Science.gov

Sample records for power train phase

  1. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    A. R. Jones

    1985-08-01

    This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.

  2. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  3. MHD advanced power train. Phase 1, Final report: Volume 3, Power train system description and specification for 200MWe Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.R.

    1985-08-01

    This System Design Description and Specification provides the basis for the design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Train (PT) for a nominal 200 MWe early commercial tiHD/Steam Power Plant. This document has been developed under Task 2, Conceptual Design, of Contract DE-AC22-83PC60575 and is to be used by the project as the controlling and coordinating documentation during future design efforts. Modification and revision of this specification will occur as the design matures, and tiie-Westinghouse MHD Project Manager will be the focal point for maintaining this document and issuing periodic revisions. This document is intended to delineate the power train and-power train components requirements and assumptions that properly reflect the MHD/Steam Power Plant in the PT design. The parameters discussed in this document have been established through system calculations as well as through constraints set by technology and by limitations on materials, cost, physical processes associated with MHD, and the expected operating data for the plant. The specifications listed in this document have precedence over all referenced documents. Where this specification appears to conflict with the requirements of a reference document, such conflicts should be brought to the attention of the Westinghouse MHD Project Manager for resolution.

  4. Study of multi-phase flow characteristics in an MHD power train

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1993-08-01

    Computer simulation was used to predict two-phase flow processes in the CDIF MHD power train system. The predictions were used to evaluate the effects of operating and design parameters on the performance of the system and a parametric evaluation provides information to enhance the performance of the system. Major components of the system under investigation are the two-stage combustor, the converging/diverging nozzle, the supersonic MHD channel, and the diffuser. Flow in each component was simulated using a computer code. Integrating the computer codes, the two-phase flow processes in the system was calculated. Recently, the computer codes were used to investigate problems of nozzle erosion and the non-uniform iron oxide coverage on the cathode wall in the channel. A limited parametric study was conducted. The results indicated that (1) among the three nozzle geometries under investigation a {number_sign}5 nozzle has the smoothest flow development in the nozzle and has the lowest droplet deposition on wall and (2) smaller particle size and lower injection velocity tend to disperse the iron oxide particles more uniformly in the nozzle.

  5. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  6. High power phase shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Makarov, A.; Solyak, N.; Terechkine, I.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    One of the approaches to power distribution system of a superconducting proton linac under discussion at FNAL requires development of a fast-action, megawatt-range phase shifter. Using a couple of this kind of devices with a waveguide hybrid junction can allow independent control of phase and amplitude of RF power at the input of each superconducting cavity, which will result in significant saving in number of klystrons and modulators required for the accelerator. A prototype of a waveguide version of the shifter that uses Yttrium-Iron Garnet (YIG) blocks was developed and tested. This report presents design concept of the device, and main results of simulation and proof-of-principle tests.

  7. Three phase power factor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A power control circuit for a three phase induction motor is described. Power factors for the three phases are summed to provide a control signal, and this control signal is particularly filtered and then employed to control the duty cycle of each phase of input power to the motor.

  8. Three phase power factor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A power control circuit for a three phase induction motor is described. The power factors for the three phases are summed to provide a control signal. This control signal is particularly filtered and then employed to control the duty cycle of each phase of input power to the motor.

  9. Power Trains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This power trains manual is one of a series of power mechanics for training in the servicing of transmissions, etc., on farm and industrial machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Power Trains: How They Work; (2)…

  10. Multichannel Phase and Power Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Samuel; Lux, James; McMaster, Robert; Boas, Amy

    2006-01-01

    An electronic signal-processing system determines the phases of input signals arriving in multiple channels, relative to the phase of a reference signal with which the input signals are known to be coherent in both phase and frequency. The system also gives an estimate of the power levels of the input signals. A prototype of the system has four input channels that handle signals at a frequency of 9.5 MHz, but the basic principles of design and operation are extensible to other signal frequencies and greater numbers of channels. The prototype system consists mostly of three parts: An analog-to-digital-converter (ADC) board, which coherently digitizes the input signals in synchronism with the reference signal and performs some simple processing; A digital signal processor (DSP) in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board, which performs most of the phase- and power-measurement computations on the digital samples generated by the ADC board; and A carrier board, which allows a personal computer to retrieve the phase and power data. The DSP contains four independent phase-only tracking loops, each of which tracks the phase of one of the preprocessed input signals relative to that of the reference signal (see figure). The phase values computed by these loops are averaged over intervals, the length of which is chosen to obtain output from the DSP at a desired rate. In addition, a simple sum of squares is computed for each channel as an estimate of the power of the signal in that channel. The relative phases and the power level estimates computed by the DSP could be used for diverse purposes in different settings. For example, if the input signals come from different elements of a phased-array antenna, the phases could be used as indications of the direction of arrival of a received signal and/or as feedback for electronic or mechanical beam steering. The power levels could be used as feedback for automatic gain control in preprocessing of incoming signals

  11. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  12. Training Continued through Plant Phase-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, James H.

    1976-01-01

    Even when one of its plants was phased out, the Union Carbide Corp. Program continued with regular training programs and also put two additional programs into motion: Training for employees who would be re-entering the job market and training for employees eligible for retirement benefits. (ABM)

  13. Tilesetting. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausland, Greg

    These 24 Student Training Modules on tilesetting comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 563.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  14. Plastering. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, Ron

    These 20 Student Training Modules on plastering comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 569.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  15. Drywall. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Doug

    These 18 Student Training Modules on drywall comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 573.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  16. Painting. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kracht, Shannon

    These 21 Student Training Modules on painting comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 561.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  17. Private Security Training. Phase 4: Firearms Training. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for the firearms training phase of a private security training course of study. The seven units in the course cover the following topics: safety; revolver nomenclature and maintenance; inspecting revolvers and holsters; fundamentals of revolver shooting; legal issues and deadly force; range…

  18. Plumbing. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brath, Ed

    These 26 Student Training Modules on plumbing comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 577.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  19. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  20. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  1. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  2. Plyometrics: A Legitimate Form of Power Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    Plyometric exercises or drills combine speed and strength to produce an explosive-reactive movement or increased power. Some world-class athletes have used plyometric-training in sports such as high-jumping, hurdles, football, baseball, and hockey. The method is still considered experimental. Sample exercises are described. (JL)

  3. Power inverter implementing phase skipping control

    DOEpatents

    Somani, Utsav; Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Jourdan, Charles; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-10-18

    A power inverter includes a DC/AC inverter having first, second and third phase circuitry coupled to receive power from a power source. A controller is coupled to a driver for each of the first, second and third phase circuitry (control input drivers). The controller includes an associated memory storing a phase skipping control algorithm, wherein the controller is coupled to receive updating information including a power level generated by the power source. The drivers are coupled to control inputs of the first, second and third phase circuitry, where the drivers are configured for receiving phase skipping control signals from the controller and outputting mode selection signals configured to dynamically select an operating mode for the DC/AC inverter from a Normal Control operation and a Phase Skipping Control operation which have different power injection patterns through the first, second and third phase circuitry depending upon the power level.

  4. Phase protection system for ac power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, W. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The system described provides protection for phase sensitive loads from being or remaining connected to ac power lines whenever a phase reversal occurs. It comprises a solid state phase detection circuit, a dc power relay circuit, an ac-to-dc converter for energizing the relay circuit, and a bistable four terminal transducer coupled between the phase detection circuit and the power relay circuit, for controlling both circuits.

  5. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  6. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  7. Phase detector for three-phase power factor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A phase detector for the three phase power factor controller (PFC) is described. The phase detector for each phase includes an operational amplifier which senses the current phase angle for that phase by sensing the voltage across the phase thyristor. Common mode rejection is achieved by providing positive feedback between the input and output of the voltage sensing operational amplifier. this feedback preferably comprises a resistor connected between the output and input of the operational amplifier. The novelty of the invention resides in providing positive feedback such that switching of the operational amplifier is synchronized with switching of the voltage across the thyristor. The invention provides a solution to problems associated with high common mode voltage and enables use of lower cost components than would be required by other approaches.

  8. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  9. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  10. Auto Mechanics. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on auto mechanics, one of which is available separately as CE 032 867. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship and its three phases of training, a recommended preocedure for conducting pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline. Teaching…

  11. Undeground Coal Mine Supervisory and Management Training. Phase I Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Paul; And Others

    A project was conducted to develop a safety-oriented supervisory and management training program for the underground coal mining industry. The first phase of the project involved research to determine relevant training materials that are available and in use, assessment of supervisory and management training needs, and development of objectives…

  12. C-130 Phase I Pilot Training Program (CCTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jack B.; And Others

    This is a detailed study of the C-130 Phase I (CCTS) pilot training program conducted by the 4442nd Combat Crew Training Wing at Stewart Air Force Base, Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to determine the most effective training program that will continue to produce highly qualified pilots at the least cost. The program was evaluated and…

  13. Trowel Trades. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on trowel trades, four of which are available separately as CE 032 869-872. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship and its three phases of training, a recommended procedure for conducting pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline.…

  14. Carpentry. Pe-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on the carpentry trade, two of which are available separately as CE 032 876-877. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship and its three phases of training, a recommended procedure for conducting pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline.…

  15. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  16. Power system identification toolbox: Phase two progress

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes current progress on a project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to develop a set of state-of-the-art analysis software (termed the Power System Identification [PSI] Toolbox) for fitting dynamic models to measured data. The project is being conducted as a three-phase effort. The first phase, completed in late 1992, involved investigating the characteristics of the analysis techniques by evaluating existing software and developing guidelines for best use. Phase Two includes extending current software, developing new analysis algorithms and software, and demonstrating and developing applications. The final phase will focus on reorganizing the software into a modular collection of documented computer programs and developing user manuals with instruction and application guidelines. Phase Two is approximately 50% complete; progress to date and a vision for the final product of the PSI Toolbox are described. The needs of the power industry for specialized system identification methods are particularly acute. The industry is currently pushing to operate transmission systems much closer to theoretical limits by using real-time, large-scale control systems to dictate power flows and maintain dynamic stability. Reliably maintaining stability requires extensive system-dynamic modeling and analysis capability, including measurement-based methods. To serve this need, the BPA has developed specialized system-identification computer codes through in-house efforts and university contract research over the last several years. To make full integrated use of the codes, as well as other techniques, the BPA has commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to further develop the codes and techniques into the PSI Toolbox.

  17. Effects of high-intensity training by heart rate or power in well-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Swart, Jeroen; Lamberts, Robert P; Derman, Wayne; Lambert, Michael I

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the performance of cyclists after 4 weeks of high-intensity training improved similarly using either heart rate or power to prescribe training. Twenty-one well-trained men cyclists (age, 32 +/- 6 years; peak power output, 371 +/- 46 W) were randomly assigned to a power-based (GPOWER) or heart rate-based (GHEART) high-intensity training (HIT) group or a control group (GCONTROL). Training consisted of 8 repetitions of 4 minutes at either 80% of peak power output (GPOWER) or at the heart rate coinciding with 80% of peak power output (GHEART), with rest periods of 90 seconds. A 40-km time trial and VO2max test were performed before and after 8 training sessions. There were significant improvements (p < 0.05) in peak power output (GPOWER = 3.5%; GHEART = 5.0%) and 40-km time trial performance (GPOWER = 2.3%; GHEART = 2.1%) for both of the high-intensity groups. Although there were no significant differences between groups for these variables, when the data were analyzed using magnitude-based effects, the GHEART group showed greater probability of a "beneficial" effect for peak power output. The current general perception that prescribing training based only on power is more effective than prescribing training based on heart rate was not supported by the data from this study. Coaches who are unable to monitor progress frequently should prescribe training based on heart rate, when intervals are performed under stable conditions, because this may provide an additional advantage over prescribing training using power.

  18. Bricklaying. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewinski, Scott

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on bricklaying available separately as CE 031 568. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, discussion of teacher's role in students' completion of the modules, and scope and contents of Phase 2 training. Each of the…

  19. Boring and Drilling Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on boring and drilling tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, select, and understand the proper use of many common awls, bits, and drilling tools. The module may contain some or all of the following: a…

  20. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  1. Drywall. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Doug

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on drywall available separately as CE 031 574. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, discussion of teacher's role in students' completion of the modules, and scope and contents of Phase 2 training. Each of the 18…

  2. Mine Hoist Operator Training System. Phase I Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    validated during Phase II of the contract. Phase I is divided into seven tasks: e Task I - Formulate the project Plan. * Task II - Determine the training...materials that are available. * Task III - Conduct a mine hoist operator’s job task analysis of the duties of the mine hoist operator. e Task IV...Develop training objectives. e Task V - Develop instructional strategies. * Task VI - Conduct trade-off studies for the developed strategies. e Task VII

  3. Thermophotovoltaic space power system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. E.; Lancaster, C.

    1987-01-01

    Work performed on a research and development program to establish the feasibility of a solar thermophotovoltaic space power generation concept was summarized. The program was multiphased. The earlier work is summarized and the work on the current phase is detailed as it pertains to and extends the earlier work. Much of the experimental hardware and materials development was performed on the internal program. Experimental measurements and data evaluation were performed on the contracted effort. The objectives of the most recent phase were: to examine the thermal control design in order to optimize it for lightweight and low cost; to examine the concentrator optics in an attempt to relieve pointing accuracy requirements to + or - 2 degrees about the optical axis; and to use the results of the thermal and optical studies to synthesize a solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) module design that is optimized for space application.

  4. Design of Training Systems Phase III Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    as the reader is aware of this approach and relies on the T&E Report for a more detailed analysis , this summary should highlight the key T&E concerns... ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION GROUP LIBRARY TECHNICAL REPORT SECTION NAVAL POSTGRADUATE S^ MONTEREY CALliChMA TAEG REPORT NO. 28 DESIGN...EVALUATION SUMMARY I II-l IV PHASE III PRODUCTS CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IV-1 PHASE III DOCUMENTATION IV-7 11 TAE6 REPORT NO. 28

  5. Floor Covering. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, Ron

    These 21 Student Training Modules on floor covering comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 565.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  6. Parts Counter. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Student Training Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James A.

    These 23 Student Training Modules on parts counter comprise one of nine sets of self-paced learning modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 031 571.) The modules are designed to impart trade knowledge and skills to the student. Each module contains some or all of the…

  7. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative modification has been made to a previously patented design for the Phase Change Material (PCM) Thermal Generator, which works in water where ocean temperature alternatively melts wax in canisters, or allows the wax to re-solidify, causing high-pressure oil to flow through a hydraulic generator, thus creating electricity to charge a battery that powers the vehicle. In this modification, a similar thermal PCM device has been created that is heated and cooled by the air and solar radiation instead of using ocean temperature differences to change the PCM from solid to liquid. This innovation allows the device to use thermal energy to generate electricity on land, instead of just in the ocean.

  8. High-powered vehicle drive train

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, C.E.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a vehicle comprising: an engine having an infinitely variable transmission operatively coupled for transmitting engine power to the transmission's input shaft with the transmission output shaft being operatively connected to the vehicle's drive wheels. The transmission comprising a planetary drive structure includes a drive ring gear carrying a first gear in engagement with a drive gear on the input shaft for rotation of the drive ring gear with the input shaft, a central sun gear and planetary gear members disposed in the annular space between, and in engagement with the drive ring gear and the sun gear and rotatably supported on a planetary carrier. The carrier is supported for rotation with the transmission output shaft and an infinitely variable toroidal traction roller transmission structure including two parallel toridal transmissions having a central input toric disc structure common to both toroidal transmissions and operatively connected to the input shaft. The output toric discs being mounted on a shaft associated with the sun gear of the planetary drive.

  9. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  10. Phase control system concepts and simulations. [solar power satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A phase control system concept for a solar power satellite is proposed which partitions the system into three major levels. The first level of phase control consists of a reference phase distribution system implemented in the form of phase distribution tree structure. The major purpose of the tree structure is to electronically compensate for the phase shift due to the transition path lengths from the center of the spacetenna to each phase control center located in each subarray. In the reference system, this is accomplished using the master slave returnable timing system technique. The second level of phase control consists of the beam steering and microwave power generating system which houses the power transponders. This transponder consists of a set of phase conjugation multipliers driven by the reference phase distribution system output and the output of a pilot spread spectrum receiver which accepts the received pilot via a diplexer connected to a separate receive horn or the subarray itself. The output of the phase conjugation circuits serve as inputs to the third level of the phase control system. The third level of phase control is associated with maintaining an equal and constant phase shift through the microwave power amplifier devices while minimizing the associated phase noise effects on the generated power beam. This is accomplished by providing a phase locked loop around each high power amplifier.

  11. Resistance Training Using Different Hypoxic Training Strategies: a Basis for Hypertrophy and Muscle Power Development.

    PubMed

    Feriche, Belén; García-Ramos, Amador; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Padial, Paulino

    2017-12-01

    The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated.Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of the different hypertrophic resistance training strategies in hypoxia.Moreover, improvements in sprinting, jumping, or throwing performance have also been described at terrestrial altitude, encouraging research into the speed of explosive movements at altitude. It has been suggested that the reduction in the aerodynamic resistance and/or the increase in the anaerobic metabolism at higher altitudes can influence the metabolic cost, increase the take-off velocities, or improve the motor unit recruitment patterns, which may explain these improvements. Despite these findings, the applicability of altitude conditions in improving muscle power by resistance training remains to be clarified.This review examines current knowledge regarding resistance training in different types of hypoxia, focusing on strategies designed to improve muscle hypertrophy as well as power for explosive movements.

  12. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Jalil; Koozehchian, Majid S; Kreider, Richard B; Zuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu) and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the strength and

  13. Survival Skills. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Instructors Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide contains the 43 Survival Skills modules developed for Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 2 Training. Introductory materials include a description of components of the pre-apprenticeship project, recommendations for module implementation, and synopses of the modules that were developed to prompt social skills development. Each module…

  14. Drywall. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on drywall, one of which is available separately as CE 032 887. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, a discussion of the teacher's role in conducting the course, and scope and content of the four phases of…

  15. Automatic phase control in solar power satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.

    1978-01-01

    Various approaches to the problem of generating, maintaining and distributing a coherent, reference phase signal over a large area are suggested, mathematically modeled and analyzed with respect to their ability to minimize: phase build-up, beam diffusion and beam steering phase jitter, cable length, and maximize power transfer efficiency. In addition, phase control configurations are suggested which alleviate the need for layout symmetry.

  16. Communication: Phase incremented echo train acquisition in NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltisberger, Jay H.; Walder, Brennan J.; Keeler, Eric G.; Kaseman, Derrick C.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2012-06-01

    We present an improved and general approach for implementing echo train acquisition (ETA) in magnetic resonance spectroscopy, particularly where the conventional approach of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) acquisition would produce numerous artifacts. Generally, adding ETA to any N-dimensional experiment creates an N + 1 dimensional experiment, with an additional dimension associated with the echo count, n, or an evolution time that is an integer multiple of the spacing between echo maxima. Here we present a modified approach, called phase incremented echo train acquisition (PIETA), where the phase of the mixing pulse and every other refocusing pulse, ϕP, is incremented as a single variable, creating an additional phase dimension in what becomes an N + 2 dimensional experiment. A Fourier transform with respect to the PIETA phase, ϕP, converts the ϕP dimension into a Δp dimension where desired signals can be easily separated from undesired coherence transfer pathway signals, thereby avoiding cumbersome or intractable phase cycling schemes where the receiver phase must follow a master equation. This simple modification eliminates numerous artifacts present in NMR experiments employing CPMG acquisition and allows "single-scan" measurements of transverse relaxation and J-couplings. Additionally, unlike CPMG, we show how PIETA can be appended to experiments with phase modulated signals after the mixing pulse.

  17. An experimental study of a PEM fuel cell power train for urban bus application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    An experimental study was carried out on a fuel cell propulsion system for minibus application with the aim to investigate the main issues of energy management within the system in dynamic conditions. The fuel cell system (FCS), based on a 20 kW PEM stack, was integrated into the power train comprising DC-DC converter, Pb batteries as energy storage systems and asynchronous electric drive of 30 kW. As reference vehicle a minibus for public transportation in historical centres was adopted. A preliminary experimental analysis was conducted on the FCS connected to a resistive load through a DC-DC converter, in order to verify the stack dynamic performance varying its power acceleration from 0.5 kW s -1 to about 4 kW s -1. The experiments on the power train were conducted on a test bench able to simulate the vehicle parameters and road characteristics on specific driving cycles, in particular the European R40 cycle was adopted as reference. The "soft hybrid" configuration, which permitted the utilization of a minimum size energy storage system and implied the use of FCS mainly in dynamic operation, was compared with the "hard hybrid" solution, characterized by FCS operation at limited power in stationary conditions. Different control strategies of power flows between fuel cells, electric energy storage system and electric drive were adopted in order to verify the two above hybrid approaches during the vehicle mission, in terms of efficiencies of individual components and of the overall power train. The FCS was able to support the dynamic requirements typical of R40 cycle, but an increase of air flow rate during the fastest acceleration phases was necessary, with only a slight reduction of FCS efficiency. The FCS efficiency resulted comprised between 45 and 48%, while the overall power train efficiency reached 30% in conditions of constant stack power during the driving cycle.

  18. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  19. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  20. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  1. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    PubMed

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p < 0.05). Clean and jerk and back extension demonstrated a trend toward a time × group interaction, but it did not reach significance (p = 0.053). However, clean and jerk did reveal a main effect for time (p < 0.05). No significant findings were reported for maximal vertical jump. The results demonstrate a transfer of power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.

  2. Solar power satellite system definition study, phase 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A program plan for the Solar Power Satellite Program is presented. The plan includes research, development, and evaluation phase, engineering and development and cost verification phase, prototype construction, and commercialization. Cost estimates and task requirements are given for the following technology areas: (1) solar arrays; (2) thermal engines and thermal systems; (3) power transmission (to earth); (4) large space structures; (5) materials technology; (6) system control; (7) space construction; (8) space transportation; (9) power distribution, and space environment effects.

  3. Microwave power transmitting phased array antenna research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    An initial design study and the development results of an S band RF power transmitting phased array antenna experiment system are presented. The array was to be designed, constructed and instrumented to permit wireless power transmission technology evaluation measurements. The planned measurements were to provide data relative to the achievable performance in the state of the art of flexible surface, retrodirective arrays, as a step in technically evaluating the satellite power system concept for importing to earth, via microwave beams, the nearly continuous solar power available in geosynchronous orbit. Details of the microwave power transmitting phased array design, instrumentation approaches, system block diagrams, and measured component and breadboard characteristics achieved are presented.

  4. Simulators for Mariner Training and Licensing. Phase 3, Task C. Performance Standards for Master Level Simulator Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    AD-A16 536 NATIONAL MARITIME RESEARCH CENTER KINGS POINT NY COM-ETC F/S 5/9 SIMULATORS FOR MARINER TRAINING AND LICENSING. PHASE 3 , TASK C.-ETC(U...EEIIEIIIIIEIIE EEIIEEEEIIEIIE EIIIIIEEEEEIIE CG-D- 15-82 CAORF 50-8007-02 SIMULATORS FOR MARINER TRAINING AND LICENSING PHASE 3 , TASK C: & PERFORMANCE...Accession No 4 Title and Subtitle .. .....- 5 Report Oat Simulators for Mar inel Training and Licensing, Phase 3 , Task C: Performance Standards fo

  5. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  6. Reactive power and harmonic compensation based on the generalized instantaneous reactive power theory for three-phase power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A generalized theory of instantaneous reactive power for three-phase power systems is proposed in this paper. This theory gives a generalized definition of instantaneous reactive power, which is valid for sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced, three- phase power systems with or without zero-sequence currents and/or voltages. The properties and physical meanings of the newly defined instantaneous reactive power are discussed in detail. With this new reactive power theory, it is very easy to calculate and decompose all components, such as fundamental active/reactive power and current, harmonic current, etc. Reactive power and/or harmonic compensation systems for a three-phase distorted power system with and without zero-sequence components in the source voltage and/or load current are then used as examples to demonstrate the measurement, decomposition, and compensation of reactive power and harmonics.

  7. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jim, Nichols

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  8. Phase Compensation Techniques for Low-Power Operational Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Rui; Itakura, Tetsuro

    An operational amplifier is one of the key functional blocks and is widely used in analog and mixed-signal circuits. For low-power consumption, many techniques such as class AB and slew-rate enhancement have been proposed. Although phase compensation is related to power consumption, it has not been clearly discussed from the viewpoint of the power consumption. In this paper, the conventional and the improved Miller compensations and the phase compensation by introducing a new zero are dicussed for low-power operational amplifiers.

  9. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation: Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement requires not only adequate frequency response but must also address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. The implications of these problems are assessed.

  10. TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-05-30

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

  11. Trellis phase codes for power-bandwith efficient satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Highfill, J. H.; Hsu, C. D.; Harkness, R.

    1981-01-01

    Support work on improved power and spectrum utilization on digital satellite channels was performed. Specific attention is given to the class of signalling schemes known as continuous phase modulation (CPM). The specific work described in this report addresses: analytical bounds on error probability for multi-h phase codes, power and bandwidth characterization of 4-ary multi-h codes, and initial results of channel simulation to assess the impact of band limiting filters and nonlinear amplifiers on CPM performance.

  12. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  13. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  14. Phase locking of wind turbines leads to intermittent power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, M.; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wind energy, inserted into the power grid by wind turbines, is strongly influenced by the turbulent fluctuations of wind speed in the atmospheric layer. Here we investigate the power production of a wind farm and show that due to the presence of large-scale and long-time correlation in wind velocity, turbines interact with each other. This interaction can result in phase locking in pairs of turbines. We show that there are time intervals during which some pairs of turbines are temporally phase locked. This intermediate phase locking leads to the statistical effect that the short-time fluctuations of the cumulative power output of the wind farm become non-Gaussian, i.e., intermittent power production occurs. Contrary to phase-locked states, there are some time intervals where all turbines are phase unlocking and consequently the probability density function of the temporal increment of cumulative power production of the wind farm has almost Gaussian distribution. The phase-locked states, which can be distinct from phase-unlocked states by their dynamical features, are evaluated by reconstructed stochastic differential equations.

  15. Pulsed High Power Microwave (HPM) Oscillator with Phasing Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pulsed High Power Microwave (HPM) Oscillator with Phasing Capability 5a. CONTRACT...public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM002371. 2013 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Digest of Technical Papers 1976

  16. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, S. K.; Stoltzman, D.; Knowles, G.; Lin, R.

    1981-01-01

    A subscale model of the spectral splitting concentrator system with 10" aperture is defined and designed. The model is basically a scaled down version of Phase 1 design with an effective concentration ratio up to 1000:1. The system performance is predicted to be 21.5% for the 2 cell GaAs/Si system, and 20% for Si/GaAs at AM2 using realistic component efficiencies. Component cost of the model is projected in the $50K range. Component and system test plans are also detailed.

  17. Space power demonstrator engine, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design, analysis, and preliminary test results for a 25 kWe Free-Piston Stirling engine with integral linear alternators are described. The project is conducted by Mechanical Technology under the direction of LeRC as part of the SP-100 Nuclear Space Power Systems Program. The engine/alternator system is designed to demonstrate the following performance: (1) 25 kWe output at a specific weight less than 8 kg/kW; (2) 25 percent efficiency at a temperature ratio of 2.0; (3) low vibration (amplitude less than .003 in); (4) internal gas bearings (no wear, no external pump); and (5) heater temperature/cooler temperature from 630 to 315 K. The design approach to minimize vibration is a two-module engine (12.5 kWe per module) in a linearly-opposed configuration with a common expansion space. The low specific weight is obtained at high helium pressure (150 bar) and high frequency (105 Hz) and by using high magnetic strength (samarium cobalt) alternator magnets. Engine tests began in June 1985; 16 months following initiation of engine and test cell design. Hydrotest and consequent engine testing to date has been intentionally limited to half pressure, and electrical power output is within 15 to 20 percent of design predictions.

  18. Power transmission line operating modes calculation with controllable phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The article contains the analysis of the influence of the phase shifter (PS) on the energy processes in the power transmission line in terms of the two-unit model of the electric network. The approach to synthesis of the models regulated by the phase shifter providing for both calculation of the steady operation modes of the electric networks with the phase shifters and research of the electromagnetic processes and designing of the device itself is offered.

  19. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  20. Nonequilibrium Phase Behavior from Minimization of Free Power Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinninger, Philip; Schmidt, Matthias; Brader, Joseph M.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a general theory for describing phase coexistence between nonequilibrium steady states in Brownian systems, based on power functional theory [M. Schmidt and J. M. Brader, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 214101 (2013)]. We apply the framework to the special case of fluid-fluid phase separation of active soft sphere swimmers. The central object of the theory, the dissipated free power, is calculated via computer simulations and compared to a simple analytical approximation. The theory describes well the simulation data and predicts motility-induced phase separation due to avoidance of dissipative clusters.

  1. Measurement of power in selectorized strength-training equipment.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    The author derived the exact analytical expression of the instantaneous joint power in exercises with single-joint, variable-resistance, selectorized strength-training equipment, taking into account all the relevant geometric, kinematic, and dynamic variables of both the movable equipment elements (resistance input lever, cam-pulley system, weight stack) and of the user's exercising limb. A numerical algorithm was also designed to express, in the presence of a cam, the rectilinear kinematic variables of the weight stack as a function of the rotational kinematic variables of the resistance input lever, and vice versa. Given that information, one can measure the value of the instantaneous and mean joint power exclusively by means of a linear encoder placed on the weight stack or, alternatively, only by the use of an angular encoder placed on the rotational axis of the resistance lever. The results highlight that, for knee extension exercises with leg extension equipment, the real values of both instantaneous and mean joint power may differ by more than 50% in comparison with the values obtained by taking into account only the mass and velocity of the weight stack. These differences are notable not only in explosive exercises, but also whenever considerable joint velocities/accelerations occur within the range of motion.

  2. Beam shaping with multiple-powered phase masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Dengfeng; Lépine, Thierry; Tian, Jianliang; Dufouleur, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We present multiple-powered phase masks to convert a plane wave beam into different shaped beams. With the squared phase mask, a hollow beam is obtained before the Fourier plane of the converging lens and a highly focused beam is obtained after the Fourier plane. With the fourth-power phase mask, a crosshair beam with highly focused point in the center is formed on the Fourier plane, then a beam lattice with strong light spots on the four corners is generated after the Fourier plane and the beam lattice has different size on different observing distances. With the fifth-power phase mask, a self-bending beam is generated over long propagation distances.

  3. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this... each holder of a combined license issued under part 52 of this chapter for a nuclear power plant of...

  4. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance.... (d) Power car cab information displays shall be designed with the following characteristics:...

  5. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance.... (d) Power car cab information displays shall be designed with the following characteristics:...

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  7. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation - Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high-harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency-response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement not only requires adequate frequency response but also must address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. This paper discusses the implications of these problems and reports on the degree to which they have been solved at Lewis Research Center.

  8. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a state-of-the-art electric power train is part of a national effort to reap the potential benefit of useful urban electric passenger vehicles. Outlined in a detailed presentation are: (1) assessment of the state-of-the-art in electric vehicle technology; (2) state-of-the-art power train design; (3) improved power train; and (4) summary and recommendations.

  9. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant

  10. A novel high power X-band ferrite phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, G. J.; Huang, W. H.; Li, J. W.; Ba, T.; Guo, L. T.; Jiang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A novel high power X-band ferrite phase shifter (PS) employing the structure of several waveguides connected in parallel is proposed. Each of the waveguides is a phase shift unit utilizing a dual-toroid structure. First, the phase shift unit is designed, manufactured, and tested. The results indicate that the power capacity reaches 115 kW. At this power, the maximum magnetic field strength of ferrite is 7.9 kA/m, beyond which the nonlinear effect of ferrite will occur. On this basis, the PS that consists of four units connected in parallel is designed. According to the threshold of ferrite, the power capacity of the PS can theoretically reach 430 kW. Limited by the maximum output power of the microwave source, the preliminary high-power test results demonstrate that the PS can operate properly at 270 kW. The PS exhibits an insertion loss of 0.82 dB and a maximum differential phase shift of approximately 300° at 9.3 GHz. The return loss of the PS is more than 16 dB from 9.0 to 9.5 GHz.

  11. A novel high power X-band ferrite phase shifter.

    PubMed

    Deng, G J; Huang, W H; Li, J W; Ba, T; Guo, L T; Jiang, Y

    2017-01-01

    A novel high power X-band ferrite phase shifter (PS) employing the structure of several waveguides connected in parallel is proposed. Each of the waveguides is a phase shift unit utilizing a dual-toroid structure. First, the phase shift unit is designed, manufactured, and tested. The results indicate that the power capacity reaches 115 kW. At this power, the maximum magnetic field strength of ferrite is 7.9 kA/m, beyond which the nonlinear effect of ferrite will occur. On this basis, the PS that consists of four units connected in parallel is designed. According to the threshold of ferrite, the power capacity of the PS can theoretically reach 430 kW. Limited by the maximum output power of the microwave source, the preliminary high-power test results demonstrate that the PS can operate properly at 270 kW. The PS exhibits an insertion loss of 0.82 dB and a maximum differential phase shift of approximately 300° at 9.3 GHz. The return loss of the PS is more than 16 dB from 9.0 to 9.5 GHz.

