Science.gov

Sample records for power transmission systems

  1. Power transmission line monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1993-08-17

    A method for monitoring the sag of an overhead power transmission line comprising the steps of: measuring the tension of the power line; producing an electrical signal representative of the tension measurement; processing said electrical signal in accordance with a predetermined tension-sag relationship to produce a second signal which is a function of sag of the power line; transmitting said second electrical signal to a distant location in a predetermined transmission mode; receiving the second signal at the distant location whereby current in the power line is adjusted in accordance with the received second signal.

  2. Direct current power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Padiyar, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book represents text on HVDC transmission available. It deals with the various aspects of the state of the art in HVDC transmission technology. This book presents many aspects of interactions of AC/DC systems. Modeling and analysis of DC systems are also discussed in detail.

  3. Microwave transmission system for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The system considered makes use of a combined dipole antenna and rectifier. The dipole elements feed a balanced transmission line low-pass filter. A description of a laboratory model microwave power transmission system is given and a higher-power project with a longer range is discussed. Space power transmission experiments are also considered. It is pointed out that the investigations have shown that high overall transmission link efficiencies are possible.

  4. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  5. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  6. Microwave transmission system for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wavelength microwaves.

  7. Microwave transmission system for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wavelength microwaves.

  8. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Power Transmission System Description Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the concept of microwave power beaming to Earth is reviewed with emphasis on transmission frequency selection. Constraints on the system power level results from (1) required rejection of waste heat resulting from inefficiencies in the cover conversion of dc electric power to microwave power; (2) the rf power intensity in the ionosphere; and (3) the effect of sidelobe level on aperture illumination factors. Transmitter arrangement, the power distribution system, attitude control, subarrays, waveguides, and alignment are discussed.

  9. Power electronics in electric utilities: HVDC power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nozari, F.; Patel, H.S.

    1988-04-01

    High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power transmission systems constitute an important application of power electronics technology. This paper reviews salient aspects of this growing industry. The paper summarizes the history of HVDC transmission and discusses the economic and technical reasons responsible for development of HVDC systems. The paper also describes terminal design and basic configurations of HVDC systems, as well as major equipments of HVDC transmission system. In this regard, the state-of-the-art technology in the equipments constructions are discussed. Finally, the paper reviews future developments in the HVDC transmission systems, including promising technologies, such as multiterminal configurations, Gate Turn-Off (GTO) devices, forced commutation converters, and new advances in control electronics.

  10. Termination for superconducting power transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, E.B.; Jensen, J.E.

    1975-08-26

    This patent relates to a cold, electrical gradient, terminal section for a superconducting cable for alternating current power transmission. A cold electrical gradient section filled with a gaseous coolant acting as an insulator is provided in series with a separate thermal gradient section. (auth)

  11. High-power microwave optics for flexible power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drexler, K. E.; Sperber, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    A large concave microwave mirror near the transmitter can magnify the apparent size of the Earth as seen from a phased array, and vice versa, permitting a small phased array to be coupled to a small rectenna while preserving the transmission efficiency (the reflection loss is slight) and peak power densities characteristic of the reference system. This augmentation of the phased array aperture with a large mirror gives the system greater resolution (in the optical sense), and opens new degrees of freedom in SPS design. The consequences of such an approach for a prototype satellite were explored. Its consequences for a mature SPS are discussed.

  12. High-power microwave optics for flexible power transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, K. E.; Sperber, B. R.

    1980-07-01

    A large concave microwave mirror near the transmitter can magnify the apparent size of the Earth as seen from a phased array, and vice versa, permitting a small phased array to be coupled to a small rectenna while preserving the transmission efficiency (the reflection loss is slight) and peak power densities characteristic of the reference system. This augmentation of the phased array aperture with a large mirror gives the system greater resolution (in the optical sense), and opens new degrees of freedom in SPS design. The consequences of such an approach for a prototype satellite were explored. Its consequences for a mature SPS are discussed.

  13. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  14. Microwave Power Transmission System Studies. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Meltz, G.; Haley, J. T.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A study of microwave power generation, transmission, reception and control was conducted as a part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. A summary is presented of results concerning design approaches, estimated costs (ROM), critical technology, associated ground and orbital test programs with emphasis on dc to rf conversion, transmitting antenna, phase control, mechanical systems, flight operations, ground power receiving-rectifying antenna with systems analysis, and evaluation. Recommendations for early further in-depth studies complementing the technology program are included.

  15. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Kwon, J. H.; Walker, G. H.; Humes, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat radiator. Although the system can be adapted to missions at many locations in the solar system, only two are examined here: powering a lunar habitat; and powering a lunar rover. Power system components are described and their masses, dimensions, operating powers, and temperatures, are estimated using known or feasible component capabilities. The critical technologies involved are discussed and other potential missions are mentioned.

  16. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yale, O.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

  17. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  18. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  19. Complex dynamics of blackouts in power transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Carreras, B A; Lynch, V E; Dobson, I; Newman, D E

    2004-09-01

    In order to study the complex global dynamics of a series of blackouts in power transmission systems a dynamical model of such a system has been developed. This model includes a simple representation of the dynamical evolution by incorporating the growth of power demand, the engineering response to system failures, and the upgrade of generator capacity. Two types of blackouts have been identified, each having different dynamical properties. One type of blackout involves the loss of load due to transmission lines reaching their load limits but no line outages. The second type of blackout is associated with multiple line outages. The dominance of one type of blackout over the other depends on operational conditions and the proximity of the system to one of its two critical points. The model displays characteristics such as a probability distribution of blackout sizes with power tails similar to that observed in real blackout data from North America.

