuclear Skill Related Training Program at Memphis State University was conducted to identify possible motivational and attitudinal variables that may contribute to the retention-attrition rates of Job Corps students (40 percent) admitted to the program compared to non-Job Corps students who are migrant workers (2 percent). The…

  11. Optimization of inflow waveform phase-difference for minimized total cavopulmonary power loss.

    PubMed

    Dur, Onur; DeGroff, Curt G; Keller, Bradley B; Pekkan, Kerem

    2010-03-01

    The Fontan operation is a palliative surgical procedure performed on children, born with congenital heart defects that have yielded only a single functioning ventricle. The total cavo-pulmonary connection (TCPC) is a common variant of the Fontan procedure, where the superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC) are routed directly into the pulmonary arteries (PA). Due to the limited pumping energy available, optimized hemodynamics, in turn, minimized power loss, inside the TCPC pathway is required for the best optimal surgical outcomes. To complement ongoing efforts to optimize the anatomical geometric design of the surgical Fontan templates, here, we focused on the characterization of power loss changes due to the temporal variations in between SVC and IVC flow waveforms. An experimentally validated pulsatile computational fluid dynamics solver is used to quantify the effect of phase-shift between SVC and IVC inflow waveforms and amplitudes on internal energy dissipation. The unsteady hemodynamics of two standard idealized TCPC geometries are presented, incorporating patient-specific real-time PC-MRI flow waveforms of "functional" Fontan patients. The effects of respiration and pulsatility on the internal energy dissipation of the TCPC pathway are analyzed. Optimization of phase-shift between caval flows is shown to lead to lower energy dissipation up to 30% in these idealized models. For physiological patient-specific caval waveforms, the power loss is reduced significantly (up to 11%) by the optimization of all three major harmonics at the same mean pathway flow (3 L/min). Thus, the hemodynamic efficiency of single ventricle circuits is influenced strongly by the caval flow waveform quality, which is regulated through respiratory dependent physiological pathways. The proposed patient-specific waveform optimization protocol may potentially inspire new therapeutic applications to aid postoperative hemodynamics and improve the well being of the Fontan

  12. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  13. Power-efficient hydraulic systems. Volume 2. Hardware demonstration phase. Final report, October 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hupp, R.V.; Haning, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    Energy-saving concepts for aircraft hydraulic systems were studied in a two-phase program. Task I was an investigation of methods and techniques to reduce overall hydraulic-system power requirements by lowering system demands and increasing component efficiencies. Task II involved hardware demonstration tests on selected concepts. Task I: Study phase. A baseline hydraulic system for an advanced aircraft design was established. Twenty energy-saving techniques were studied as candidates for application to the baseline vehicle. A global systems analysis approach was employed. The candidates were compared on the basis of total fuel consumption and six qualitative factors. Task II: Hardware demonstration phase. Two techniques demonstrated for energy savings were control valves with overlap and dual pressure-level systems. Tests were conducted on control valves, a servo actuator, dual pressure pumps, and a lightweight hydraulic system simulator. Valves with 0.002-in. overlap reduced system energy consumption 18% compared to using valves with zero lap. Operation at 4000 psi reduced system energy consumption 53% compared to operation at 8000 psi. Pressure-level switching was accomplished with excellent results.

  14. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  15. On-shot laser beam diagnostics for high-power laser facility with phase modulation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Veetil, S. P.; Liu, C.; Tao, H.; Jiang, Y.; Lin, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.

    2016-05-01

    A coherent-modulation-imaging-based (CMI) algorithm has been employed for on-shot laser beam diagnostics in high-power laser facilities, where high-intensity short-pulsed lasers from terawatt to petawatt are designed to realize inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A single-shot intensity measurement is sufficient for wave-front reconstruction, both for the near-field and far-field at the same time. The iterative reconstruction process is computationally very efficient and was completed in dozens of seconds by the additional use of a GPU device to speed it up. The compact measurement unit—including a CCD and a piece of pre-characterized phase plate—makes it convenient for focal-spot intensity prediction in the target chamber. It can be placed almost anywhere in high-power laser facilities to achieve near-field wave-front diagnostics. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by conducting a series of experiments with diagnostic beams and seed pulses with deactivated amplifiers in our high-power laser system.

  16. In-Phase Power-Combined Frequency Tripler at 300 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrini, Alain; Ward, John; Lin, Robert; Gill, John; Lee, Choonsup; Mehdi, Imran; Javadi, Hamid; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2009-01-01

    This design starts with commercial 85- to 115-GHz sources that are amplified to as much as 250 mW using power amplifiers developed for the Herschel Space Observatory. The frequency is then tripled using a novel waveguide GaAs Schottky diode frequency tripler. This planar diode produces 26 mW at 318 GHz. Peak conversion efficiency is over 15 percent, and the measured bandwidth of about 265 - 30 GHz is limited more by the driving source than by the tripler itself. This innovation is based on an integrated circuit designed originally for a single-chip 260- to 340-GHz balanced tripler. The power-combined version has two mirror-image tripler chips that are power-combined in-phase in a single waveguide block using a compact Y-junction divider at the input waveguide, and a Y-junction combiner at the output waveguide. The tripler uses a split-block waveguide design with two independent DC bias lines.