  12. The influence of isometric preload on power expressed during bench press in strength-trained men.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power expressed during the bench press exercise in resistance-trained men following different pre-activation conditions. Twenty-two trained men (age 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height 178.6 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) completed a maximal effort bench press (1-RM) test (100.0 kg ± 8.1 kg). In a subsequent assessment, each participant performed concentric bench press movements with loads of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their 1-RM preceded by either a concentric contraction (CC), a low isometric preload (LIP; 70% 1-RM) or a high isometric preload (HIP; 100% 1-RM) conditions. All movements were performed in a Smith machine with a settable quick-release device. Participants performed all three conditions in randomized fashion. Results indicated that power outputs during the bench press exercise following HIP were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CC at 20% 1-RM (+9%), 30% 1-RM (+16%) and 40% 1-RM (+14%), and LIP at 20% 1-RM (+4%), 30% 1-RM (+20%) and 40% 1-RM (+15%). No differences were found between conditions at 50% 1-RM. Area under the force-power curve with HIP was greater (p < 0.05) than with CC and LIP. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the use of a HIP (100% 1-RM) in trained participants results in significantly greater power output during the concentric phase of a multi-joint exercise when compared to standard concentric movement.

  13. Effects of endurance training on the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation phases in professional cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Chicharro, J.; Hoyos, J.; Lucia, A.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the changes produced in both the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation (HHV) phases of professional cyclists (n = 11) in response to endurance training, and to compare the results with those of amateur cyclists (n = 11). Methods—Each professional cyclist performed three laboratory exercise tests to exhaustion during the active rest (autumn: November), precompetition (winter: January), and competition (spring: May) periods of the sports season. Amateur cyclists only performed one exercise test during the competition period. The isocapnic buffering and HHV ranges were calculated during each test and defined as VO2 and power output (W). Results—No significant differences were found in the isocapnic buffering range in each of the periods of the sports season in professional cyclists. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in the HHV range (expressed in W) during both the competition (p<0.01) and precompetition(p<0.05) periods compared with the rest period. On the other hand, a longer HHV range (p<0.01) was observed in amateur cyclists than in professional cyclists (whether this was expressed in terms of VO2 or W). Conclusions—No change is observed in the isocapnic buffering range of professional cyclists throughout a sports season despite a considerable increase in training loads and a significant reduction in HHV range expressed in terms of power output. Key Words: training; cycling; isocapnic buffering; hypocapnic hyperventilation PMID:11131234

  14. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  15. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  16. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  17. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  18. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The preliminary safety assessment report analyzes the potential radiological risk of the integrated MSNPS with the launch vehicle including interface with the weapon system. Most emphasis will be placed the prime power concept design. Safety problems can occur any time during the entire life cycle of the system including contingency phases. The preliminary safety assessment report is to be delivered at the end of phase 2. This assessment will be the basis of the safety requirements which will be applied to the design of the MSNPS as it develops in subsequent phases. The assessment also focuses design activities on specific high-risk scenarios and missions that may impact safety.

  19. Lower extremity power training in elderly subjects with moderate mobility limitations: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults were randomized to either high-velocity high-power training (POW), slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR) or a control group of lower extremity stretching (CON). Training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks and subjects completed t...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., repairs, examinations and tests. (b) A training and qualification program under this section must: (1) Be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training and qualification of persons working... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., repairs, examinations and tests. (b) A training and qualification program under this section must: (1) Be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training and qualification of persons working... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., repairs, examinations and tests. (b) A training and qualification program under this section must: (1) Be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training and qualification of persons working... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., repairs, examinations and tests. (b) A training and qualification program under this section must: (1) Be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training and qualification of persons working... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on...

  4. Mobility Outcomes Following Five Training Sessions with a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Dalley, Skyler; Clausen, Mike; Wilson, Edgar; Morrison, Scott; Etheridge, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss of legged mobility due to spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with multiple physiological and psychological impacts. Powered exoskeletons offer the possibility of regained mobility and reversal or prevention of the secondary effects associated with immobility. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate mobility outcomes for individuals with SCI after 5 gait-training sessions with a powered exoskeleton, with a primary goal of characterizing the ease of learning and usability of the system. Methods: Sixteen subjects with SCI were enrolled in a pilot clinical trial at Shepherd Center, Atlanta, Georgia, with injury levels ranging from C5 complete to L1 incomplete. An investigational Indego exoskeleton research kit was evaluated for ease of use and efficacy in providing legged mobility. Outcome measures of the study included the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as well as measures of independence including donning and doffing times and the ability to walk on various surfaces. Results: At the end of 5 sessions (1.5 hours per session), average walking speed was 0.22 m/s for persons with C5-6 motor complete tetraplegia, 0.26 m/s for T1-8 motor complete paraplegia, and 0.45 m/s for T9-L1 paraplegia. Distances covered in 6 minutes averaged 64 meters for those with C5-6, 74 meters for T1-8, and 121 meters for T9-L1. Additionally, all participants were able to walk on both indoor and outdoor surfaces. Conclusions: Results after only 5 sessions suggest that persons with tetraplegia and paraplegia learn to use the Indego exoskeleton quickly and can manage a variety of surfaces. Walking speeds and distances achieved also indicate that some individuals with paraplegia can quickly become limited community ambulators using this system. PMID:26364278

  5. Lower Extremity Power Training in Elderly Subjects with Mobility Limitations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims This study investigated whether high-velocity high-power training (POW) improved lower extremity muscle power and quality in functionally-limited elders greater than traditional slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR). Methods Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adul...

  6. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of...

  7. Power System Electrician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The graduate of the Power System Electrician apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyman; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) read and interpret drawing,…

  8. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of...

  9. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of...

  10. Power production with two-phase expansion through vapor dome

    SciTech Connect

    Amend, W.E.; Toner, S.J.

    1984-08-07

    In a system wherein a fluid exhibits a regressive vapor dome in a T-S diagram, the following are provided: a two-phase nozzle receiving the fluid in pressurized and heated liquid state and expanding the received liquid into saturated or superheated vapor state, and apparatus receiving the saturated or superheated vapor to convert the kinetic energy thereof into power.

  11. Dynamic model of a three-phase power transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinar, D.; Pihler, J.; Grcar, B. . Faculty of Technical Sciences)

    1993-10-01

    An adequate mathematical model of a three-phase power transformer is one of the important elements in the programs for the computer analysis of power system transients. Featured in this paper is the simulation model of a three-phase, three-limb core-type power transformer. Non-linear effects of saturation, hysteresis and eddy currents are considered. Two ways of creating major and minor hysteresis loops are presented. The transformer model, described by a system of time dependent differential equations, is solved by an efficient numerical algorithm. The behavior of the transformer model during switching-in and fault transients, as well as other types of transients, has been tested. The computed transient waveforms are compared with the measured ones of there exists very close agreement between them.

  12. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  13. Three-phase power factor controller with induced EMF sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1984-09-01

    A power factor controller for an ac induction motor is provided which is of the type comprising thyristor switches connected in series with the motor, phase detectors for sensing the motor current and voltage and providing an output proportional to the phase difference between the motor voltage and current, and a control circuit, responsive to the output of the phase detector and to a power factor command signal, for controlling switching of the thyristor. The invention involves sensing the induced emf produced by the motor during the time interval when the thyristor is off and for producing a corresponding feedback signal for controlling switching of the thyristor. The sensed emf is also used to enhance soft starting of the motor.

  14. Three-phase power factor controller with induced EMF sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A power factor controller for an ac induction motor is provided which is of the type comprising thyristor switches connected in series with the motor, phase detectors for sensing the motor current and voltage and providing an output proportional to the phase difference between the motor voltage and current, and a control circuit, responsive to the output of the phase detector and to a power factor command signal, for controlling switching of the thyristor. The invention involves sensing the induced emf produced by the motor during the time interval when the thyristor is off and for producing a corresponding feedback signal for controlling switching of the thyristor. The sensed emf is also used to enhance soft starting of the motor.

  15. Early-phase strength gains during traditional resistance training compared with an upper-body air-resistance training device.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Cian; Jensen, Randall L; Byrne, Ciarán A; Shafat, Amir

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the early-phase adaptations of traditional dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training vs. a portable upper-body training device (Fortex). The Fortex is a concentric training device based on air resistance. Contractions using this device are slow (1.5-3 s) and have a limited range of motion. The exercises potentially allow maximal muscle action during each contraction. Healthy, sedentary men (n = 30) were assigned to begin either 8 weeks of weight training (W, n = 12) or 8 weeks of Fortex training (F, n = 9), and were compared with a control group (C, n = 9). Exercises were chosen for the W group that would train similar muscle groups and contain a similar volume of repetitions as the F group. However, movement patterns and force curves were not identical. Increases in the upper-arm cross-sectional area were not detected in any of the groups. Both training groups showed strength gains in the various strength tests that were distinct from each other. Our results indicate that both Fortex and DCER training proved effective in eliciting strength gains in sedentary men over an 8-week training period. There are, however, limitations with the Fortex in terms of progression needs and training asymmetry that indicate it should be used as a complement to other training.

  16. Dexamphetamine reduces auditory P3 delta power and phase-locking while increasing gamma power.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Matthew A; Price, Greg; Lee, Joseph; Iyyalol, Rajan; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T

    2012-10-01

    Auditory P3 amplitude reduction is one of the most robust and replicated findings in schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests that these reductions are due to reductions in both power and phase-locking at delta and theta frequencies. We have previously shown that the auditory, but not visual, P3 is reduced in healthy participants given the catecholamine releasing agent dexamphetamine. Our aim was to determine whether the auditory P3 amplitude reduction induced by dexamphetamine has similar power and phase locking characteristics to that seen in schizophrenia. Forty-four healthy participants were given 0.45 mg/kg dexamphetamine and placebo, in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. The task was a three-stimulus auditory odd-ball task, target stimuli were the major stimuli of interest. Individual target trials underwent wavelet analysis to give power and phase-locking of delta (3 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) frequencies for a 50 ms time window centred around the peak of the target P3. Delta power around the P3 peak was significantly reduced when participants were given dexamphetamine. Delta phase-locking was also reduced but only when analysis was targeted at the location of the peak P3 amplitude. In contrast, theta power and phase-locking were not affected by dexamphetamine. These findings suggest that increased catecholamine activity may be responsible for the power and phase-locking reductions of the auditory P3 delta component in patients with schizophrenia. Interestingly, dexamphetamine significantly increased gamma power around the P3 peak. We attempt to link this finding with the gamma alterations that have been found in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  18. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2016-06-13

    The technical embodiment of the Huygens-Fresnel principle, an optical phased array (OPA) is an arrangement of optical emitters with relative phases controlled to create a desired beam profile after propagation. One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources. Here we present an all-fiber architecture that stabilizes the relative output phase by inferring the relative path length differences between lasers using the small fraction of light that is back-reflected into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface, without the need for any external sampling optics. This architecture is compatible with high power continuous wave laser sources (e.g., fiber amplifiers) up to 100 W per channel. The high-power compatible internally sensed OPA was implemented experimentally using commercial 15 W fiber amplifiers, demonstrating an output RMS phase stability of λ/194, and the ability to steer the beam at up to 10 kHz.

  19. Nuclear power plant simulators: their use in operator training and requalification

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Baer, D.K.; Francis, C.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the capabilities and use of nuclear power plant simulators either built or being built by the US nuclear power industry; to determine the adequacy of existing standards for simulator design and for the training of power plant operators on simulators; and to assess the issues about simulator training programs raised by the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2.

  20. The Training Information Management System. Volume 2. Phase 2 evaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    01 m.4wl Hi l I I ARI Research Note 86-78 THE TRAINING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : Phase II Evaluation Report oq N N Perceptroni cst Ifor ARI...8217 IP ) / 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED THE TRAINING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : Final Report, Vol. 2 Phase II...ABTRACT ’awt m reverse astd N rmev awd Ide lifi by block nIhawb•e) .The Training Information Management System (TIMS) is a computer-based system

  1. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-03-10

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

  2. Heuristic scenario builder for power system operator training

    SciTech Connect

    Irisarri, G.; Rafian, M. ); Miller, B.N. ); Dobrowolski, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    The Heuristic Scenario Builder (HSB), a knowledge-based training scenario builder for the EPRI Operator Training Simulator (OTS), is described in this paper. Expert systems and heuristic searches are used in the HSB to find training scenarios that closely fit trainee profiles and that address particular training requirements. Expert knowledge obtained from instructors and other operations personnel is used throughout the HSB to determine the scenarios. The HSB is an integral part of the OTS and is currently in operation at Philadelphia Electric's OTS installation.

  3. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women.

  4. StayFit: a wearable application for Gym based power training.

    PubMed

    Maheedhar, Maram; Gaurav, Aman; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive fitness training involves both cardiorespiratory and power components. Often power/muscle strength training is confused with cardiorespiratory endurance training. However, each of them target different physiological aspects of fitness. Although, wearable based fitness trackers designed towards cardiorespiratory endurance training are available in the market, a dedicated wearable based fitness application designed for power training/tracking is still not readily available to fitness enthusiasts. With growing usage of wearable technology to manage and track personal health, it is imperative to develop health/fitness applications for wearables. A wearable based application for power training will allow the user to track build-up of muscle strength unobtrusively over a period of time. This work provides a framework and design for automatic detection, counting repetitions of strength training Gym exercises (covering all the major muscle groups), estimate personalized calories spent in each session and track power on a standalone Gear watch (both analysis and display including User Experience(UX) design). Our proposed method detects activity with ~96% sensitivity and ~96% specificity on an average and count repetitions with an overall accuracy of >95% using motion sensor data (accelerometer, gyroscope) for eight major Gym exercises. Additionally, using heart rate sensor data we have provided a mechanism to individually track the power/muscle strength of a person. This work will give further impetus towards developing wearable based systems for personalized fitness tracking and training. This will also give an option for wearable users to address both the crucial aspects of fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscle strength).

  5. Neuromuscular And Cardiovascular Adaptations In Response To High Intensity Interval Power Training.

    PubMed

    Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Ruiz, Rubén; Vera, Antonio; Colomer-Poveda, David; Grau, Amelia Guadalupe; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-01-11

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a high-intensity power training (HIPT) program, and to compare the effects of HIPT to traditional power training (TPT) on the aerobic and power performance. For this purpose, 29 healthy men (23.1±2.7 years) were recruited and randomly distributed into three different groups. One group performed traditional power training (TPT n=10), the second group performed power training organized as a circuit (HIPT; n=10) and the third group served as control (CG; n=9). Training consisted of weight lifting thrice per week for six weeks. TPT subjects performed three to five sets of each exercises with inter-set rest of 90 s, and HIPT subjects executed the training in a short circuit (15 s of rest between exercises). In order to known the effects in aerobic performance, maximal aerobic speed (MAS) was measured. In order to identify the effects on power performance subjects performed a Wingate test, a countermovement jump (CMJ) test and a power-load curve in bench press. The main results showed that after both power training protocols subjects increased significantly (p<0.05) the power production during the Wingate Test, the height and power reached during the CMJ test and the peak power produced during the power-load curve. However, only the HIPT group improved significantly MAS (p<0.05). There were no changes in any variables in CG. Hence, our results suggest that HIPT may be as effective as TPT for improving power performance in young adults. Additionally, only HIPT elicited improvements in MAS.

  6. Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.

  7. Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-08-17

    In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge

  8. Analysis of acute explosive training modalities to improve lower-body power in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Daniel J; Alvar, Brent A

    2007-11-01

    Complex training is the simultaneous combination of heavy resistance training and plyometrics. The objective of this study was to test the effects of complex training vs. heavy resistance or plyometric interventions alone on various power-specific performance measures. Forty-five male division II junior college baseball players participated in 3 separate 4-week resistance training interventions. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups. In a counterbalanced rotation design, each group participated in complex, heavy resistance, and plyometric training interventions. Each individual was tested in 20-yd (SP20), 40-yd (SP40), 60-yd (SP60), vertical jump, standing broad jump, and T-agility measures pre- and post-4-week training interventions. There was no statistical significant difference (p = 0.11) between groups across all performance measures. Review of each distinct training intervention revealed greater percent improvements in SP20 (0.55; -0.49; -0.12), SP40 (0.26; -0.72; -1.33), SP60 (0.27; 0.15; -0.27), standing broad jump (1.80; 0.67; 1.1), and T-agility (2.33; 1.23; -0.04) with complex training interventions than with the heavy resistance or plyometric training interventions, respectively. Plyometric-only training showed greater percent changes in vertical jump (1.90) than with complex (0.97) or heavy resistance training (0.36). The present results indicate that complex training can provide strength and conditioning professionals equal, if not slightly greater, improvements in muscular power than traditional heavy resistance- and plyometric-only interventions in moderately trained athletes. Complex training can be another valuable method for short-term power and speed improvements in athletes in isolation or in conjunction with other power development methods.

  9. Small, Mid-Sized Businesses Power Up with Workforce Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Increasingly, small and mid-sized businesses are becoming just as focused on work force training as large corporations are. The training being provided by smaller companies is extending beyond nuts-and-bolts instruction into the area of core business skills, such as leading, managing, thinking creatively, and solving problems. States are…

  10. Training Technology Handbook Development. Phase I. Annotated Literature Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    DTIC TAB ] " Unannounced " Just if icatiorl. D stribultion/ ’ OSTI\\Iv1ai~t ce Dist Spoc l iiiV...prepared by the Chief, Naval Education and Training (CNET) with assistance of a Training Resources Panel (TRP). Manpower planning as related to the...system requirements, define education /training requirements, develop objectives and tests, plan/develop/validate in- S struction, conduct and evaluate

  11. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  12. Velocity during Strength and Power Training of the Ankle Plantar and Dorsiflexor Muscles in Older Patients Attending Day Hospital Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Pavithra; Porter, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Power training has been proposed as a more effective type of resistance training for older adults for functional performance. It is not yet known whether older adults respond appropriately to instructions for power versus strength training. The purpose of this study was to determine the velocity during strength and power training, with elastic resistance bands, in older adults attending a geriatric rehabilitation day program. It was hypothesized that power training would be faster than strength training, but that there would be large interindividual differences. Nine older patients (70 to 86 years) performed power and strength training of the ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles using elastic resistance bands. Training sessions were filmed to assess the velocity of training. Power training occurred at faster velocities as compared to strength training (P < 0.01) for both muscle groups. However, a wide variation was observed between participants in the training velocities. Older adults attending geriatric rehabilitation do have the potential to develop faster contractions during power training as compared to strength training. Nevertheless, the actual velocities achieved differed between individuals. This could explain some of the mixed findings of studies on power training. Hence, researchers should monitor velocity when comparing different types of resistance training.

  13. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2013-11-20

    This study evaluated how five weeks of inertial training using two different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The two training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training three times per week for five weeks using the new Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included three exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), while the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2% and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2% and 27%), CMJ (3.8% and 6.7%), SJ (2.2% and 6.1%), PVT (8% and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8% and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  14. A Low Power Low Phase Noise Oscillator for MICS Transceivers.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Liu, Dongsheng; Kang, Chaojian; Zou, Xuecheng

    2017-01-12

    A low-power, low-phase-noise quadrature oscillator for Medical Implantable Communications Service (MICS) transceivers is presented. The proposed quadrature oscillator generates 349~689 MHz I/Q (In-phase and Quadrature) signals covering the MICS band. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground. The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The chip is fabricated in the UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process; the core just occupies a 28.5 × 22 μm² area. The measured phase noise is -108.45 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset with a center frequency of 540 MHz. The gain of the oscillator is 0.309 MHz/mV with a control voltage from 0 V to 1.1 V. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V and the power consumption is only 0.46 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  15. A Low Power Low Phase Noise Oscillator for MICS Transceivers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Liu, Dongsheng; Kang, Chaojian; Zou, Xuecheng

    2017-01-01

    A low-power, low-phase-noise quadrature oscillator for Medical Implantable Communications Service (MICS) transceivers is presented. The proposed quadrature oscillator generates 349~689 MHz I/Q (In-phase and Quadrature) signals covering the MICS band. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground. The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The chip is fabricated in the UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process; the core just occupies a 28.5 × 22 μm2 area. The measured phase noise is −108.45 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset with a center frequency of 540 MHz. The gain of the oscillator is 0.309 MHz/mV with a control voltage from 0 V to 1.1 V. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V and the power consumption is only 0.46 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage. PMID:28085107

  16. Optimizing Soft Magnetic Composites for Power Frequency Applications and Power-Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Guthrie, Roderick; Isac, Mihaiela

    2012-03-01

    A new approach, together with a new family of soft magnetic composites (SMCs), has been developed and optimized for power alternating-current applications. The different technological and economic restrictions needed to maximize a composite's performance-to-cost ratio are presented. The experimental procedures to produce sintered lamellar SMCs are reported, together with magnetic results and the effects of different processing parameters on their performance. The present results are compared with corresponding data available for soft magnetic materials available on the market (laminations and composites). Data on the mechanical strength of these new SMC structures are also given. The new process results in magnetic and mechanical properties of different alloy systems that are better than those of any of the SMCs available. The present materials' energetic losses can be under 2 W/kg at 60 Hz, at 1 T, whilst their permeability exceeds 2000, while maintaining maximum induction above 1.7 T. These properties are very close to the best results for standard laminations on the market. The present process has the potential to be very inexpensive, owing to its simplicity. Even though not fully isotropic, recent three-dimensional machine designs and process advantages conferred by powder metallurgy techniques can be applied to this new family of lamellar particle composites. Through theoretical calculations and modeling exercises, it is briefly shown that this new kind of material can result in an improvement to the transportation sector where weight and efficiency of newly emerging electrical and hybrid power-trains are of prime importance.

  17. Parts Counter. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide is designed to accompany self-paced student training modules on the Parts Counter Trade. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline. Teaching outlines are then provided for the 11 modules that comprise this course. For each module some or all of this material may be…

  18. Giving and Receiving Feedback. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    One of a series of pre-apprenticeship training modules, this self-paced student training module deals with giving and receiving feedback. Included in the module are the following: cover sheet listing module title, goals, and performance indicators; introduction; study guide/check list with directions for module completion; information sheet…

  19. Electrical. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on the electrical trade, one of which is available separately as CE 032 874. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline. Teaching outlines are then provided for the 11 modules that comprise this course. For each…

  20. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.

  1. Enhanced INL Power Grid Test Bed Infrastructure – Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Carol Ann; West, Grayson Shawn; McBride, Scott Alan

    2014-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, owns, operates, and maintains transmission and distribution power grid infrastructure to support the INL multi program mission. Sections of this power infrastructure, known as the INL Power Grid Test Bed, have been and are being used by government and industry to develop, demonstrate, and validate technologies for the modern grid, including smart grid, on a full scale utility test bed. INL’s power grid includes 61 miles of 140 MW, 138 kV rated electrical power transmission supplying seven main substations, each feeding a separate facility complex (or ‘city’) within the INL’s 890 square mile Site. This power grid is fed by three commercial utilities into the INL’s main control substation, but is operated independently from the commercial utility through its primary substation and command and control center. Within the INL complex, one of the seven complexes, the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC), has been designated as the INL complex for supporting critical infrastructure research and testing. This complex includes its own substation and 13.8kV distribution network, all configurable and controlled by the INL research and development programs. Through investment partnership with the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE), INL is enhancing its existing distribution infrastructure to expand the types of testing that can be conducted and increase flexibility for testing configurations. The enhancement of the INL Power Grid Test Bed will enable development and full scale testing of smart-grid-related technologies and smart devices including testing interoperability, operational performance, reliability, and resiliency contribution at multiple distribution voltage classes, specifically 15kV, 25kV, and 35kV. The expected time frame for completion of the Phase I portion of the enhancement would be 4th quarter fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  2. Zero-static-power phase-change optical modulator.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohsen; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2016-03-15

    This Letter presents an innovative design of an electro-optical modulator using germanium telluride (GeTe) phase change material with an integrated nano-heater. The refractive index and the electrical conductivity of GeTe significantly change as the GeTe goes though the crystallographic phase change. Amorphization and crystallization of GeTe is achieved using the Joule heating method by passing current through an array of metal gratings, where GeTe fills the slits between the metal lines. These metal slits also increase the contrast between the amorphous (on) and crystalline (off) phases of the modulator by having extraordinary transmission and reflection response based on interactions of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the incoming light. The modulator is designed for 1550 nm wavelength, where GeTe is transparent in the amorphous phase and provides high optical on/off contrast. The metal-insulator-metal (MIM) is designed in such a way to only support SPP excitation when GeTe is crystalline and slit resonance when it is amorphous to increase the modulation index. The modulator is stable in both phases with higher than 12 dB change in transmission with zero static power consumption at room temperature.

  3. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4. Volume 2: Analytical simulation of SPS system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The pilot signal parameter optimization and power transponder analyses are presented. The SPS antenna phase control system is modeled and the hardware simulation study described. Ionospheric and system phase error effects and the effects of high power amplifier phase and amplitude jitters are considered. Parameter optimization of the spread spectrum receiver, consisting of the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking loop, is described.

  4. Neuromuscular and blood lactate responses to squat power training with different rest intervals between sets.

    PubMed

    Martorelli, André; Bottaro, Martim; Vieira, Amilton; Rocha-Júnior, Valdinar; Cadore, Eduardo; Prestes, Jonato; Wagner, Dale; Martorelli, Saulo

    2015-06-01

    Studies investigating the effect of rest interval length (RI) between sets on neuromuscular performance and metabolic response during power training are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare maximal power output, muscular activity and blood lactate concentration following 1, 2 or 3 minutes RI between sets during a squat power training protocol. Twelve resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.2 years; 1.79 ± 0.08 cm; 81.8 ± 11.3 kg) performed 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squat exercise at 60% of their 1 repetition maximum. Peak and average power were obtained for each repetition and set using a linear position transducer. Muscular activity and blood lactate were measured pre and post-exercise session. There was no significant difference between RI on peak power and average power. However, peak power decreased 5.6%, 1.9%, and 5.9% after 6 sets using 1, 2 and 3 minutes of RI, respectively. Average power also decreased 10.5% (1 min), 2.6% (2 min), and 4.3% (3 min) after 6 sets. Blood lactate increased similarly during the three training sessions (1-min: 5.5 mMol, 2-min: 4.3 mMol, and 3-min: 4.0 mMol) and no significant changes were observed in the muscle activity after multiple sets, independent of RI length (pooled ES for 1-min: 0.47, 2-min: 0.65, and 3-min: 1.39). From a practical point of view, the results suggest that 1 to 2 minute of RI between sets during squat exercise may be sufficient to recover power output in a designed power training protocol. However, if training duration is malleable, we recommend 2 min of RI for optimal recovery and power output maintenance during the subsequent exercise sets. Key pointsThis study demonstrates that 1 minute of RI between sets is sufficient to maintain maximal power output during multiple sets of a power-based exercise when it is composed of few repetitions and the sets are not performed until failure. Therefore, a short RI should be considered when designing training programs for the development of

  5. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  6. Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Eveline; Fleck, Steven J; Ricardo Dias, Marcelo; Simão, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 models of resistance training (RT) programs, nonperiodized (NP) training and daily nonlinear periodized (DNLP) training, on strength, power, and flexibility in untrained adolescents. Thirty-eight untrained male adolescents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a control group, NP RT program, and DNLP program. The subjects were tested pretraining and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) resistances in the bench press and 45° leg press, sit and reach test, countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Both training groups performed the same sequence of exercises 3 times a week for a total of 36 sessions. The NP RT consisted of 3 sets of 10-12RM throughout the training period. The DNLP training consisted of 3 sets using different training intensities for each of the 3 training sessions per week. The total volume of the training programs was not significantly different. Both the NP and DNLP groups exhibited a significant increase in the 1RM for the bench press and 45° leg press posttraining compared with that pretraining, but there were no significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). The DNLP group's 1RM changes showed greater percentage improvements and effect sizes. Training intensity for the bench press and 45° leg press did not significantly change during the training. In the CMVJ and SLJ tests, NP and DNLP training showed no significant change. The DNLP group showed a significant increase in the sit and reach test after 8 and 12 weeks of training compared with pretraining; this did not occur with NP training. In summary, in untrained adolescents during a 12-week training period, a DNLP program can be used to elicit similar and possible superior maximal strength and flexibility gains compared with an NP multiset training model.

  7. Design of Training Systems, Phase I Final Report Appendices, Volume II of II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Harold J.; And Others

    A series of five appendixes presents details related to Phase I of the three-stage project "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The first appendix discusses strategic assumptions and processes, while the second reviews mathematical models and data bases operational within the navel education and training command. The third appendix…

  8. Cutting Tools, Files and Abrasives. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on cutting tools, files, and abrasives is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify and explain the proper use and care of various knives, saws, snips, chisels, and abrasives. The module may contain some or all of the…

  9. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  10. Analytical Support, Characterization, and Optimization of a Canine Training Aid Delivery System: Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-29

    Aid Delivery System: Phase 2 January 29, 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lauryn E. DEGrEEff SuSan L. roSE-PEhrSSon Navy...Characterization, and Optimization of a Canine Training Aid Delivery System: Phase 2 Lauryn E. DeGreeff, Susan L. Rose-Pehrsson, Michael Malito,* and...Evaluation of homemade explosives (HMEs)........................................ 6 Evaluation of ammonium nitrate and aluminum (AN-Al) training aids

  11. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Benefit-Cost Analysis of TAT Phase I Worker Training. Training and Technology Project. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Frederick C.; Castagna, Paul A.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate costs and benefits and to compute alternative benefit-cost ratios for both the individuals and the Federal Government as a result of investing time and resources in the Training and Technology (TAT) Project. TAT is a continuing experimental program in training skilled workers for private industry. The five…

  13. Does Powerful Language Training Affect Student Participation, Impression Formation, and Gender Communication in Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Crystal Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether powerful language training affected student participation, impression formation, and gender communication style in online discussions. Powerful language was defined as a lack of the use of powerless language. Participants in this study were 507 freshmen taking a first-year college…

  14. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  15. Digital regulation of a phase controlled power converter

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, C.; Haque, T.

    1995-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, now in construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will use phase controlled power converters for the main dipole and quadrupole magnet strings. The rectifiers in these power supplies will be controlled by a digital regulator based on the TI 320C30 Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The DSP implements the current loop, the voltage loop, and a system to actively reduce the sub-harmonic ripple components. Digital firing circuits consisting of a phase locked lop and counters are used to fire the SCRs. Corrections for the sub-harmonic reduction are calculated by the DSP and stored in registers in the firing circuit. These corrections are added in hardware, to the over-all firing count provided by the DSP. the resultant count is compared to a reference counter to fire the SCRs. This combination of a digital control system and the digital firing circuits allows the correction of the sub-harmonics in a real-time sense. A prototype of the regulator has been constructed, and the preliminary testing indicates a sub-harmonic reduction of 60 dB.

  16. High-power phase-locked arrays of antiguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, D.

    1991-12-01

    Phase-locked arrays of antiguides are a unique class of (monolithic) coherent diode lasers in that they provide both strong overall interelement coupling as well as strong optical-mode confinement. The leaky-wave characteristics of antiguides allow for a resonant condition; that is, when the interelement regions are odd integer numbers of the leaky-wave (lateral) half wavelength all elements equally couple to each other creating so called parallel coupling. By contrast, for the vast majority of coherent arrays published to date interelement coupling is of the nearest-neighbor type, so called series coupling, which gives weak coherence and poor intermodal discrimination. Parallel-coupled arrays of antiguides are called resonant-optical-waveguide (ROW) arrays. ROW devices posses such desirable properties as: full coherence, uniform intensity profile, and large intermodal discrimination. Thus, high coherent powers can be achieved without active phase control. The theory of operation for ROW arrays will be outlined. Experimental results include diffraction-limited-operation from both 20- and 40-element devices to high drive levels (10×threshold) and powers (0.5-1.5 W). CW diffraction-limited operation has been achieved to 0.5 W, while in pulsed operation up to 2 W is obtained in a nearly diffraction-limited beam. Devices can be driven to 5 W with beamwidths 3×diffraction limit.

  17. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R. Lee; Miller, William C.; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W.; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants 116 powered wheelchair users. Intervention Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Main Outcome Measures Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). Results There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Conclusions Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. PMID:26232684

  18. Numerical analysis of phase change materials for thermal control of power battery of high power dissipations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Zhang, H. Y.; Deng, Y. C.

    2016-08-01

    Solid-fluid phase change materials have been of increasing interest in various applications due to their high latent heat with minimum volume change. In this work, numerical analysis of phase change materials is carried out for the purpose of thermal control of the cylindrical power battery cells for applications in electric vehicles. Uniform heat density is applied at the battery cell, which is surrounded by phase change material (PCM) of paraffin wax type and contained in a metal housing. A two-dimensional geometry model is considered due to the model symmetry. The effects of power densities, heat transfer coefficients and onset melting temperatures are examined for the battery temperature evolution. Temperature plateaus can be observed from the present numerical analysis for the pure PCM cases, with the temperature level depending on the power densities, heat transfer coefficients, and melting temperatures. In addition, the copper foam of high thermal conductivity is inserted into the copper foam to enhance the heat transfer. In the modeling, the local thermal non-equilibrium between the metal foam and the PCM is taken into account and the temperatures for the metal foam and PCM are obtained respectively.

  19. DC-to-dc converter power-train optimization for maximum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. G., Jr.; Whelan, E. W., Jr.; Rodriguez, R.; Dishman, J. M.

    This paper presents a new way of describing the independent and dependent design variables of the power train of a dc-to-dc converter in terms of a multi-dimensional design-parameter space. These concepts provide a framework for examining the problem of design optimization of the power train, with particular emphasis on the maximization of converter efficiency. Numerous examples of important parameter-space surfaces illustrate some of the major relationships between core volume, switching frequency and output power, and between efficiency, ripple, and temperature rise of the energy-storage reactor. Also, we explore the difference in performance between the continuous and discontinuous mmf modes of operation.