  20. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  1. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible.

  2. [A wireless power transmission system for capsule endoscope].

    PubMed

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxing

    2010-06-01

    In order to deliver power to the capsule endoscope, whose position and orientation are always changing when traveling along the alimentary tract, a wireless power transmission system based on electromagnetic coupling was proposed. The system is composed of Helmholtz transmitting coil and three-dimensional receiving coil. Helmholtz coil outside the body generates a uniform magnetic field covering the whole alimentary tract; three-dimensional coil inside retrieves stable power regardless of its position and orientation. The transmitter and receiver were designed and implemented, and the experiments validated the feasibility of the system. The results show that at least 320 mW of usable power can be transmitted to capsule endoscope when its position and orientation are changing at random and the transmitting power is 25W.

  3. Cryogenic System for a High Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-07-12

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed.

  4. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  5. Impedance matching wireless power transmission system for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Lum, Kin Yun; Lindén, Maria; Tan, Tian Swee

    2015-01-01

    For medical application, the efficiency and transmission distance of the wireless power transfer (WPT) are always the main concern. Research has been showing that the impedance matching is one of the critical factors for dealing with the problem. However, there is not much work performed taking both the source and load sides into consideration. Both sides matching is crucial in achieving an optimum overall performance, and the present work proposes a circuit model analysis for design and implementation. The proposed technique was validated against experiment and software simulation. Result was showing an improvement in transmission distance up to 6 times, and efficiency at this transmission distance had been improved up to 7 times as compared to the impedance mismatch system. The system had demonstrated a near-constant transfer efficiency for an operating range of 2cm-12cm.

  6. Unequal power allocation for JPEG transmission over MIMO systems.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Muhammad Farooq; Bovik, Alan Conrad; Heath, Robert W

    2010-02-01

    With the introduction of multiple transmit and receive antennas in next generation wireless systems, real-time image and video communication are expected to become quite common, since very high data rates will become available along with improved data reliability. New joint transmission and coding schemes that explore advantages of multiple antenna systems matched with source statistics are expected to be developed. Based on this idea, we present an unequal power allocation scheme for transmission of JPEG compressed images over multiple-input multiple-output systems employing spatial multiplexing. The JPEG-compressed image is divided into different quality layers, and different layers are transmitted simultaneously from different transmit antennas using unequal transmit power, with a constraint on the total transmit power during any symbol period. Results show that our unequal power allocation scheme provides significant image quality improvement as compared to different equal power allocations schemes, with the peak-signal-to-noise-ratio gain as high as 14 dB at low signal-to-noise-ratios.

  7. A sonic satellite power system microwave power transmission simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, J. H.; Rice, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A simulator is described which generates and transmits a beam of audible sound energy mathematically similar to the SPS power beam. The simulator provides a laboratory means for analysis of ground based closed loop SPS phase control and of ionospheric effects on the SPS microwave power beam.

  8. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  9. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.

    2012-10-01

    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  10. Lock-up control system for automobile automatic power transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, T.; Sumida, S.

    1986-04-08

    This patent describes a lock-up control system for an automobile's automatic power transmission. This system consists of a hydraulic torque converter including an input member and an output member, multiple stage transmission gear, the transmission gear means being provided with gear stages which are selected by changing power transmitting paths therein. An engine speed sensor for sensing engine load. A gear stage selector connected with the engine speed sensing means and the load sensor to receive output signals from the speed sensor and the load sensing means. A lock-up zone discriminator is connected with the engine speed sensor and the load sensor to receive the output signals from each of the sensors. The lock-up zone discriminator includes lock-up control map means having at least one lock-up release data line and at least one lock-up engage data line which are drawn on the basis of engine speed and engine load for at least one of the gear stages. The lock-up engage data line is located at a higher engine speed side than the release data line. In the lock-up zone are discriminating means for comparing the output signals with the data lines and generating a control signal for controlling engagement of the lock-up means, gear shift means for selectively shifting the gear stage by changing the power transmitting path in the multiple stage transmission gear means. Electro-megnetic means are responsive to the signal from the gear stage selecting means for controlling the gear shift means. Lock-up control means for releasing the lock-up means are irrespective of the control signal from the lock-up zone discriminating means when en engine throttle valve is full closed and enlarging the lock-up zone so that the lock-up means is engaged when the engine throttle valve is opened again to a position included in the enlarged lock-up zone.

  11. Risk measures for power failures in transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Alex; Feinstein, Zachary; Nehorai, Arye

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel framework for evaluating the risk of failures in power transmission systems. We use the concept of systemic risk measures from the financial mathematics literature with models of power system failures in order to quantify the risk of the entire power system for design and comparative purposes. The proposed risk measures provide the collection of capacity vectors for the components in the system that lead to acceptable outcomes. Keys to the formulation of our measures of risk are two elements: a model of system behavior that provides the (distribution of) outcomes based on component capacities and an acceptability criterion that determines whether a (random) outcome is acceptable from an aggregated point of view. We examine the effects of altering the line capacities on energy not served under a variety of networks, flow manipulation methods, load shedding schemes, and load profiles using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results provide a quantitative comparison of the performance of these schemes, measured by the required line capacity. These results provide more complete descriptions of the risks of power failures than the previous, one-dimensional metrics.