  17. Special article: personal protective equipment for care of pandemic influenza patients: a training workshop for the powered air purifying respirator.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Bonnie M; Kerchberger, John P

    2010-10-01

    Virulent respiratory infectious diseases may present a life-threatening risk for health care professionals during aerosol-generating procedures, including endotracheal intubation. The 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) brings this concern to the immediate forefront. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have stated that, when performing or participating in aerosol-generating procedures on patients with virulent contagious respiratory diseases, health care professionals must wear a minimum of the N95 respirator, and they may wish to consider using the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR). For influenza and other diseases transmitted by both respiratory and contact modes, protective respirators must be combined with contact precautions. The PAPR provides 2.5 to 100 times greater protection than the N95, when used within the context of an Occupational Safety and Health Administration-compliant respiratory protection program. The relative protective capability of a respirator is quantified using the assigned protection factor. The level of protection designated by the APF can only be achieved with appropriate training and correct use of the respirator. Face seal leakage limits the protective capability of the N95 respirator, and fit testing does not assure the ability to maintain a tight face seal. The protective capability of the PAPR will be defeated by improper handling of contaminated equipment, incorrect assembly and maintenance, and improper don (put on) and doff (take off) procedures. Stress, discomfort, and physical encumbrance may impair performance. Acclimatization through training will mitigate these effects. Training in the use of PAPRs in advance of their need is strongly advised. "Just in time" training is unlikely to provide adequate preparation for groups of practitioners requiring specialized personal protective equipment during a pandemic. Employee health departments in hospitals may not presently have a PAPR training program in place

  18. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  19. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  20. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  1. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  2. Performance Analysis of a Permanent-Magnet Induction Generator Connected to a Single-Phase Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshihiro; Fukami, Tadashi; Kanamaru, Yasunori; Miyamoto, Toshio

    In this paper, the single-phase operation of a permanent-magnet induction generator (PMIG) is analyzed theoretically and experimentally and is compared to that of a conventional induction generator (IG) of the same size to evaluate its usefulness. Phase balancing is achieved by connecting a phase converter across their stator windings. Based on the method of symmetrical components, the steady-state performance of both the PMIG and the IG is theoretically predicted, and the results are verified through experiments. The PMIG exhibits a higher performance, in terms of output power, power factor, and efficiency, than the conventional IG.

  3. High-power phase-locked quantum cascade laser array emitting at λ ˜ 4.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang-Liang; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Jia, Zhi-Wei; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2016-03-01

    A phase-locked quantum cascade laser (QCL) array consisting of one hundred elements that were integrated in parallel was achieved at λ ˜ 4.6 μm. The proposed Fraunhofer's multiple slits diffraction model predicted and explained the far-field pattern of the phase-locked laser array. A single-lobed far-field pattern, attributed to the emission of an in-phase-like supermode, is obtained near the threshold (Ith). Even at 1.5 Ith, greater than 73.3% of the laser output power is concentrated in a low-divergence beam with an optical power of up to 40 W.

  4. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program.

  5. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program. PMID:25627646

  6. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report Phase-II. Contractual reporting period October-December 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Edward; The Salix Consortium

    2000-03-23

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing design plans for 2 utility pulverized coal boilers for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system.

  7. Health benefits of seated speed, resistance, and power training for an individual with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gannotti, Mary E; Fuchs, Robyn Kimberly; Roberts, Dawn E; Hobbs, Nedda; Cannon, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy are at risk for low bone mass for chronological age, which compounds risk in adulthood for progressive deformity and chronic pain. Physical activity and exercise can be a key component to optimizing bone health. In this case report we present a young adult male with non-ambulatory, spastic quadriplegia CP whom began a seated speed, resistance, and power training exercise program at age 14.5 years. Exercise program continued into adulthood as part of an active lifestyle. The individual had a history of failure to thrive, bowel and bladder incontinence, reduced bone mineral density (BMD) for age, and spinal deformity at the time exercise was initiated. Participation in the exercise program began once a week for 1.5-2 hours/session, and progressed to 3-5 times per week after two years. This exercise program is now a component of his habitual lifestyle. Over the 6 years he was followed, lumbar spine and total hip BMD Z-scores did not worsen, which may be viewed as a positive outcome given his level of gross motor impairment. Additionally, the individual reported less back pain, improved bowel and bladder control, increased energy level, and never sustained an exercise related injury. Findings from this case report suggest a regular program of seated speed, resistance, power training may promote overall well-being, are safe, and should be considered as a mechanism for optimizing bone health.