  20. A ground based phase control system for the solar power satellite. Executive summary, volume 1, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept and the reference phase control system investigated in earlier efforts are reviewed. A summary overview of the analysis and selection of the pilot signal and power transponder design is presented along with the SOLARSIM program development and the simulated SPS phase control performance. Evaluations of the ground based phase control system as an alternate phase control concept are summarized.

  1. Air-Sea Battle through Joint Training: Power Projection Sustainability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    misconception is that the ASB Concept relies on the development of new 25 U.S. Office of the Chairman, Joint...advanced tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP), vice the integration of existing capabilities. 30 The risk of this misconception is that U.S...insufficient joint training and planning involving the denial of the electro- magnetic spectrum. 67 With the changes in the global A2/AD environment, the CVW

  2. Phases of Development of a Multinational Training Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Barbara Mann; Hare, Paul

    A study was made of 36 people from the United States and five developing nations (Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Indonesia, the Philippines) assembled for a special six month rice production training course. The course was designed to produce agricultural technicians who would introduce the International Rice Research Institute's new high yielding rice…

  3. Welding. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on welding, three of which are available separately as CE 032 889-891. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, a discussion of the teacher's role in conducting the course, and scope and contents of the four phases…

  4. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  5. Passive Two-Phase Cooling for Automotive Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated and tested using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245 fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator concept that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce its size was designed. Simulation results indicate the concept's thermal resistance can be 58% to 65% lower than automotive dual-side-cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers-plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  6. Signal with Flat Phase Noise Using a Carrier and the Power Spectral Density of White Noise for Phase Noise Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ikegami, Takeshi; Iida, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yozo

    2012-01-01

    We have realized a phase noise standard of a signal with a -100 dBc/Hz flat phase noise at 10 MHz for Fourier frequencies of 1 Hz to 100 kHz, which ensures traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The flat phase noise signal is produced using a carrier combined with white noise. To ensure traceability, both the flat phase noise signal power and the power spectral density of white noise are determined with a calibrated power meter and the noise standard, respectively. The flatness of the phase noise standard is within ±0.7 dB.

  7. Quasi-phase-matched high-order harmonic generation using tunable pulse trains.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Kevin; Lloyd, David T; Hooker, Simon M

    2014-04-07

    A simple technique for generating trains of ultrafast pulses is demonstrated in which the linear separation between pulses can be varied continuously over a wide range. These pulse trains are used to achieve tunable quasi-phase-matching of high harmonic generation over a range of harmonic orders up to the harmonic cut-off, resulting in enhancements of the harmonic intensity in excess of an order of magnitude. The peak enhancement of the harmonics is clearly shown to depend on the separation between pulses, as well as the number of pulses in the train, representing an easily tunable source of quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation.

  8. 76 FR 22729 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant #1, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on April 6, 2011, applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, including on-site leased workers of...

  9. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  10. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: crystal phases.

    PubMed

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  11. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-01

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  12. Maximum power training load determination and its effects on load-power relationship, maximum strength, and vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Smilios, Ilias; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Christou, Marios; Douda, Helen; Spaias, Aggelos; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2013-05-01

    This study examines the changes in maximum strength, vertical jump performance, and the load-velocity and load-power relationship after a resistance training period using a heavy load and an individual load that maximizes mechanical power output with and without including body mass in power calculations. Forty-three moderately trained men (age: 22.7 ± 2.5 years) were separated into 4 groups, 2 groups of maximum power, 1 where body mass was not included in the calculations of the load that maximizes mechanical power (Pmax - bw, n = 11) and another where body mass was included in the calculations (Pmax + bw, n = 9), a high load group (HL-90%, n = 12), and a control group (C, n = 11). The subjects performed 4-6 sets of jump squat and the repeated-jump exercises for 6 weeks. For the jump squat, the HL-90% group performed 3 repetitions at each set with a load of 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), the Pmax - bw group 5 repetitions with loads 48-58% of 1RM and the Pmax + bw 8 repetitions with loads 20-37% of 1RM. For the repeated jump, all the groups performed 6 repetitions at each set. All training groups improved (p < 0.05) maximum strength in the semisquat exercise (HL-90%: 15.2 ± 7.1, Pmax - bw: 6.6 ± 4.7, Pmax + bw: 6.9 ± 7.1, and C: 0 ± 4.3%) and the HL-90% group presented higher values (p < 0.05) than the other groups did. All training groups improved similarly (p < 0.05) squat (HL-90%: 11.7 ± 7.9, Pmax - bw: 14.5 ± 11.8, Pmax + bw: 11.3 ± 7.9, and C: -2.2 ± 5.5%) and countermovement jump height (HL-90%: 8.6 ± 7.9, Pmax - bw: 10.9 ± 9.4, Pmax + bw: 8.8 ± 4.3, and C: 0.4 ± 6%). The HL-90% and the Pmax - bw group increased (p < 0.05) power output at loads of 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80% of 1RM and the Pmax + bw group at loads of 20 and 35% of 1RM. The inclusion or not of body mass to determine the load that maximizes mechanical power output affects the long-term adaptations differently in the load-power relationship. Thus, training load selection will depend

  13. Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p≤0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

  14. Effects of high intensity training by heart rate or power in recreational cyclists.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael E; Plasschaert, Jeff; Kisaalita, Nkaku R

    2011-01-01

    Technological advances in interval training for cyclists have led to the development of both heart rate (HR) monitors and powermeters (PM). Despite the growing popularity of PM use, the superiority of PM-based training has not been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of HR-based versus PM-based interval training on 20 km time trial (20km TT), lactate threshold (LT) power, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2max) in recreational cyclists. Participants (n =20; M age=33.9, SD =13) completed a baseline 20km TT to establish their VO2max and LT and were then randomly assigned to either HR-determined or PM-determined training sessions. Over a period of up to 5 weeks participants completed 7.2 (± 1.1) interval training sessions at their specific LT for their respective interval training method. Repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs) showed that both HR-based and PM-based training groups significantly improved their LT power (F(1,16) = 28., p < 0.01, eta(2) = 0.63) and 20km TT time (F(1,16) = 4.92, p = 0.04, eta(2) = 0.24) at posttest, showing a 17 watt increase (9.8%) and a near 3-and-a-half minute improvement (7.8%) in 20km TT completion time. There were no significant group (HR vs. PM) x time (baseline vs. posttest) interactions for 20km TT completion time, LT power, or VO2max ratings. Our results coincide with the literature supporting the effectiveness of interval training for endurance athletes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that there is no empirical evidence for the superiority of any single type of device in the implementation of interval training. This study indicates that there are no noticeable advantages to using PM to increase performance in the average recreational cyclist, suggesting that low cost HR monitor are equally capable as training devices. Key pointsInterval training improves performance for recreational cyclists as measure by changes in lactate threshold watts and 20km time trial time

  15. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  16. Anaerobic power in road cyclists is improved after 10 weeks of whole-body vibration training.

    PubMed

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Viedge, Alison; McVeigh, Joanne; Avidon, Ingrid

    2013-02-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has previously improved muscle power in various athletic groups requiring explosive muscle contractions. To evaluate the benefit of including WBV as a training adjunct for improving aerobic and anaerobic cycling performance, road cyclists (n = 9) performed 3 weekly, 10-minute sessions of intermittent WBV on synchronous vertical plates (30 Hz) while standing in a static posture. A control group of cyclists (n = 8) received no WBV training. Before and after the 10-week intervention period, lean body mass (LBM), cycling aerobic peak power (Wmax), 4 mM lactate concentration (OBLA), VO2peak, and Wingate anaerobic peak and mean power output were determined. The WBV group successfully completed all WBV sessions but reported a significant 30% decrease in the weekly cycling training time (pre: 9.4 ± 3.3 h·wk(-1); post: 6.7 ± 3.7 h·wk(-1); p = 0.01) that resulted in a 6% decrease in VO2peak and a 4% decrease in OBLA. The control group reported a nonsignificant 6% decrease in cycling training volume (pre: 9.5 ± 3.6 h·wk(-1); 8.6 ± 2.9 h·wk(-1); p = 0.13), and all measured variables were maintained. Despite the evidence of detraining in the WBV group, Wmax was maintained (pre: 258 ± 53 W; post: 254 ± 57 W; p = 0.43). Furthermore, Wingate peak power increased by 6% (668 ± 189 to 708 ± 220 W; p = 0.055), and Wingate mean power increased by 2% (553 ± 157 to 565 ± 157 W; p = 0.006) in the WBV group from preintervention to postintervention, respectively, without any change to LBM. The WBV training is an attractive training supplement for improving anaerobic power without increasing muscle mass in road cyclists.

  17. Methods of Upper Body Training to Increase Overhand Throwing Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura; Tonkin, Shea

    2009-01-01

    Those who have taught motor skills would most likely agree that the overhand throw may be the most difficult skill for students to master and for instructors or coaches to teach. The timing involved when generating power to performing the overhand throw begins in the toes/feet and moves up the leg, hip, thorax (core muscles), arm, and ends in the…

  18. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  19. Phase 1 results from the Stirling-powered vehicle project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization (TU) Office is sponsoring a multiyear, multiphase demonstration program to assess the technology developed under the DOE/NASA automotive Stirling engine (ASE) program with engines installed in various Air Force vehicles while being evaluated by independent third parties under realistic conditions. This paper reviews the operational history of Phase 1 with a Mod 1 Stirling engine installed in an Air Force multistop van in a variety of missions. Ten months of operation were with Air Force personnel at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, where over 1100 hr and 4000 mi were logged on the Langley flight line. The Stirling-powered van operated on unleaded gasoline, JP-4 aircraft fuel, and diesel fuel at Langley Air Force Base. Two months of operation were completed with Deere and Company personnel in the Moline, Illinois area where over 175 hr and 2650 mi were logged on a Deere mail delivery route.

  20. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W-Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Antipov, S; Jing, C; Power, J G; Conde, M; Wisniewski, E; Liu, W; Qiu, J; Ha, G; Dolgashev, V; Tang, C; Gai, W

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  1. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W -Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.; Ha, G.; Dolgashev, V.; Tang, C.; Gai, W.

    2016-02-01

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  2. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; ...

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to themore » interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.« less

  3. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.; Ha, G.; Dolgashev, V.; Tang, C.; Gai, W.

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  4. Alternative Training Agents Phase 4. Large-Scale Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    20 BLEND BY MOLES OF 2,2-DICHLORO-1,1,1-TRIFLUOROETHANE AND 1-CHLORO-1,1- DIFLUOROETHANE , BOTH TECHNICAL GRADES)** 1.0 SCOPE 1.1 This specification...pure 1-chloro- 1,1- difluoroethane , suitable as a fire extinguishing fluid for firefighter training and shall conform to the requirements of Table B-1...percent by moles 1-Chloro-1,l- difluoroethane 20.0 ± 1 4.4.1 percent by moles Boiling Point, degrees Celsius -10 to +28 4.4.2 at 760 mm Hg (14 to 82 ’F

  5. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighdoll, P.; Hahn, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Power train designs which can be implemented within the current state-of-the-art were identified by means of a review of existing electric vehicles and suitable off-the-shelf components. The affect of various motor/transmission combinations on vehicle range over the SAE J227a schedule D cycle was evaluated. The selected, state-of-the-art power train employs a dc series wound motor, SCR controller, variable speed transmission, regenerative braking, drum brakes and radial ply tires. Vehicle range over the SAE cycle can be extended by approximately 20% by the further development of separately excited, shunt wound DC motors and electrical controllers. Approaches which could improve overall power train efficiency, such as AC motor systems, are identified. However, future emphasis should remain on batteries, tires and lightweight structures if substantial range improvements are to be achieved.

  6. Feasibility of eyes open alpha power training for mental enhancement in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Marian K J; van den Berg, Berber R; Denissen, Ad J M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on a novel, easy to use and instruction-less method for mental training in athletes. Previous findings suggest that particular mental capacities are needed for achieving peak performance; including attentional control, focus, relaxation and positive affect. Electroencephalography (EEG) alpha brain activity has been associated with neural inhibition during processes of selective attention, for improving efficiency in information processing. Here we hypothesised that eyes open alpha power training by music teaches athletes to (1) learn to self-regulate their brain activity, and (2) learn to increase their baseline alpha power, herewith improving mental capacities such as focusing the allocation of attention. The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Twelve elite gymnasts were either given eyes open alpha power training or random beta power training (controls). Results indicate small improvements in sleep quality, mental and physical shape. In our first attempt at getting a grip on mental capacities in athletes, we think this novel training method can be promising. Because gymnastics is one of the most mentally demanding sports, we value even small benefits for the athlete and consider them indicative for future research.

  7. Influence of resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle power and strength in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Radovanovic, D; Stankovic, R; Marković, Z; Kocic, J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of additional resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance in young (15.8 ± 0.8 yrs) male basketball players. Experimental group subjects (n=23) trained twice per week for 12 weeks using a variety of general free-weight and machine exercises designed for strength acquisition, beside ongoing regular basketball training program. Control group subject (n=23) participated only in basketball training program. Oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and related gas exchange measures were determined continuously during maximal exercise test using an automated cardiopulmonary exercise system. Muscle power of the extensors and flexors was measured by a specific computerized tensiometer. Results from the experimental group (VO(2max) 51.6 ± 5.7 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) pre vs. 50.9 ± 5.4 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) post resistance training) showed no change (p>0.05) in cardiorespiratory endurance, while muscle strength and power of main muscle groups increased significantly. These data demonstrate no negative cardiorespiratory performance effects on adding resistance training to ongoing regular training program in young athletes.

  8. The Development of a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem and Computer Operator Training Material for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    The design, development, and evaluation of an integrated Computer-Directed Training Subsystem (CDTS) for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System is described in this report. The development and evaluation of a course to train computer operators of the Air Force Phase II Base Level System under CDTS control is also described. Detailed test results…

  9. Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

  10. Electrical heating of soils using high efficiency electrode patterns and power phases

    DOEpatents

    Buettner, Harley M.

    1999-01-01

    Powerline-frequency electrical (joule) heating of soils using a high efficiency electrode configuration and power phase arrangement. The electrode configuration consists of several heating or current injection electrodes around the periphery of a volume of soil to be heated, all electrodes being connected to one phase of a multi-phase or a single-phase power system, and a return or extraction electrode or electrodes located inside the volume to be heated being connected to the remaining phases of the multi-phase power system or to the neutral side of the single-phase power source. This electrode configuration and power phase arrangement can be utilized anywhere where powerline frequency soil heating is applicable and thus has many potential uses including removal of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and tricholorethylene (TCE) from contaminated areas.

  11. Metasurface with Reconfigurable Reflection Phase for High-Power Microwave Applications (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-25

    Metasurfaces with Reconfigurable Reflection Phase for High-Power Microwave Applications Kenneth L. Morgan, Clinton P. Scarborough, Micah D...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metasurface with Reconfigurable Reflection Phase for High- Power Microwave Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Examples that demonstrate theoretical methods for extending the operating power levels of metasurface reflectarrays have been given •The proposed

  12. Infusion of lidocaine into the dorsal hippocampus before or after the shock training phase impaired conditioned freezing in a two-phase training task of contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Dar; Chen, Der-Yow; Liang, K C

    2008-02-01

    Learning in a contextual fear conditioning task involves forming a context representation and associating it with a shock. The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is implicated in representing the context, but whether it also has a role in associating the context and shock is unclear. To address this issue, male Wistar rats were trained on the task by a two-phase training paradigm, in which rats learned the context representation on day 1 and then reactivated it to associate with the shock on day 2; conditioned freezing was tested on day 3. Lidocaine was infused into the DH at various times in each of the two training sessions. Results showed that intra-DH infusion of lidocaine shortly before or after the context training session on day 1 impaired conditioned freezing, attesting to the DH involvement in context representation. Intra-DH infusion of lidocaine shortly before or after the shock training session on day 2 also impaired conditioned freezing. This deficit was reproduced by infusing lidocaine or APV (alpha-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid) into the DH after activation of the context memory but before shock administration. The deficit was not due to drug-induced state-dependency, decreased shock sensitivity or reconsolidation failure of the contextual memory. These results suggest that in contextual fear conditioning integrity of the DH is required for memory processing of not only context representation but also context-shock association.

  13. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  14. Artificial Intelligence Based Control Power Optimization on Tailless Aircraft. [ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank; Vicroy, Dan D.; Mulani, Sameer B.; Chhabra, Rupanshi; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Schetz, Joseph A.; Brown, Derrell; Princen, Norman H.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of control allocation optimization have shown difficulties in exploiting the full potential of controlling large arrays of control devices on innovative air vehicles. Artificial neutral networks are inspired by biological nervous systems and neurocomputing has successfully been applied to a variety of complex optimization problems. This project investigates the potential of applying neurocomputing to the control allocation optimization problem of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts to minimize control power, hinge moments, and actuator forces, while keeping system weights within acceptable limits. The main objective of this project is to develop a proof-of-concept process suitable to demonstrate the potential of using neurocomputing for optimizing actuation power for aircraft featuring multiple independently actuated control surfaces. A Nastran aeroservoelastic finite element model is used to generate a learning database of hinge moment and actuation power characteristics for an array of flight conditions and control surface deflections. An artificial neural network incorporating a genetic algorithm then uses this training data to perform control allocation optimization for the investigated aircraft configuration. The phase I project showed that optimization results for the sum of required hinge moments are improved by more than 12% over the best Nastran solution by using the neural network optimization process.

  15. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

  16. Effects of follicular versus luteal phase-based strength training in young women.

    PubMed

    Sung, Eunsook; Han, Ahreum; Hinrichs, Timo; Vorgerd, Matthias; Manchado, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle (MC) may influence trainability of strength. We investigated the effects of a follicular phase-based strength training (FT) on muscle strength, muscle volume and microscopic parameters, comparing it to a luteal phase-based training (LT). Eumenorrheic women without oral contraception (OC) (N = 20, age: 25.9 ± 4.5 yr, height: 164.2 ± 5.5 cm, weight: 60.6 ± 7.8 kg) completed strength training on a leg press for three MC, and 9 of them participated in muscle biopsies. One leg had eight training sessions in the follicular phases (FP) and only two sessions in the luteal phases (LP) for follicular phase-based training (FT), while the other leg had eight training sessions in LP and only two sessions in FP for luteal phase-based training (LT). Estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), total testosterone (T), free testosterone (free T) and DHEA-s were analysed once during FP (around day 11) and once during LP (around day 25). Maximum isometric force (Fmax), muscle diameter (Mdm), muscle fibre composition (No), fibre diameter (Fdm) and cell nuclei-to-fibre ratio (N/F) were analysed before and after the training intervention. T and free T were higher in FP compared to LP prior to the training intervention (P < 0.05). The increase in Fmax after FT was higher compared to LT (P <0.05). FT also showed a higher increase in Mdm than LT (P < 0.05). Moreover, we found significant increases in Fdm of fibre type ΙΙ and in N/F only after FT; however, there was no significant difference from LT. With regard to change in fibre composition, no differences were observed between FT and LT. FT showed a higher gain in muscle strength and muscle diameter than LT. As a result, we recommend that eumenorrheic females without OC should base the periodization of their strength training on their individual MC.

  17. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Research Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment by identifying, collecting and analyzing existing test data from various sources. In Phase I of this program, BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical devices of various manufacturers and models. This report provides an assessment and evaluation of the data collected in Phase I. The fragility data for medium voltage and low voltage switchgears and motor control centers are analyzed using the test response spectra (TRS) as a measure of the fragility level. The analysis reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of TRS curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower-bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage; whereas, the upper-bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes. High level test data for some components are included in the report. These data indicate that some components are inherently strong and do not exhibit any failure mode even when tested at the vibration limit of a shake table. The common failure modes are identified in the report. The fragility levels determined in this report have been compared with those used in the PRA and Seismic Margin Studies. It appears that the BNL data better correlate with the HCLPF (High Confidence of a Low Probability of Failure) level used in Seismic Margin Studies and can improve this level as high as 60% for certain applications. Specific recommendations are provided for proper application of BNL fragility data to other studies.

  18. Model predictive direct power control for active power decoupled single-phase quasi-Z -source inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Sun, Hexu; Peng, Fang Zheng; Xue, Yaosuo

    2016-06-14

    In this study, the active power filter (APF) that consists of a half-bridge leg and an ac capacitor is integrated in the single-phase quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) in this paper to avoid the second harmonic power flowing into the dc side. The capacitor of APF buffers the second harmonic power of the load, and the ac capacitor allows highly pulsating ac voltage, so that the capacitances of both dc and ac sides can be small. A model predictive direct power control (DPC) is further proposed to achieve the purpose of this newtopology through predicting the capacitor voltage of APF at each sampling period and ensuring the APF power to track the second harmonic power of single-phase qZSI. Simulation and experimental results verify the model predictive DPC for the APF-integrated single-phase qZSI.

  19. Model predictive direct power control for active power decoupled single-phase quasi-Z -source inverter

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Abu-Rub, Haitham; ...

    2016-06-14

    In this study, the active power filter (APF) that consists of a half-bridge leg and an ac capacitor is integrated in the single-phase quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI) in this paper to avoid the second harmonic power flowing into the dc side. The capacitor of APF buffers the second harmonic power of the load, and the ac capacitor allows highly pulsating ac voltage, so that the capacitances of both dc and ac sides can be small. A model predictive direct power control (DPC) is further proposed to achieve the purpose of this newtopology through predicting the capacitor voltage of APF at eachmore » sampling period and ensuring the APF power to track the second harmonic power of single-phase qZSI. Simulation and experimental results verify the model predictive DPC for the APF-integrated single-phase qZSI.« less

  20. Conducting Effective Simulator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerling, Kenneth D.

    This paper describes the simulator phase of Commonwealth Edison's program for training and licensing operators of nuclear power stations. Topics covered include (1) preparing the students before starting the simulator phase; (2) the simulator schedule and the number of students that can be trained effectively in a class; (3) format and structure…

  1. Simulators for Mariner Training and Licensing. Phase 2: Investigation of Simulator Characteristics for Training Senior Mariners,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    ADMNIARAT Ofie Of Xesearch and Devlopmeln"it Washington, D.C. 2023 LEGAL NOTICE This report was prepared a an account of gove-.ment-onsored work . Neither the...would be responsi- ble to the needs of the maritime community, a Training The greater consequences of today’s marine accidents, due and Licensing Working ...materials transported, along with the increased public ing facilities, MarAd, and USCG was formed. This Working concern for protecting the environment

  2. Effects of high-speed power training on muscle performance and braking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Stephen P; Gibson, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT) improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22 m, 50 f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3 yrs) were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n = 25; 3 sets of 12-14 repetitions), slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n = 25; 3 sets of 8-10 repetitions), or control (CON: n = 22; stretching) 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40-90% 1RM; P < 0.05) and improved braking speed (P < 0.05). Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P < 0.05). Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST.

  3. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  4. Effects of instability versus traditional resistance training on strength, power and velocity in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key PointsSimilar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs.Both the stability and instability approaches seem

  5. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    PubMed Central

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches

  6. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  7. Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Songgang

    2013-05-15

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop and validate an innovative, scalable phase change salt thermal energy storage (TES) system that can interface with Infinia’s family of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE). This TES technology is also appropriate for Rankine and Brayton power converters. Solar TES systems based on latent heat of fusion rather than molten salt temperature differences, have many advantages that include up to an order of magnitude higher energy storage density, much higher temperature operation, and elimination of pumped loops for most of Infinia’s design options. DOE has funded four different concepts for solar phase change TES, including one other Infinia awarded project using heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the salt. The unique innovation in this project is an integrated TES/pool boiler heat transfer system that is the simplest approach identified to date and arguably has the best potential for minimizing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Phase 1 objectives are to design, build and test a 1-hour TES proof-of-concept lab demonstrator integrated with an Infinia 3 kW Stirling engine, and to conduct a preliminary design of a 12-hour TES on-sun prototype.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Periodized Versus Nonperiodized Strength and Power Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively combine and examine the results of studies examining the effectiveness of periodized (PER) compared to nonperiodized (Non-PER) training programs for strength and/or power development. Two analyses were conducted to (a) examine the magnitude of treatment effect elicited by PER strength training…

  9. Effect of Vibration Training on Anaerobic Power and Quardroceps Surface EMG in Long Jumpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Bin; Luo, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anaerobic power and surface EMG (sEMG) of quardrocep muscle in lower extremities after single vibration training intervention. Methods: 8 excellent male long jumpers voluntarily participated in this study. Four intervention modes were devised, including high frequency high amplitude (HFHA,30Hz,6mm), low frequency low…

  10. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  11. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  12. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution.

  13. The effect of plyometric training on power and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players.

    PubMed

    Rubley, Mack D; Haase, Amaris C; Holcomb, William R; Girouard, Tedd J; Tandy, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied (age 13.4 ± 0.5 years) across 14 weeks. The control group (general soccer training only) had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training (general soccer training plus plyometric exercise) group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using a 2 (Training) × 3 (Test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the factor test. No significant difference in kicking distance was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.688) or 7 weeks (p = 0.117). The plyometric group had significantly greater kicking distance after 14 weeks (p < 0.001). No significant difference in VJ height was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.837) or 7 weeks (p = 0.108). The plyometric group had a significantly higher VJ after 14 weeks (p = 0.014). These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.

  14. Expression of genes related to muscle plasticity after strength and power training regimens.

    PubMed

    Lamas, L; Aoki, M S; Ugrinowitsch, C; Campos, G E R; Regazzini, M; Moriscot, A S; Tricoli, V

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of 8-week progressive strength and power training regimens on strength gains and muscle plasticity [muscle fiber hypertrophy and phenotype shift, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (RAPTOR), rapamycin-insensitive companion of m-TOR (RICTOR), calcineurin and calcipressin gene expression]. Twenty-nine physically active subjects were divided into three groups: strength training (ST), power training (PT) and control (C). Squat 1 RM and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Strength increased similarly for both ST and PT groups (P<0.001). Fiber types I, IIa and IIb presented hypertrophy main time effect (P<0.05). Only type IIb percentage decreased from pre- to post-test (main time effect, P<0.05). mTOR and RICTOR mRNA expression increased similarly from pre- to post-test (P<0.01). RAPTOR increased after training for both groups (P<0.0001), but to a greater extent in the ST (P<0.001) than in the PT group. 4EBP-1 decreased after training when the ST and PT groups were pooled (P<0.05). Calcineurin levels did not change after training, while calcipressin increased similarly from pre- to post-test (P<0.01). In conclusion, our data indicate that these training regimens produce similar performance improvements; however, there was a trend toward greater hypertrophy-related gene expression and muscle fiber hypertrophy in the ST group.

  15. Subpicosecond electron bunch train production using a phase-space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E.; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Our recent experimental demonstration of a photoinjector electron bunch train with sub-picosecond structures is reported in this paper. The experiment is accomplished by converting an initially horizontal beam intensity modulation into a longitudinal phase space modulation, via a beamline capable of exchanging phase-space coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The initial transverse modulation is produced by intercepting the beam with a multislit mask prior to the exchange. We also compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.

  16. How Competency-Based Training Locks the Working Class out of Powerful Knowledge: A Modified Bernsteinian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that competency-based training in vocational education and training in Australia is one mechanism through which the working class is denied access to powerful knowledge represented by the academic disciplines. The paper presents a modified Bernsteinian analysis to argue that vocational education and training students need access…

  17. Effect of one- vs. two-stair climb training on sprint power.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kenten B; Brown, Lee E; Statler, Traci A; Noffal, Guillermo J; Bartolini, J Albert

    2014-11-01

    Although running stairs is often used in sport conditioning programs, at present, little research has examined the effect of stair climb training on sprint power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of running stairs either 1 stair (1S) or 2 stairs (2S) at a time on power. Fourteen male college track and field athletes were randomized into 3 groups; 1S, 2S, or control (C). All groups were pre- and posttested for 1S, 2S, and 40-m sprint split times. The 1S and 2S groups trained twice per week, for 4 weeks, performing 10 sets of climbing 68 total stairs with 2.5-minute rest between trials. The greatest power values (W) from pre- and poststairs and sprint splits were used for statistical analyses. There was a significant (p < 0.05) interaction of group × time for stair climb. The 1S group increased power for the 1S test (pre-1,492.89 ± 123.76; post-1,647.41 ± 73.65) with no change in the 2S test (pre-2,428.80 ± 414.81; post-2,430.32 ± 154.90), whereas the 2S group increased power for the 2S test (pre-2,343.73 ± 317.50; post-2,646.17 ± 305.43) with no change in the 1S test (pre-1,516.69 ± 210.64; post-1,529.38 ± 236.69). The C group showed no change in either stair test (1S: pre-1,403.35 ± 238.67, post-1,384.38 ± 153.32; 2S: pre-2,285.93 ± 345.03, post-2,261.85 ± 356.88). There were no significant interactions or main effects for any sprint split power (40 m: pre-5,337.13 ± 611.86, post-5,318.68 ± 586.24).Therefore, stair climb training either 1 or 2 at a time did not affect 40-m sprint split power but increased power for the specific stair training type. Coaches should choose the number of stairs that are similar in time and power output to sprint training.

  18. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    Phase two of the Orthopaedic Training Study was designed to examine time, sequence, and content requirements of existing orthopaedic programs. Specifically, the proposal was designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to provide a model of individualized graduate education in medicine in which the demonstration of individual competence marks…

  19. SPS pilot signal design and power transponder analysis, volume 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Scholtz, R. A.; Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of pilot signal parameter optimization and the related problem of power transponder performance analysis for the Solar Power Satellite reference phase control system are addressed. Signal and interference models were established to enable specifications of the front end filters including both the notch filter and the antenna frequency response. A simulation program package was developed to be included in SOLARSIM to perform tradeoffs of system parameters based on minimizing the phase error for the pilot phase extraction. An analytical model that characterizes the overall power transponder operation was developed. From this model, the effects of different phase noise disturbance sources that contribute to phase variations at the output of the power transponders were studied and quantified. Results indicate that it is feasible to hold the antenna array phase error to less than one degree per power module for the type of disturbances modeled.

  20. Evaluation of training programs and entry-level qualifications for nuclear-power-plant control-room personnel based on the systems approach to training

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Hanley, M J; Mercer, R T

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. Variables (performance shaping factors) of potential importance to personnel selection and training are identified, and research to more rigorously define an operationally useful taxonomy of those variables is recommended. A high-level model of the Systems Approach to Training for use in the nuclear industry, which could serve as a model for NRC evaluation of industry programs, is presented. The model is consistent with current publically stated NRC policy, with the approach being followed by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, and with current training technology. Checklists to be used by NRC evaluators to assess training programs for NPP control-room personnel are proposed which are based on this model.

  1. Optimal sliding guidance algorithm for Mars powered descent phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibben, Daniel R.; Furfaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Landing on large planetary bodies (e.g. Mars) with pinpoint accuracy presents a set of new challenges that must be addressed. One such challenge is the development of new guidance algorithms that exhibit a higher degree of robustness and flexibility. In this paper, the Zero-Effort-Miss/Zero-Effort-Velocity (ZEM/ZEV) optimal sliding guidance (OSG) scheme is applied to the Mars powered descent phase. This guidance algorithm has been specifically designed to combine techniques from both optimal and sliding control theories to generate an acceleration command based purely on the current estimated spacecraft state and desired final target state. Consequently, OSG yields closed-loop trajectories that do not need a reference trajectory. The guidance algorithm has its roots in the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance and its mathematical equations are naturally derived by defining a non-linear sliding surface as a function of the terms Zero-Effort-Miss and Zero-Effort-Velocity. With the addition of the sliding mode and using Lyapunov theory for non-autonomous systems, one can formally prove that the developed OSG law is globally finite-time stable to unknown but bounded perturbations. Here, the focus is on comparing the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance with the OSG law to explicitly demonstrate the benefits of the sliding mode augmentation. Results show that the sliding guidance provides a more robust solution in off-nominal scenarios while providing similar fuel consumption when compared to the non-sliding guidance command. Further, a Monte Carlo analysis is performed to examine the performance of the OSG law under perturbed conditions.

  2. A training method for locomotion mode prediction using powered lower limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-05-01

    Recently developed lower-limb prostheses are capable of actuating the knee and ankle joints, allowing amputees to perform advanced locomotion modes such as step-over-step stair ascent and walking on sloped surfaces. However, transitions between these locomotion modes and walking are neither automatic nor seamless. This study describes methods for construction and training of a high-level intent recognition system for a lower-limb prosthesis that provides natural transitions between walking, stair ascent, stair descent, ramp ascent, and ramp descent. Using mechanical sensors onboard a powered prosthesis, we collected steady-state and transition data from six transfemoral amputees while the five locomotion modes were performed. An intent recognition system built using only mechanical sensor data was 84.5% accurate using only steady-state training data. Including training data collected while amputees performed seamless transitions between locomotion modes improved the overall accuracy rate to 93.9%. Training using a single analysis window at heel contact and toe off provided higher recognition accuracy than training with multiple analysis windows. This study demonstrates the capability of an intent recognition system to provide automatic, natural, and seamless transitions between five locomotion modes for transfemoral amputees using powered lower limb prostheses.

  3. Exposure to ultrafine particles and black carbon in diesel-powered commuter trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Traub, Alison; Evans, Greg J.