  12. Risk measures for power failures in transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Alex; Feinstein, Zachary; Nehorai, Arye

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel framework for evaluating the risk of failures in power transmission systems. We use the concept of systemic risk measures from the financial mathematics literature with models of power system failures in order to quantify the risk of the entire power system for design and comparative purposes. The proposed risk measures provide the collection of capacity vectors for the components in the system that lead to acceptable outcomes. Keys to the formulation of our measures of risk are two elements: a model of system behavior that provides the (distribution of) outcomes based on component capacities and an acceptability criterion that determines whether a (random) outcome is acceptable from an aggregated point of view. We examine the effects of altering the line capacities on energy not served under a variety of networks, flow manipulation methods, load shedding schemes, and load profiles using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results provide a quantitative comparison of the performance of these schemes, measured by the required line capacity. These results provide more complete descriptions of the risks of power failures than the previous, one-dimensional metrics.

  13. Self-powered system with wireless data transmission.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Lin, Long; Snyder, Robert L; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-06-08

    We demonstrate the first self-powered system driven by a nanogenerator (NG) that works wirelessly and independently for long-distance data transmission. The NG was made of a free cantilever beam that consisted of a five-layer structure: a flexible polymer substrate, ZnO nanowire textured films on its top and bottom surfaces, and electrodes on the surfaces. When it was strained to 0.12% at a strain rate of 3.56% S(-1), the measured output voltage reached 10 V, and the output current exceeded 0.6 μA (corresponding power density 10 mW/cm(3)). A system was built up by integrating a NG, rectification circuit, capacitor for energy storage, sensor, and RF data transmitter. Wireless signals sent out by the system were detected by a commercial radio at a distance of 5-10 m. This study proves the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire NGs for building self-powered systems, and its potential application in wireless biosensing, environmental/infrastructure monitoring, sensor networks, personal electronics, and even national security.

  14. Unified active and reactive power modulation of HVDC transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, C. E.; Pohl, R. V.

    1981-11-01

    The power modulation of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) system for stabilization of an ac/dc network was investigated. It was found that simultaneous modulation of both dc current and voltage was more effective than just current modulation by itself, since the dc voltage modulation could be used to minimize the reactive power changes resulting from a change of the dc current. This helps stabilize the ac busbar voltages at the converters, which reduces undesirable load flow changes to voltage dependent ac loads, thus improving the effectiveness of the dc power modulation. This unified modulation control concept was evaluated by means of digital computer studies as well as a special purpose HVDC simulator. Several combined ac/dc power transmission systems were synthesized for testing of different modulation controller concepts. An optimum controller design incorporating a linear quadratic control algorithm with full state feedback was first studied. This provided a basis for comparison of suboptimal controller designs utilizing reduced state feedback and a Kalman filter state reconstruction technique.

  15. Solid state systems concepts. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described; the end-mounted and the sandwich systems. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. In the end-mounted system 36-watt amplifiers are mounted on the ground-plane, whereas in the sandwich the amplifiers are elevated to the dipoles, and their waste heat is dissipated by beryllium oxide discs. The feed lines are underneath the ground-plane, and a coaxial transmission line is carried all the way to the amplifier input. Also discussed is solid state amplifier development.

  16. A Historical and Engineering View of Power Transmission Systems in Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shunichi; Akiyama, Tetsuo

    During our work in operations related to power transmission technology, we have encountered various natural calamities and man-made disasters. Over the years, we learned many valuable lessons from these bitter experiences, and we now have more reliable, cost-effective and flexible electric power systems. This paper describes the new technologies we have introduced in the facilities making up the power systems and how we operate these systems and facilities. It also takes up the Southern Hyogo Earthquake and loss of Ohi nuclear power generation due to galloping phenomena as typical examples showing how a set of measures as mentioned above substantially improved the reliability of the electric power systems to such an extent that the Japanese electric power systems have attained the world's highest level of reliability. These facts prove that steady and continuous efforts are a prerequisite to success for all power engineers.

  17. Reception-Conversion Subsystem (RXCV) for microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    As part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from space, an approximately 25 sq m Reception-Conversion Subsystem was designed and tested. The device collects high power microwave energy, converts it into dc, and dissipates it in an instrumented demonstration load.

  18. Modeling and Power Flow Analysis for Herringbone Gears Power Dual-Branching Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Yanxiang; Fang, Zongde; Gu, Jiangong

    Based on power dual-branching transmission system of herringbone gears, the mechanical structural model was established. This study represented the simplified algorithm to obtain its power flow situations through formulating the deformation compatibility condition for the linear relationship between the torque and transverse deformation of tooth surface and the torque equilibrium condition. Besides, the effects on the power flow of system were calculated under all kinds of the installation error and processing error of gear pairs. Finally, the power flow situations of dual branches were solved via Programming. A numerical example that illustrated the developed theory was provided. The research results can be applied to analyze the actual application of herringbone gears power split-path transmission system.

  19. Power Grids and Climate Information: supporting transmission system operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Matteo; Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco

    2015-04-01

    The activities of electricity transmission system operators (TSO) may be affected by weather conditions and for this reason the availability of accurate information about past and future states can be useful for power grids management. ENEA is supporting TERNA (Italian TSO) since 2012 providing them weather and climate information related to electricity demand and renewable energies management. The first task has been an assessment on the use of weather and climate information to predict electricity demand at short (1-5 days) and long (1-3 months) time scales. The second task was focused on the possibility to estimate and predict the electricity production coming from photovoltaic (PV) using different data sources (satellite, reanalysis, weather stations, climate models). The outcome of this collaboration has been two-fold: i) we had the occasion to evaluate the "quality" of weather/climate information considering power grid operational aspects and ii) more challenging questions, not considered at the beginning, have been raised, providing further interesting research goals.