  8. The mPowerNet Approach to NOF ICT Training in Primary Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a course using mPowerNet to develop course material by using computers to teach numeracy. Presents the guiding principles of the course, mathematics material, course material, and course guidance. (ASK)

  9. Effects of low and high cadence interval training on power output in flat and uphill cycling time-trials.

    PubMed

    Nimmerichter, Alfred; Eston, Roger; Bachl, Norbert; Williams, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of low-cadence (60 rev min(-1)) uphill (Int(60)) or high-cadence (100 rev min(-1)) level-ground (Int(100)) interval training on power output (PO) during 20-min uphill (TT(up)) and flat (TT(flat)) time-trials. Eighteen male cyclists ([Formula: see text]: 58.6 ± 5.4 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) were randomly assigned to Int(60), Int(100) or a control group (Con). The interval training comprised two training sessions per week over 4 weeks, which consisted of six bouts of 5 min at the PO corresponding to the respiratory compensation point (RCP). For the control group, no interval training was conducted. A two-factor ANOVA revealed significant increases on performance measures obtained from a laboratory-graded exercise test (GXT) (P (max): 2.8 ± 3.0%; p < 0.01; PO and [Formula: see text] at RCP: 3.6 ± 6.3% and 4.7 ± 8.2%, respectively; p < 0.05; and [Formula: see text] at ventilatory threshold: 4.9 ± 5.6%; p < 0.01), with no significant group effects. Significant interactions between group and uphill and flat time-trial, pre- versus post-training on PO were observed (p < 0.05). Int(60) increased PO during both TT(up) (4.4 ± 5.3%) and TT(flat) (1.5 ± 4.5%). The changes were -1.3 ± 3.6, 2.6 ± 6.0% for Int(100) and 4.0 ± 4.6%, -3.5 ± 5.4% for Con during TT(up) and TT(flat), respectively. PO was significantly higher during TT(up) than TT(flat) (4.4 ± 6.0; 6.3 ± 5.6%; pre and post-training, respectively; p < 0.001). These findings suggest that higher forces during the low-cadence intervals are potentially beneficial to improve performance. In contrast to the GXT, the time-trials are ecologically valid to detect specific performance adaptations.

  10. Inferring Muscle-Tendon Unit Power from Ankle Joint Power during the Push-Off Phase of Human Walking: Insights from a Multiarticular EMG-Driven Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs). However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint) musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which ankle joint power overestimates net plantarflexor MTU power during the Push-off phase of walking, due to the behavior of the flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FDHL)–multiarticular MTUs crossing the ankle and metatarsophalangeal (toe) joints. Methods We performed a gait analysis study on six healthy participants, recording ground reaction forces, kinematics, and electromyography (EMG). Empirical data were input into an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate ankle power. This model enabled us to parse contributions from mono- and multi-articular MTUs, and required only one scaling and one time delay factor for each subject and speed, which were solved for based on empirical data. Net plantarflexing MTU power was computed by the model and quantitatively compared to inverse dynamics ankle power. Results The EMG-driven model was able to reproduce inverse dynamics ankle power across a range of gait speeds (R2 ≥ 0.97), while also providing MTU-specific power estimates. We found that FDHL dynamics caused ankle power to slightly overestimate net plantarflexor MTU power, but only by ~2–7%. Conclusions During Push-off, FDHL MTU dynamics do not substantially confound the inference of net plantarflexor MTU power from inverse dynamics ankle power. However, other methodological limitations may cause inverse dynamics to overestimate net MTU power; for instance, due to rigid-body foot assumptions. Moving

  11. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2016-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  12. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations.

  13. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations. PMID:25457043

  14. Physical aspects of low power synapses based on phase change memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, Manan; Bichler, Olivier; Querlioz, Damien; Traoré, Boubacar; Cueto, Olga; Perniola, Luca; Sousa, Veronique; Vuillaume, Dominique; Gamrat, Christian; DeSalvo, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how phase change memory (PCM) devices can be used to emulate biologically inspired synaptic functions in particular, potentiation and depression, important for implementing neuromorphic hardware. PCM devices with different chalcogenide materials are fabricated and characterized. The asymmetry between the potentiation and depression behaviors of the PCM is stressed. Detailed multi-physical simulations are performed to study the underlying physics of the synaptic behavior of PCM. A versatile behavioral model and a multi-level circuit-compatible model are developed for system and circuit-level neuromorphic simulations. We propose a unique low-power methodology named the 2-PCM Synapse, to use PCM devices as synapses in large scale neuromorphic systems. To show the strength of our proposed solution, we efficiently simulated fully connected feed-forward spiking neural network capable of complex visual pattern extraction from real world data.