    2017-04-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP), black carbon (BC) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations measured during 43 trips on diesel-powered commuter trains revealed elevated exposures under some conditions. When the passenger coaches were pulled by a locomotive, the geometric mean concentrations of UFP, LDSA, and BC were 18, 10, and 6 times higher than the exposure levels when the locomotive pushed the coaches, respectively. In addition, UFP, LDSA, and BC concentrations in pull-trains were 5, 3, and 4 times higher than concentrations measured while walking on city sidewalks, respectively. Exposure to these pollutants was most elevated in the coach located closest to the locomotive: geometric means were 126,000 # cm-3 for UFP, 249 μm2 cm-3 for LDSA, and 17,800 ng m-3 of BC; these concentrations are much higher than those previously reported for other modes of public transportation. Markedly high levels of diesel exhaust are present in passenger trains powered by diesel locomotives operated in pull-mode. Thus, it is recommended that immediate steps be taken to evaluate, and where needed, mitigate exposure in diesel-powered passenger trains, both commuter and inter-city.

  4. Effectiveness of the Power Dry-Land Training Programmes in Youth Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Gromisz, Wilhelm; NiŸnikowski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the dry-land power training on swimming force, swimming performance and strength in youth swimmers. Twenty six male swimmers, free from injuries and training regularly at least 6 times a week, were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of two groups: experimental (n=14, mean age 14.0 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.67±0.08 m and mean body mass 55.71 ±9.55 kg) and control (n=12, mean age 14.1 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.61±0.11 m and mean body mass 49.07 ±8.25 kg). The experimental group took part in a combined swimming and dry-land power training. The control group took part in swimming training only. The training programmes in water included a dominant aerobic work in front crawl. In this research the experimental group tended to present slightly greater improvements in sprint performance. However, the stroke frequency insignificantly decreased (−4.30%, p>0.05) in the experimental group and increased (6.28%, p>0.05) in the control group. The distance per stroke insignificantly increased in the experimental group (5.98%, p>0.05) and insignificantly decreased in the control group (−5.36%, p>0.05). A significant improvement of tethered swimming force for the experimental group (9.64%, p<0.02) was found, whereas the increase was not statistically significant in the control group (2.86%, p>0.05). The main data cannot clearly state that power training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve swimming performance in tethered swimming was noticed. PMID:23486353

  5. Effects of speed, agility, quickness training method on power performance in elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Mario; Sporis, Goran; Omrcen, Darija; Fiorentini, Fredi

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) training method on power performance in soccer players. Soccer players were assigned randomly to 2 groups: experimental group (EG; n = 50) and control group (n = 50). Power performance was assessed by a test of quickness--the 5-m sprint, a test of acceleration--the 10-m sprint, tests of maximal speed--the 20- and the 30-m sprint along with Bosco jump tests--squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal CMJ, and continuous jumps performed with legs extended. The initial testing procedure took place at the beginning of the in-season period. The 8-week specific SAQ training program was implemented after which final testing took place. The results of the 2-way analysis of variance indicated that the EG improved significantly (p < 0.05) in 5-m (1.43 vs. 1.39 seconds) and in 10-m (2.15 vs. 2.07 seconds) sprints, and they also improved their jumping performance in countermovement (44.04 vs. 4.48 cm) and continuous jumps (41.08 vs. 41.39 cm) performed with legs extended (p < 0.05). The SAQ training program appears to be an effective way of improving some segments of power performance in young soccer players during the in-season period. Soccer coaches could use this information in the process of planning in-season training. Without proper planning of the SAQ training, soccer players will most likely be confronted with decrease in power performance during in-season period.

  6. Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Rathmacher, John A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Shelley, Mack C; Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-07-01

    Lowery, RP, Joy, JM, Rathmacher, JA, Baier, SM, Fuller, JC Jr, Shelley, MC II, Jäger, R, Purpura, M, Wilson, SMC, and Wilson, JM. Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid and adenosine triphosphate on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1843-1854, 2016-Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity or prolonged exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA (3 g) and ATP (400 mg) administration on lean body mass (LBM), strength, and power in trained individuals. A 3-phase double-blind, placebo-, and diet-controlled study was conducted. Phases consisted of an 8-week periodized resistance training program (phase 1), followed by a 2-week overreaching cycle (phase 2), and a 2-week taper (phase 3). Lean body mass was increased by a combination of HMB-FA/ATP by 12.7% (p < 0.001). In a similar fashion, strength gains after training were increased in HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented subjects by 23.5% (p < 0.001). Vertical jump and Wingate power were increased in the HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented group compared with the placebo-supplemented group, and the 12-week increases were 21.5 and 23.7%, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, strength and power declined in the placebo group (4.3-5.7%), whereas supplementation with HMB-FA/ATP resulted in continued strength gains (1.3%). In conclusion, HMB-FA and ATP in combination with resistance exercise training enhanced LBM, power, and strength. In addition, HMB-FA plus ATP blunted the typical response to overreaching, resulting in a further increase in strength during that period. It seems that the combination of HMB-FA/ATP could benefit those who

  7. Effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on power and jumping ability in women.

    PubMed

    Makaruk, Hubert; Winchester, Jason B; Sadowski, Jerzy; Czaplicki, Adam; Sacewicz, Tomasz

    2011-12-01

    Makaruk, H, Winchester, JB, Sadowski, J, Czaplicki, A, and Sacewicz, T. Effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on power and jumping ability in women. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3311-3318, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercise on peak power and jumping performance during different stages of a 12-week training and detraining in women. Forty-nine untrained but physically active female college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: unilateral plyometric group (n = 16), bilateral plyometric group (BLE; n = 18), and a control group (n = 15). Peak power and jumping ability were assessed by means of the alternate leg tests (10-second Wingate test and 5 alternate leg bounds), bilateral leg test (countermovement jump [CMJ]) and unilateral leg test (unilateral CMJ). Performance indicators were measured pretraining, midtraining, posttraining, and detraining. Differences between dependent variables were assessed with a 3 × 4 (group × time) repeated analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test applied where appropriate. Effect size was calculated to determine the magnitude of significant differences between the researched parameters. Only the unilateral plyometric training produced significant (p < 0.05) improvement in all tests from pretraining to midtraining, but there was no significant (p < 0.05) increase in performance indicators from midtraining to posttraining. The BLE group significantly (p < 0.05) improved in all tests from pretraining to posttraining and did not significantly (p > 0.05) decrease power and jumping ability in all tests during detraining. These results suggest that unilateral plyometric exercises produce power and jumping performance during a shorter period when compared to bilateral plyometric exercises but achieved performance gains last longer after bilateral plyometric training. Practitioners should consider the inclusion of both unilateral and

  8. Ubiquinol supplementation enhances peak power production in trained athletes: a double-blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation on physical performance measured as maximum power output in young and healthy elite trained athletes. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 100 young German well trained athletes (53 male, 47 female, age 19.9 ± 2.3 years) received either 300 mg Ubiquinol or placebo for 6 weeks. Athletes had to perform a maximum power output test and the performance in W/kg of bodyweight was measured at the 4 mmol lactate threshold on a cycling ergometer before the supplementation treatment (T1), after 3 weeks (T2) and after 6 weeks (T3) of treatment. In these 6 weeks all athletes trained individually in preparation for the Olympic Games in London 2012. The maximum power output was measured in Watt/kilogram body weight (W/kg bw). Results Both groups, placebo and Ubiquinol, significantly increased their physical performance measured as maximum power output over the treatment period from T1 to T3. The placebo group increased from 3.64 ± 0.49 W/kg bw to 3.94 ± 0.47 W/kg bw which is an increase of +0.30 ± 0.18 W/kg bw or +8.5% (±5.7). The Ubiquinol group increased performance levels from 3.70 W/kg bw (±0.56) to 4.08 W/kg bw (±0.48) from time point T1 to T3 which is an increase of +0.38 ± 0.22 W/kg bw or +11.0% (±8.2). The absolute difference in the enhancement of the physical performance between the placebo and the Ubiquinol group of +0.08 W/kg bodyweight was significant (p < 0.03). Conclusions This study demonstrates that daily supplementation of 300 mg Ubiquinol for 6 weeks significantly enhanced physical performance measured as maximum power output by +0.08 W/kg bw (+2.5%) versus placebo in young healthy trained German Olympic athletes. While adherence to a training regimen itself resulted in an improvement in peak power output, as observed by improvement in placebo, the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation significantly enhanced peak power production

  9. Theta phase synchrony and conscious target perception: impact of intensive mental training.

    PubMed

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the attentional blink-a deficit in identifying the second of two targets (T1 and T2) presented in close succession. This deficit is thought to result from an overinvestment of limited resources in T1 processing. We previously reported that intensive mental training in a style of meditation aimed at reducing elaborate object processing, reduced brain resource allocation to T1, and improved T2 accuracy [Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J., et al. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PloS Biology, 5, e138, 2007]. Here we report EEG spectral analyses to examine the possibility that this reduction in elaborate T1 processing rendered the system more available to process new target information, as indexed by T2-locked phase variability. Intensive mental training was associated with decreased cross-trial variability in the phase of oscillatory theta activity after successfully detected T2s, in particular, for those individuals who showed the greatest reduction in brain resource allocation to T1. These data implicate theta phase locking in conscious target perception, and suggest that after mental training the cognitive system is more rapidly available to process new target information. Mental training was not associated with changes in the amplitude of T2-induced responses or oscillatory activity before task onset. In combination, these findings illustrate the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind by revealing the neural mechanisms that enable the brain to successfully represent target information.

  10. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-04-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of multicomponent training on muscle power output, muscle mass, and muscle tissue attenuation; the risk of falls; and functional outcomes in frail nonagenarians. Twenty-four elderly (91.9 ± 4.1 years old) were randomized into intervention or control group. The intervention group performed a twice-weekly, 12-week multicomponent exercise program composed of muscle power training (8-10 repetitions, 40-60 % of the one-repetition maximum) combined with balance and gait retraining. Strength and power tests were performed on the upper and lower limbs. Gait velocity was assessed using the 5-m habitual gait and the time-up-and-go (TUG) tests with and without dual-task performance. Balance was assessed using the FICSIT-4 tests. The ability to rise from a chair test was assessed, and data on the incidence and risk of falls were assessed using questionnaires. Functional status was assessed before measurements with the Barthel Index. Midthigh lower extremity muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration were assessed using computed tomography. The intervention group showed significantly improved TUG with single and dual tasks, rise from a chair and balance performance (P < 0.01), and a reduced incidence of falls. In addition, the intervention group showed enhanced muscle power and strength (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were significant increases in the total and high-density muscle cross-sectional area in the intervention group. The control group significantly reduced strength and functional outcomes. Routine multicomponent exercise intervention should be prescribed to nonagenarians because overall physical outcomes are improved in this population.

  11. Power combiner with high power capacity and high combination efficiency for two phase-locked relativistic backward wave oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Deng, Yuqun; Wang, Yue; Song, Zhimin; Li, Jiawei; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua

    2015-09-01

    To realize power combination of two phase-locked relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), a compact power combiner is designed and investigated by 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and experiment. The power combiner consists of two TM01-TE11 serpentine mode converters with a common output. When the two incident ports are fed with TM01 modes with a relative phase of 180° and power of 2.5 GW at each port, the conversion efficiency from the incident TM01 modes to the combined TE11 mode is 95.2% at 9.3 GHz, and the maximum electric field in the combiner is 714 kV/cm. The PIC simulation shows that the output power from the common port is 4.2 GW when the power combiner is connected to the two RBWOs with input signals, both producing 2.2 GW microwave, corresponding to a combination efficiency of 95.4%. In the high power microwave test, a method is proposed to obtain the combination efficiency without breaking the vacuum, which is 94.1% when the two phase-locked RBWOs output 1.8 GW and 2.2 GW. The power capacity of multi-gigawatts has been demonstrated.

  12. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C.; Gee, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  13. The Effects of Cold Water Immersion after Rugby Training on Muscle Power and Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tatsushi; Shintaku, Hiroto; Kato, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiko; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    During rugby game, or intensive rugby training there are many high intensity explosive exercises and eccentric muscle contractions, therefore adequate recovery is very important to rugby players. In the present study we have tested the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) after game-simulated (80 min.) rugby training on muscle power recovery and blood markers of muscle damage. Twenty well-trained collegiate male rugby players (age: 20.3 ± 0.6 years old, body height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m, body weight: 85.4 ± 2.0 kg, body fat: 18.2 ± 1.4 %) volunteered for this study. This study was conducted as a cross-over design; i.e., the subjects were randomly assigned either to CWI (n = 10) or passive rest condition (n = 10) for the 1st trial and 1 week later the subjects were switched conditions for the 2nd trial. After the simulated rugby training, including tackles and body contacts, muscle functional ability and blood markers of muscle damage were tested immediately, after CWI or passive rest, and again 24 hours later. Statistical analysis of all muscle functional tests (10 m dash, counter movement jump, reaction time, side steps) except for 10 seconds maximal pedaling power and blood makers of muscle damage (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine) revealed significant main effects for time (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant interactions were found in any of the muscle functional tests and blood markers between groups and time courses. Our results suggest that a rugby game induces muscle damage and reduces muscle function. However, CWI has no significant restorative effect after an 80-minute rugby game in terms of muscle damage. Key Points Cold water immersion study for the recovery of rugby players Muscle strength and muscle power were mainly evaluated as well as muscle enzymes of muscle break down Subjects were highly trained rugby players with control group PMID:25177190

  14. Quasi-phase-matching high harmonic generation using trains of pulses produced using an array of birefringent plates.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Kevin; Robinson, Tom; Hooker, Simon M

    2012-03-12

    Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation using trains of up to 8 counter-propagating pulses is explored. For trains of up to 4 pulses the measured enhancement of the harmonic signal scales with the number of pulses N as (N + 1)², as expected. However, for trains with N > 4, no further enhancement of the harmonic signal is observed. This effect is ascribed to changes of the coherence length Lc within the generating medium. Techniques for overcoming the variation of Lc are discussed. The pressure dependence of quasi-phase-matching is investigated and the switch from true-phase-matching to quasi-phase-matching is observed.

  15. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  16. Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.

  17. Reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise using a novel swimming training machine.

    PubMed

    Swaine, I L; Hunter, A M; Carlton, K J; Wiles, J D; Coleman, D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses, to incremental whole-body exercise using a novel swimming training machine. 8 swimmers with a mean age of 23.7 ± 4.6 (yrs), stature 1.77 ± 0.13 (m) and body mass of 74.7 ± 2.8 (kg) gave informed consent and participated in repeat exercise testing on the machine. All subjects performed 2 incremental exercise tests to exhaustion using front crawl movements. From these tests peak oxygen consumption (VO(₂peak)), peak heart rate (HR(peak)), peak power output (W (peak)) and individual limb power outputs were determined. Results showed there were no significant differences between test 1 and 2 for any variable at exhaustion, and the CV% ranged from 2.8 to 3.4%. The pooled mean values were; VO(₂peak) 3.7 ± 0.65 L.min⁻¹, HR (peak) 178.7 ± 6.6 b.min⁻¹ and W (peak) 349.7 ± 16.5 W. The mean contributions to the total power output from the legs and arms were (37.3 ± 4.1% and 62.7 ± 5.1% respectively). These results show that it is possible to measure individual limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary parameters reproducibly during whole-body exercise using this training machine, at a range of exercise intensities.

  18. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    DOLEZAL, SAMANTHA M.; FRESE, DEREK L.; LLEWELLYN, TAMRA L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior. PMID:27990226

  19. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Samantha M; Frese, Derek L; Llewellyn, Tamra L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior.

  20. A three-phase soft-switched high-power-density dc/dc converter for high power applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeDoncker, R.W.A.A. ); Divan, D.M.; Kheraluwala, M.H. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper three dc/dc converter topologies suitable for high-power-density high-power applications are presented. All three circuits operate in a soft-switched manner, making possible a reduction in device switching losses and an increase in switching frequency. The three-phase dual-bridge converter proposed is seen to have the most favorable characteristics. This converter consists of two three-phase inverter stages operating in a high-frequency six-step mode. In contrast to existing single-phase ac-link dc/dc converters, lower turn-off peak currents in the power devices and lower rms current ratings for both the input and output filter capacitors are obtained. This is in addition to smaller filter element values due to the higher-frequency content of the input and output waveforms. Furthermore, the use of a three phase symmetrical transformer instead of single-phase transformers and a better utilization of the available apparent power of the transformer (as a consequence of the controlled output inverter) significantly increase the power density attainable.

  1. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  2. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-17

    The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.

  3. The Formation of Phase Structure in the Creation of Soliton Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jason; Luo, De; Hulet, Randall

    2016-05-01

    Matter-wave soliton trains were initially observed following an interaction quench in a condensate of 7Li atoms. The relative phase between neighboring solitons was inferred to differ by π, giving the appearance of a repulsive interaction between them. The process by which this phase structure is formed is unknown. Starting with a condensate of 7Li atoms in the | 1 , 1 > state, we study the initial formation of soliton trains by quenching the magnetic field to rapidly vary the interaction from repulsive to attractive in a quasi-1-D system. We study the dynamics of the system shortly after the quench, using multiple in situ images. We previously used this technique to study soliton-soliton collisions. Work supported by the NSF, an ARO MURI Grant, and the Welch Foundation.

  4. Phase-Controlled Bistability of a Dark Soliton Train in a Polariton Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goblot, V.; Nguyen, H. S.; Carusotto, I.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Amo, A.; Bloch, J.

    2016-11-01

    We use a one-dimensional polariton fluid in a semiconductor microcavity to explore the nonlinear dynamics of counterpropagating interacting Bose fluids. The intrinsically driven-dissipative nature of the polariton fluid allows us to use resonant pumping to impose a phase twist across the fluid. When the polariton-polariton interaction energy becomes comparable to the kinetic energy, linear interference fringes transform into a train of solitons. A novel type of bistable behavior controlled by the phase twist across the fluid is experimentally evidenced.

  5. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase III. Electronic Warfare Trainers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase III- Electronic Warfare Trainers) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Polzella . Donald J...Features, addressed a portion of this subthrust. Dr. Wayne Waag (AFHRL/OTU) was the Contract Monitor and Dr. Donald J. Polzella and Dr. David C. Hubbard...training is practicable (see Polzella , 1983, p.8). However, instructional features are expensive to implement, especially those features that require the

  6. Effects of Different Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Frequencies on Muscle Power and Muscle Quality in Trained Elderly Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Rodrigo; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Radaelli, Régis; Schoenell, Maira; Izquierdo, Mikel; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Umpierre, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Muscle power is a strong predictor of functional status in the elderly population and is required to perform different daily activities. To compare the effects of different weekly training frequencies on muscle power and muscle quality induced by concurrent training (resistance + aerobic) in previously trained elderly men. Twenty-four trained elderly men (65 ± 4 years), previously engaged in a regular concurrent training program, three times per week, for the previous five months, were randomly allocated to concurrent training programs in which training was performed either twice a week (2·week-1, n = 12) or three times per week (3·week-1, n = 12). The groups trained with an identical exercise intensity and volume per session for 10 weeks. Before and after the exercise training, we examined muscle power, as estimated by countermovement jump height; knee extensor isokinetic peak torque at 60 and 180o.s-1; and muscle quality, a quotient between the one-repetition maximum of the knee extensors and the sum of quadriceps femoris muscle thickness determined by ultrasonography. Additionally, as secondary outcomes, blood pressure and reactive hyperemia were evaluated. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were used and statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. Muscular power (2·week-1: 7%, and 3·week-1: 10%) and muscle quality (2·week-1: 15%, and 3·week-1: 8%) improved with the concurrent exercise training (p < 0.001) but with no differences between groups. The isokinetic peak torque at 60 (2·week-1: 4%, and 3·week-1: 2%) and 180o.s-1 (2·week-1: 7%, and 3·week-1: 1%) increased in both groups (p = 0.036 and p=0.014, respectively). There were no changes in blood pressure or reactive hyperemia with the concurrent training. Concurrent training performed twice a week promotes similar adaptations in muscular power and muscle quality when compared with the same program performed three times per week in previously trained elderly men. PMID:28053820

  7. A topological investigation of phase transitions of cascading failures in power grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koç, Yakup; Warnier, Martijn; Van Mieghem, Piet; Kooij, Robert E.; Brazier, Frances M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cascading failures are one of the main reasons for blackouts in electric power transmission grids. The economic cost of such failures is in the order of tens of billion dollars annually. The loading level of power system is a key aspect to determine the amount of the damage caused by cascading failures. Existing studies show that the blackout size exhibits phase transitions as the loading level increases. This paper investigates the impact of the topology of a power grid on phase transitions in its robustness. Three spectral graph metrics are considered: spectral radius, effective graph resistance and algebraic connectivity. Experimental results from a model of cascading failures in power grids on the IEEE power systems demonstrate the applicability of these metrics to design/optimise a power grid topology for an enhanced phase transition behaviour of the system.

  8. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  9. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  10. Power generation by exchange of latent heats of phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, S.; Levenson, W.L.

    1981-08-11

    A power system is provided that uses the latent heat of fusion of water to raise the potential energy of a working fluid to a level that upon release generates power, preferably electrical power. The system is self-sustaining except for the energy that is supplied in water entering the system. The inlet water can be at any temperature within its liquid range under atmospheric or super atmospheric pressure, can advantageously contain the sensible waste heat typical of effluent from fossil fuel or nuclear power plants, can be relatively pure or be contaminated as with sewage or be the medium of a colloidal suspension, or consist of marine or other saline waters. In every case, purification of the water by freezing, for example, desalination, is accomplished without additional power consumption. A selected working fluid that boils at a temperature substantially below the freezing point of water is brought in the liquid state into contact with the water or other aqueous medium, causing the water to freeze and the working fluid to vaporize under pressure; the produced ice is removed; a portion of the so-produced ice is admixed with a eutectic forming salt to create a cooling medium at a temperature below the condensation temperature of the cooling fluid; the working-fluid vapors are preferably superheated by inlet aqueous medium and are released from autogenic elevated pressure to drive a turbine. Working fluid vapors are condensed by said cooling medium and returned by pumping into contact with inlet aqueous medium.

  11. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  12. A preliminary study of solar powdered aircraft and associated power trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Fortenbach, C. D.; Dimiceli, E. V.; Parks, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of regeneratively powered solar high altitude powered platform (HAPP) remotely piloted vehicles was assessed. Those technologies which must be pursued to make long duration solar HAPPs feasible are recommended. A methodology which involved characterization and parametric analysis of roughly two dozen variables to determine vehicles capable of fulfilling the primary mission are defined. One of these vehicles was then conceptually designed. Variations of each major design parameter were investigated along with state-of-the-art changes in power train component capabilities. The midlatitude mission studied would be attainable by a solar HAPP if fuel cell, electrolyzer and photovoltaic technologies are pursued. Vehicles will be very large and have very lightweight structures in order to attain the combinations of altitude and duration required by the primary mission.

  13. Control Method for Achieving High Power Factor in Single-Phase to Three-Phase Converters without Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Takahiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Haga, Hitoshi; Shibata, Junji

    In this paper, we propose a method for the digital control of IPM motors in order to achieve a high power factor in single-phase to three-phase power converters without reactors or electrolytic capacitors. For achieving the unity power factor under any load condition and any speed condition, we propose a new digital control method that involves the use of a new feedback technique and a new feedforward technique on the source-current regulator side. The proposed digital control system is constructed by using DSP devices. In this paper, we also propose a new method for the compensation of one sampling delay time. The superior performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results. The experimental results were obtained using 1.5[kW] inverter system, which consists of a vector control system with a 14[μF] dc-link capacitor. The maximum power factor obtained in the experiments was 96.8[%].

  14. Influence of the cubic spectral phase of high-power laser pulses on their self-phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, V N; Kochetkov, A A; Yakovlev, I V; Mironov, S Yu; Shaykin, A A; Khazanov, E A

    2016-02-28

    Spectral broadening of high-power transform-limited laser pulses under self-phase modulation in a medium with cubic nonlinearity is widely used to reduce pulse duration and to increase its power. It is shown that the cubic spectral phase of the initial pulse leads to a qualitatively different broadening of its spectrum: the spectrum has narrow peaks and broadening decreases. However, the use of chirped mirrors allows such pulses to be as effectively compressed as transform-limited pulses. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

    PubMed Central

    de Hoyo, Moisés; Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Mateo-Cortes, Jesús; Cadenas-Sánchez, María Monserrat; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT) group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT) group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5–8 sets with 8 repetitions) and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax)) over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m), countermovement jump height (CMJH), 20 m change of direction ability (COD) and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004) was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s), CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm) and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N) in both groups (p < 0.05). However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04). In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance. PMID:26557200

  16. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks.

    PubMed

    de Hoyo, Moisés; Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Mateo-Cortes, Jesús; Cadenas-Sánchez, María Monserrat; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT) group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT) group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions) and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax)) over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m), countermovement jump height (CMJH), 20 m change of direction ability (COD) and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004) was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: -0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: -0.11 0.10 s), CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm) and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N) in both groups (p < 0.05). However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (-0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04). In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.

  17. Power System Control Study. Phase I. Integrated Control Techniques. Phase II. Detail Design and System Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    reliable and fault tolerant system. The advanced control technologies integrated include:electric engine start, automatic load manage- ment...Generation System Study .............................. 104 5.2 Reliability Assessment of Power System .................... 119 5.3 EMUX Processor...132 30 Best Main Power System Configuration Based on Reliability Assessment ..................................... 133 31 Main and Emergency Power

  18. Power Efficient Hydraulic Systems. Volume 1. Study Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    AIRCRAFT SUBSYSTEMS TABLE 14. Baseline aircraft systems o HYDRAULIC SYSTEM o ELECTRICAL SYSTEM o 8000 PSI, 3 INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS o HVDC POWER o APU...valve (pump) HM hinge moment hp horsepower hr hour HVDC high voltage direct current Hz Hertz (cycles per second) IAP integrated actuator package I.D

  19. A 6-week Sprint Interval Training Program Changes Anaerobic Power, Quadriceps Moment, and Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness.

    PubMed

    Han, Seunguk; Lee, Hyungkyu; Kim, Hyungkee; Kim, Dasol; Choi, Changkyu; Park, Jihong

    2017-02-01

    We examined the effects of a 6-week 40-m one-way sprint interval training program (based on sprint time). 13 untrained healthy male collegiate students performed six 40-m sprints with a 60-s resting interval between sprints during the first week, and one sprint was added each week until the sixth week. If the 40-m sprint time exceeded 110% of the fastest baseline 40-m sprint time, the run was repeated. Repeated-sprint cycling test (every 3 weeks), quadriceps moment (every 2 weeks), and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous tissue thickness (every 2 weeks) were measured. Compared to baseline, mean power output improved at week 3 (16.27 vs. 17.73 Watt/kg, p=0.004). Regardless of side, quadriceps moment began to increase at week 4 (2.88 vs. 3.15 N·m/kg, p=0.03). Subcutaneous tissue thickness was reduced at week 2 (abdominal: 11.19 vs. 9.65 mm, p=0.01; thigh: 9.17 vs. 8.12 mm, p=0.009). Our results suggest that (1) sprint training with an intensity of 110% of the fastest baseline 40-m sprint time with the addition of one sprint per week produces similar effects to other training programs, and (2) untrained individuals need 4 weeks of training for strength development in the quadriceps and 2 weeks for reduction in fat tissue thickness.

  20. Influence of Strength Level on the Rest Interval Required During an Upper-Body Power Training Session.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, Jose Luis; Botella Ruiz, Javier; Sabido, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Hernández Davó, JL, Botella Ruiz, J, and Sabido, R. Influence of strength level on the rest interval required during an upper-body power training session. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 339-347, 2017-The present study aimed to investigate the influence of subjects' strength level on both the ability to maintain power output performance and the physiological and perceived exertion responses during a power training session when different rest intervals (RI) are used. Thirty-eight (18 men and 20 women) subjects were divided into a stronger or weaker group based on their ability to produce peak power output. Testing was performed using the same protocol (5 sets of 8 repetitions with 40% of 1 repetition maximum) in the bench press throw exercise, but differing the RI between sets (1, 2, and 3 minutes). During the sessions, mechanical (peak power), physiological ([La]) and perceptual (RPE) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) 24 and 48 hours after the training session was reported. Both stronger and weaker (men and women) groups showed significant impairments in mechanical, physiological, and perceptual data when resting 1 minute. Nevertheless, although stronger groups were able to sustain power output over the sets when using the 2-minute RI, weaker groups needed at least 3 minutes to maintain power output performance. Therefore, strength level heavily influences the rest interval required during a power training session and should be taken into account when prescribing such training sessions.

  1. Electrical and mechanical H(max)-to-M(max) ratio in power- and endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, N A; Martin, A; Babault, N; Pensini, M; Lucas, B; Schieppati, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of soleus motor units activated during maximal H reflex and direct M response among subjects with different histories of physical activity. Power-trained athletes produced stronger twitches, with a higher rate of twitch tension buildup and relaxation, than their endurance counterparts for both maximal H-reflex and maximal M-wave responses. The maximal H-reflex-to-maximal M-wave ratios for both force output (twitch) and EMG wave amplitude were significantly lower in power-trained than endurance-trained athletes. However, power-trained athletes exhibited a significantly greater twitch-to-EMG ratio for the reflexly activated motor units with respect to the entire motor pool, whereas endurance-trained athletes had comparable twitch-to-EMG ratios for both reflexly and directly activated units. Power training increases the force output of the whole ensemble of the motor units, thereby compensating for the lower efficacy of the reflex transmission between Ia spindle afferent input and soleus alpha-motoneuron. On the other hand, the lower level of force evoked by the reflexly activated units in endurance-trained athletes is associated with a greater motor pool reflex excitability. Therefore, endurance-trained athletes produce the necessary force by recruitment of more slow-twitch units than do other subjects for comparable levels of force and type of task.

  2. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  3. Early-phase adaptations to intrahospital training in strength and functional mobility of children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Alejandro F; Fleck, Steven J; Chamorro-Viña, Carolina; Maté-Muñoz, José L; Moral, Susana; García-Castro, Javier; Ramírez, Manuel; Madero, Luis; Lucia, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    Improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have contributed to the high survival rate (approximately 70%) of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, during treatment, lack of physical activity and treatment cause various short- to long-term side effects, such as muscle atrophy and physical deconditioning. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an intrahospital, short-duration (8 weeks) exercise training program on muscle strength and endurance and functional mobility of children with ALL. Seven children (4 boys and 3 girls; 4-7 years of age) who were in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL were selected as subjects. Three training sessions of 90- to 120-minute duration were performed each week. Each session included 11 different strength exercises engaging the major muscle groups and aerobic training. Gains in strength and endurance were assessed with a 6 repetition maximum test for upper (seated bench press and seated lateral row) and lower extremities (leg press). Gains in functional mobility were assessed with the time up and go test (TUG) and the timed up and down stairs test (TUDS). Performance was significantly improved after the training program in all strength tests (p < 0.01 for seated bench press and p < 0.05 for both seated lateral row and seated leg press) and in the TUG test (p < 0.05). In summary, a period of time as short as 8 weeks is enough to produce clinically relevant early-phase adaptations in children receiving treatment against ALL (i.e., improved functional mobility and muscle strength). Although more research is needed in the area of exercise training and pediatric cancer, exercise sciences can play a beneficial role in assisting both oncologists in treating cancer and improving children's quality of life during and after treatment.

  4. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  5. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Vishwa; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ghosh, R.

    2011-12-01

    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, α. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through α in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as α varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to α.

  6. A Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier 2-micron Laser Using Fiber Phase-conjugate Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Shkunov, V.; Rockwell, D.; Betin, A.; Wang, J.; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, a 2-micron master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser using a fiber based phase conjugation mirror has been demonstrated. The beam quality improvement and 56% of the PCM reflectivity have been achieved.

  7. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the AVESTAR Center is poised to develop a

  8. Coherent Noise Rejection in a Three-Phase Power Inverter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    DC value that has the same amplitude as the sine wave. The power inverter uses an optimal form of pulse-width modulation ( PWM ), called space vector...subtracted from the control input to compensate for the disturbance. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Width Modulation ( PWM ), Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR...uses an optimal form of pulse-width modulation ( PWM ), called space vector modulation, which causes the harmonic noise. In order to reject the

  9. Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  10. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  11. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  12. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  13. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity. PMID:27306959

  14. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-16

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  15. Phase incremented echo train acquisition applied to magnetic resonance pore imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, S. A.; Galvosas, P.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient phase cycling schemes remain a challenge for NMR techniques if the pulse sequences involve a large number of rf-pulses. Especially complex is the Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence where the number of rf-pulses can range from hundreds to several thousands. Our recent implementation of Magnetic Resonance Pore Imaging (MRPI) is based on a CPMG rf-pulse sequence in order to refocus the effect of internal gradients inherent in porous media. While the spin dynamics for spin- 1 / 2 systems in CPMG like experiments are well understood it is still not straight forward to separate the desired pathway from the spectrum of unwanted coherence pathways. In this contribution we apply Phase Incremented Echo Train Acquisition (PIETA) to MRPI. We show how PIETA offers a convenient way to implement a working phase cycling scheme and how it allows one to gain deeper insights into the amplitudes of undesired pathways.