  20. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  1. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  2. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  3. Performance analysis of radiation cooled dc transmission lines for high power space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    As space power levels increase to meet mission objectives and also as the transmission distance between power source and load increases, the mass, volume, power loss, and operating voltage and temperature become important system design considerations. This analysis develops the dependence of the specific mass and percent power loss on the power and voltage levels, transmission distance, operating temperature and conductor material properties. Only radiation cooling is considered since the transmission line is assumed to operate in a space environment. The results show that the limiting conditions for achieving low specific mass, percent power loss, and volume for a space-type dc transmission line are the permissible transmission voltage and operating temperature. Other means to achieve low specific mass include the judicious choice of conductor materials. The results of this analysis should be immediately applicable to power system trade-off studies including comparisons with ac transmission systems.

  4. Performance analysis of radiation cooled dc transmission lines for high power space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    As space power levels increase to meet mission objectives and also as the transmission distance between power source and load increases, the mass, volume, power loss, and operating voltage and temperature become important system design considerations. This analysis develops the dependence of the specific mass and percent power loss on hte power and voltage levels, transmission distance, operating temperature and conductor material properties. Only radiation cooling is considered since the transmission line is assumed to operate in a space environment. The results show that the limiting conditions for achieving low specific mass, percent power loss, and volume for a space-type dc transmission line are the permissible transmission voltage and operating temperature. Other means to achieve low specific mass include the judicious choice of conductor materials. The results of this analysis should be immediately applicable to power system trade-off studies including comparisons with ac transmission systems.

  5. Microwave power transmission system workshop, session on solid state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnell, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of solid state technology for solar power satellite systems is briefly addressed. The economic advantages of solid state based systems are listed along with some conclusions and issues regarding specific design concepts.

  6. Reliability modeling and evaluation of HVDC power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for evaluating the reliability indices of HVdc transmission systems. The developed models and computational techniques are described. These can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of a system under study efficiently and realistically. This method is based on the failure modes and effects analysis and uses the event tree method and the minimal cut set approach to represent the system's operational behavior and deduce the appropriate system's failure modes. A set of five reliability indices is evaluated for each output node being analyzed together with the probability and frequency of encountering particular regions of system performance levels. The analysis of an assumed HVdc bipolar transmission system is also included.

  7. Space-Based Solar Power Conversion and Delivery Systems Study. Volume 3: Microwave Power Transmission Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Microwave Fower Beam Ionosphere effects and critical interfaces between th Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) and the Satellite were studied as part of the NASA/MSFC continuing research on the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. Theoretical predications of ionospheric modifications produced by the direct interaction of the MPTS on the earth's upper atmosphere are used to determine their impact on the performance of the Microwave Power Beam and Pilot Beam System as well as on other RF systems effected by the ionosphere. A technology program to quantitatively define these interactions is developed. Critical interface areas between the MPTS and the satellite which could have a major impact on cost and performance of the power system are idenfified and analyzed. The areas selected include: use of either a 20 kV versus 40 kV Amplitron, thermal blockage effects of Amplitron heat radiation by the satellite structure, effect of dielectric carry-through structure on power beam, and effect of material sublimation on performance of the Amplitron in Geosynchronous Orbit.

  8. Signal and Power Synchronous Transmission in WPT System Based on Capacitance Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaosheng; Gu, Xuanpu; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jiasheng; Xu, Dianguo

    2017-05-01

    In inductive coupled power transmission system, at the same time of power transmission, signal transmission is necessary in order to realize the closed-loop control. Synchronous transmission of power and signal has advantages of high speed and stability. By using the method of capacitance modulation via changing capacitance, the working state of the resonator changes. The voltage across the coil appears certain changes. After step-down divider, demodulation, filtering, comparison and a series of signal processing, the transmitting signal will reproduce. The simulation and experiments show that the scheme is correct, the signal can be sent and extracted correctly, and the effect of power transmission is small. The synchronous transmission of signal in wireless power transmission system is realized

  9. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmission system facilities. 74.795 Section 74.795 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall operate... consumer receiving equipment based on the digital broadcast television transmission standard in § 73.682(d...

  10. Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

  11. Mathematical model for the power supply system of an autonomous object with an AC power transmission over a cable rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulevskiy, V. M.; Bukreev, V. G.; Shandarova, E. B.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Shandarov, S. M.; Vasilyeva, Yu Z.

    2017-02-01

    A modeling problem of the power system, which provides an AC power transmission to a submersible device over the conducting rope, was considered. The power supply system units and their parameters are described. The system multi-dimensional mathematical model in the variables state space with regard to the nonlinear characteristic of system elements is proposed.

  12. Design study for a gound microwave power transmission system for use with a high-altitude powered platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a ground-based microwave power transmission system is described. This system is intended to supply electrical power via an air link to a high-altitude (21 km) powered platform. The platform must be equipped with the required instrumentation (RECTENNA) to convert the RF energy to dc power.

  13. Optimal Capacity Proportion and Distribution Planning of Wind, Photovoltaic and Hydro Power in Bundled Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, X.; Tang, Q.; Li, T.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhang, X.; Ye, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system attends to become common in Northwest and Southwest of China. To make better use of the power complementary characteristic of different power sources, the installed capacity proportion of wind, photovoltaic and hydro power, and their capacity distribution for each integration node is a significant issue to be solved in power system planning stage. An optimal capacity proportion and capacity distribution model for wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system is proposed here, which considers the power out characteristic of power resources with different type and in different area based on real operation data. The transmission capacity limit of power grid is also considered in this paper. Simulation cases are tested referring to one real regional system in Southwest China for planning level year 2020. The results verify the effectiveness of the model in this paper.