  15. Modelling the energy future of Switzerland after the phase out of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Paula; Van Vliet, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) published the final report of the proposed measures in the context of the Energy Strategy 2050 (ES2050). The ES2050 draws an energy scenario where the nuclear must be substituted by alternative sources. This implies a fundamental change in the energy system that has already been questioned by experts, e.g. [Piot, 2014]. Therefore, we must analyse in depth the technical implications of change in the Swiss energy mix from a robust baseload power such as nuclear, to an electricity mix where intermittent sources account for higher rates. Accomplishing the ES2050 imply difficult challenges, since nowadays nuclear power is the second most consumed energy source in Switzerland. According to the SFOE, nuclear accounts for a 23.3% of the gross production, only surpassed by crude oil products (43.3%). Hydropower is the third source more consumed, representing approximately the half of the nuclear (12.2%). Considering that Switzerland has almost reached the maximum of its hydropower capacity, renewables are more likely to be the alternative when the nuclear phase out takes place. Hence, solar and wind power will play an important role in the future Swiss energy mix, even though currently new renewables account for only 1.9% of the gross energy consumption. In this study we look for realistic and efficient combinations of energy resources to substitute nuclear power. Energy modelling is a powerful tool to design an energy system with high energy security that avoids problems of intermittency [Mathiesen & Lund, 2009]. In Switzerland, energy modelling has been used by the government [Abt et. al., 2012] and also has significant relevance in academia [Mathys, 2012]. Nevertheless, we detected a gap in the study of the security in energy scenarios [Busser, 2013]. This study examines the future electricity production of Switzerland using Calliope, a multi-scale energy systems model, developed at Imperial College, London and

  16. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    PubMed

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  17. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    PubMed

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  18. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem

    PubMed Central

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay’s ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel’s sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  19. Reductions in pre-season training loads reduce training injury rates in rugby league players

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, T

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate if reductions in pre-season training loads reduced the incidence of training injuries in rugby league players, and to determine if the reductions in training loads compromised the improvements in physical fitness obtained during the pre-season preparation period. Methods: A total of 220 sub-elite rugby league players participated in this 3 year prospective study. Players underwent measurements of speed, muscular power, and maximal aerobic power before and after three 4 month (December to March) pre-season preparation periods (2001–2003). A periodised skills and conditioning program was implemented, with training loads progressively increased in the general preparatory phase of the season (December to February) and reduced slightly in March in preparation for the competitive phase of the season. Training loads were calculated by multiplying the training session intensity by the duration of the training session. Following the initial season (2001), training loads were reduced through reductions in training duration (2002) and training intensity (2003). The incidence of injury was prospectively recorded over the three pre-season periods. Results: The training loads for the 2002 and 2003 pre-season periods were significantly lower (p<0.001) than those in 2001. The incidence of injury was significantly higher in the 2001 pre-season than the 2002 and 2003 pre-season periods. The increases in maximal aerobic power progressively improved across the three seasons with a 62–88% probability that the 2002 and 2003 pre-season improvements in maximal aerobic power were of greater physiological significance than the 2001 pre-season improvements in maximal aerobic power. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that reductions in pre-season training loads reduce training injury rates in rugby league players and result in greater improvements in maximal aerobic power. PMID:15562171

  20. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  1. Nanoblinker: Brownian Motion Powered Bio-Nanomachine for FRET Detection of Phagocytic Phase of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Minchew, Candace L.; Didenko, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of bio-nanomachine which runs on thermal noise. The machine is solely powered by the random motion of water molecules in its environment and does not ever require re-fuelling. The construct, which is made of DNA and vaccinia virus topoisomerase protein, can detect DNA damage by employing fluorescence. It uses Brownian motion as a cyclic motor to continually separate and bring together two types of fluorescent hairpins participating in FRET. This bio-molecular oscillator is a fast and specific sensor of 5′OH double-strand DNA breaks present in phagocytic phase of apoptosis. The detection takes 30 s in solution and 3 min in cell suspensions. The phagocytic phase is critical for the effective execution of apoptosis as it ensures complete degradation of the dying cells’ DNA, preventing release of pathological, viral and tumor DNA and self-immunization. The construct can be used as a smart FRET probe in studies of cell death and phagocytosis. PMID:25268504

  2. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-07-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm3, the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10‑13 J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators.

  3. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm(3), the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10(-13) J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators. PMID:27457034

  4. Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1983-06-01

    A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

  5. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm3, the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10−13 J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators. PMID:27457034

  6. Linear-phase delay filters for ultra-low-power signal processing in neural recording implants.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Benoit; Sawan, Mohamad; Kerherve, Eric

    2010-06-01

    We present the design and implementation of linear-phase delay filters for ultra-low-power signal processing in neural recording implants. We use these filters as low-distortion delay elements along with an automatic biopotential detector to perform integral waveform extraction and efficient power management. The presented delay elements are realized employing continuous-time OTA-C filters featuring 9th-order equiripple transfer functions with constant group delay. Such analog delay enables processing neural waveforms with reduced overhead compared to a digital delay since it does not requires sampling and digitization. It uses an allpass transfer function for achieving wider constant-delay bandwidth than all-pole does. Two filters realizations are compared for implementing the delay element: the Cascaded structure and the Inverse follow-the-leader feedback filter. Their respective strengths and drawbacks are assessed by modeling parasitics and non-idealities of OTAs, and by transistor-level simulations. A budget of 200 nA is used in both filters. Experimental measurements with the chosen filter topology are presented and discussed.