  16. Phase diagram of softly repulsive systems: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law potentials.

    PubMed

    Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Giaquinta, Paolo V

    2005-10-08

    We redraw, using state-of-the-art methods for free-energy calculations, the phase diagrams of two reference models for the liquid state: the Gaussian and inverse-power-law repulsive potentials. Notwithstanding the different behaviors of the two potentials for vanishing interparticle distances, their thermodynamic properties are similar in a range of densities and temperatures, being ruled by the competition between the body-centered-cubic (bcc) and face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline structures and the fluid phase. We confirm the existence of a reentrant bcc phase in the phase diagram of the Gaussian-core model, just above the triple point. We also trace the bcc-fcc coexistence line of the inverse-power-law model as a function of the power exponent n and relate the common features in the phase diagrams of such systems to the softness degree of the interaction.

  17. Alterations in speed of squat movement and the use of accommodated resistance among college athletes training for power.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Kenn, Joseph G; Dermody, Bryan M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of heavy/slow movements and variable resistance training on peak power and strength development. Forty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes (age: 21.4 +/- 2.1 years, all men) were recruited for this 12-week training intervention study. Maximum strength and jumping power were assessed before and after the training program. Athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: heavy resistance/slow movement (Slow), lighter resistance and fast movement (Fast), or fast movements with accommodated resistance (FACC). All training groups performed similar training programs comprising free weight resistance training with lower-body compound exercises. The only difference among the training interventions was the speed at which subjects performed the squat exercise and the use of bands (Slow group: 0.2-0.4 meters/second; Fast group: 0.6-0.8 meters/second; FACC group trained 0.6-0.8 meters/second with the addition of accommodated resistance in the form of large elastic bands). Post-test data revealed a significant difference between power improvements between the Slow and FACC groups (p = 0.02). Percent increases and effect sizes (ES) demonstrated a much greater treatment effect in the FACC group (17.8%, ES = 1.06) with the Fast group (11.0%, ES = 0.80) adapting more than the Slow group (4.8%, ES = 0.28). The FACC and Slow groups improved strength comparatively (FACC: 9.44%, ES = 1.10; Slow: 9.59%, ES = 1.08). The Fast group improved strength considerably less, 3.20% with an effect size of only 0.38. Variable resistance training with elastic bands appears to provide greater performance benefits with regard to peak force and peak power than heavy, slow resistance exercise. Sports conditioning professionals can utilize bands, and high-speed contractions, to increase power development.

  18. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  19. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  20. Design of Training Systems, Phase II Report, Volume II; Detailed Model Descriptions. TAEG Report No. 12-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Equipment Center, Orlando, FL. Training Analysis and Evaluation Group.

    The Design of Training Systems (DOTS) project was initiated by the Department of Defense (DOD) to develop tools for the effective management of military training organizations. Phase 2 involved the design and development of three computer-based mathematical models, described in detail in this report. The models described are the System…

  1. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  2. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Job Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Job Profiles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  3. Quantum dot SOA input power dynamic range improvement for differential-phase encoded signals.

    PubMed

    Vallaitis, T; Bonk, R; Guetlein, J; Hillerkuss, D; Li, J; Brenot, R; Lelarge, F; Duan, G H; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2010-03-15

    Experimentally we find a 10 dB input power dynamic range advantage for amplification of phase encoded signals with quantum dot SOA as compared to low-confinement bulk SOA. An analysis of amplitude and phase effects shows that this improvement can be attributed to the lower alpha-factor found in QD SOA.

  4. Investigations of SBS and Laser Gain Competition in High-Power Phase Modulated Fiber Amplifiers (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-26

    through radio frequency (RF) phase modulation. Generally, linewidth broadening is achieved through a filtered microwave white noise source (WNS). WNS...signals. By seeding with appropriate wavelengths and seed powers, the effective length of the amplifier is shortened as the narrow linewidth signal...line (phase modulated) 1064 nm seed in conjunction with a broadband 1036 nm seed source. 2. PHASE MODULATED LASER GAIN COMPETITION Recently, we have

  5. Metasurface with Reconfigurable Reflection Phase for High-Power Microwave Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-07

    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2012 to 07-01-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metasurface with Reconfigurable Reflection Phase for High- Power...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We propose a metasurface with reconfigurable reflection phase that can be utilized in high...the metasurface has a reflection phase tuning range of approximately 300 degrees with an associated change in capacitance of 2.7 pF. 15. SUBJECT

  6. Microscale phase change of fuels for MEMS power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haendler, Brenda

    As portable electronics technology advances, systems are becoming smaller and more energy intensive. While batteries are currently the only commercial power source for these applications, work is being done to create liquid fuel based portable power packs. These systems would leverage the higher energy density (W-hr/l) and specific energy (W-hr/kg) of liquid hydrocarbon fuels over available battery chemistries. For micro engines and small fuels cells there are advantages to preheating and vaporizing the fuel in a microchannel. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on understanding and characterizing the temperature and pressure signatures that result from microscale boiling of fuels in etched silicon channels approximately 100 mm in diameter. Building on previous microscale boiling work which used water as the working fluid for electronics cooling applications, the studies presented in this dissertation use both water and fuels including methanol, ethanol, and octane. Results are presented in the form of pressure and temperature measurements for a range of working fluids, volumetric flow rates, superheat temperatures and channel geometries. From a Fourier transform analysis of the pressure signatures, it was found that the frequency of the pressure fluctuations increases with superheat for ethanol as the working fluid while for methanol the frequency increases with volumetric flow rate. Tests were also conducted with sudden expansion geometries, which reduce the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations and create a localized cooling in the working fluid. Results are compared using fluid properties, including surface tension and heat of vaporization, and non-dimensional numbers including the Weber and the Jakob number. This study presents a significant contribution to the body of knowledge on microscale boiling. One application of microscale boiling for portable power technologies is also presented. Fuel cracking, breaking apart of long hydrocarbon chain

  7. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  8. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  9. A Linear Model of Phase-Dependent Power Correlations in Neuronal Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, David; Vicente, Raul; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that effective interactions between two neuronal populations are supported by the phase difference between the oscillations in these two populations, a hypothesis referred to as “communication through coherence” (CTC). Experimental work quantified effective interactions by means of the power correlations between the two populations, where power was calculated on the local field potential and/or multi-unit activity. Here, we present a linear model of interacting oscillators that accounts for the phase dependency of the power correlation between the two populations and that can be used as a reference for detecting non-linearities such as gain control. In the experimental analysis, trials were sorted according to the coupled phase difference of the oscillators while the putative interaction between oscillations was taking place. Taking advantage of the modeling, we further studied the dependency of the power correlation on the uncoupled phase difference, connection strength, and topology. Since the uncoupled phase difference, i.e., the phase relation before the effective interaction, is the causal variable in the CTC hypothesis we also describe how power correlations depend on that variable. For uni-directional connectivity we observe that the width of the uncoupled phase dependency is broader than for the coupled phase. Furthermore, the analytical results show that the characteristics of the phase dependency change when a bidirectional connection is assumed. The width of the phase dependency indicates which oscillation frequencies are optimal for a given connection delay distribution. We propose that a certain width enables a stimulus-contrast dependent extent of effective long-range lateral connections. PMID:21808618

  10. Effects of strength and power training on neuromuscular variables in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Lilian França; Tricoli, Valmor; Barroso, Renato; Rodacki A, L F; Russo, Luciano; Aihara, André Yui; da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Artur; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular adaptations produced by strength-training (ST) and power-training (PT) regimens in older individuals. Participants were balanced by quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg-press 1-repetition maximum and randomly assigned to an ST group (n = 14; 63.6 ± 4.0 yr, 79.7 ± 17.2 kg, and 163.9 ± 9.8 cm), a PT group (n = 16; 64.9 ± 3.9 yr, 63.9 ± 11.9 kg, and 157.4 ± 7.7 cm), or a control group (n = 13; 63.0 ± 4.0 yr, 67.2 ± 10.8 kg, and 159.8 ± 6.8 cm). ST and PT were equally effective in increasing (a) maximum dynamic and isometric strength (p < .05), (b) increasing quadriceps muscle CSA (p < .05), and (c) decreasing electrical mechanical delay of the vastus lateralis muscle (p < .05). There were no significant changes in neuromuscular activation after training. The novel finding of the current study is that PT seems to be an attractive alternative to regular ST to maintain and improve muscle mass.

  11. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  12. Body-building without power training: endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    PubMed

    Dietz; Piersma; Dekinga

    1999-10-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power training and/or be effected by an endogenous circannual rhythm. Red knots of two subspecies with contrasting migration patterns were placed in a climate-controlled aviary (12 h:12 h L:D photoperiod) where exercise was limited. Using ultrasonography, we measured pectoral muscle size as the birds stored fat in preparation for migration. At capture, there were no differences in body mass and pectoral muscle mass between the two subspecies. As they prepared for southward and northward migration, respectively, the tropically wintering subspecies (C. c. canutus) gained 31 g and the temperate wintering subspecies (C. c. islandica) gained 41 g. During this time, pectoral mass increased by 43-44 % of initial mass, representing 39 % (C. c. canutus) and 29 % (C. c. islandica) of the increase in body mass. The gizzard showed atrophy in conjunction with a diet change from molluscs to food pellets. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the birds' limited movement may still be a prerequisite for pectoral muscle hypertrophy, extensive power training is certainly not a requirement. Muscle hypertrophy in the absence of photoperiod cues suggests the involvement of an endogenous circannual process.

  13. RF peak power reduction in CAIPIRINHA excitation by interslice phase optimization.

    PubMed

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Poser, Benedikt A; Tse, Desmond H Y; Hoogduin, Hans; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to show that the overall peak power of RF pulses for CAIPIRINHA excitation can be substantially reduced by applying interslice phase relaxation. The optimal phases are scan dependent and can be quickly calculated by the proposed method. The multi-band RF pulse design is implemented as the minimization of a linear objective function with quadratic constraints. The interslice phase is considered to be a variable for optimization. In the case of a phase cycling scheme (CAIPIRINHA), the peak power is considered over all pulses. The computation time (about 1 s) is compatible with online RF pulse design. It is shown that the optimal interslice phases depend on the CAIPIRINHA scheme used and that RF peak power is reduced when the CAIPIRINHA phase cycling is taken into account in the optimization. The proposed method is extremely fast and results in RF pulses with low peak power for CAIPIRINHA excitation. The MATLAB implementation is given in the appendix; it allows for online determination of scan-dependent phase parameters. Furthermore, the method can be easily extended to pTx shimming systems in the context of multi-slice excitations, and this possibility is included in the software.

  14. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05). Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key Points Power endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period. Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power

  15. High-Power Amplifier Compatible Internally Sensed Optical Phased Array for Space Debris Tracking and Maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, L.; Francis, S.; Sibley, P.; Ward, R.; Smith, C.; McClelland, D.; Shaddock, D.

    2016-09-01

    Optical phased arrays (OPAs) provide a way to scale optical power beyond the capabilities of conventional CW lasers via coherent beam combination. By stabilising the relative output phase of multiple spatially separate lasers, OPAs form a coherent optical wavefront in the far field. Since the phase of each laser can be controlled independently, OPAs also have the ability to manipulate the distribution of optical power in the far field, and therefore may provide the capability to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. Combined with their inherent scalability and high power handling capabilities, OPAs are a promising technology for CW space debris ranging and manoeuvring. The OPA presented here is unique in its ability to sense the phase of each laser internally, without requiring any external sampling optics between it and the telescope. This allows the internally sensed OPA to be constructed entirely within fibre, utilising high-power fiber amplifiers to scale optical power beyond the limits of any conventional single lasers. The total power that can be delivered by each emitter in the OPA is limited only by the onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering, a non-linear effect that clamps the amount of power that can be delivered through a fiber waveguide. A three element internally sensed OPA developed at the Australian National University has been demonstrated to coherently combine three commercial 15 Watt fiber amplifiers with an output phase stability of one 200th of a wavelength. We have also demonstrated the ability to dynamically manipulate the distribution of optical power in the far-field at a bandwidth of up to 10 kHz. Since the OPA's control system is implemented using field-programmable gate-array technology, the system may be scaled beyond 100 emitters, potentially reaching the kilowatt level optical powers required to perturb the orbit of space debris.

  16. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Pierre K; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M

    2016-06-16

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment.

  17. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Pierre K.; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment. PMID:27340808

  18. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training. PMID:26907336

  19. Temporal Aspects of the V[o.sub.2] Response at the Power Output Associated with V[o.sub.2]peak in Well Trained Cyclists-Implications for Interval Training Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Paul B.; Shing, Cecilia M.; Jenkins, David G.

    2004-01-01

    The power output achieved at peak oxygen consumption (V[O.sub.2]peak) and the time this power can be maintained (i.e., Tmax) have been used in prescribing high-intensity interval training. In this context, the present study examined temporal aspects of the V[O.sub.2] response to exercise at the cycling power that output well trained cyclists…

  20. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a "IF homodyne" receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses.

  1. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a ``IF homodyne`` receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses. 5 figs.

  2. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  3. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p < 0.02). Bench press (5 vs. 18%), leg press (17 vs. 28%), and Smith machine box squat (27 vs. 35%) strength increased after both compound and complex training. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle angle and gastrocnemius fascicle angle were increased with both compound and complex training. Gastrocnemius fascicle length decreased only after complex training (-11.8 ± 9.4%, p = 0.006). Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas increased only after complex training (p ≤ 0.05). Fiber type composition was not affected by either intervention. These results suggest that short-term strength and power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  4. Adaptations in upper-body maximal strength and power output resulting from long-term resistance training in experienced strength-power athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to observe changes in maximal upper-body strength and power and shifts in the load-power curve across a multiyear period in experienced resistance trainers. Twelve professional rugby league players who regularly performed combined maximal strength and power training were observed across a 4-year period with test data reported every 2 years (years 1998, 2000, and 2002). Upper-body strength was assessed by the 1 repetition maximum bench press and maximum power during bench press throws (BT Pmax) with various barbell resistances of 40-80 kg. During the initial testing, players also were identified as elite (n = 6) or subelite (n = 6), depending upon whether they participated in the elite first-division national league or second-division league. This subgrouping allowed for a comparison of the scope of changes dependent upon initial strength and training experience. The subelite group was significantly younger, less strong, and less powerful than the elite group, but no other difference existed in height or body mass in 1998. Across the 4-year period, significant increases in strength occurred for the group as a whole and larger increases were observed for the subelite than the elite group, verifying the limited scope that exists for strength gain in more experienced, elite resistance-trained athletes. A similar trend occurred for changes in BT Pmax. This long-term observation confirms that the rate of progress in strength and power development diminishes with increased strength levels and resistance training experience. Furthermore, it also indicates that strength and power can still be increased despite a high volume of concurrent resistance and endurance training.

  5. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Magnetic field simulation of magnetic phase detection sensor for steam generator tube in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Son, Derac; Park, Duck-gun; Kim, Yong-il

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic phases and defects are partly produced in steam generator tubes by stress and heat, because steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are used under high temperature, high pressure, and radioactivity. The magnetic phases induce an error in the detection of the defects in steam generator tubes by the conventional eddy current method. So a new method is needed for detecting the magnetic phases in the steam generator tubes. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils and simulated the signal by the magnetic phases and defects in the Inconnel 600 tube.

  7. Open-phase operating modes of power flow control topologies in a Smart Grid Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The power flow regulating circuit node in an alternating current system is reviewed. The circuit node is accomplished based on a thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) with controlled thyristor switch. Research results of the individual phase control of the output voltage for the TCPAR are presented. Analytical expressions for the overvoltage factor calculation in the thyristor switch circuit for open-phase operating modes are received. Based on evaluation of overvoltage in operational and emergency modes, the implementability conditions of the individual phase control of the output voltage are determined. Under these conditions, maximal performance and complete controllability are provided.

  8. The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.

  9. Single Phase Passive Rectification Versus Active Rectification Applied to High Power Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Walter; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Stirling engine converters are being considered as potential candidates for high power energy conversion systems required by future NASA explorations missions. These types of engines typically contain two major moving parts, the displacer and the piston, in which a linear alternator is attached to the piston to produce a single phase sinusoidal waveform at a specific electric frequency. Since all Stirling engines perform at low electrical frequencies (less or equal to 100 Hz), space explorations missions that will employ these engines will be required to use DC power management and distribution (PMAD) system instead of an AC PMAD system to save on space and weight. Therefore, to supply such DC power an AC to DC converter is connected to the Stirling engine. There are two types of AC to DC converters that can be employed, a passive full bridge diode rectifier and an active switching full bridge rectifier. Due to the inherent line inductance of the Stirling Engine-Linear Alternator (SE-LA), their sinusoidal voltage and current will be phase shifted producing a power factor below 1. In order to keep power the factor close to unity, both AC to DC converters topologies will implement power factor correction. This paper discusses these power factor correction methods as well as their impact on overall mass for exploration applications. Simulation results on both AC to DC converters topologies with power factor correction as a function of output power and SE-LA line inductance impedance are presented and compared.

  10. Effects of different resistance training volumes on strength and power in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Perez-Bibao, Txomin; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Triplett, N T

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different volume of resistance training (RT) on maximum strength and average power in college team sport athletes with no previous RT experience. Thirty-two subjects (20 men and 12 women, age = 23.1 ± 1.57 years) were randomly divided into 4 groups: low volume (LV; n = 8), 1 set per exercise and 3 sets per muscle group; moderate volume (MV; n = 8), 2 sets per exercise and 6 sets per muscle group; high volume (HV; n = 8), 3 sets per exercise and 9 sets per muscle group; and a non-RT control group (n = 8). The 3 intervention groups were trained for 6 weeks thrice weekly after a nonperiodized RT program differentiated only by the volume. Before (T1) and after training (T2), 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal average power (AP) produced on the bench press (BP), upright row (UR), and squat (SQ) were assessed by progressive resistance tests. One repetition maximum-BP and 1RM-UR increased significantly in the 3 interventions groups (p < 0.05), whereas only the HV group significantly improved 1RM-SQ (p < 0.01). The MV and HV groups increased AP-BP (p < 0.05), whereas only the LV group improved AP-SQ (p < 0.01). Moderate effect sizes (ES; >0.20 < 0.60) were observed for the 1RM-BP and 1RM-UR in the 3 training groups. High-volume group showed the larger ES for 1RM-BP (0.45), 1RM-UR (0.60), and 1RM-SQ (0.47), whereas the LV produced the higher ES for SQ-AP (0.53). During the initial adaptation period, a HV RT program seems to be a better strategy for improving strength, whereas during the season, an LV RT could be a reasonable option for maintaining strength and enhancing lower-body AP in team sport athletes.

  11. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.

  12. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Bárbara Maria; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Gomes, Tiago José Nardi; dos Santos, Tamires Daros; Vicente, Marília Severo; Pereira, Sérgio Nunes; Barbosa, Viviane Acunha; de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program: inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined training (aerobic and resistance) group (GCR + IMT, n=12) and combined training with respiratory exercises group (GCR, n=12), over a period of 12 weeks, with two sessions per week. Before and after intervention, the following measurements were obtained: maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax), peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and quality of life scores. Data were compared between pre- and post-intervention at baseline and the variation between the pre- and post-phase II cardiac rehabilitation program using the Student's t-test, except the categorical variables, which were compared using the Chi-square test. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to GCR, the GCR + IMT group showed larger increments in PImax (P<0.001), PEmax (P<0.001), peak VO2 (P<0.001) and quality of life scores (P<0.001). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the addition of inspiratory muscle training, even when applied for a short period, may potentiate the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training, becoming a simple and inexpensive strategy for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in phase II cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:27163422

  13. Switching speed effect of phase shift keying in SLED for generating high power microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zheng-Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Yu, Jian; Chen, Huai-Bi; Ning, Hui

    2016-01-01

    SLAC energy doubler (SLED) type radio-frequency pulse compressors are widely used in large-scale particle accelerators for converting long-duration moderate-power input pulses into short-duration high-power output pulses. Phase shift keying (PSK) is one of the key components in SLED pulse compression systems. Performance of the PSK will influence the output characteristics of the SLED, such as the rise-time of the output pulse, maximal peak power gain, and energy efficiency. In this paper, a high power microwave source based on power combining and pulse compression of conventional klystrons is introduced. The effects of nonideal PSK with slow switching speed and PSK without power output during the switching process are investigated, and the experimental results with nonideal PSK agree well with the analytical results.

  14. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  15. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  16. Phase scintillations due to equatorial F region irregularities with two-component power law spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Rastogi, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    Power spectra of weak phase scintillations on a 140-MHz signal, transmitted from the geostationary satellite ATS 6 and observed during premidnight and postmidnight periods at an equatorial station Ootacamund (magnetic dip 6 N), show that the nighttime equatorial F region irregularities in the wavelength range of about hundred meters to a few kilometers exhibit a two-component power law spectrum. The long- and short-wavelength spectral indices and the break scale at which the transition from a shallow to a steep slope occurs are determined self-consistently using both the phase and amplitude scintillation data. As the power spectra of phase scintillations do not exhibit the effect of Fresnel filtering, they provide fairly accurate estimates of the spectral indices and the break scale. These estimated parameters are utilized in a model calculation of the dependence of the S4 index on signal frequency based on weak scattering theory.

  17. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eonho; Dear, Alexis; Ferguson, Steven L; Seo, Dongil; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    This study compared SuperSlow resistance training (SRT) to traditional resistance training (TRT) during early phase adaptations in strength, aerobic capacity, and flexibility in college-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to SRT (n = 14); TRT (n = 13); or control (CON; n = 8) groups. To equalize training times, TRT trained 3 times per week for 25 minutes each session, whereas SRT trained twice a week for 35 minutes each session. Both groups trained for 4 weeks, whereas the CON group maintained normal daily activities. Workouts consisted of 5 exercises: shoulder press, chest press, leg press, low row, and lat pull down. The SRT group completed 1 set of each exercise at 50% 1RM until momentary failure with a 10-second concentric and a 10-second eccentric phase. The TRT group completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM for each exercise, with 4 seconds of contraction time for each repetition. Groups were statistically similar at baseline. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effect for flexibility with the greatest improvements occurring for the training groups (SRT 14.7% and TRT 11%). All strength tests had significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effects but no group or group by time interactions. Both training groups had large percent improvements in strength compared to CON, but the large variability associated with the SRT group resulted in only the TRT group being significantly different from the CON group. In conclusion, percent improvements were similar for the TRT and SRT groups, but only the TRT group reached statistical significance for the strength improvements, and both groups were equally effective for improving flexibility.

  18. Computation of inflationary cosmological perturbations in the power-law inflationary model using the phase-integral method

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Victor M.

    2007-03-15

    The phase-integral approximation devised by Froeman and Froeman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the power-law inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar and tensor power spectra are explicitly obtained up to ninth-order of the phase-integral approximation. We show that, the phase-integral approximation exactly reproduces the shape of the power spectra for scalar and tensor perturbations as well as the spectral indices. We compare the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation with the results for the power spectrum obtained with the slow-roll and uniform-approximation methods.

  19. Effects of saddle height on economy and anaerobic power in well-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Willard W; Green, James M

    2011-03-01

    In cycling, saddle height adjustment is critical for optimal performance and injury prevention. A 25-35° knee angle is recommended for injury prevention, whereas 109% of inseam, measured from floor to ischium, is recommended for optimal performance. Previous research has demonstrated that these 2 methods produce significantly different saddle heights and may influence cycling performance. This study compared performance between these 2 methods for determining saddle height. Subjects consisted of 11 well-trained (VO2max = 61.55 ± 4.72 ml·kg·min) male cyclists. Subjects completed a total of 8 performance trials consisting of a graded maximal protocol, three 15-minute economy trials, and 4 anaerobic power trials. Dependent measures for economy (VO2, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion) and anaerobic power (peak power and mean power) were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05). VO2 was significantly lower (reflecting greater economy) at a 25° knee angle (44.77 ± 6.40 ml·kg·min) in comparison to a 35° knee angle (45.22 ± 6.79 ml·kg·min) and 109% of inseam (45.98 ± 5.33 ml·kg·min). Peak power at a 25° knee angle (1,041.55 ± 168.72 W) was significantly higher in relation to 109% of inseam (1,002.05 ± 147.65 W). Mean power at a 25° knee angle (672.37 ± 90.21 W) was significantly higher in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Mean power was significantly higher at 109% of inseam (662.86 ± 79.72 W) in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Use of 109% of inseam fell outside the recommended 25-35° range 73% of the time. Use of 25° knee angle appears to provide optimal performance while keeping knee angle within the recommended range for injury prevention.

  20. The effects of tai chi chuan combined with vibration training on balance control and lower extremity muscle power.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key pointsEight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population.The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism.Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other.

  1. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  2. Power-scalable system of phase-locked single-mode diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Berger, L; Brauch, U; Giesen, A; Huegel, H; Opower, H

    1999-09-20

    The direct use of diode lasers for high-power applications in material processing is limited to applications with relatively low beam quality and power density requirements. To achieve high beam quality one must use single-mode diode lasers, however with the drawback of relatively low optical output powers from these components. To realize a high-power system while conserving the high beam quality of the individual emitters requires coherent coupling of the emitters. Such a power-scalable system consisting of 19 slave lasers that are injection locked by one master laser has been built and investigated, with low-power diode lasers used for system demonstration. The optical power of the 19 injection-locked lasers is coupled into polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers and geometrically superimposed by a lens array and a focusing lens. The phase of each emitter is controlled by a simple electronic phase-control loop. The coherence of each slave laser is stabilized by computer control of the laser current and guarantees a stable degree of coherence of the whole system of 0.7. An enhancement factor of 13.2 in peak power density compared with that which was achievable with the incoherent superposition of the diode lasers was observed.

  3. Simple model to explain instabilities in passively-phased high-power fiber laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bochove, Erik J.; Shakir, Sami A.; Aceves, Alejandro B.; Braiman, Yehuda; Deiterding, Ralf; Miller, Casey A; Colet, Pere R.; Jacobo, Adrian; Rhodes, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple physical mechanism to explain observed instabilities in the dynamics of passively phased fiber amplifier arrays that arises from two properties: First that a weak phase disturbance of the output field of the array is converted into a strong intensity disturbance through the mode-selective feedback mechanism. Second, that this intensity fluctuation regenerates a phase fluctuation due to the nonlinear properties of the amplifying media. At sufficiently high operating power levels this cyclic disturbance continues to grow upon each cavity round trip, creating instability. This simple picture is supported by the results of a linear stability analysis of the set of propagation and population rate equations, which are in good agreement with observed critical power levels. A third level of quantitative confirmation was obtained by comparison to the results of numerical integration of the original set of nonlinear equations. This predicted instability is entirely a property of passively phased arrays of more than one element.

  4. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Law, Yu Li Lydia; Ong, Wee Sian; GillianYap, Tsien Lin; Lim, Su Ching Joselin; Von Chia, Ee

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of 2 and 5 days of creatine loading, coupled with resistance training, on muscular strength and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Seventeen trained men were randomly assigned to a creatine or a placebo group. The creatine supplementation group consumed 20 g of creatine per day (4 doses of 5 g per day), whereas the placebo group was given a placebo similar in appearance and taste over the 5-day supplementation duration. Anaerobic power and strength performance measures, in addition to blood and urine analysis, were conducted in the morning before the supplementation began and on the third and sixth day to establish the effect of 2 and 5 days of creatine loading, respectively. The study found that a 5-day creatine loading regime coupled with resistance training resulted in significant improvements in both average anaerobic power, as measured by the 30-second Wingate test and back squat strength compared with just training alone. However, 2 days of supplementation was not sufficient to produce similar performance gains as that observed at the end of 5 days of loading in trained men, despite increases in creatine uptake in the body. The standard 5-day loading regime should hence be prescribed to individuals supplementing with creatine for enhanced strength and power.

  5. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  6. Short Range Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) for UAV/UAS Battery Charging - Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The inductive and radiative approaches to wireless power transmission (WPT) were simulated using commercial...software. For the inductive approach, working at 100 kHz, efficiencies over 90% were obtained at short ranges (less than 30 mm) utilizing ferrite...place between a WPT ground station and client. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Wireless power transmission, phased array, inductive WPT, radiative WPT 16

  7. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-01-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training. Key points Aerobic dance provides sufficient training stimuli for the improvement of explosive power. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism is associated with individual variation in the change of power-related phenotypes in response to aerobic dance training. The C allele carriers of the AGT gene M235T polymorphism show greater improvements of jump

  8. Optical retrodirective tracking system approach using an array of phase conjugators for communication and power transmission.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian A; Matoba, Osamu; Kaya, Nobuyuki

    2007-07-20

    A new concept for a retrodirective tracking system applicable for communication and power transmission is proposed. In the proposed concept, the power transmitter utilizes a receiver's pilot signal to obtain information about its direction by conjugating the signal's phase inside a nonlinear medium. Power is therefore transmitted back to the receiver by the phase-conjugated signal beam. The power can be concentrated by an array of phase conjugators, which provides a large aperture so that the intensity can be increased on the receiver's photovoltaic panels compared to a single element. Controlling the phase and the direction of the readout beams in the four-wave-mixing process provides control over the interference pattern, its position, and its size. A numerical analysis is given for the phase and spot size control, and measurements with two Co-doped Sr(x)Ba(1-x)Nb(2)O(6) (Co:SBN) crystals confirm the occurrence of interference that is achieved for the case of two beams.

  9. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    PubMed Central

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  10. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    PubMed Central

    Rallapalli, Varsha H.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  11. Short-Term High Intensity Plyometric Training Program Improves Strength, Power and Agility in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351

  12. Three-Phase Time-Multiplexed Planar Power Transmission to Distributed Implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-03-01

    A platform has been presented for wireless powering of receivers (Rx's) that are arbitrarily distributed over a large area. A potential application could be powering of small Rx implants, distributed over large areas of the brain. The transmitter (Tx) consists of three overlapping layers of hexagonal planar spiral coils (hex-PSC) that are horizontally shifted to provide the strongest and most homogeneous electromagnetic flux coverage. The three-layer hex-PSC array is driven by a three-phase time-division-multiplexed power Tx that takes the advantage of the carrier phase shift, coil geometries, and Rx time constant to homogeneously power the arbitrarily distributed Rx's regardless of their misalignments. The functionality of the proposed three-phase power transmission concept has been verified in a detailed scaled-up high-frequency structure simulator Advanced Design System simulation model and measurement setup, and compared with a conventional Tx. The new Tx delivers 5.4 mW to each Rx and achieves, on average, 5.8% power transfer efficiency to the Rx at the worst case 90° angular misalignment, compared with 1.4% by the conventional Tx.

  13. Three-Phase Time-Multiplexed Planar Power Transmission to Distributed Implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    A platform has been presented for wireless powering of receivers (Rx's) that are arbitrarily distributed over a large area. A potential application could be powering of small Rx implants, distributed over large areas of the brain. The transmitter (Tx) consists of three overlapping layers of hexagonal planar spiral coils (hex-PSC) that are horizontally shifted to provide the strongest and most homogeneous electromagnetic flux coverage. The three-layer hex-PSC array is driven by a three-phase time-division-multiplexed power Tx that takes the advantage of the carrier phase shift, coil geometries, and Rx time constant to homogeneously power the arbitrarily distributed Rx's regardless of their misalignments. The functionality of the proposed three-phase power transmission concept has been verified in a detailed scaled-up high-frequency structure simulator Advanced Design System simulation model and measurement setup, and compared with a conventional Tx. The new Tx delivers 5.4 mW to each Rx and achieves, on average, 5.8% power transfer efficiency to the Rx at the worst case 90° angular misalignment, compared with 1.4% by the conventional Tx. PMID:27034913

  14. Design requirements document for the phase 1 privatization electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-10-31

    The electrical system for the Phase 1 privatization facilities will support the TWRS mission by providing the electrical power to the Phase 1 privatized facilities. This system will receive power from the Department of Energy-Richland Operations (RL) A4-8 230 kV transmission system powered from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Ashe and Midway 230 kV Substations. The existing RL 230 kV transmission line will be modified and looped 1021 into the new 230 kV substation bus. The new substation will be located in the vicinity of the privatized facilities, approximately 3.2 km (2 mi) south of the existing RL A4-8 230 kV transmission line. The substation will be capable of providing up to 40 MW of electrical power to support the Phase 1 privatization facilities and has space for accommodating future expansions. The substation will require at least two 230-13.8 kV transformers, 13.8 kV split bus switchgear, switchgear building, grounding transformers, instrument transformers, control and monitoring equipment, associated protection and isolation devices, lightning protection, yard lighting, cable and raceways, and infrastructure needed to provide desired availability and reliability. The power from the 13.8 kV switchgear located in the switchgear building will be delivered at the privatization facilities site boundaries. The 13.8 kV distribution system inside the privatization facilities site boundaries is the responsibility of the privatization contract.

  15. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  16. A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yong; Yu, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations for each sample which in turn lowers the power consumption. The filter is developed based on the interpolated finite impulse filter technique and is very attractive for a low cost and low power VLSI implementation.

  17. Simulation of a Three-Phase Multilevel Unified Power Flow Controller UPFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailah, N. F.; Bashi, S. M.; Mariun, N.; Aris, I.

    This work deals with the study and simulation of Unified Power Flow Control (UPFC) at its normal and abnormal conditions. The systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB software. Shunt inverter or Static Compensator (STATCOM) is modeled as a 3-phase multipulse converter and the series inverter or SSSC has been constructed as a 3-phase, 3-level multilevel converter. Faults are set to the system to observe the operation of STATCOM and phase shift, φ of the SSSC is varied to observe the operation of SSSC. Simulations are carried out and the results obtained agreed with the theory of operation of the UPFC.

  18. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power.

  19. Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  20. Phase-locking and coherent power combining of broadband linearly chirped optical waves.