  14. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  15. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  16. Multistage Planetary Power Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Dyba, G. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Kleckner, R. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1986-01-01

    PLANETSYS simulates thermomechanical performance of multistage planetary performance of multistage planetary power transmission. Two versions of code developed, SKF version and NASA version. Major function of program: compute performance characteristics of planet bearing for any of six kinematic inversions. PLANETSYS solves heat-balance equations for either steadystate or transient thermal conditions, and produces temperature maps for mechanical system.

  17. Systems definition space-based power conversion systems. [for satellite power transmission to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on Earth are discussed and include: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; and (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Systems (1) and (2) would utilize a microwave beam system to transmit their output to Earth. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  18. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  19. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  20. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  1. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Takemura, K.; Tanaka, A.; Douseki, T.

    2015-12-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs.

  2. Low-power system-on-chip implementation for respiratory rate detection and transmission.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Yee, Roxanne; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Recent biosensors can measure respiratory rate non-invasively, but limits patient mobility or requires regular battery replacement. Respiratory effort, which can scavenge mW, may power the sensor, but requires minimal sensor power usage. This paper demonstrates feasibility of respiratory rate measurement by using a comparator instead of ADC. A low-power system-on-chip can implement respiratory rate detection and wireless data transmission with a total power consumption under 82 µW. This approach produces significant power savings, and transmission uses under 30% of total power consumption.

  3. Future large space systems opportunities: A case for space-to-space power?. [spacecraft power supplies microwave and laser transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.; Hook, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Applications and options for beaming power to near-earth space users from a central space power platform are examined. The cost effectiveness of on-board versus remote power transfer is examined for orbital transfer propulsion systems. Performance characteristics are projected for advanced power generation, transmission, and receiver systems for the 1990's. Major technological development needs are identified with particular emphasis on large space systems technology.

  4. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  5. Evaluation of power system security and development of transmission pricing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungchul

    The electric power utility industry is presently undergoing a change towards the deregulated environment. This has resulted in unbundling of generation, transmission and distribution services. The introduction of competition into unbundled electricity services may lead system operation closer to its security boundaries resulting in smaller operating safety margins. The competitive environment is expected to lead to lower price rates for customers and higher efficiency for power suppliers in the long run. Under this deregulated environment, security assessment and pricing of transmission services have become important issues in power systems. This dissertation provides new methods for power system security assessment and transmission pricing. In power system security assessment, the following issues are discussed (1) The description of probabilistic methods for power system security assessment; (2) The computation time of simulation methods; (3) on-line security assessment for operation. A probabilistic method using Monte-Carlo simulation is proposed for power system security assessment. This method takes into account dynamic and static effects corresponding to contingencies. Two different Kohonen networks, Self-Organizing Maps and Learning Vector Quantization, are employed to speed up the probabilistic method. The combination of Kohonen networks and Monte-Carlo simulation can reduce computation time in comparison with straight Monte-Carlo simulation. A technique for security assessment employing Bayes classifier is also proposed. This method can be useful for system operators to make security decisions during on-line power system operation. This dissertation also suggests an approach for allocating transmission transaction costs based on reliability benefits in transmission services. The proposed method shows the transmission transaction cost of reliability benefits when transmission line capacities are considered. The ratio between allocation by transmission line

  6. 76 FR 44320 - Buckeye Power, Inc. v. American Transmission Systems, Incorporated; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Buckeye Power, Inc. v. American Transmission Systems, Incorporated; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 18, 2011, pursuant to sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power... (Commission), Buckeye Power, Inc. (Buckeye or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against American...

  7. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. 74.795 Section 74.795 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and...

  8. Power Supply Reliability Assessment in UPFC-installed Transmission System for ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. The previous research revealed that ATC is expanded by avoiding multiple constraints in OPF using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). For long-term operation of such ATC-expanded power system, it is necessary to evaluate power system reliability. In this paper, the evaluation method of supply reliability for UPFC-installed power system is proposed. Both thermal capacity and transient stability constraints are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical examples for IEEJ East10-machine test system.

  9. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  10. A proposal to Improve Electric Power Transmission Efficiency of the Transmission line from Yekepa to Buchanan of the CLSG Power System Redevelopment Interconnection Project Using FACTS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Samuel Mulbah

    This Work examined improving the electric power transmission efficiency of a portion of the CLSG (Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea) Interconnection Redevelopment Project of 1141 km high voltage transmission line. As with all ac transmission, present, new, and upgraded, they exhibit four electrical properties: resistance, inductance, capacitance, and conductance. These parameters affect the transmission line's ability to fulfil its function as part of the power system. A transmission system functions are to transport electric power from a generating source to a central point, to transport bulk power from a central point to wholesale delivery points (sub transmission substations), and to act as a tie points with interconnecting transmission lines from other power systems for emergency or economic reasons. In this work a portion of the CLSG Interconnection was simulated in MATLAB using different loading conditions. In determining voltage, current, and power, all sending end and receiving end quantities were determined at different sending end power levels. This was done on an incremental basis starting from 25 MW to 300 MW at 0.8 power factor. The results obtained from these produced data that were then used to plot graphs, among them the voltage profiles of the line at different loading conditions. The line loadability curves produced at different loading conditions were also plotted. So these curves provided illumination on the behavior and deficiencies of the line. Those deficiencies meant that there was a need for modification so as to keep the system in a safe operating voltage condition at different loading conditions. The line was compensated where needed, employing shunt capacitive compensation under different loading conditions for the purpose of making the receiving end voltage equal with the sending end voltage or within usable voltage levels. The line compensation provided a flat voltage profile at those loading conditions.