  7. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  8. Development of methods for nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed additions and revisions to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 50 and 55, and to Regulatory Guides 1.8 and 1.149. ORNL is developing methods and some aspects of the technical basis for the implementation and assessment of training programs, personnel qualifications, and simulation facilities. The paper describes the three methodologies which were developed during the FY-1984 research: a task sort procedure (TSORT); a simulation facility evaluation methodology; and a task analysis profiling system (TAPS).

  9. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  10. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  11. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Tibana, Ramires A.; de Almeida, Leonardo M.; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M.; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V. de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T. P. L.; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C. L.; Navalta, James W.; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  12. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews].

    PubMed

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K

    2009-10-01

    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  13. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  14. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

  15. Executive Development Programs in Bangladesh. Phase II Final Report and Case Writing. A Component of the World Bank/Bangladesh Management Education and Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    With funding made available by the World Bank, additional (Phase II) activities were undertaken in Bangladesh to enhance business management education and training. Executive Development Programmes (EDPs) were planned and carried out according to the model previously developed and validated. Eight seminars were offered for the Institute of…

  16. The dc-to-dc converters employing staggered-phase power switches with two-loop control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, G. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A switched inductor voltage is coupled to a sense winding in each phase, and all sense windings are connected in series to one of two feedback loops to provide a signal that indicates when one of the power switches is on as the principal determinant of switching instants. A sequencer is triggered each time a pulse generator is triggered to turn on a different power switch in sequence at each switching instant.

  17. Space debris proximity analysis in powered and orbital phases during satelitte launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sharma, R.; Adimurthy, V.

    The need to protect a launch vehicle in its ascent phase as well as the payload upon injection in particular and to prevent generation of debris in general through collision has led to many recent developments in the methodologies of SPAce DEbris PROximity (SPADEPRO) analysis, which is required for COLlision Avoidance or COLA studies. SPADEPRO refers to assessment of collision risk between catalogued resident space objects and launch vehicle or satellite of interest. The detection of close approaches to satellites/launch vehicles during the launch and early post-deployment phase of their lifetimes is an important subset of the overall problem. Potential collisions during this period can usually be avoided by adjusting the time of launch within a specified launch window. In Ref- 1 a series of filters through which candidate objects have to pass before determining its close approach distances from either analytical propagators like SGP4/SDP4 or any numerical prediction package, has been described. Unfortunately, this detection technique cannot strictly be applied since assumption of orbital motion is violated when powered launch trajectories are considered. Ref- 2 has proposed an algorithm for determining launch window blackout intervals based on the avoidance of close approaches for trajectories, which are fixed relative to an Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) reference frame. In this paper, authors approximate the powered launch trajectory into a series of orbital trajectories so that those trajectories envelope the powered launch trajectory in position-velocity phase space. Following this, filters described in Ref- 1 have been utilized to find out potential candidates from resident space objects. In Ref- 2, 3 &4 the blackout period has been observed when the closest approach distance is below a certain threshold. Instead, in this paper authors use collision probability, considering dispersions in respective trajectories of resident space objects and launch vehicle

  18. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 3: Laser SPS analysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential use of lasers for transmitting power to Earth from Solar Power Satellites was examined. Free electron lasers appear most promising and would have some benefits over microwave power transmission. Further research in laser technology is needed.

  19. The Effect of Additional Training on Motor Outcomes at Discharge from Recovery Phase Rehabilitation Wards: A Survey from Multi-Center Stroke Data Bank in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Nariaki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Jeong, Seungwon; Sugiyama, Motoya; Kondo, Katsunori; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential benefits of additional training in patients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation ward using the data bank of post-stroke patient registry. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 2507 inpatients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation wards between November 2004 and November 2010. Participants were retrospectively divided into four groups based upon chart review; patients who received no additional rehabilitation, patients who were added with self-initiated off hours training, patients who were added with off hours training by ward staff, patients who received both self-initiated training and training by ward staff. Parameters for assessing outcomes included length of stay, motor/cognitive subscales of functional independent measures (FIM) and motor benefit of FIM calculated by subtracting the score at admission from that at discharge. Results Participants were stratified into three groups depending on the motor FIM at admission (≦28, 29∼56, 57≦) for comparison. Regarding outcome variables, significant inter-group differences were observed in all items examined within the subgroup who scored 28 or less and between 29 and 56. Meanwhile no such trends were observed in the group who scored 57 or more compared with those who scored less. In a decision tree created based upon Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method, variables chosen were the motor FIM at admission (the first node) additional training (the second node), the cognitive FIM at admission(the third node). Conclusions Overall the results suggest that additional training can compensate for the shortage of regular rehabilitation implemented in recovery phase rehabilitation ward, thus may contribute to improved outcomes assessed by motor FIM at discharge. PMID:24626224