    PubMed

    Satyan, Naresh; Vasilyev, Arseny; Rakuljic, George; White, Jeffrey O; Yariv, Amnon

    2012-11-05

    We propose, analyze and demonstrate the optoelectronic phase-locking of optical waves whose frequencies are chirped continuously and rapidly with time. The optical waves are derived from a common optoelectronic swept-frequency laser based on a semiconductor laser in a negative feedback loop, with a precisely linear frequency chirp of 400 GHz in 2 ms. In contrast to monochromatic waves, a differential delay between two linearly chirped optical waves results in a mutual frequency difference, and an acoustooptic frequency shifter is therefore used to phase-lock the two waves. We demonstrate and characterize homodyne and heterodyne optical phase-locked loops with rapidly chirped waves, and show the ability to precisely control the phase of the chirped optical waveform using a digital electronic oscillator. A loop bandwidth of ~ 60 kHz, and a residual phase error variance of < 0.01 rad(2) between the chirped waves is obtained. Further, we demonstrate the simultaneous phase-locking of two optical paths to a common master waveform, and the ability to electronically control the resultant two-element optical phased array. The results of this work enable coherent power combining of high-power fiber amplifiers-where a rapidly chirping seed laser reduces stimulated Brillouin scattering-and electronic beam steering of chirped optical waves.

  1. Ultra-low-power silicon photonics wavelength converter for phase-encoded telecommunication signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, C.; Ettabib, M. A.; Cristiani, I.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Richardson, D. J.; Petropoulos, P.

    2016-03-01

    The development of compact, low power, silicon photonics CMOS compatible components for all-optical signal processing represents a key step towards the development of fully functional platforms for next generation all-optical communication networks. The wavelength conversion functionality at key nodes is highly desirable to achieve transparent interoperability and wavelength routing allowing efficient management of network resources operated with high speed, phase encoded signals. All optical wavelength conversion has already been demonstrated in Si-based devices, mainly utilizing the strong Kerr effect that silicon exhibits at telecommunication wavelengths. Unfortunately, Two Photon Absorption (TPA) and Free Carrier (FC) effects strongly limit their performance, even at moderate power levels, making them unsuitable for practical nonlinear applications. Amorphous silicon has recently emerged as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon (c-Si), showing both an enhanced Kerr as well as a reduced TPA coefficient at telecom wavelengths, with respect to its c-Si counterpart. Here we present an ultra-low power wavelength converter based on a passive, CMOS compatible, 1-mm long amorphous silicon waveguide operated at a maximum pump power level of only 70 mW. We demonstrate TPA-free Four Wave Mixing (FWM)-based wavelength conversion of Binary Phase Shift Keyed (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed (QPSK) signals at 20 Gbit/s with <1 dB power penalty at BER = 10-5.

  2. One order of magnitude faster phase change at reduced power in Ti-Sb-Te.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Mengjiao; Rao, Feng; Li, Xianbin; Wu, Liangcai; Ji, Xinglong; Lv, Shilong; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin; Sun, Hongbo; Zhang, Shengbai

    2014-07-08

    To date, slow Set operation speed and high Reset operation power remain to be important limitations for substituting dynamic random access memory by phase change memory. Here, we demonstrate phase change memory cell based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 alloy, showing one order of magnitude faster Set operation speed and as low as one-fifth Reset operation power, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase change memory cell at the same size. The enhancements may be rooted in the common presence of titanium-centred octahedral motifs in both amorphous and crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 phases. The essentially unchanged local structures around the titanium atoms may be responsible for the significantly improved performance, as these structures could act as nucleation centres to facilitate a swift, low-energy order-disorder transition for the rest of the Sb-centred octahedrons. Our study may provide an alternative to the development of high-speed, low-power dynamic random access memory-like phase change memory technology.

  3. One order of magnitude faster phase change at reduced power in Ti-Sb-Te

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Mengjiao; Rao, Feng; Li, Xianbin; Wu, Liangcai; Ji, Xinglong; Lv, Shilong; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin; Sun, Hongbo; Zhang, Shengbai

    2014-01-01

    To date, slow Set operation speed and high Reset operation power remain to be important limitations for substituting dynamic random access memory by phase change memory. Here, we demonstrate phase change memory cell based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 alloy, showing one order of magnitude faster Set operation speed and as low as one-fifth Reset operation power, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase change memory cell at the same size. The enhancements may be rooted in the common presence of titanium-centred octahedral motifs in both amorphous and crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 phases. The essentially unchanged local structures around the titanium atoms may be responsible for the significantly improved performance, as these structures could act as nucleation centres to facilitate a swift, low-energy order-disorder transition for the rest of the Sb-centred octahedrons. Our study may provide an alternative to the development of high-speed, low-power dynamic random access memory-like phase change memory technology. PMID:25001009

  4. Power and Phase of Alpha Oscillations Reveal an Interaction between Spatial and Temporal Visual Attention.

    PubMed

    Kizuk, Sayeed A D; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2017-03-01

    Oscillatory brain rhythms can bias attention via phase and amplitude changes, which modulate sensory activity, biasing information to be processed or ignored. Alpha band (7-14 Hz) oscillations lateralize with spatial attention and rhythmically inhibit visual activity and awareness through pulses of inhibition. Here we show that human observers' awareness of spatially unattended targets is dependent on both alpha power and alpha phase at target onset. Following a predictive directional cue, alpha oscillations were entrained bilaterally using repetitive visual stimuli. Subsequently, we presented either spatially cued or uncued targets at SOAs either validly or invalidly predicted in time by the entrainers. Temporal validity maximally modulated perceptual performance outside the spatial focus of attention and was associated with both increased alpha power and increased neural entrainment of phase in the hemisphere processing spatially unattended information. The results demonstrate that alpha oscillations represent a pulsating inhibition, which impedes visual processing for unattended space.

  5. High Power Passive Phase Locking of Four Yb-Doped Fiber Amplifiers by an All-Optical Feedback Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yu-Hao; He, Bing; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen; Fan, Yuan-Yuan; Qi, Yun-Feng; Liu, Chi; Yuan, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Lou, Qi-Hong

    2011-05-01

    We report the passive phase locking of four high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers with ring cavity. The interference patterns at different output power are observed and the Strehl ratios are measured. The maximum coherent output power of the fiber array is up to 1062 W by multi-stage amplification. The stable beam profiles of various phase relationships are observed by controlling the position of the feedback fiber, in good agreement with the calculated results. By using master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) architecture and broadband operation of passively phased systems, higher power scaling with high beam quality appears to be feasible.

  6. Half-squat or jump squat training under optimum power load conditions to counteract power and speed decrements in Brazilian elite soccer players during the preseason.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Zanetti, Vinicius; Gil, Saulo; Kitamura, Katia; Abad, Cesar Cavinato Cal; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test which specific type of exercise (i.e., jump squat (JS) or half-squat (HS)) is more effective at maintaining speed and power abilities throughout a preseason in soccer players. Twenty-three male soccer players were randomly allocated into two groups: JS and HS. The mean propulsive power, vertical jumping ability, and sprinting performance were evaluated before and after 4 weeks of a preseason period. The optimum power loads for the JS and HS exercises were assessed and were used as load-references. The soccer players performed 10 power oriented training sessions in total. Both JS and HS maintained power in JS and speed abilities (P > 0.05, for main effects and interaction effect) as indicated by ANCOVA. Both groups demonstrated reduced power during HS (ES = -0.76 vs. -0.78, for JS and HS, respectively); both groups improved acceleration (ACC) from 5 to 10 m (ES = 0.52). JS was more effective at reducing the ACC decrements over 0-5 m (ES = -0.38 vs. -0.58, for JS and HS, respectively). The HS group increased squat jump height (ES = 0.76 vs. 0.11, for HS and JS, respectively). In summary, JS is more effective in reducing the ACC capacity over very short sprints while HS is more effective in improving squat jump performance. Both strategies improve ACC over longer distances. New training strategies should be implemented/developed to avoid concurrent training effects between power and endurance adaptations during professional soccer preseasons.

  7. The Influence of Training and Position Power on Leader Behavior. Organizational Research. Technical Report 75-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai-Dalton, Renate

    Using Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, which postulates that the behavior of a leader depends on the interaction between leadership style and the degree to which the environment gives the leader control and influence, a study investigated the effects of training and changes in position power on the behavior of three types…

  8. Power, Control, and Gender: Training as Catalyst for Dysfunctional Behavior at the United States Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    I explore the role of training practices at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) in perpetuating power and control issues and the potential consequences of those practices. I argue that trainee responses to control deprivation may have resulted in alleged sexual assaults by male cadets and the eating disorders manifested by female cadets.…

  9. Effects of Two Instructional Techniques Used with the Ford Power Train Simulator on the Performance of Mississippi Vocational Agriculture Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perritt, Roger Dale; Shinn, Glen C.

    A Mississippi study examined the effects of two instructional techniques using the Ford power train unit as an instructional aid. Eight schools were randomly selected from a population of 33 vocational agricultural departments. Three schools with 10 students from each school were randomly selected and assigned to treatment A, traditional…

  10. Multi-Sector General Permit Annual Industrial Storm Water Training, TA-3-22 Power and Steam Plant (Sector 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Shendo, Marwin Patrick

    2015-01-12

    This report offers training for employees who work at TA-3-22, the Power and Steam Plant that move product, metal, and other pollutants like oil, fuel, equipment, pumps, etc. outside or that work outside with industrial materials exposed to storm water.

  11. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  12. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  13. Transfer effect of strength and power training to the sprinting kinematics of international rugby players.

    PubMed

    Barr, Matthew J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Agar-Newman, Dana J; Newton, Robert U

    2014-09-01

    Increasing lower-body strength is often considered to be important for improving the sprinting speed of rugby players. This concept was examined in a group (n = 40) of international rugby players in a 2-part study. The players were tested for body mass (BM), 1 repetition maximum power clean (PC), and front squat, as well as triple broad jump and broad jump. In addition, speed over 40 m was tested, with timing gates recording the 0- to 10-m and 30- to 40-m sections to assess acceleration and maximal velocity. Two video cameras recorded the 2 splits for later analysis of sprinting kinematics. The players were divided into a fast group (n = 20) and a slow group (n = 20) for both acceleration and maximal velocity. In the second part of the study, a group (n = 15) of players were tracked over a 1-year period to determine how changes in strength corresponded with changes in sprinting kinematics. The fast groups for both acceleration and maximal velocity showed greater levels of strength (d = 0.5-1.8), lower ground contact times (d = 0.8-2.1), and longer stride lengths (d = 0.5-1.3). There was a moderate improvement over 1 year in PC/BM (0.08 kg·kg, p = 0.008, d = 0.6), and this had a strong relationship with the change in maximal velocity stride length (r = 0.70). Acceleration stride length also had a large improvement over 1 year (0.09 m, p = 0.003, d = 0.81). Although increasing lower-body strength is likely important for increasing sprinting speed of players with low training backgrounds, it may not have the same effect with highly trained players.

  14. Phasing of a two-channel continuous-wave master oscillator-power amplifier by use of a fiber phase-conjugate mirror.

    PubMed

    Grime, Brent W; Roh, Won B; Alley, Thomas G

    2005-09-15

    Phasing of two-channel cw master-oscillator-power-amplifier beams by using a phase-conjugate mirror has been demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Phasing was achieved with two fiber amplifiers in conjunction with a single-frequency Nd:YAG master oscillator by using a fiber phase-conjugate mirror in a double-pass geometry. The successful demonstration of phasing of two cw amplifier beams with a fiber phase-conjugate mirror greatly enhances the prospects for phasing of multiple laser amplifiers without complex servo-loop control systems.

  15. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase II-Air Training Command, Military Airlift Command, and Strategic Air Command [and] Phase III-Electronic Warfare Trainers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Hubbard, David C.

    This document consists of an interim report and a final report which describe the second and third phases of a project designed to determine the utility and utilization of sophisticated hardware and software capabilities known as advanced instructional features (AIFs). Used with an aircrew training device (ATD), AIFs permit a simulator instructor…

  16. Effects of a back squat training program on leg power, jump, and sprint performances in junior soccer players.

    PubMed

    Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Fathloun, Mourad; Cherif, Najet; Ben Amar, Mohamed; Tabka, Zouhair; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of voluntary maximal leg strength training on peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump performance, and field performances in junior soccer players. Twenty-two male soccer players participated in this investigation and were divided into 2 groups: A resistance training group (RTG; age 17 +/- 0.3 years) and a control group (CG; age 17 +/- 0.5 years). Before and after the training sessions (twice a week for 2 months), Wpeak was determined by means of a cycling force-velocity test. Squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 5-jump test (5-JT) performances were assessed. Kinematics analyses were made using a video camera during a 40-m sprint running test and the following running velocities were calculated: The first step after the start (V(first step)), the first 5 m (V(first 5 meters)), and between the 35 m and 40 m (V(max)). Back half squat exercises were performed to determine 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). Leg and thigh muscle volume and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. The resistance training group showed improvement in Wpeak (p < 0.05), jump performances (SJ, p < 0.05 and 5-JT, p < 0.001), 1-RM (p < 0.001) and all sprint running calculated velocities (p < 0.05 for both V(first step) and V(first 5 meters), p < 0.01 for V(max)). Both typical force-velocity relationships and mechanical parabolic curves between power and velocity increased after the strength training program. Leg and thigh muscle volume and CSA of RTG remained unchanged after strength training. Back half squat exercises, including adapted heavy loads and only 2 training sessions per week, improved athletic performance in junior soccer players. These specific dynamic constant external resistance exercises are highly recommended as part of an annual training program for junior soccer players.

  17. Design and real time implementation of fuzzy switched controller for single phase active power filter.

    PubMed

    Afghoul, Hamza; Krim, Fateh; Chikouche, Djamel; Beddar, Antar

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel fuzzy switched controller (FSC) integrated in direct current control (DCC) algorithm for single phase active power filter (SPAPF). The controller under study consists of conventional PI controller, fractional order PI controller (FO-PI) and fuzzy decision maker (FDM) that switches between them using reduced fuzzy logic control. The proposed controller offers short response time with low damping and deals efficiently with the external disturbances while preserving the robustness properties. To fulfill the requirements of power quality, unity power factor and harmonics limitations in active power filtering an experimental test bench has been built using dSPACE 1104 to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed controller. The obtained results present high performance in steady and transient states.

  18. A high-power microwave circular polarizer and its application on phase shifter.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hao; Hu, Yongmei; Chang, Chao; Guo, Letian

    2016-04-01

    A high-power waveguide dual circular polarizer was theoretically designed and proof-of-principle was experimentally tested. It consists of two incident rectangular waveguides with a perpendicular H-plane junction, one circular waveguide with a pair of trapezoidal grooves coupled in E-plane at the top, a spherical crown located at the bottom, and an iris at the perpendicular junction of two rectangular waveguides. When wave incidents at one of the two separated rectangular waveguides, it, respectively, generates a left-hand circular polarized wave or a right-hand circular polarized wave in the circular waveguide. By adding a dumbbell-like metal plug driven with a high speed servomotor, a movable short circuit is formed along the circular waveguide to adjust the output RF phase of the rectangular port, realizing a high-speed high-power phase shifter. The C-band high power microwave (HPM) experiments were carried out, and the power capacity of the HPM polarizer and phase shifter was demonstrated to reach gigawatt level.

  19. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Engineering support personnel. (3) The training program must incorporate the instructional requirements..., procedures, regulations, and quality assurance requirements. The training program must be periodically reviewed by licensee management for effectiveness. Sufficient records must be maintained by the licensee...

  20. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  1. Effect of phase morphology on bulk strength for power-law materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Johnson, Scott E.; Cook, Alden; Vel, Senthil S.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of a polyphase aggregate comprising power-law materials is a function of the constitutive laws of the phases present, the arrangement of those phases and environmental conditions such as temperature. Primarily for geological applications, we consider the degree to which the arrangement of the phases has a significant influence on bulk strength. Calculations based on current single-mineral experimental data indicate that the absolute and relative strength differences between the upper and lower theoretical bounds vary widely with mineral pair, environmental conditions and strain rate. For example, at 850 °C, some pairs, such as plagioclase-clinopyroxene, are highly sensitive to phase morphology, whereas others, such as quartz-plagioclase, are not. Using a finite-element implementation of asymptotic expansion homogenization, we have calculated the bulk strength of natural and synthetic microstructures across macroscale strain gradients. We find that phase morphology does not change sufficiently in most cases to be the dominant factor in bulk strength variation. Thus on its own, phase morphology in an aggregate of power-law materials does not appear to be a major control on bulk strength under typical viscous geological conditions. However, phase morphology does affect microscale stress and strain rate patterns, which in turn can induce microscale variations in constitutive laws and diffusional pathways. These factors, including reactions and changing deformation mechanisms, are strongly influenced by phase morphology and do cause strength variation in rocks. As a result, any parametrization of rock strength needs to account for evolving modal mineralogy and deformation mechanisms in addition to morphological changes alone.

  2. Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation.

    PubMed

    Becher, Ann-Katrin; Höhne, Marlene; Axmacher, Nikolai; Chaieb, Leila; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory stimulation with monaural or binaural auditory beats (i.e. sine waves with nearby frequencies presented either to both ears or to each ear separately) represents a non-invasive approach to influence electrical brain activity. It is still unclear exactly which brain sites are affected by beat stimulation. In particular, an impact of beat stimulation on mediotemporal brain areas could possibly provide new options for memory enhancement or seizure control. Therefore, we examined how electroencephalography (EEG) power and phase synchronization are modulated by auditory stimulation with beat frequencies corresponding to dominant EEG rhythms based on intracranial recordings in presurgical epilepsy patients. Monaural and binaural beat stimuli with beat frequencies of 5, 10, 40 and 80 Hz and non-superposed control signals were administered with low amplitudes (60 dB SPL) and for short durations (5 s). EEG power was intracranially recorded from mediotemporal, temporo-basal and temporo-lateral and surface sites. Evoked and total EEG power and phase synchronization during beat vs. control stimulation were compared by the use of Bonferroni-corrected non-parametric label-permutation tests. We found that power and phase synchronization were significantly modulated by beat stimulation not only at temporo-basal, temporo-lateral and surface sites, but also at mediotemporal sites. Generally, more significant decreases than increases were observed. The most prominent power increases were seen after stimulation with monaural 40-Hz beats. The most pronounced power and synchronization decreases resulted from stimulation with monaural 5-Hz and binaural 80-Hz beats. Our results suggest that beat stimulation offers a non-invasive approach for the modulation of intracranial EEG characteristics.

  3. Influence of output power of a spin torque oscillator on phase locked loop operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the influence of the output power of a spin torque oscillator (STO) on the operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. Timing jitter and minimum output power for stable PLL operation determined by Johnson noise and shot noise are first theoretically calculated, and compared with experimental results. The theory and experiment show a reasonably good agreement, indicating that smaller than -50 dBm (10 nW), or -60 dBm (1 nW) when a low pass filter is used, of output power is sufficient for stable PLL operation if a large timing jitter is acceptable. However, it is also shown that a large output power is needed to suppress timing jitter down to the level comparable to state-of-the-art commercial PLL circuits. The estimate of minimum output power for stable PLL operation is verified by intentionally attenuating the STO output signal down to -55 dBm (3.2 nW) and demonstrating a stable phase locked oscillation.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 0.8 V low power low phase-noise PLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Han; Xiao, Liang; Haifeng, Zhou; Yinfang, Xie; Waisum, Wong

    2010-08-01

    A low power and low phase noise phase-locked loop (PLL) design for low voltage (0.8 V) applications is presented. The voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) operates from a 0.5 V voltage supply, while the other blocks operate from a 0.8 V supply. A differential NMOS-only topology is adopted for the oscillator, a modified precharge topology is applied in the phase-frequency detector (PFD), and a new feedback structure is utilized in the charge pump (CP) for ultra-low voltage applications. The divider adopts the extended true single phase clock DFF in order to operate in the high frequency region and save circuit area and power. In addition, several novel design techniques, such as removing the tail current source, are demonstrated to cut down the phase noise. Implemented in the SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process and operated at 0.8 V supply voltage, the PLL measures a phase noise of-112.4 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 1 MHz from the carrier and a frequency range of 3.166-3.383 GHz. The improved PFD and the novel CP dissipate 0.39 mW power from a 0.8 V supply. The occupied chip area of the PFD and CP is 100 × 100 μm2. The chip occupies 0.63 mm2, and draws less than 6.54 mW from a 0.8 V supply.

  5. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  6. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  7. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a three phase study of the Solar Power Satellite System are summarized. Various options and alternate systems were considered and the following conclusions were reached: antenna mounted solid state transmitters are potentially as cost effective as the klystron approach, althrough limited to 2500 megawatts net output; the free electron laser and optical diode laser appear most promising for laser power transmission; ground antenna siting need not be restricted to below 35 degrees of latitude; and nonrecurring cost reductions attainable by using a smaller Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle are highly attractive.

  8. Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

  9. Combined strength and power training in high-level amateur football during the competitive season: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Di Giovine, Dario; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of combined strength and power training during the competitive season on physical fitness in high-level amateur football players. Sixteen male players (22.5 (SD 2.5) years, 1.79 (0.05) m, 76.8 (6.1) kg) from one team were randomly assigned to either a strength training (ST, N = 8) or a control (CON, N = 8) group. ST conducted lower extremity resistance exercises combined with plyometrics and/or sprints 2 × 30 min per week for 7 weeks. CON performed technical-tactical training during the same time period. Before and after training several physical fitness parameters were assessed: one-repetition maximum (1-RM, half squat), isometric peak strength and rate of force development (RFD, leg press), jump height (countermovement, CMJ, drop jump, DJ), sprint times, agility, and intermittent endurance. Large significant test × group interactions were found for 1-RM, CMJ, and DJ reactivity index with increases in CT relative to CON(+11 to 18%). Although not significant (P < 0.20), likely practically relevant effects were observed for isometric peak strength and RFD (+24 to 29%). We found no relevant interaction effects for agility, sprint times, and intermittent endurance. A 7-week in-season combined strength and power training program can improve relevant strength and jump parameters in high-level amateur football players.

  10. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions.

  11. Training for Power and Speed: Effects of Increasing or Decreasing Jump Squat Velocity in Elite Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; Abad, César C Cal; Cuniyochi, Rogério; Pereira, Lucas A; Roschel, Hamilton

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of 2 different velocity-oriented power training regimens by either increasing or decreasing the jump squat velocity during jump training sessions applied 3 times a week for 6 weeks in soccer players. Twenty-four elite under-20 soccer players were randomly assigned to an increased bar velocity group (IVG) or a reduced bar velocity group (RVG). Athletes had their countermovement jump heights, mean propulsive velocities (MPVs) in jump squat, leg press maximum dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [RM]), 20-m sprint times, and zig-zag change of direction (COD) abilities assessed before and after the intervention. Performance in all tests improved after training in both groups. However, greater gains in 1RM and MPV using 50-90% of body mass (BM) were noted for the RVG. The IVG demonstrated greater improvements in speed at 5, 10, and 20 m and MPV with no additional external load and with 40% BM. Both groups improved similarly in countermovement jumps and COD. To conclude, both velocity-oriented power training regimens were effective in eliciting neuromechanical adaptations, leading to better strength/power/speed performances, and the choice as to the most suitable method should be tailored according to players' needs/deficiencies.

  12. Development of a single-phase harmonic power flow program to study the 20 kHz AC power system for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    The development of software is described to aid in design and analysis of AC power systems for large spacecraft. The algorithm is an important version of harmonic power flow program, HARMFLO, used for the study of AC power quality. The new program is applicable to three-phase systems typified by terrestrial power systems, and single-phase systems characteristic of space power systems. The modified HARMFLO accommodates system operating frequencies ranging from terrestrial 60 Hz to and beyond aerospace 20 kHz, and can handle both source and load-end harmonic distortions. Comparison of simulation and test results of a representative spacecraft power system shows a satisfactory correlation. Recommendations are made for the direction of future improvements to the software, to enhance its usefulness to power system designer and analysts.

  13. A low power MICS band phase-locked loop for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiawei; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2013-08-01

    Ultra low power dissipation is essential in retinal prosthesis and many other biomedical implants. Extensive research has been undertaken in designing low power biomedical transceivers, however to date, most effort has been focused on low frequency inductive links. For higher frequency, more robust and more complex applications, such as Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band multichannel transceivers, power consumption remains high. This paper explores the design of micro-power data links at 400 MHz for a high resolution retinal prosthesis. By taking advantage of advanced small geometry CMOS technology and precise transistor-level modeling, we successfully utilized subthreshold FET operation, which has been historically limited to low frequency circuits due to the inadequate transistor operating speed in and near weak inversion; we have implemented a low power MICS transceiver. Particularly, a low power, MICS band multichannel phase-locked loop (PLL) that employs a subthreshold voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and digital synchronous dividers has been implemented on a 65-nm CMOS. A design methodology is presented in detail with the demonstration of EKV model parameters extraction. This PLL provides 600- mVpp quadrature oscillations and exhibits a phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at 200-kHz offset, while only consuming 430- μW from a 1-V supply. The VCO has a gain (KVCO) of 12 MHz/V and is designed to operate in the near-weak inversion region and consumes 220- μA DC current. The designed PLL has a core area of 0.54 mm(2). It satisfies all specifications of MICS band operation with the advantage of significant reduction in power which is crucial for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

  14. Effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program on strength, power, and swimming performance in paralympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Andrew A; Pyne, David B; Youngson, Jamie; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program in Paralympic swimmers to increase swimming power and strength measures, and how these changes affect swimming performance. Seven elite-level Paralympic swimmers (1 man and 6 women; age: 19.4 ± 6.5 years; body mass: 57 ± 12 kg; height: 1.66 ± 0.21 m) performed a 6-week coach-prescribed strength training intervention program designed to improve power, flexibility, and postural control. Exercises targeted the main swimming movements: the start and turn, postural control in the water, and the pull and kick focusing on the gluteals, upper body, and trunk. Swimming-specific tests, involving a 50-m time trial, and timed dive starts were conducted at baseline and after the 6-week program. A bilateral swim-bench ergometer and jump tests were conducted to quantify arm and leg strength and power. After the 6-week intervention, 50-m time trials improved by 1.2%, ± 1.5% (mean, ± 90% confidence limits). Increases in both mean power (6.1%, ± 5.9%) and acceleration (3.7%, ± 3.7%) generated during the dive start enabled swimmers to substantially improve start times to the 5-m (5.5%, ± 3.2) and 15-m (1.8%, ± 1.1%) marks. The resistance training intervention resulted in a very large (r = 0.78, ± 0.37) correlation between dive start velocity and the counter movement jump mean velocity. The 6-week resistance training program for Paralympic swimmers yielded substantial improvements in dry-land measures that corresponded with improvements in both timed dive starts and 50-m time trial performance, thus highlighting the usefulness of dry-land training for enhancing swimming performance in Paralympic swimming.

  15. Development of aerobic power in relation to age and training in cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Rusko, H K

    1992-09-01

    In most of the training studies on different populations the effects of training have been investigated up to a frequency of five to six times per week and a duration of 45 min per session. These correspond to the training regimens of 15-yr-old cross-country skiers and, consequently, the results cannot be applied to older athletes. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of cross-country skiers increases with age and training from about 55-60 to 75-80 ml.kg-1.min-1 between 15 and 25 yr of age. After 20 yr of age VO2max starts to level off, but elite skiers are able to increase VO2max further concomitantly with an increase in the volume of training and the volume of intensive training. The activity of oxidative enzymes in muscles of skiers is increased with training, but distance runners have had a higher oxidative capacity in their leg muscles. Although widely used by cross-country skiers, the training effects of roller skiing, skiwalking-skistriding, and long-distance training on skis are to a large extent unknown. However, intensive training at the intensity of "anaerobic threshold" or higher seems to be most effective in inducing improvements in maximal oxygen uptake; distance training at relatively low intensity seems to be most effective in producing improvements in the determinants of submaximal endurance.

  16. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  17. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  18. Adaptive Changes of Myosin Isoforms in Response to Long-Term Strength and Power Training in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Puhke, Raivo; Aunola, Sirkka; Ailanto, Pirjo; Alev, Karin; Venojärvi, Mika; Rusko, Heikki; Seene, Teet

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the adaptive changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) and light chain (MLC) isoforms in human vastus lateralis muscle caused by long-term strength and power training (54 weeks, approximately 3 times a week) in untrained middle- aged men (16 in the training and 6 in the control group). Muscular MHC and MLC isoforms were determined by means of SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. During the training period, maximal anaerobic cycling power increased by 64 W (p < 0.001) and the maximal jumping height by 1.5 cm (p < 0. 05) in the training group, but no significant changes were found in the control group. However, the group by time effect was not significant. In the training group, the increase of the maximal jumping height correlated with the number of strength and power training sessions (r = 0.56; p < 0.05). The change of the proportion of MHC IIa isoform from 52.6 ± 12.2% to 59.4 ± 11.6% did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.070 for group by time; within training group p = 0.061) and neither did the change of the proportion of MHC IIx isoform from 18.1 ± 11.4% to 11.1 ± 9.1% (p = 0.104 for group by time; within training group p=0.032). The degree of change of MHC IIx isoform correlated with the amount of earlier recreational sports activity (r = 0.61; p < 0.05). In the training group, the changes of MLC1s isoform correlated negatively with the changes of MLC1f isoform (r = -0. 79; p < 0.05) as well as with the changes in maximal anaerobic cycling power (r = -0.81; p < 0.05), and positively with those of MHC I isoform (r = 0.81; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the long- term strength and power training ~3 times a week seemed to have only slight effects on fast MHC isoforms in the vastus lateralis muscle of untrained middle-aged men; the proportion of MHC IIa tended to increase and that of MHC IIx tended to decrease. No changes in MLC isoform profile could be shown. Key Points A long-term strength and power training program seemed to

  19. Initial High-Power-CW-Laser Testing of Liquid-Crystal Optical Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2010-1043 INITIAL HIGH-POWER-CW-LASER TESTING OF LIQUID-CRYSTAL OPTICAL PHASED ARRAYS Bert Whitaker OptiMetrics, Inc...Bert Whitaker (OptiMetrics, Inc.) Scott Harris (Flatiron Research, LLC) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2003 5e. TASK NUMBER 11 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...to a Carl Zeiss petrographic microscope. The crossed polarizers in this microscope highlighted the presence of LC material due to its birefringence

  20. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population.

  1. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.

  2. A power-efficient and non-volatile programmable logic array based on phase change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yuan; Ye, Yong; Kang, Yong; Xia, Yangyang; Song, Zhitang; Chen, Bomy

    2016-10-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made on NVM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) because the emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies have the advantages of lower leakage power and higher density than Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) technology. However, the cost and the scale of FPGAs are so high and large that they can't be applied in the consumer electronics field and Internet of Things (IoT). Due to the small scale and low cost, Programmable Logic Array (PLA) is an ideal option for these fields. However, up to now there are few researches on non-volatile PLA based on emerging NVMs. In this paper, a power-efficient non-volatile PLA based on Phase Change Memory (PCM) is proposed. The proposed non-volatile PLA architecture has been evaluated using the 40 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and the simulation results show the correct functionality of the PLA. After the PLA reads the configuration bits from the non-volatile programmable elements (PEs), the power of the programmable elements can be OFF. Therefore, the standby power of the programmable elements is much smaller than that of the commonly SRAM-based PLAs. The simulation results also show that the total power of nvPLA is reduced by about 53.6% when the supply power of Programmable Element is OFF.

  3. Simulation and Analysis of Three-Phase Rectifiers for Aerospace Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the nature of planned planetary missions, fairly large advanced power systems are required for the spacecraft. These future high power spacecrafts are expected to use dynamic power conversion systems incorporating high speed alternators as three-phase AC electrical power source. One of the early design considerations in such systems is the type of rectification to be used with the AC source for DC user loads. This paper address the issues involved with two different rectification methods, namely the conventional six and twelve pulses. Two circuit configurations which involved parallel combinations of the six and twelve-pulse rectifiers were selected for the simulation. The rectifier s input and output power waveforms will be thoroughly examined through simulations. The effects of the parasitic load for power balancing and filter components for reducing the ripple voltage at the DC loads are also included in the analysis. Details of the simulation circuits, simulation results, and design examples for reducing risk from damaging of spacecraft engines will be presented and discussed.

  4. Design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning for VCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Chen; Shengxi, Diao; Lu, Huang; Xuefei, Bai; Fujiang, Lin

    2013-09-01

    To meet the requirements of the low power Zigbee system, VCO design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning are discussed in this paper. Both flicker noise of tail bias transistors and up-conversion of flicker noise from cross-coupled pair are reduced by improved self-switched biasing technology, leading to low close-in phase noise. Low power is achieved by low supply voltage and triode region biasing. To linearly tune the frequency and get constant gain, distributed varactor structure is adopted. The proposed VCO is fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured linear tuning range is from 2.38 to 2.61 GHz. The oscillator exhibits low phase noise of -77.5 dBc/Hz and -122.8 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz and 1 MHz offset, respectively, at 2.55 GHz oscillation frequency while dissipating 2.7 mA from 1.2 V supply voltage, which well meet design specifications.

  5. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP.

  6. 77 FR 16559 - Large Power Transformers From Korea: Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea: Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation... imports from Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheading 8504.23.00 of the Harmonized... Commerce that imports of large power transformers from Korea are being sold in the United States at...