  11. Wireless power and data transmission system for a micro implantable intraocular vision aid.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, N; Krisch, I; Hosticka, B J

    2002-01-01

    Wireless power and data transmission system developed for an intraocular vision aid for blind patients will be described. This system is applicable for patients suffering from bilateral corneal opacification but with intact posterior ocular. The system consists of an external unit as well as an implant. The external unit is required for image acquisition, channel coding, IR data transmission, and RF power transmission to the implant. The implantable unit contains a CMOS receiver, a receiver antenna coil, and the microdisplay based on a LED array. The CMOS receiver serves for reception and decoding of image data as well as driving circuits for the miniaturized LED array. In this case, mechanical wiring between the external unit and the implant is neither useful nor comfortable. An optimal technical solution needs a wireless data transfer. If the power is transferred to the implant wireless, too, the solution grows ideal. The system described in this communication employs wireless power and data transmission using an 13.56 MHz RF link for power transmission and an near IR (NIR) optical link for data transmission from an external CMOS camera and telemetry unit to the implantable micro display.

  12. High-power microwave transmission and launching systems for fusion plasma heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave power in the 30- to 300-GHz frequency range is becoming widely used for heating of plasma in present-day fusion energy magnetic confinement experiments. Microwave power is effective in ionizing plasma and heating electrons through the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. Since the power is absorbed in regions of the magnetic field where resonance occurs and launching antennas with narrow beam widths are possible, power deposition location can be highly controlled. This is important for maximizing the power utilization efficiency and improving plasma parameters. Development of the gyrotron oscillator tube has advanced in recent years so that a 1-MW continuous-wave, 140-GHz power source will soon be available. Gyrotron output power is typically in a circular waveguide propagating a circular electric mode (such as TE/sub 0,2/) or a whispering-gallery mode (such as TE/sub 15,2/), depending on frequency and power level. An alternative high-power microwave source currently under development is the free-electron laser (FEL), which may be capable of generating 2-10 MW of average power at frequencies of up to 500 GHz. The FEL has a rectangular output waveguide carrying the TE/sub 0,1/ mode. Because of its higher complexity and cost, the high-average-power FEL is not yet as extensively developed as the gyrotron. In this paper, several types of operating ECH transmission systems are discussed, as well systems currently being developed. The trend in this area is toward higher power and frequency due to the improvements in plasma density and temperature possible. Every system requires a variety of components, such as mode converters, waveguide bends, launchers, and directional couplers. Some of these components are discussed here, along with ongoing work to improve their performance. 8 refs.

  13. The power supply system model of the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulevskiy, V. M.; Bukreev, V. G.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Shandarova, E. B.; Shandarov, S. M.; Vasilyeva, Yu Z.

    2017-02-01

    A practical problem of power supply system modeling for the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope was considered. The problem is highly relevant in developing and operation of submersible centrifugal pumps and submersibles. The results of modeling a symmetrical three-phase power supply system and their compliance with the real data are given at the paper. The obtained results in the mathematical and simulation models were similar.

  14. 75 FR 81264 - Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint December 17, 2010. Take notice that on December 14, 2010... (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2010) and sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e...

  15. A wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope for colon inspection.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Shi, Yu; Zhu, Bingquan

    2012-07-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes (ACE) have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a double-layer solenoid pair primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. At least 500 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions and the safety restraints in a volume of Φ13 × 13 mm. The wireless power transmission system is integrated to an ACE and applied in animal experiments. The designed wireless power transmission is proved to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application.

  16. A role for high frequency superconducting devices in free space power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jose L., Jr.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    Major advances in space power technology are being made in photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear systems. Despite these advances, the power systems required by the energy and power intensive mission of the future will be massive due to the large collecting surfaces, large thermal management systems, and heavy shielding. Reducing this mass on board the space vehicle can result in significant benefits because of the high cost of transporting and moving mass about in space. An approach to this problem is beaming the power from a point where the massiveness of the power plant is not such a major concern. The viability of such an approach was already investigated. Efficient microwave power beam transmission at 2.45 GHz was demonstrated over short range. Higher frequencies are desired for efficient transmission over several hundred or thousand kilometers in space. Superconducting DC-RF conversion as well as RF-DC conversion offers exciting possibilities. Multivoltage power conditioning for multicavity high power RF tubes could be eliminated since only low voltages are required for Josephson junctions. Small, high efficiency receivers may be possible using the reverse Josephson effects. A conceptual receiving antenna design using superconducting devices to determine possible system operating efficiency is assessed. If realized, these preliminary assessments indicate a role for superconducting devices in millimeter and submillimeter free space power transmission systems.

  17. A role for high frequency superconducting devices in free space power transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Jose L., Jr.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1988-04-01

    Major advances in space power technology are being made in photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear systems. Despite these advances, the power systems required by the energy and power intensive mission of the future will be massive due to the large collecting surfaces, large thermal management systems, and heavy shielding. Reducing this mass on board the space vehicle can result in significant benefits because of the high cost of transporting and moving mass about in space. An approach to this problem is beaming the power from a point where the massiveness of the power plant is not such a major concern. The viability of such an approach was already investigated. Efficient microwave power beam transmission at 2.45 GHz was demonstrated over short range. Higher frequencies are desired for efficient transmission over several hundred or thousand kilometers in space. Superconducting DC-RF conversion as well as RF-DC conversion offers exciting possibilities. Multivoltage power conditioning for multicavity high power RF tubes could be eliminated since only low voltages are required for Josephson junctions. Small, high efficiency receivers may be possible using the reverse Josephson effects. A conceptual receiving antenna design using superconducting devices to determine possible system operating efficiency is assessed. If realized, these preliminary assessments indicate a role for superconducting devices in millimeter and submillimeter free space power transmission systems.