  20. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  1. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  2. Optical Transients Powered by Magnetars: Dynamics, Light Curves, and Transition to the Nebular Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Wang, S. Q.; Dai, Z. G.; Xu, Dong; Han, Yan-Hui; Wu, X. F.; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Millisecond magnetars can be formed via several channels: core collapse of massive stars, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs (WDs), double WD mergers, double neutron star (NS) mergers, and WD-NS mergers. Because the mass of ejecta from these channels could be quite different, their light curves are also expected to be diverse. We evaluate the dynamic evolution of optical transients powered by millisecond magnetars. We find that the magnetar with a short spin-down timescale converts its rotational energy mostly into the kinetic energy of the transient, while the energy of a magnetar with a long spin-down timescale goes into radiation of the transient. This leads us to speculate that hypernovae could be powered by magnetars with short spin-down timescales. At late times the optical transients will gradually evolve into a nebular phase because of the photospheric recession. We treat the photosphere and nebula separately because their radiation mechanisms are different. In some cases the ejecta could be light enough that the magnetar can accelerate it to a relativistic speed. It is well known that the peak luminosity of a supernova (SN) occurs when the luminosity is equal to the instantaneous energy input rate, as shown by Arnett. We show that photospheric recession and relativistic motion can modify this law. The photospheric recession always leads to a delay of the peak time {t}{pk} relative to the time {t}× at which the SN luminosity equals the instantaneous energy input rate. Relativistic motion, however, may change this result significantly.

  3. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited

  4. Evaluation of Electronic Counter-Countermeasures Training Using Microcomputer-Based Technology: Phase I. Basic Jamming Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan G.; Ellis, Burl D.

    Seven microcomputer-based training systems with videotape players/monitors were installed to provide electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) simulation training, drill and practice, and performance testing for three courses at a fleet combat training center. Narrated videotape presentations of simulated and live jamming followed by a drill and…

  5. Effect of 4 months of training on aerobic power, strength, and acceleration in two under-19 soccer teams.

    PubMed

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Palao Andrés, José M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the training executed by 2 under-19 teams from the first Spanish division on aerobic power, strength, and acceleration capacity. Two under-19 soccer teams that competed in the same league were evaluated on 2 occasions. The first evaluation (E₁) was done at the beginning of the competitive period, and the second evaluation (E₂) was done 16 weeks later, coinciding with the end of the first half of the regular season. The following were evaluated: lower-body strength through jump height with countermovement with and without load (CMJ/CMJ₂₀), speed of the Smith machine bar movement in a progressive load test of full squats (FSL), acceleration capacity in 10, 20, and 30 m (T₁₀, T₂₀, T₃₀, T₁₀₋₂₀, T₁₀₋₃₀, T₂₀₋₃₀), and maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Team A executed complementary strength training, and training loads were determined with regard to the speed with which each player moved the bar in FSL. Between the evaluations, the training sessions of each team were recorded to assess their influence on the changes in E2. Team A significantly improved its MAS (p < 0.01) and its application of strength in the CMJ₂₀ (p < 0.05) and FS₂₀₋₃₀₋₄₀ (p < 0.01), while significantly worsening their acceleration capacity in all the splits (p < 0.01). Team B slightly worsened its MAS and significantly improved its application of strength in the CMJ₂₀ (p < 0.01) and FS₅₀₋₆₀ (p < 0.05). Its acceleration capacity improved insignificantly except for in the 20- to 30-m interval/T₂₀₋₃₀ (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that the use of loads as a function of the speed of movement, without the need to determine maximum repetitions is a methodology that is adequate for the improvement of the application of strength in under-19 soccer players.

  6. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

  7. Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Kirk T; Tolbert, Leon M; Ayers, Curtis William; Ozpineci, Burak; Campbell, Jeremy B

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

  8. An Overview of Power, Energy Storage, and Conversion Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 15 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Power, Energy Storage and Conversion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high-radiation-tolerant ceramic voltage isolators, development of hermetic sealing glasses for solid oxide fuel cells, rechargeable lithium metal cells, high-efficiency direct methane solid oxide fuel cell systems, Li metal protection for high-energy space batteries, isolated bidirectional direct current converters for distributed battery energy applications, and high-efficiency rad-hard ultrathin Si photovoltaic cell technology for space. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  9. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, P<0.001], whereas E and C showed minor changes. Cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups.

  10. Using Pre-Melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payloads in Space Warm for Hours without Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Adding phase change material (PCM) to a mission payload can maintain its temperature above the cold survival limit, without power, for several hours in space. For the International Space Station, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload translation to the worksite when power is available. When power is cut off during the six-hour translation, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the radiator(s) to space. For the interplanetary Probe, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter when power is available from the orbiter power system. After the Probe separates from the orbiter, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the Probe exterior to space. Paraffin wax is a good PCM candidate.