  7. Enhanced power factor via the control of structural phase transition in SnSe

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hulei; Dai, Shuai; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Tin selenide has attracted much research interest due to its unprecedentedly high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). For real applications, it is desirable to increase the ZT value in the lower-temperature range, as the peak ZT value currently exists near the melting point. It is shown in this paper that the structural phase transition plays an important role in boosting the ZT value of SnSe in the lower-temperature range, as the Cmcm phase is found to have a much higher power factor than the Pnma phase. Furthermore, hydrostatic pressure is predicted to be extremely effective in tuning the phase transition temperature based on ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations; a remarkable decrease in the phase transition temperature is found when a hydrostatic pressure is applied. Dynamical stabilities are investigated based on phonon calculations, providing deeper insight into the pressure effects. Accurate band structures are obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson correction, allowing reliable prediction of the electrical transport properties. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermal transport properties are also discussed. Hydrostatic pressure is shown to be efficient in manipulating the transport properties via the control of phase transition temperature in SnSe, paving a new path for enhancing its thermoelectric efficiency. PMID:27193260

  8. The Effect of Low Extremity Plyometric Training on Back Muscle Power of High School Throwing Event Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the ‘Power up plyometric training’. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st −4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th–8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th−12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times. PMID:24567698

  9. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  10. Specificity of arm training on aerobic power during swimming and running.

    PubMed

    Gergley, T J; McArdle, W D; DeJesus, P; Toner, M M; Jacobowitz, S; Spina, R J

    1984-08-01

    The specificity of aerobic training for upper-body exercise requiring differing amounts of muscle mass was evaluated in 25 college-aged male recreational swimmers who were randomly assigned to either a non-training control group (N = 9), a 10-wk swim(S)-training group (N = 9), or a group that trained with a standard swim-bench pulley system (SB; N = 7). For all subjects prior to training, tethered-swimming peak VO2 averaged 19% below treadmill values (P less than 0.01), while SB-ergometry peak VO2 was 50% and 39% below running and swimming values, respectively (P less than 0.01). Significant (P less than 0.01) increases of peak VO2 in tethered swimming (11%) and SB (21%) were observed for the SB-trained group, while the S-trained group improved (P less than 0.01) 18% and 19% on the tethered swimming and SB tests, respectively. No changes were observed during treadmill running, and the control subjects remained unchanged on all measures. Comparisons between training groups indicated that although both groups improved to a similar extent when measured on the swim bench, the 0.53 l X min-1 improvement in tethered-swimming peak VO2 for the S-trained group was greater (P less than 0.05) than the 0.32 l X min-1 increase noted for the SB-trained group. The comparisons between SB and S exercise vs treadmill exercise support the specificity of aerobic improvement with training and suggest that local adaptations contribute significantly to improvements in peak VO2. Furthermore, the present data indicate that SB exercise activates a considerable portion of the musculature involved in swimming, and that aerobic improvements with SB training are directly transferred to swimming.

  11. Effects of a power-focussed resistance training intervention on backward grinding performance in America's Cup sailing.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Simon N; Cronin, John B; Hume, Patria A; Slyfield, David

    2009-11-01

    This study determined whether backward grinding performance in America's Cup sailing could be improved using a training intervention to increase power capability in the upper-body pull movement. Fourteen elite male sailors (34.9 +/- 5.9 years; 98.1 +/- 14.4 kg; 186.6 +/- 7.7 cm) were allocated into experimental (speed-focussed) and control groups. Grinding performance was assessed using a grinding ergometer and an instrumented Smith machine measured force, velocity and power during the bench pull exercise. Conventional training produced significant improvements in bench pull 1 RM (5.2 +/- 4.0%; p = 0.016) and maximum force production (5.4 +/- 4.0%; p = 0.014). Speed-focussed training improved maximum power (7.8 +/- 4.9%; p = 0.009), power at 1 RM (10.3 +/- 8.9%; p = 0.019) and maximum velocity (8.4 +/- 2.6%; p = 0.0002). Backward grinding performance showed greater improvements in the experimental group than the control group for moderate (+1.8%) and heavy load (+6.0%) grinding. Changes in maximum power output and power at 1 RM had large correlations (r = 0.56-0.61) with changes in both moderate and heavy load grinding performance. Time to peak force had the strongest relationship, explaining 70% of the change in heavy load grinding performance. Although the performance benefit was not entirely clear the likelihood of a detrimental effect was low (< 5%) and therefore implementation could be recommended.

  12. Prior sprint cycling did not enhance training adaptation, but resting salivary hormones were related to workout power and strength.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the effect of cycle sprints as a potentiating stimulus for power and strength adaptation in semi-elite athletes. Eighteen rugby players were assigned into training groups that completed either a 40-s cycle sprint (T(SPRINT)) or rested (T(CONTROL)) before each workout (n = 6-8) of a 4-week programme. Squat jump (SJ) peak power (PP) and mean power (MP), and box squat (BS) one repetition maximum (1RM) strength were assessed every workout. Saliva was collected across each workout and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). The T(SPRINT) and T(CONTROL) groups both showed significant improvements in SJ PP (8.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 11.9 +/- 3.6%), SJ MP (11.8 +/- 2.6 vs. 18.6 +/- 4.8%) and BS 1RM (20.5 +/- 2.6 vs. 23.2 +/- 1.3%), respectively. However, there were no group differences in training adaptation, workout performance or the workout hormonal responses. As a combined group (all players), significant relationships were demonstrated between resting Sal-T and/or Sal-C concentrations and absolute SJ power (r = 0.20-0.30) and BS strength (r = 0.36-0.44) across all workouts. For individual players, the respective relationships with SJ power (r = 0.22-0.42) and BS strength (r = 0.41-0.49) were, on average, found to be stronger. In conclusion, leg workouts performed with or without prior cycle sprints can produce similar power and strength improvements in semi-elite rugby players. Resting salivary hormone concentrations appear important for workout performance, especially for individuals, thereby potentially moderating training adaptation.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  14. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.

  15. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network. PMID:25278869

  16. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Taborri, Juri; Scalona, Emilia; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6), with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02). Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population. PMID:26404309

  17. Design of Training Systems, Phase II-A Report. An Educational Technology Assessment Model (ETAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    D iSt’Ciirlty classification ol tltlo. body of tihstnict mid indexing .mnouuicn mwl he entered when (he overall report im <lossifled) I...Tree for Assessment of Training Innovation (3- D Procedural Trainer Analyzed Over Preliminary Range-of-Effect) V-16 V-4 Training Cost...Training Program Development V-38 V-18 Benefit Outcome Summary (3- D Procedural Trainer V-41 V-19 Benefit Outcome Summary (3- D Procedural

  18. Tunable subpicosecond electron bunch train generation using a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beamline capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally-separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  19. Employment Power: An Employer Awareness & Training Program. Facilitator Manual [and] Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Bonnie Biel

    This training package includes a Facilitator Manual and a Participant Manual designed to provide information and instructional tools necessary to train Guam employers on awareness and skills related to the successful employment of individuals with disabilities. Module 1 dispels misconceptions and stereotypes related to disabilities. Attitudes and…

  20. The Power of the Internet: Training Speech Pathology Assistants on Indian Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William R.; Tanner, Dennis C.

    This paper describes a pilot project to train rural native American paraprofessional personnel to deliver routine speech-language services to children under the overall supervision of a certified professional. The program had three components: on-site visits, desk-top conferencing, and distance training. The program was implemented at one…

  1. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  2. Analysis and design of a high power laser adaptive phased array transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mevers, G. E.; Soohoo, J. F.; Winocur, J.; Massie, N. A.; Southwell, W. H.; Brandewie, R. A.; Hayes, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of delivering substantial quantities of optical power to a satellite in low earth orbit from a ground based high energy laser (HEL) coupled to an adaptive antenna was investigated. Diffraction effects, atmospheric transmission efficiency, adaptive compensation for atmospheric turbulence effects, including the servo bandwidth requirements for this correction, and the adaptive compensation for thermal blooming were examined. To evaluate possible HEL sources, atmospheric investigations were performed for the CO2, (C-12)(O-18)2 isotope, CO and DF wavelengths using output antenna locations of both sea level and mountain top. Results indicate that both excellent atmospheric and adaption efficiency can be obtained for mountain top operation with a micron isotope laser operating at 9.1 um, or a CO laser operating single line (P10) at about 5.0 (C-12)(O-18)2um, which was a close second in the evaluation. Four adaptive power transmitter system concepts were generated and evaluated, based on overall system efficiency, reliability, size and weight, advanced technology requirements and potential cost. A multiple source phased array was selected for detailed conceptual design. The system uses a unique adaption technique of phase locking independent laser oscillators which allows it to be both relatively inexpensive and most reliable with a predicted overall power transfer efficiency of 53%.

  3. Estimating divergently routed nonlinearly interfering channel powers using cross phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Chin, Hou-Man; Thakur, Manoj P; Thomsen, Benn C; Savory, Seb J

    2014-10-20

    The deployment of coherent transceivers in legacy networks requires significant investment in installation. We propose a method enabling autonomous (re-)configuration of an optical channel, which would be advantageous in legacy networks and necessary in proposed future networks utilizing a flexible frequency grid and software defined components such as reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers (ROADM). We consider potential interfering optical channels propagating with the prospective channel along part of the fiber link which are dropped before arrival at the receiver. The method uses a commercially available line card transmitting a 40Gbit/s polarization multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) probe channel to characterize an optical channel. The power of the nearest neighboring channels is then inferred by examining its bit error rate (BER) which is impacted by cross phase modulation (XPM) from the aggressor channels. In a 4 node network with 2 ROADMs using up to 6 aggressor OOK channels, we successfully deduce the neighboring channel power down to -2 dBm, and an extra improvement down to -3.5 dBm is gained, by measuring at an offset to the international telecommunication union (ITU) grid which also reveals inequality in neighbor channel powers.

  4. Impulse Three Phase Power Supply Used for a Gliding Plasma Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Torres, J. A.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J.; Valdivia-Barrientos, R.; Pacheco-Pacheco, M.; Ramos-Flores, F.; Soria-Arguello, G.; Ibañez-Olvera, M.

    2015-03-01

    Power sources used for generating plasma have different configurations depending on the particular application; the aim here comprises the maximum energy transfer to the plasma discharge reaching. This work shows the performance and versatility of a simple impulse phase power source, applied to gliding arc plasma discharge. It is capable of changing the operating frequency from 5 kHz up to 150 kHz and the duty cycle from 1% to 33% in all three phases, each one connected to three divergent tungsten electrodes. This allows a soft start plasma ignition until the full load is reached. This converter uses a sequential logic circuits composed by flip-flops, gates drivers, IGBT's and high voltage ferrite transformers. These features facilitate the maximum energy transfer to the plasma without using more complex electronic structures. The effect of frequency, duty cycle, voltage and current wave form signals is here described. This power supply has the adaptability to work whit different type of gas such as Argon, Helium, Air and Nitrogen. A Matlab Simulink simulation validates the experimental results. The main features and advantages of this configuration are also defined.

  5. Early-phase neuromuscular adaptations to high- and low-volume resistance training in untrained young and older women.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2010-12-01

    We compared early-phase effects between high- and low-volume moderate-intensity resistance training on lean muscle volume, maximal bilateral leg extension strength, maximal isometric torque, normalized maximal bilateral leg extension strength, normalized maximal isometric torque, and muscle recruitment of the right knee extensors in previously untrained young (23.8 ± 3.7 years, range 20-30 years; n = 16) and older women (67.6 ± 6.3 years, range 60-78 years; n = 15). Participants performed either one set or three sets of 10 repetitions for the bilateral leg extension and bilateral leg curl at an intensity of 50-75% of maximal strength 3 days per week for 10 weeks. Main effects were observed over time for all variables (P < 0.05) with increases ranging from 7.1% to 27.8% and effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranging from 0.45 to 1.38. No interactions between age and training volume over time were observed for any variable (P > 0.05). Our results provide a novel contribution to the literature demonstrating that additional neuromuscular adaptation during early-phase moderate-intensity resistance training in previously untrained young and older women may not be elicited through higher-volume training when training loads are matched provided that a minimal volume threshold is attained. These findings may have practical applications for the prescription of short-duration resistance training programmes to enhance muscle strength and achieve hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic adaptations in untrained women.

  6. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase I. Tactical Air Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Training-. ( ASPT ) located at Williams AFB (Faconti, Mortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Knoop, 1973; Faconti & Epps, 1975; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980). The ASPT ...1tomated performance measurement system. Notwithstanding the apparent training potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found

  7. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  8. Simulations and Measurements for a concept of powering CALICE-AHCAL at a train-cycled accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttlicher, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving calorimetry by usage of the particle-flow algorithm requires to record the details of the shower development. Therefore a high granularity analogue readout hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) with small sensors and with electronics handling the enormous amount of channels, ≈ 40 000/m3, is required. Homogeneity is maintained by avoiding cooling tubes in the active volume and only cooling at the service end. For this concept low power consumption per channel, 40 μW, is essential. Future linear e+e-- collider designs, ILC or CLIC, foresee duty cycles for the bunch delivery. At ILC bunch trains of 1 ms duration are followed by long breaks of 200 ms. Power cycling the front end electronics with the train structure can reduce power consumption by a factor 100. However for a full scale CALICE-AHCAL switched currents reach magnitudes of kilo-amperes. This paper describes the design chain from front end PCB's through to external power supplies. By simulations a concept is developed, in which effects of electromagnetic interferences are kept small and localized. The goal is to keep current loops small, to limit the switched current to the region near the switched consumer and to allow only small frequency currents to spread out further into the system. By that analogue performance can be kept high and parasitic couplings to the surrounding metal structures and other sub-detectors will be minimized. Measurements with existing prototypes support the validity of the simulations.

  9. Leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Wallin, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence shows that team training can develop essential team skills and contribute to better patient outcomes. Current simulation-based team training (SBTT) programmes most often include targets and feedback focused on the whole team and/or leader, ignoring the follower as a unique entity. By considering followers’ individual experiences, and tailoring behavioural targets for training and feedback, SBTT could be improved. Our aim was to explore the individual experiences and behaviours of leaders and followers during the early phase of SBTT, and we hypothesised that leaders and followers would show different responses. Methods Medical students (n=54) participated in half-day SBTT including three video-recorded scenarios. Self-efficacy was assessed pretraining and post-training. For each scenario (n=36), the individual teamwork behaviours, concentration, mental strain and the team's clinical performance were recorded. Data were analysed using a mixed model allowing for participants to be their own control in their roles as leader or follower. Results Self-efficacy improved. In the role of leader, participants communicated to a greater extent and experienced higher mental strain and concentration than they did in the role of follower. Discussion The increased self-efficacy enables a positive learning outcome after only three scenarios. Individual experiences and behaviours differed between the role of leader and that of follower. By shedding further light on leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences and behaviours, targets for training and feedback could be specified in order to improve SBTT. PMID:23293119

  10. [Nursing Research Project on Management Training (IN.FOR.MA): evaluation of the competencies acquired during Phase 1].

    PubMed

    Rega, Maria Luisa; Ghera, Patrizia; Dessy, Orietta; Di Lullo, Massimiliano; Galletti, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to define the state of the art in nursing management training in Italy and to assess the effectiveness of training in a working context. The first phase of the IN.FOR.MA project consisted of creating a data collection tool, a questionnaire, based on paradigmatic pedagogic methodology. This was followed by a pilot study to test its effectiveness. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach's alpha test and the values obtained were between 0.79 and 0.82 for the overall scale and between 0.71 and 0.90 for the subscales. The maximum expression of the competencies perceived using the Likert scale was 4 (Fair), with a maximum value of 5 obtained in 53,06% of the total sample in the "Management" area and a minimum value between 3 (discreet) and 4 (fair) in 33.6% of the total in the area "Training and Research". Perception of the working value of the training experience reached 5 (very) , with an average value of 54,08% of the overall sample. The IN.FOR.MA questionnaire made it possible to assess the training course by focusing on the perception of the competencies acquired, with medium to high levels according to the Likert scale. The level of usefulness of these competencies in daily activities was highest in "Management" followed by "Programming and organization" and "Integration".

  11. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on leg power, jump and sprint performance in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozbar, Nurper; Ates, Seda; Agopyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week plyometric training (PT) on the leg power and jump and sprint performance in female soccer players. Eighteen female soccer players from Women Second League (age = 18.2 ± 2.3 years, height = 161.3 ± 5.4 cm, body mass = 56.6 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and plyometric (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued together with regular technical and tactical soccer training for 4 days a week. Additionally, the plyometric group underwent PT for 8 weeks, 1 day per week, 60-minute session duration. During the 8-week period, the control group was hindered from any additional conditioning training. All players' jumps (triple hop, countermovement jump, and standing broad jump), running speed (20 m), and peak power were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between the groups at pretest variables (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were found in the posttest of both the groups (p ≤ 0.05), except for 20-m sprint test in the control group (p > 0.05). Triple hop distance, countermovement jump, standing broad jump, peak power, and 20-m sprint test values were all significantly improved in the plyometric group, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We concluded that short duration PT is an improved important component of athletic performance in female soccer players. The results indicate that safe, effective, and alternative PT can be useful to strength and conditioning coaches, especially during competition season where less time is available for training.

  12. Power-Law Entanglement Spectrum in Many-Body Localized Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbyn, Maksym; Michailidis, Alexios A.; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Papić, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The entanglement spectrum of the reduced density matrix contains information beyond the von Neumann entropy and provides unique insights into exotic orders or critical behavior of quantum systems. Here, we show that strongly disordered systems in the many-body localized phase have power-law entanglement spectra, arising from the presence of extensively many local integrals of motion. The power-law entanglement spectrum distinguishes many-body localized systems from ergodic systems, as well as from ground states of gapped integrable models or free systems in the vicinity of scale-invariant critical points. We confirm our results using large-scale exact diagonalization. In addition, we develop a matrix-product state algorithm which allows us to access the eigenstates of large systems close to the localization transition, and discuss general implications of our results for variational studies of highly excited eigenstates in many-body localized systems.

  13. Power-Law Entanglement Spectrum in Many-Body Localized Phases.

    PubMed

    Serbyn, Maksym; Michailidis, Alexios A; Abanin, Dmitry A; Papić, Z

    2016-10-14

    The entanglement spectrum of the reduced density matrix contains information beyond the von Neumann entropy and provides unique insights into exotic orders or critical behavior of quantum systems. Here, we show that strongly disordered systems in the many-body localized phase have power-law entanglement spectra, arising from the presence of extensively many local integrals of motion. The power-law entanglement spectrum distinguishes many-body localized systems from ergodic systems, as well as from ground states of gapped integrable models or free systems in the vicinity of scale-invariant critical points. We confirm our results using large-scale exact diagonalization. In addition, we develop a matrix-product state algorithm which allows us to access the eigenstates of large systems close to the localization transition, and discuss general implications of our results for variational studies of highly excited eigenstates in many-body localized systems.

  14. High average power pulsed phase conjugate laser with birefringence correction. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.W.; Hankla, A.K.; Jacobson, G.F.

    1994-05-01

    Nd:YAG rod lasers have been plagued with the inability to go to high average powers because of thermally induced birefringence and focusing. Several methods have been employed to correct for the birefringence and the thermal aberrations of such systems, but place stringent constraints on the laser heads and/or the system alignment. They have developed a scalable Nd: YAG master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) laser system which employs a novel phase conjugation scheme to correct both for the material and thermal distortions as well as the thermal birefringence in double pass amplifier systems. This method reduces the double pass depolarization from 42% to less than 2% and is easy to align.

  15. A power-adjustable superconducting terahertz source utilizing electrical triggering phase transitions in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L. Y.; Zhou, X. J.; Yang, Z. B.; Zhang, H. L.; Sun, H. C.; Cao, H. X.; Dai, P. H.; Li, J.; Hatano, T.; Wang, H. B.; Wen, Q. Y.; Wu, P. H.

    2016-12-01

    We report a practical superconducting terahertz (THz) source, comprising a stack of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) and a vanadium dioxide (VO2) tunable attenuator with coplanar interdigital contacts. The electrical triggering phase transitions are observed not only at room temperature, but also at low temperatures, which provides a proof of the electrical triggering. Applying this, the VO2 attenuator is implemented for the independent regulations on the emission powers from the IJJ THz emitter, remaining frequencies and temperatures unchanged. The attenuation can be tuned smoothly and continuously within a couple of volts among which the maximum is, respectively, -5.6 dB at 20 K or -4.3 dB at 25 K. Such a power-adjustable radiation source, including the VO2 attenuator, can further expand its practicability in cryogenic THz systems, like superconducting THz spectrometers.

  16. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S. . Center for Productivity and Mfg. Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  17. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  18. MCAV/IMU integrated navigation for the powered descent phase of Mars EDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Peng, Yuming; Lu, Yuping; Zhang, Liu; Liu, Yufei

    2010-09-01

    Pin-point landing is considered as a key technology for future manned Mars landing and Mars base missions. The traditional inertial navigation system (INS) based guidance, navigation and control (GNC) mode used in the Mars entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase has no ability to achieve the precise and safe Mars landing, so novel EDL GNC methodologies should be investigated to meet this goal. This paper proposes the MCAV/IMU integrated navigation scheme for the powered descent phase of Mars EDL. The Miniature Coherent Altimeter and Velocimeter (MCAV) is adopted to correct the inertial bias and drift and improve the performance of integrated navigation. Altitude and velocity information derived from MCAV and the lander's state information sensed by inertial measurement unit (IMU) are integrated in extended Kalman filter algorithm. The validity of the proposed navigation scheme is confirmed by computer simulation.

  19. Phase-Noise and Amplitude-Noise Measurement of Low-Power Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubiola, Enrico; Salik, Ertan; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the phase fluctuation between a pair of low-power microwave signals, the signals must be amplified before detection. In such cases the phase noise of the amplifier pair is the main cause of 1/f background noise of the instrument. this article proposes a scheme that makes amplification possible while rejecting the close in 1/f (flicker) noise of the two amplifiers. Noise rejection, which relies upon the understanding of the amplifier noise mechanism does not require averaging. Therefore, our scheme can also be the detector of a closed loop noise reduction system. the first prototype, compared to a traditional saturated mixer system under the same condition, show a 24 dB noise reduction of the 1/f region.

  20. Programming power reduction in confined phase change memory cells with titanium dioxide clad layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangliang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Zheng, Qianqian; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Wanting; Shao, Hehong; Zhu, Xiuwei; Yu, Wenlei

    2017-01-01

    A confined structure phase change memory (PCM) cell has been fabricated based on the focused-ion beam technique. Furthermore, the titanium dioxide clad layer was proposed for promoting the temperature rise in the Ge0.61Sb2Te layer that causes the reduction in the reset voltage and current compared to the phase change memory cell without clad layer. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are conducted to analyze the thermal effect of the titanium dioxide heating layer. The improved performance of the PCM cell with dioxide clad layer can be attributed to the fact that the buffer layer not only acted as heating layer but also efficiently reduced the cell dissipated power.

  1. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; ...

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm xmore » 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.« less

  2. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; Czarkowski, Dariusz; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm x 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.

  3. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier with Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that there exist second-order harmonic current and corresponding ripple voltage on dc bus for single phase PWM rectifiers. The low frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus which results in low power density. This paper proposed an active ripple energy storage method that can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The feed-forward control method and design considerations are provided. Simulation and 15 kW experimental results are provided for verification purposes.

  4. Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Saidane, Dorra; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    The high sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines may be reduced by extracting the naturally present carbonyl compounds from wine that are responsible for carbonyl bisulphites formation. The carbonyl compounds mainly responsible for trapping SO2 are acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid. The method employed was selective solid phase extraction, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted onto a support prepared from raw materials derived from lignin. This approach is more acceptable to winemakers than the polymer media previously reported, as it reduces the possible contamination of wine to molecules already present in the wine making process.

  5. Trace anomaly, thermal power corrections, and dimension two condensates in the deconfined phase

    SciTech Connect

    Megias, E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz; Salcedo, L. L.

    2009-09-01

    The trace anomaly of gluodynamics on the lattice shows clear fingerprints of a dimension two condensate above the phase transition. The condensate manifests itself through even powers of the inverse temperature while the total perturbative contribution corresponds to a mild temperature dependence and turns out to be compatible with zero within errors. We try several resummation methods based on a renormalization group improvement. The trace anomaly data are analyzed and compared with other determinations of the dimension two condensate based on the Polyakov loop and the heavy qq free energy, yielding roughly similar numerical values. The role of glueballs near the transition is also discussed.

  6. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-08-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le}10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 2.4 Duct Heater and Gas Turbine Integration.

  7. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  8. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  9. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted.

  10. A dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for voltage multiplier based X-ray power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, S.; Besar, R.; Venkataseshaiah, C.

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes a dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for series resonant inverter fed voltage multiplier (VM) based X-ray power supply. In this control scheme the outputs voltage of two parallel connected series resonant inverters are mixed before supplying to VM circuit. The output voltage of the power supply is controlled by varying the phase-shift between the output voltages of two inverters. In order to achieve quick rise of output voltage, the power supply is started with zero phase-shift and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target voltage, the phase-shift is increased to a value which corresponds to target output voltage to prevent overshoot. The proposed control scheme has been shown to have good performance. Experimental results based on the scaled-down laboratory prototype are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed dual-mode phase shift modulation control scheme.

  11. An assessment of cloud top thermodynamic phase products obtained from A-Train passive and active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, S.; Riedi, J.; Parol, F.; Cornet, C.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-09-01

    The A-Train observations provide an unprecedented opportunity for the production of high quality dataset describing cloud properties. We illustrate in this study the use of one year of coincident POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance), MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) observations to establish a reference dataset for the description of cloud top thermodynamic phase at global scale. We present the results of an extensive comparison between POLDER and MODIS cloud top phase products and discuss those in view of cloud vertical structure and optical properties derived simultaneously from collocated CALIOP active measurements. These results allow to identify and quantify potential biases present in the 3 considered dataset. Among those, we discuss the impacts of observation geometry, thin cirrus in multilayered and single layered cloud systems, supercooled liquid droplets, aerosols, fractional cloud cover and snow/ice or bright surfaces on global statistics of cloud phase derived from POLDER and MODIS passive measurements. Based on these analysis we define criteria for the selection of high confidence cloud phase retrievals which in turn can serve for the establishment of a reference cloud phase product. This high confidence joint product derived from POLDER/PARASOL and MODIS/Aqua can be used in the future as a benchmark for the evaluation of other cloud climatologies, for the assessment of cloud phase representation in models and the development of better cloud phase parametrization in the general circulation models (GCMs).

  12. High-Intensity Jump Training Is Tolerated during 60 Days of Bed Rest and Is Very Effective in Preserving Leg Power and Lean Body Mass: An Overview of the Cologne RSL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kümmel, Jakob; Mulder, Edwin; Gollhofer, Albert; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Gruber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance. Methods 23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg) were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT), and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase. Participants were randomly allocated to the jump training group (JUMP, n = 12) or the control group (CTRL, n = 11). A typical training session consisted of 4x10 countermovement jumps and 2x10 hops in a sledge jump system. The training group had to complete 5–6 sessions per week. Results Peak force for the reactive hops (3.6±0.4 kN) as well as jump height (35±4 cm) and peak power (3.1±0.2 kW) for the countermovement jumps could be maintained over the 60 days of HDT. Lean body mass decreased in CTRL but not in JUMP (-1.6±1.9 kg and 0±1.0 kg, respectively, interaction effect p = 0.03). Resting heart rate during recovery was significantly increased for CTRL but not for JUMP (interaction effect p<0.001). Conclusion Participants tolerated the near-daily high-intensity jump training and maintained high peak forces and high power output during 60 days of bed rest. The countermeasure was effective in preserving lean body mass and partly preventing cardiac deconditioning with only several minutes of training per day. PMID:28081223

  13. Three-phase power conversion system for utility-interconnected PV applications. Phase 1 technical progress report, 1 October 1995--17 April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.G.; Meyer, H.; Leang, W.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes work performed by Omnion Power Corporation under Phase 1 of a two-phase subcontract. During this phase, Omnion researchers: designed an advanced product specification to guide prototype design and development; analyzed field failure data with Omnion`s hard-switched insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor technology hardware to better understand where design improvements were needed; presented and reviewed product specifications with key customers/users; drafted a working product specification to serve as a baseline in developing the new power conversion system; developed the core-resonant converter technology in conjunction with Soft Switching Technologies Corp.; designed a 100-kW prototype power conversion system; designed a prototype system package; initiated interaction with vendors to optimize component selection and specifications; initiated the preparation of design documentation; built the prototype core-resonant converter and initiated preliminary testing; and initiated the assembly of a 1-kW prototype power conversion system. This work has demonstrated the potential of the soft-switching resonant DC link (RDCL) inverter and its application to a three-phase utility-interconnected PV power conversion system. The RDCL inverter has demonstrated its advantage over hard-switching pulse-width modulated inverters in terms of efficiency and audible noise. With proper package design and manufacturing process design and implementation, the RDCL power conversion system has the potential to be low-cost and reliable with superior performance.

  14. Sun Valley Photovoltaic Power Project, Phase 1. Final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Jr, F R

    1980-03-01

    An application experiment was devised for fabrication, installation, operation, and evaluation of a concentrating photovoltaic system for direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. If the experiment is performed, the photovoltaic system will be connected to an electric motor load and to an electric utility system. Provisions will be made to allow the motor load to be supplied with power from either the photovoltaic system or the utility system. When the demand of the motor load is low, the photovoltaic system will deliver excess power to the utility system for use elsewhere. Thus, the experimental installation has been designed with sufficient flexibility to enable several modes of operation to be evaluated. This type of application is a typical example of on-site power generation at an individual load center involving two-way energy exchange with the adjacent utility system. Because a growing market for photovoltaic systems in this type of application is expected in the 1980's, the experiment will provide needed information in a timely manner. The experiment was devised jointly by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) and its subcontractor, Spectrolab, Inc. LADWP will furnish a site and operate the equipment after installation. The subcontractor will manufacture and furnish a concentrating photovoltaic array with a power rating of approximately 200 kilowatts at one kilowatt per square meter of insolation. Other required equipment will be purchased to specification from appropriate suppliers. The photovoltaic system represents a state-of-the-art design at the time this report was prepared. However, minor design improvements may be made prior to and during system installation. All phases of fabrication, installation and operation will be documented through formal reports. The results of the experiment will contribute to the goals of the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program.

  15. [Health-related strength and power training in seniors: Purpose and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bopp, Micha; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    The proportion of older people in western societies rapidly increases. Aging-induced disease conditions accompanied with declines in cardiocirculatory and neuromuscular performance constitute a major individual and economic health burden. Besides decreasing vascular and cardiac function during the process of aging, a loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle structure and function seem to mainly account for decreasing maximal strength, strength development and strength endurance. These findings adversely interfer with static and dynamic postural control and may lead to an increased risk of falling with impairments of autonomy and quality of life. Traditional strength training recommendations basing on health-related exercise prescriptions for elderly people have been proven to counteract or at least attenuate aging-induced declines of neuromuscular muscular function. Multimodal and combined strength and balance training deliver additional improvements of neuromuscular capacity. Recent evidence additionally underpin the need of trunk muscle training and claimed for regimes considering explosive and high-velocity strength training in seniors. High quality RCTs revealed notable strength training effects on mobility, autonomy, quality of life and the reduction of the risk of falling (up to 50%). Available evidence also indicates that various strength training regimes elicit preventive and therapeutic effects on osteoporosis, diabetes type 2 and other chronic diseases, with effect sizes comparable to medication intake. Thus, health care providers, health insurances, Employers' Liability Insurance Associations and politicians should promote infrastructural developments that enable feasible and cost-effective access to health-related fitness centers or other sport facilities (e. g. sport clubs). These environmental requirements should be embedded in multi-centric education programs and campaigns that might enable regularly conducted strength and endurance training perceived as

  16. Ultralow-power switching via defect engineering in germanium telluride phase-change memory devices

    PubMed Central

    Nukala, Pavan; Lin, Chia-Chun; Composto, Russell; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal–amorphous transformation achieved via the melt-quench pathway in phase-change memory involves fundamentally inefficient energy conversion events; and this translates to large switching current densities, responsible for chemical segregation and device degradation. Alternatively, introducing defects in the crystalline phase can engineer carrier localization effects enhancing carrier–lattice coupling; and this can efficiently extract work required to introduce bond distortions necessary for amorphization from input electrical energy. Here, by pre-inducing extended defects and thus carrier localization effects in crystalline GeTe via high-energy ion irradiation, we show tremendous improvement in amorphization current densities (0.13–0.6 MA cm−2) compared with the melt-quench strategy (∼50 MA cm−2). We show scaling behaviour and good reversibility on these devices, and explore several intermediate resistance states that are accessible during both amorphization and recrystallization pathways. Existence of multiple resistance states, along with ultralow-power switching and scaling capabilities, makes this approach promising in context of low-power memory and neuromorphic computation. PMID:26805748

  17. Bounds and phase diagram of efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Tu, Z C

    2013-02-01

    The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) for tight-coupling molecular motors is investigated within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. It is found that the EMP depends merely on the constitutive relation between the thermodynamic current and force. The motors are classified into four generic types (linear, superlinear, sublinear, and mixed types) according to the characteristics of the constitutive relation, and then the corresponding ranges of the EMP for these four types of molecular motors are obtained. The exact bounds of the EMP are derived and expressed as the explicit functions of the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step. A phase diagram is constructed which clearly shows how the region where the parameters (the load distribution factor and the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step) are located can determine whether the value of the EMP is larger or smaller than 1/2. This phase diagram reveals that motors using ATP as fuel under physiological conditions can work at maximum power with higher efficiency (> 1/2) for a small load distribution factor (< 0.1).