  18. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  19. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  20. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  1. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  2. Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

    2014-12-01

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

  3. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  4. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  5. Active magnetic damper in a power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozanecka, D.; Kozanecki, Z.; Łagodziński, J.

    2011-05-01

    In rotor dynamics, the bearing characteristics exerts a decisive influence on dynamics of the rotating shaft. The research and application experience have led to active magnetic bearings (AMBs), which allow for unique applications in rotating systems. The paper presents the investigations concerning optimization of the magnetic bearing construction. An active magnetic bearing operates as a radial, auxiliary damper, which cooperates with the long, flexible shaft line (aircraft industry applications) and modifies its dynamic properties. In the developed concept of AMBs for aviation purposes, a necessity of increasing its bearing load capacity and damping has occurred. The second important criterion is a weight reduction. This advanced problem leads to specific requirements on the design and materials for the AMB. To achieve these goals, some simulations have been performed. The experimental results are presented as well.

  6. Modeling the Impacts of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the New York State Power Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, D.; Castillo, O. L.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Our society today relies heavily on electricity in order to meet its essential basic needs. However, to meet the rising demands for this energy, all power companies require smooth and efficient delivery of services to the consumers. The US power grid is a complex electrical apparatus that has well known sensitivities to space weather disturbances. Events produced by space weather includes solar storms or geomagnetic disturbances [GMD]. The propagation of such events in the direction of Earth perturbs the electric currents in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere, causing a unique effect known as a Geomagnetically Induced Current [GIC]. GICs are known to saturate and overheat transformers in the power grid, threatening the safe operation of the power system. A GMD induces a geoelectric field in high-voltage and extra high-voltage transmission circuits. This geoelectric field represents electromotive force, and causes GICs to circulate through transmission circuits and transformers. Power models are being developed using MATLAB/Simulink® software to simulate the propagation of GIC flows in a power system, while using New York State (NYS) power transmission network as an example. We will present results of the models used to assess the impacts of possible GMD strikes on the various parts of the power network.

  7. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  8. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power now control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  9. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter-based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power flow control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  10. Analysis of electromagnetic interference from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Peter W.; Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Wang, R.; Hurysz, B.; Luo, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The goal is to analyze the potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) originating from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom.The approach consists of four steps: (1) develop analytical tools (models and computer programs); (2) conduct parameterization studies; (3) predict the global space station EMI environment; and (4) provide a basis for modification of EMI standards.

  11. RF beam center location method and apparatus for power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The receiving element in wireless power transmission systems intercepts the greatest possible portion of the transmitted energy beam. Summing the output energy of all receivers in a planar array makes it possible to determine the location of the center of energy of the incident beam on a receiving array of antenna elements so that the incident beam is in the microwave region.

  12. Impact of Transmission on Resource Adequacy in Systems with Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Variable generation is on track to become a significant contributor to electric power systems worldwide. Thus, it is important to analyze the effect that renewables will have on the reliability of systems. In this paper we present a new tool being implemented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which allows the inclusion of variable generation in the power system resource adequacy. The tool is used to quantify the potential contribution of transmission to reliability in highly interconnected systems and an example is provided using the Western Interconnection footprint.

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 4: Microwave power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A slotted waveguide planar array was established as the baseline design for the spaceborne transmitter antenna. Key aspects of efficient energy conversion at both ends of the power transfer link were analyzed and optimized alternate approaches in the areas of antenna and tube design are discussed. An integrated design concept was developed which meets design requirements, observes structural and thermal constraints, exhibits good performance and was developed in adequate depth to permit cost estimating at the subsystem/component level.

  14. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.

    1996-07-01

    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  15. A low-power high-speed ultra-wideband pulse radio transmission system.

    PubMed

    Wei Tang; Culurciello, E

    2009-10-01

    We present a low-power high-speed ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitter with a wireless transmission test platform. The system is specifically designed for low-power high-speed wireless implantable biosensors. The integrated transmitter consists of a compact pulse generator and a modulator. The circuit is fabricated in the 0.5-mum silicon-on-sapphire process and occupies 420 mum times 420 mum silicon area. The transmitter is capable of generating pulses with 1-ns width and the pulse rate can be controlled between 90 MHz and 270 MHz. We built a demonstration/testing system for the transmitter. The transmitter achieves a 14-Mb/s data rate. With 50% duty cycle data, the power consumption of the chip is between 10 mW and 21 mW when the transmission distance is from 3.2 to 4 m. The core circuit size is 70 mum times 130 mum.

  16. Impact of power allocation strategies in long-haul few-mode fiber transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Danish; Sygletos, Stylianos; Ellis, Andrew D

    2013-05-06

    We report for the first time on the limitations in the operational power range of few-mode fiber based transmission systems, employing 28 Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying transponders, over 1,600 km. It is demonstrated that if an additional mode is used on a preexisting few-mode transmission link, and allowed to optimize its performance, it will have a significant impact on the pre-existing mode. In particular, we show that for low mode coupling strengths (weak coupling regime), the newly added variable power mode does not considerably impact the fixed power existing mode, with performance penalties less than 2dB (in Q-factor). On the other hand, as mode coupling strength is increased (strong coupling regime), the individual launch power optimization significantly degrades the system performance, with penalties up to ~6 dB. Our results further suggest that mutual power optimization, of both fixed power and variable power modes, reduces power allocation related penalties to less than 3 dB, for any given coupling strength, for both high and low differential mode delays.