  11. Laser Drilling: Drilling with the Power of Light Phase 1: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian C. Gahan; Richard A. Parker; Ramona Graves; Samih Batarseh; Claude B. Reed; Zhiyue Xu; Humberto Figueroa; Neal Skinner

    2001-09-01

    A laser drilling research team was formed from members of academia, industry and national laboratory to explore the feasibility of using modern high-powered lasers to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The one-year Phase 1 study discussed in this report had the goals of quantifying the amount of pulsed infrared laser energy needed to spall and melt rock of varying lithologies and to investigate the possibility of accomplishing the same task in water under atmospheric conditions. Previous work by some members of this team determined that continuous wave lasers of varying wavelengths have more than enough power to cut, melt and vaporize rock. Samples of sandstone, limestone, and shale were prepared for laser beam interaction with a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam to determine how the beam's size, power, repetition rate, pulse width, exposure time and energy can affect the amount of energy transferred to the rock for the purposes of spallation, melting and vaporization. The purpose of the laser rock interaction experiment was to determine the threshold parameters required to remove a maximum rock volume from the samples while minimizing energy input. Absorption of radiant energy from the laser beam gives rise to the thermal energy transfer required for the destruction and removal of the rock matrix. Results from the tests indicate that each rock type has a set of optimal laser parameters to minimize specific energy (SE) values as observed in a set of linear track and spot tests. In addition, it was observed that the rates of heat diffusion in rocks are easily and quickly overrun by absorbed energy transfer rates from the laser beam to the rock. As absorbed energy outpaces heat diffusion by the rock matrix, local temperatures can rise to the melting points of the minerals and quickly increase observed SE values. The lowest SE values are obtained in the spalling zone just prior to the onset of mineral melt. The current study determined that using pulsed lasers could

  12. The effects of plyometric, tennis-drills, and combined training on reaction, lateral and linear speed, power, and strength in novice tennis players.

    PubMed

    Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Reaction time, first-step quickness, lateral (side steps), and forward speed over short distances are important parameters for tennis performance. The aims of this study were: (i) to diagnose the presence of laterality in tennis lateral movements and (ii) to compare the effects of plyometric training (PT), tennis-specific drills training (TDT), and combined training (CT) on performance in tennis-specific movements and power/strength of lower limbs. Sixty-four novice tennis players (21.1 +/- 1.3 years) were equally (n = 16) assigned to a control (C), PT, TDT, or CT. Training was performed 3 times/week for 9 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after training for the evaluation of reaction time (single lateral step), 4-m lateral and forward sprints, 12-m forward sprints with and without turn, reactive ability, power, and strength. There was a significant difference in lateral speed (side-steps) between the 2 sides (P < 0.05). PT, TDT, or CT improved the 4m lateral and forward sprints (P < 0.05). PT and CT improved also the reaction time of the "slow" side (P < 0.05), whereas TDT and CT improved the 12-m sprint performances with and without turn (P < 0.05). Power and strength improved in most tests after PT and CT. Lateral and forward sprints were correlated (r = -0.50 to -0.75; P < 0.05) with power/strength. In conclusion, PT improved fitness characteristics that rely more on reactive strength and powerful push-off of legs such as, lateral reaction time, 4-m lateral and forward sprints, drop jump and maximal force. TDT improved all 4-m and 12-m sprint performances, whereas CT appeared to incorporate the advantage of both programs and improved most tests items. Tennis coaches should be aware that each training regimen may induce more favorable changes to different aspects of fitness.

  13. COMPONENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Noise radiation power of phase-conjugate mirrors based on a degenerate four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Valerii I.

    1995-11-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the influence of the state of optically polished surfaces of various materials on the scattering coefficient which governs the power of the intrinsic noise of phase-conjugate mirrors based on a degenerate four-wave interaction. The angular dependence of this coefficient was also investigated. The noise power of a phase-conjugate mirror made of InAs, operating at the optimal pump wave intensities 1— 2 MW cm-2, may be reduced to ~2 × 10-7 W per one spatial mode of the radiation to be phase-conjugated. This was achieved by increasing the angle between the axes of the signal and the pump beams up to ~1 rad without a significant reduction of the reflection efficiency, which can be ~500%.

  14. Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Cloitre, Marylene; Koenen, Karestan C; Cohen, Lisa R; Han, Hyemee

    2002-10-01

    Fifty-eight women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse were randomly assigned to a 2-phase cognitive-behavioral treatment or a minimal attention wait list. Phase 1 of treatment included 8 weekly sessions of skills training in affect and interpersonal regulation; Phase 2 included 8 sessions of modified prolonged exposure. Compared with those on wait list, participants in active treatment showed significant improvement in affect regulation problems, interpersonal skills deficits, and PTSD symptoms. Gains were maintained at 3- and 9-month follow-up. Phase 1 therapeutic alliance and negative mood regulation skills predicted Phase 2 exposure success in reducing PTSD, suggesting the value of establishing a strong therapeutic relationship and emotion regulation skills before exposure work among chronic PTSD populations.