  18. Ultralow-power switching via defect engineering in germanium telluride phase-change memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukala, Pavan; Lin, Chia-Chun; Composto, Russell; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal-amorphous transformation achieved via the melt-quench pathway in phase-change memory involves fundamentally inefficient energy conversion events; and this translates to large switching current densities, responsible for chemical segregation and device degradation. Alternatively, introducing defects in the crystalline phase can engineer carrier localization effects enhancing carrier-lattice coupling; and this can efficiently extract work required to introduce bond distortions necessary for amorphization from input electrical energy. Here, by pre-inducing extended defects and thus carrier localization effects in crystalline GeTe via high-energy ion irradiation, we show tremendous improvement in amorphization current densities (0.13-0.6 MA cm-2) compared with the melt-quench strategy (~50 MA cm-2). We show scaling behaviour and good reversibility on these devices, and explore several intermediate resistance states that are accessible during both amorphization and recrystallization pathways. Existence of multiple resistance states, along with ultralow-power switching and scaling capabilities, makes this approach promising in context of low-power memory and neuromorphic computation.

  19. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals: Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  20. Behind the scenes of a research and training collaboration: power, privilege, and the hidden transcript of race.

    PubMed

    Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines a federally funded research and training collaboration between an Ivy League psychiatric research center and a historically Black university and medical center. This collaboration focuses on issues of psychiatric recovery and rehabilitation among African Americans. In addition, this multidisciplinary collaboration aims to build the research capacity at both institutions and to contribute to the tradition of research in culture and mental health within the medical social sciences and cultural psychiatry. This article provides a window into the complex, often messy, dynamics of a collaboration that cross cuts institutional, disciplinary, and demographic boundaries. Taking an auto-ethnographic approach, we intend to illustrate how collaborative relationships unfold and are constructed through ongoing reciprocal flows of knowledge and experience. Central to this aim is a consideration of how issues of power, privilege, and the hidden transcript of race shape the nature of our research and training efforts.

  1. Specifics of MS training in the area of nuclear materials safe management for new-comers in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Glebov, V. B.

    2017-01-01

    The issues of specialists training in the field of nuclear materials safe management for the countries, who have taken a way of nuclear power development are analyzed. Arguments in justification of a need of these specialists training for the new-comers are adduced. The general characteristic of the reference MS program “Nuclear materials safe management” is considered. The peculiar features of the program, which is important for graduates from the new-comers have been analyzed. The best practices got as a result of implementation of the program in recent years for the students from Kazakhstan, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Iran, Turkey and other countries are presented. Finally, the directions of international cooperation in further improvement and development of the program are considered.

  2. COMMERCIALIZATION OF AN ATMOSPHERIC IRON-BASED CDCL PROCESS FOR POWER PRODUCTION. PHASE I: TECHNOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) is an advanced oxy-combustion technology that has potential to enable substantial reductions in the cost and energy penalty associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-fired power plants. Through collaborative efforts, the Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and The Ohio State University (OSU) developed a conceptual design for a 550 MWe (net) supercritical CDCL power plant with greater than 90% CO2 capture and compression. Process simulations were completed to enable an initial assessment of its technical performance. A cost estimate was developed following DOE’s guidelines as outlined in NETL’s report “Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance”, (2011/1455). The cost of electricity for the CDCL plant without CO2 Transportation and Storage cost resulted in $ $102.67 per MWh, which corresponds to a 26.8 % increase in cost of electricity (COE) when compared to an air-fired pulverized-coal supercritical power plant. The cost of electricity is strongly depending on the total plant cost and cost of the oxygen carrier particles. The CDCL process could capture further potential savings by increasing the performance of the particles and reducing the plant size. During the techno-economic analysis, the team identified technology and engineering gaps that need to be closed to bring the technology to commercialization. The technology gaps were focused in five critical areas: (i) moving bed reducer reactor, (ii) fluidized bed combustor, (iii) particle riser, (iv) oxygen-carrier particle properties, and (v) process operation. The key technology gaps are related to particle performance, particle manufacturing cost, and the operation of the reducer reactor. These technology gaps are to be addressed during Phase II of project. The project team is proposing additional lab testing to be completed on the particle and a 3MWth pilot facility

  3. Picosecond master-oscillator, power-amplifier system based on a mixed vanadate phase conjugate bounce amplifier.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Naoki; Morimoto, Yasuhito; Furuki, Kenji; Tanaka, Yuichi; Nawata, Kouji; Okida, Masahito; Omatsu, Takashige

    2008-10-13

    We demonstrate a high average power approximately 4 ps output from a phase conjugate laser system based on a diode-side-pumped Nd:Gd(0.6)Y(0.4)VO(4) bounce amplifier. An average output power of 16.2 W with a peak power of 210 kW was achieved. A corresponding extraction efficiency of 23% was measured.

  4. Resistance Training Priming Activity Improves Upper-Body Power Output in Rugby Players: Implications for Game Day Performance.

    PubMed

    Mason, Billy R J; Argus, Christos K; Norcott, Ben; Ball, Nick B

    2017-04-01

    Mason, BRJ, Argus, CK, Norcott, B, and Ball, NB. Resistance training priming activity improves upper-body power output in rugby players: implications for game day performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 913-920, 2017-"Priming" or preactivation strategies performed in the hours leading into competition have been suggested to improve game day performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effectiveness of a resistance training priming activity on eliciting changes in lower- and upper-body power output, along with perceptual measures. To assess these changes, 13 state-level rugby players (aged 18.5 ± 0.5 years) completed a test-retest protocol using a counterbalanced crossover design. Perceptual (readiness to perform questionnaire) and performance measures (20-kg countermovement jump [CMJ], 20-kg bench throw) were completed before either a control (rest) or priming activity (4 sets of 3 banded back squats and banded bench press). After a 1-hour and 45-minute recovery period, perceptual and performance measures were repeated. Readiness to perform showed no meaningful differences pre- and postintervention. Bench throw peak power (8.5 ± 5.8%, 90% confidence limit; p ≤ 0.05) improved after the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Countermovement jump peak power (3.4 ± 4.9%; p > 0.05) had a small decrease after the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Therefore, completing a priming activity 1 hour and 45 minutes before competition is recommended to improve upper-body power output. However, further research into lower-body priming protocols should be conducted before implementing a lower-body priming activity before competition.

  5. On-shot laser beam diagnostics for high-power laser facility with phase modulation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Veetil, S. P.; Liu, C.; Tao, H.; Jiang, Y.; Lin, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.

    2016-05-01

    A coherent-modulation-imaging-based (CMI) algorithm has been employed for on-shot laser beam diagnostics in high-power laser facilities, where high-intensity short-pulsed lasers from terawatt to petawatt are designed to realize inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A single-shot intensity measurement is sufficient for wave-front reconstruction, both for the near-field and far-field at the same time. The iterative reconstruction process is computationally very efficient and was completed in dozens of seconds by the additional use of a GPU device to speed it up. The compact measurement unit—including a CCD and a piece of pre-characterized phase plate—makes it convenient for focal-spot intensity prediction in the target chamber. It can be placed almost anywhere in high-power laser facilities to achieve near-field wave-front diagnostics. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by conducting a series of experiments with diagnostic beams and seed pulses with deactivated amplifiers in our high-power laser system.

  6. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  7. In-Phase Power-Combined Frequency Tripler at 300 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrini, Alain; Ward, John; Lin, Robert; Gill, John; Lee, Choonsup; Mehdi, Imran; Javadi, Hamid; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2009-01-01

    This design starts with commercial 85- to 115-GHz sources that are amplified to as much as 250 mW using power amplifiers developed for the Herschel Space Observatory. The frequency is then tripled using a novel waveguide GaAs Schottky diode frequency tripler. This planar diode produces 26 mW at 318 GHz. Peak conversion efficiency is over 15 percent, and the measured bandwidth of about 265 - 30 GHz is limited more by the driving source than by the tripler itself. This innovation is based on an integrated circuit designed originally for a single-chip 260- to 340-GHz balanced tripler. The power-combined version has two mirror-image tripler chips that are power-combined in-phase in a single waveguide block using a compact Y-junction divider at the input waveguide, and a Y-junction combiner at the output waveguide. The tripler uses a split-block waveguide design with two independent DC bias lines.

  8. Formal on-the-job training programs at power generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch, R.R.

    1996-11-01

    On-the-Job Training (OJT) should be utilized for all posts in the stations. OJT for entry level positions should include training in many mundane areas that are often overlooked such as record keeping (log sheets and log books), proper communications and how to conduct himself or herself on the watch, during either emergency or routine situations. A separate OJT Program should be provided to prepare personnel to qualify for promotion to the next level. (Depending on any common agreements or bargaining unit contracts, OJT Programs can also be used to pre-qualify candidates for promotion to the next level.) By allowing the trainee to retain all OJT Program materials, it will also be available to him or her for continued reference or remedial training. (When an OJT Program is first instituted, it may be validated by issuing it to incumbent personnel and, subsequent, incorporating their comments or corrections.) This paper describes a formal OJT program.

  9. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  10. Design of Training Systems, Phase II Report, Volume III; Model Program Descriptions and Operating Procedures. TAEG Report No. 12-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Equipment Center, Orlando, FL. Training Analysis and Evaluation Group.

    The Design of Training Systems (DOTS) project was initiated by the Department of Defense (DOD) to develop tools for the effective management of military training organizations. Volume 3 contains the model and data base program descriptions and operating procedures designed for phase 2 of the project. Flow charts and program listings for the…

  11. Inferring Muscle-Tendon Unit Power from Ankle Joint Power during the Push-Off Phase of Human Walking: Insights from a Multiarticular EMG-Driven Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs). However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint) musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which ankle joint power overestimates net plantarflexor MTU power during the Push-off phase of walking, due to the behavior of the flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FDHL)–multiarticular MTUs crossing the ankle and metatarsophalangeal (toe) joints. Methods We performed a gait analysis study on six healthy participants, recording ground reaction forces, kinematics, and electromyography (EMG). Empirical data were input into an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate ankle power. This model enabled us to parse contributions from mono- and multi-articular MTUs, and required only one scaling and one time delay factor for each subject and speed, which were solved for based on empirical data. Net plantarflexing MTU power was computed by the model and quantitatively compared to inverse dynamics ankle power. Results The EMG-driven model was able to reproduce inverse dynamics ankle power across a range of gait speeds (R2 ≥ 0.97), while also providing MTU-specific power estimates. We found that FDHL dynamics caused ankle power to slightly overestimate net plantarflexor MTU power, but only by ~2–7%. Conclusions During Push-off, FDHL MTU dynamics do not substantially confound the inference of net plantarflexor MTU power from inverse dynamics ankle power. However, other methodological limitations may cause inverse dynamics to overestimate net MTU power; for instance, due to rigid-body foot assumptions. Moving

  12. High-power phase-locked quantum cascade laser array emitting at λ ˜ 4.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang-Liang; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Jia, Zhi-Wei; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2016-03-01

    A phase-locked quantum cascade laser (QCL) array consisting of one hundred elements that were integrated in parallel was achieved at λ ˜ 4.6 μm. The proposed Fraunhofer's multiple slits diffraction model predicted and explained the far-field pattern of the phase-locked laser array. A single-lobed far-field pattern, attributed to the emission of an in-phase-like supermode, is obtained near the threshold (Ith). Even at 1.5 Ith, greater than 73.3% of the laser output power is concentrated in a low-divergence beam with an optical power of up to 40 W.

  13. A digitally implemented phase-locked loop detection scheme for analysis of the phase and power stability of a calibration tone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) scheme is described which detects the phase and power of a high SNR calibration tone. The digital PLL is implemented in software directly from the given description. It was used to evaluate the stability of the Goldstone Deep Space Station open loop receivers for Radio Science. Included is a derivative of the Allan variance sensitivity of the PLL imposed by additive white Gaussian noise; a lower limit is placed on the carrier frequency.

  14. The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Teams for Developing First Responder Training in TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Jo L.; Cappiccie, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Misunderstanding of the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leaves first responders ill-equipped to handle encounters involving subjects with brain injury. This paper details a cross-disciplinary project to develop and disseminate a training curriculum designed to increase first responders' knowledge of and skills with TBI survivors.…

  15. The Power of ROFO Principle Together with Companywide Training in Executing Lean Production Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Ah Bee; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the case study conducted at Schaffner Thailand (ST) factory regarding the application of the ROFO principle coupled with companywide training on the execution of Lean Production (LP) strategy. The case study was motivated by 3 main objectives: 1) to examine the effectiveness of the ROFO principle and companywide…

  16. Knowledge Is Power: Empowering the Autism Community through Parent-Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Ackerman-Spain, Karen; Williams, Ellen U.; Ryley, Anderia T.

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships for Autism through Collaborative Community Choice and Empowerment (Project PACE) was developed to empower parents and professionals (e.g., general or special education teachers, therapists, social workers, school counselors, psychologists) through training and education. Project PACE was designed to provide participants with basic…

  17. Evaluation of a Nuclear Power Skill Related Training Program for Job Corps Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabchi, Gloria; Petry, John R.

    An evaluation of the Nuclear Skill Related Training Program at Memphis State University was conducted to identify possible motivational and attitudinal variables that may contribute to the retention-attrition rates of Job Corps students (40 percent) admitted to the program compared to non-Job Corps students who are migrant workers (2 percent). The…

  18. Nearly Unity Power-Factor of the Modular Three-Phase AC to DC Converter with Minimized DC Bus Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunkag, Viboon; Kamnarn, Uthen

    The analysis and design of nearly unity power-factor and fast dynamic response of the modular three-phase ac to dc converter using three single-phase isolated SEPIC rectifier modules with minimized dc bus capacitor is discussed, based on power balance control technique. The averaged small-signal technique is used to obtain the inductor current compensator, thus resulting in the output impedance and audio susceptibility become zero, that is, the output voltage of the converter presented in this paper is independent of the variations of the dc load current and the utility voltage. The proposed system significantly improves the dynamic response of the converter to load steps with minimized dc bus capacitor for Distributed Power System (DPS). A 600W prototype modular three-phase ac to dc converter comprising three 200W single-phase SEPIC rectifier modules with the proposed control scheme has been designed and implemented. The proposed system is confirmed by experimental implementation.

  19. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report Phase-II. Contractual reporting period October-December 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Edward; The Salix Consortium

    2000-03-23

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing design plans for 2 utility pulverized coal boilers for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system.

  20. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  1. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  2. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program.

  3. Modelling the energy future of Switzerland after the phase out of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Paula; Van Vliet, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) published the final report of the proposed measures in the context of the Energy Strategy 2050 (ES2050). The ES2050 draws an energy scenario where the nuclear must be substituted by alternative sources. This implies a fundamental change in the energy system that has already been questioned by experts, e.g. [Piot, 2014]. Therefore, we must analyse in depth the technical implications of change in the Swiss energy mix from a robust baseload power such as nuclear, to an electricity mix where intermittent sources account for higher rates. Accomplishing the ES2050 imply difficult challenges, since nowadays nuclear power is the second most consumed energy source in Switzerland. According to the SFOE, nuclear accounts for a 23.3% of the gross production, only surpassed by crude oil products (43.3%). Hydropower is the third source more consumed, representing approximately the half of the nuclear (12.2%). Considering that Switzerland has almost reached the maximum of its hydropower capacity, renewables are more likely to be the alternative when the nuclear phase out takes place. Hence, solar and wind power will play an important role in the future Swiss energy mix, even though currently new renewables account for only 1.9% of the gross energy consumption. In this study we look for realistic and efficient combinations of energy resources to substitute nuclear power. Energy modelling is a powerful tool to design an energy system with high energy security that avoids problems of intermittency [Mathiesen & Lund, 2009]. In Switzerland, energy modelling has been used by the government [Abt et. al., 2012] and also has significant relevance in academia [Mathys, 2012]. Nevertheless, we detected a gap in the study of the security in energy scenarios [Busser, 2013]. This study examines the future electricity production of Switzerland using Calliope, a multi-scale energy systems model, developed at Imperial College, London and

  4. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2016-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  5. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations.

  6. Differences in short-term training for interaural phase difference discrimination between two different forced-choice paradigms.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew; Hopkins, Kathryn; Plack, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Improvement in interaural phase difference (IPD) discrimination over 2 to 3 h was compared for two two-alternative forced-choice paradigms: A three-interval paradigm, in which the IPD was in interval two or three, and a paradigm with two intervals of four stimuli in which the IPD was in the second and fourth stimuli of one interval (AAAA vs ABAB). The difference in performance between the beginning and end of the testing period was smaller for the two-interval paradigm, supporting the use of this paradigm for fast measurement of discrimination thresholds without the need for a long period of training.

  7. High-intensity, occupation-specific training in a series of firefighters during phase II cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dunlei; Berbarie, Rafic F.

    2013-01-01

    Six male firefighters who were referred to phase II cardiac rehabilitation after coronary revascularization participated in a specialized regimen of high-intensity, occupation-specific training (HIOST) that simulated firefighting tasks. During each session, the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure were monitored, and the patients were observed for adverse symptoms. No patient had to discontinue HIOST because of adverse arrhythmias or symptoms. For physicians who must make decisions about return to work, the information collected over multiple HIOST sessions might be more thorough and conclusive than the information gained during a single treadmill exercise stress test (the recommended evaluation method). PMID:23543963

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. QUARTERLY REPORTS 2 AND 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFER OF TRAINING WERE STUDIED BY USE OF PROGRAMED SELF-INSTRUCTION USING TEACHING MACHINES. THIS MEDIUM WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE IT PROVIDES LABORATORY-LIKE CONDITIONS SUCH AS STABILIZED METHODS, AND STIMULUS CONTROL INCLUDING CONTROL OF TEACHER PERSONALITY, PLUS A STEP-BY-STEP RECORD OF THE…

  9. Introduction to the Parts Counter Trade. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This student training module provides an introduction to the automotive parts counter trade. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 032 880; other student modules also are available--see note). The modules are designed to introduce trade knowledge and skills to the student. This module contains a cover sheet listing module…

  10. Online Teacher Training: The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System--Phase 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daytner, Gary; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Johanson, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Legislation, research, and practice support access to technology by young children with disabilities. Yet barriers to technology use--lack of training, inadequate funding, failure to acknowledge technology as a relevant issue, or disbelief that technology can positively impact young children with disabilities--often prevail among many disciplines…

  11. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, contains the documents considered to be important in providing the background for the study. The materials are organized into four major areas: initial correspondence, instrumentation, special reports, and psychomotor skills. See also HE 003 275 and HE 003 276.…

  12. Introduction to the Drywall Trade. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This student training module is an introduction to the drywall trade. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately as CE 032 886; also, other student modules are available--see note.) The modules are designed to introduce trade knowledge and skills to the student. This module contains a cover sheet listing module title, goal, and…

  13. Analysis of Commercial Contract Training for the Marine Corps (Phase 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Ph.D. Thomas F. Curry. Jr. Susan C. Gates Training Analysis and Evaluation Group June 1975 GOVERNMENT RIGHTS IN DATA STATEMENT 1 Reproduction of this...Per Qtr. Pres. 638-4131 LENOIR COMUNITY 140 Mi. SACSS Total. 1739? Tuition: 6 modern buildings on Air COLLEIE Day: $32 Per Qtr. 58-acre campus. L-.arn

  14. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES < 0.4). No changes (p ≥ 0.05, ES < 0.4) were observed in RPE, HRmean, and BLa. A linear regression analysis showed that ΔCMJ predicted both the ΔRu_time (R = 0.559; p = 0.008) and the ΔOverall_time (R = 0.391; p = 0.048). This low-volume, HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and

  15. Train of high-power femtosecond pulses: Probe wave in a gas of prepared atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradyan, Gevorg; Muradyan, Atom Zh.

    2009-09-01

    We present a method for generating a regular train of ultrashort optical pulses in a prepared two-level medium. The train develops from incident monochromatic probe radiation traveling in a medium of atoms, which are in a quantum mechanical superposition of dressed internal states. In the frame of linear theory for the probe radiation, the energy of individual pulses is an exponentially growing function of atom density and of interaction cross section. Pulse repetition rate is determined by the pump field’s generalized Rabi frequency and can be around 1 THz and greater. We also show that the terms, extra to the dipole approximation, endow the gas by a new property: nonsaturating dependence of refractive index on dressing monochromatic field intensity. Contribution of these nonsaturating terms can be compatible with the main dipole approximation term contribution in the wavelength region of about ten micrometers (the range of CO2 laser) or larger.

  16. Health benefits of seated speed, resistance, and power training for an individual with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gannotti, Mary E; Fuchs, Robyn Kimberly; Roberts, Dawn E; Hobbs, Nedda; Cannon, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy are at risk for low bone mass for chronological age, which compounds risk in adulthood for progressive deformity and chronic pain. Physical activity and exercise can be a key component to optimizing bone health. In this case report we present a young adult male with non-ambulatory, spastic quadriplegia CP whom began a seated speed, resistance, and power training exercise program at age 14.5 years. Exercise program continued into adulthood as part of an active lifestyle. The individual had a history of failure to thrive, bowel and bladder incontinence, reduced bone mineral density (BMD) for age, and spinal deformity at the time exercise was initiated. Participation in the exercise program began once a week for 1.5-2 hours/session, and progressed to 3-5 times per week after two years. This exercise program is now a component of his habitual lifestyle. Over the 6 years he was followed, lumbar spine and total hip BMD Z-scores did not worsen, which may be viewed as a positive outcome given his level of gross motor impairment. Additionally, the individual reported less back pain, improved bowel and bladder control, increased energy level, and never sustained an exercise related injury. Findings from this case report suggest a regular program of seated speed, resistance, power training may promote overall well-being, are safe, and should be considered as a mechanism for optimizing bone health.

  17. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-07-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm3, the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10‑13 J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators.

  18. Controlling the phase locking of stochastic magnetic bits for ultra-low power computation

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Alice; Locatelli, Nicolas; Lebrun, Romain; Cros, Vincent; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Querlioz, Damien; Grollier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    When fabricating magnetic memories, one of the main challenges is to maintain the bit stability while downscaling. Indeed, for magnetic volumes of a few thousand nm3, the energy barrier between magnetic configurations becomes comparable to the thermal energy at room temperature. Then, switches of the magnetization spontaneously occur. These volatile, superparamagnetic nanomagnets are generally considered useless. But what if we could use them as low power computational building blocks? Remarkably, they can oscillate without the need of any external dc drive, and despite their stochastic nature, they can beat in unison with an external periodic signal. Here we show that the phase locking of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be induced and suppressed by electrical noise injection. We develop a comprehensive model giving the conditions for synchronization, and predict that it can be achieved with a total energy cost lower than 10−13 J. Our results open the path to ultra-low power computation based on the controlled synchronization of oscillators. PMID:27457034

  19. Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1983-06-01

    A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

  20. Linear-phase delay filters for ultra-low-power signal processing in neural recording implants.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Benoit; Sawan, Mohamad; Kerherve, Eric

    2010-06-01

    We present the design and implementation of linear-phase delay filters for ultra-low-power signal processing in neural recording implants. We use these filters as low-distortion delay elements along with an automatic biopotential detector to perform integral waveform extraction and efficient power management. The presented delay elements are realized employing continuous-time OTA-C filters featuring 9th-order equiripple transfer functions with constant group delay. Such analog delay enables processing neural waveforms with reduced overhead compared to a digital delay since it does not requires sampling and digitization. It uses an allpass transfer function for achieving wider constant-delay bandwidth than all-pole does. Two filters realizations are compared for implementing the delay element: the Cascaded structure and the Inverse follow-the-leader feedback filter. Their respective strengths and drawbacks are assessed by modeling parasitics and non-idealities of OTAs, and by transistor-level simulations. A budget of 200 nA is used in both filters. Experimental measurements with the chosen filter topology are presented and discussed.

  1. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  2. The effect of a complex agonist and antagonist resistance training protocol on volume load, power output, electromyographic responses, and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W; Young, Warren B; Behm, David G; Payne, Warren R

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of performing traditional set (TS) vs. complex set (CS) agonist-antagonist training over 3 consecutive sets, on bench press throw (BPT) throw height (TH), peak velocity (PV), peak power (PP), bench pull volume load (VL), and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Eighteen trained men performed 2 testing protocols: TS comprising 3 sets of Bpull followed by 3 sets of BPT performed in approximately 20 minutes or CS comprising 3 sets of both Bpull and BPT performed in an alternating manner in approximately 10 minutes. Throw height, PV, PP, and EMG activity were not different within, or between, the 2 conditions. Bench pull VL decreased significantly from set 1 to sets 2 and 3, under both conditions. Decreases from set 1 to set 2 were 14.55 +/- 26.11 and 9.07 +/- 13.89% and from set 1 to set 3 were 16.87 +/- 29.90 and 14.17 +/- 18.37% under CS and TS, respectively. There was no difference in VL per set, or session, between the conditions. Although there was no augmentation of the power measures, CS was determined to have approximately twice the efficiency (ouput/time) as compared to TS. Efficiency calculations for VL, TH, PV, and PP are 103.47 kg.min, 26.25 cm.min, 1.98 m.s.min, 890.39 W.min under CS and 54.71 kg.min, 13.02 cm.min, 0.99 m.s.min, 459.28 W.min under TS. Comparison of EMG activity between the protocols suggests the level of neuromuscular fatigue did not differ under the 2 conditions. Complex set training would appear to be an effective method of exercise with respect to efficiency and the maintenance of TH, PV, PP, and VL.

  3. Phased Array-Based Saft for Defect Sizing on Power Plant Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekow, G.; Brackrock, D.; Boehm, R.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2009-03-01

    Quantitative NDE methods play a key role when it comes to inspect components, which requires high operational safety. UT-SAFT is one of the well-known reconstruction tools, which provides information about the defect size. In this work we studied the use of phased array technique in combination with the SAFT algorithm to inspect power plant components. As a first example we inspected a real-sized mock-up model representing a part of a reactor pressure vessel with a 180 mm-thick ferritic base material followed by a 6 mm-thick austenitic cladding layer. The phased array probe was coupled at the outer ferritic surface. We detected and sized fatigue cracks within the cladding with a depth ranging from 4 mm to 10 mm. Secondly, we investigated a mock-up model resembling a nozzle including a thermo sleeve inlet and a maximum wall thickness of about 37 mm. Artificially inserted notches with a depth of 3 mm could be detected and sized, where the thermo sleeve is welded at the inside of the nozzle.

  4. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  5. Nanoblinker: Brownian motion powered bio-nanomachine for FRET detection of phagocytic phase of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Minchew, Candace L; Didenko, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of bio-nanomachine which runs on thermal noise. The machine is solely powered by the random motion of water molecules in its environment and does not ever require re-fuelling. The construct, which is made of DNA and vaccinia virus topoisomerase protein, can detect DNA damage by employing fluorescence. It uses Brownian motion as a cyclic motor to continually separate and bring together two types of fluorescent hairpins participating in FRET. This bio-molecular oscillator is a fast and specific sensor of 5'OH double-strand DNA breaks present in phagocytic phase of apoptosis. The detection takes 30 s in solution and 3 min in cell suspensions. The phagocytic phase is critical for the effective execution of apoptosis as it ensures complete degradation of the dying cells' DNA, preventing release of pathological, viral and tumor DNA and self-immunization. The construct can be used as a smart FRET probe in studies of cell death and phagocytosis.

  6. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem

    PubMed Central

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay’s ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel’s sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  7. Effects of in-competitive season power-oriented and heavy resistance lower-body training on performance of elite female water polo players.

    PubMed

    Veliz, Rafael R; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Feito, Javier; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effect of 16 weeks of lower-body resistance and power-oriented training on key performance measures of elite female water polo players. Twenty-one players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (C) who did in-water training only and a lower body strength (LBS) group, who performed resistance (full squat and split squat) and jump and power-oriented lower-body training (countermovement jump [CMJ] loaded and CMJ) sessions (twice per week) in addition to the same in-water training. In-water training was conducted 5 days per week for a total of 16 weeks. Twenty-meter maximal sprint swim (MSS), lower-body strength during 1 repetition maximum (1RM) full squat (FS), in-water boost and CMJ, and Throwing speed (ThS) were measured before and after the training. Pretraining results showed no statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. After 16 weeks, no statistically significant improvement was found in any of the variables measured in the C group, however, significant improvement was found in the LBS group: in-water boost (4.6 cm, 12.02%, effect size [ES] = 1.02), CMJ (2.4 cm, 8.66%, ES = 0.85), FS (12.7 kg, 20.99%, ES = 2.41), and ThS (3.4 km·h, 6.86%, ES = 3.44). Lower-body resistance and power-oriented training in female water polo players for 16 weeks produced significant improvements in performance qualities highly specific to water polo performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for female water polo players to include resistance and power-oriented training during the competitive season in this sport.

  8. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase 4. Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    the automated instructional system on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams AF8, Arizona (Faconti & Epps, 1975; Faconti...Nortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980; Knoop, 1973). The ASPT is a sophisticated research device that incorporates advanced visual and...potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found that SIs tended to use the device in a fairly conventional manner. with few

  9. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  10. Development of methods for nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed additions and revisions to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 50 and 55, and to Regulatory Guides 1.8 and 1.149. ORNL is developing methods and some aspects of the technical basis for the implementation and assessment of training programs, personnel qualifications, and simulation facilities. The paper describes the three methodologies which were developed during the FY-1984 research: a task sort procedure (TSORT); a simulation facility evaluation methodology; and a task analysis profiling system (TAPS).

  11. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Tibana, Ramires A.; de Almeida, Leonardo M.; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M.; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V. de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T. P. L.; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C. L.; Navalta, James W.; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  12. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  13. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

  14. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 3: Laser SPS analysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential use of lasers for transmitting power to Earth from Solar Power Satellites was examined. Free electron lasers appear most promising and would have some benefits over microwave power transmission. Further research in laser technology is needed.

  15. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  16. Optical Transients Powered by Magnetars: Dynamics, Light Curves, and Transition to the Nebular Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Wang, S. Q.; Dai, Z. G.; Xu, Dong; Han, Yan-Hui; Wu, X. F.; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Millisecond magnetars can be formed via several channels: core collapse of massive stars, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs (WDs), double WD mergers, double neutron star (NS) mergers, and WD-NS mergers. Because the mass of ejecta from these channels could be quite different, their light curves are also expected to be diverse. We evaluate the dynamic evolution of optical transients powered by millisecond magnetars. We find that the magnetar with a short spin-down timescale converts its rotational energy mostly into the kinetic energy of the transient, while the energy of a magnetar with a long spin-down timescale goes into radiation of the transient. This leads us to speculate that hypernovae could be powered by magnetars with short spin-down timescales. At late times the optical transients will gradually evolve into a nebular phase because of the photospheric recession. We treat the photosphere and nebula separately because their radiation mechanisms are different. In some cases the ejecta could be light enough that the magnetar can accelerate it to a relativistic speed. It is well known that the peak luminosity of a supernova (SN) occurs when the luminosity is equal to the instantaneous energy input rate, as shown by Arnett. We show that photospheric recession and relativistic motion can modify this law. The photospheric recession always leads to a delay of the peak time {t}{pk} relative to the time {t}× at which the SN luminosity equals the instantaneous energy input rate. Relativistic motion, however, may change this result significantly.

  17. Ultrafast tunable chirped phase-change metamaterial with a low power.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tun; Wei, Chenwei; Mao, Libang

    2015-02-23

    We numerically demonstrate an all-optical tunable dual-band double negative (DNG) index chirped metamaterial (MM) in the mid-infrared (M-IR) region. This MM possesses an ultrafast and significant tunability under low pump light power, realized by combining phase change material (PCM). It has a configuration of elliptical nanohole array (ENA) penetrating through metal/PCM/metal (Au-Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5)-Au) films. Here, we consider the case when the chirp is introduced by displacing the positions of the ENA along the short axis of the elliptical apertures inside the primitive cell, which can achieve multiple internal surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the inner metal-dielectric interfaces of the structure and thus providing a dual-band negative index with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability. The influence of amorphous and crystalline states of Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) on the effective optical parameters of the structure is analyzed. Switching between these states provides a large wavelength shift of the structure's effective optical parameters. A photothermal model is used to study the temporal variation of the temperature of the Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) layer to show a potential to switch the phase of Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) by optical heating. Generation of the tunable dual-band DNG index presents clear advantages as it possesses a fast tuning time of 0.4 ns, a low pump light intensity of 7.3μW/μm(2), and a large tunable wavelength range of 978 nm. We expect that our design may have potential applications in actively tunable multi-band nanodevices.

  18. The effects of aerobic training on children's creativity, self-perception, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Herman-Tofler, L R; Tuckman, B W

    1998-10-01

    The article examines whether participation in an aerobic exercise program (AE), as compared with a traditional physical education class (PE), significantly increased children's perceived athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth; increased their figural creativity; and improved aerobic power as measured by an 800-meter run around a track. Further research on the effects of different types of AE is discussed, as well as the need for aerobic conditioning in the elementary school.

  19. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews].

    PubMed

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K

    2009-10-01

    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  20. Simulators for Mariner Training and Licensing. Phase 1. The Role of Simulators in the Mariner Training and Licensing Process. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    CONT) Paragraph Page C.3 Results and Findings ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-I C. 3.1 Learner Characteristics and Individual Differences...following factors impact an adequateItraining program structure: a. Learner characteristics and individual dif ferences b. Training methods C. Training ef...applicability to a maritime training program, and the effect of learner characteris- tics on their selection and use. Training analysts reviewed the set of