  15. An experimental investigation of the power spectrum of phase modulation induced on a satellite radio signal by the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The power spectrum of phase modulation imposed upon satellite radio signals by the inhomogeneous F-region of the ionosphere (100 - 500 km) was studied. Tapes of the S-66 Beacon B Satellite recorded during the period 1964 - 1966 were processed to yield or record the frequency of modulation induced on the signals by ionospheric dispersion. This modulation is produced from the sweeping across the receiving station as the satellite transits of the two dimensional spatial phase pattern are produced on the ground. From this a power spectrum of structure sizes comprising the diffracting mechanism was determined using digital techniques. Fresnel oscillations were observed and analyzed along with some comments on the statistical stationarity of the shape of the power spectrum observed.

  16. Enhancing stance phase propulsion during level walking by combining FES with a powered exoskeleton for persons with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kevin H; Quintero, Hugo A; Farris, Ryan J; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a cooperative controller that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton to provide enhanced hip extension during the stance phase of walking in persons with paraplegia. The controller utilizes two sources of actuation: the electric motors of the powered exoskeleton and the user's machine (FSM), a set of FES. It consists of a finite-state machine (FSM), a set of proportional-derivative (PD) controllers for the exoskeleton and a cycle-to-cycle adaptive controller for muscle stimulation. Level ground walking is conducted on a single subject with complete T10 paraplegia. Results show a 34% reduction in electrical power requirements at the hip joints during the stance phase of the gait cycle with the cooperative controller compared to using electric motors alone. PMID:23365900

  17. Use of blade pitch control to provide power train damping for the Mod-2, 2.5-mW wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blissell, W. A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Control System for the Mod-2 wind turbine system is required to provide not only for startup, RPM regulation, maximizing or regulating power, and stopping the rotor, but also for load limiting, especially in the power train. Early operations with above-rated winds revealed an instability which was caused primarily by coupling between the quill shaft and the rotor air loads. This instability caused the first of several major Mod-2 Control System changes which are reviewed in the paper.

  18. Anaerobic and aerobic peak power output and the force-velocity relationship in endurance-trained athletes: effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Chamari, K; Ahmaidi, S; Fabre, C; Massé-Biron, J; Préfaut, C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the anaerobic peak power output (Pan, peak) declines more than the peak aerobic power (Paer, peak) with increasing age. In addition, the force-velocity (F-v) relationship was studied to determine which of these two factors is primarily responsible for the expected alterations in anaerobic power. The Pan, peak, the maximal F when v is equal to zero (F0) and the maximal v when F is equal to zero (v0) were assessed by F-v test i.e. a brief intense intermittent exercise test using incremental braking forces. The Paer, peak was measured by a maximal increment exercise test. A group of 12 young athletes (YA) and 12 master athletes (MA) mean age 24.8 (SEM 1.3) and 65.1 (SEM 1.2) years, respectively, participated in this study. The YA and MA had similar body masses, heights and endurance training schedules. The results showed that Pan, peak was 42.7% lower in the older subjects, corresponding to mean values of 1089 (SEM 40) compared to 624 (SEM 33) W (t = 8.9, P < 0.001) for YA compared to MA, respectively. The F0 and V0 indices showed values that were lower by 30.3% and 15.2%, respectively. The Paer, peak was 35% lower with mean values of 323 (SEM 12) W for YA compared to 210 (SEM 6) W for MA (t = 8.3, P < 0.001). The mean maximal oxygen uptake was 34.7% lower with 4240 (SEM 160) ml.min-1 for YA compared to 2770 (SEM 120) ml.min-1 for MA (t = 7.2, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Merni, Franco; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained men were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 78.5 ± 11.0 kg, height = 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2 ± 6.0 years, body mass = 80.5 ± 13.3 kg, height = 179.2 ± 4.6). Participants in both training programs performed 4 training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and after 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared with TP group, and a possible improvement (∼60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower-body strength or jump power performance after the 15-week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume; however, no differences were detected for lower-body performance and body composition measures. PMID:24476775

  20. Design considerations for high-power VHF radar transceivers: The Poker Flat MST radar phase control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Johnson, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-four separate 50-kW peak-power transmitters are distributed throughout the 200 x 200 meter Poker Flat MST radar antenna array. The relative phase of each transmitter is automatically controlled by a 64-channel unit located in the main building at the edge of the antenna. The phase control unit is described. In operation the RF pulse from a transmitter coupler is power divided and compared with the phase reference in a mixer. The mixer output is low-pass filtered and sampled near the center of the resulting video pulse by an amplifying sample-and-hold integrated circuit. Phase control is effected by maintaining the mixer output pulse near zero volts by amplifying the sample-and-hold output which then drives the voltage-controlled phase shifter in the direction to null the mixer output. The voltage-controlled shifter achieves over 360 deg phase shift in the range from 0.7 to 24 volts. When the voltage into the shifter tracks to either voltage limit the wrap-around control resets the voltage so that the shifter is always operating within its control range.