  17. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  18. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  19. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects. PMID:24949645

  20. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  1. Novel adaptive distance relay algorithm considering the operation of 154 kV SFCL in Korean power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.; Song, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-11-01

    In general, SFCLs can have a negative impact on the protective coordination in power transmission system because of the variable impedance of SFCLs. It is very important to solve the protection problems of the power system for the successful application of SFCLs to real power transmission system. This paper reviews some protection problems which can be caused by the application of 154 kV SFCLs to power transmission systems in South Korea. And then we propose an adaptive protection algorithm to solve the problems. The adaptive protection algorithm uses the real time information of the SFCL system operation.

  2. Analysis of a Mars-stationary orbiting microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Kenwyn J.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of providing efficient RF power transmission from a Mars-stationary orbit to the surface of the planet, an assessment was made focussing on RF propagation in the 2.45- to 300-GHz range. The proposed orbiting system configuration provides for power generation by either photovoltaic array or nuclear reactor, the conversion of the dc output to RF, and subsequent propagation of RF energy from the orbiting array to the Martian surface. On the planet, a rectenna array will convert RF to dc power to be distributed for planetary power needs. Total efficiency of the energy conversion chain from dc to RF in orbit through RF to dc on the planetary surface was derived for several representative frequencies in the range of study. Tradeoffs between component efficiency and transmitting antenna requirements were considered for each of these frequencies. Rectenna element power density thresholds and desired received power levels were used to determine receiving antenna criteria. Recommendations are presented for research into developing technologies which may afford enhanced viability of the proposed microwave power transmission system.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Barnes, P.R. ); Meliopoulos, A.P.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.; Meliopoulos, A.P.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth`s surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  5. A Study on Modeling of Transmission Line in Digital Type Real-Time Power System Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yuji; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    In modern power systems, it is important to analyze various kindes of dynamic phenomena which appear in the system. When the effectiveness of new power electronics based apparatus, protective relay systems and etc. is tested, a real-time power system simulator is becoming a very effective tool. In general, however, it is very expensive and it is very difficult for beginners to understand how to use it. Therefore, studies on low-cost and easy-use real-time power system simulators have so far been done. We have developed models of power system components for the real-time power system simulator using DSP (Digital Signal Processor) combined with commercial CAD (Computer Aided Design) soft "MATLAB/SIMULINK". The use of commercial softwares can drastically decrease the development cost of the simulator. In this paper, a simplified reduction model of unbalanced three-phase transmission network with mutual impedance is proposed for analysis of various kinds of stability phenomena by use of the digital simulator. The proposed network model is constructed automatically and efficiently even for connection of both current source type models and voltage source type models of power apparatus such as generators, FACTS devices and loads.

  6. COE projection for the modular WARP{trademark} wind power system for wind farms and electric utility power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Ostrow, S.L.; Padalino, J.

    1995-09-01

    Wind power has emerged as an attractive alternative source of electricity for utilities. Turbine operating experience from wind farms has provided corroborating data of wind power potential for electric utility application. Now, a patented modular wind power technology, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP{trademark}) Windframe{trademark}, forms the basis for next generation megawatt scale wind farm and/or distributed wind power plants. When arranged in tall vertically clustered TARP{trademark} module stacks, such power plant units are designated Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP{trademark}) Systems. While heavily building on proven technology, these systems are projected to surpass current technology windmills in terms of performance, user-friendly operation and ease of maintenance. In its unique generation and transmission configuration, the WARP{trademark}-GT System combines both electricity generation through wind energy conversion and electric power transmission. Furthermore, environmental benefits include dramatically less land requirement, architectural appearance, lower noise and EMI/TV interference, and virtual elimination of bird mortality potential. Cost-of-energy (COE) is projected to be from under $0.02/kWh to less than $0.05/kWh in good to moderate wind resource sites.

  7. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  8. Electric Power Systems: Transmission and Distribution and Electric and Magnetic Fields Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Electric Power Systems: Transmission and Distribution and Electric and Magnetic Fields Effects (EPS) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on electric power transmission and distribution and health effects of electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission, distribution, and use. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in EPS and other citations to information on electric power dating from 1974 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  9. A Closed Loop Wireless Power Transmission System Using a Commercial RFID Transceiver for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current. PMID:19963595

  10. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current.

  11. An RFID-Based Closed-Loop Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-04-01

    This brief presents a standalone closed-loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either a malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID circuits are often used in an open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 11.2 mW over a range of 0.5 to 2 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 78 mW to 1.1 W. The closed-loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in the load current.

  12. Study of a wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxin

    2010-03-01

    An active capsule endoscope (ACE) will consume much more energy than can be power by batteries. Its orientation and position are always undetermined when it continues the natural way down the gastrointestinal track. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy to ACE safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a Helmholtz primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. The Helmholtz primary coil is driven to generate a uniform alternating magnetic field covering the whole of the alimentary tract, and the multiple secondary coils receive energy regardless of the ACE's position and orientation relative to the generated magnetic field. The human tissue safety of the electromagnetic field generated by transmitting coil was evaluated, based on a high-resolution realistic human model. At least 310 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions. Outer dimensions of the power receiver, 10 mm diameter x 12 mm; transmitting power, 25 W; resonant frequency, 400 kHz. The maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density of human tissues are 0.329 W/kg and 3.82 A/m(2), respectively, under the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The designed wireless power transmission is shown to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Space Weather Impact on the European Interconnected Power Transmission System at High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinelli, Roberta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    High voltage power transmission grids can suffer outages or blackouts during geomagnetic storms (GMS). More specifically, GMS can inject geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) into the power network. Transformers were identified as the most vulnerable components of the power networks: GICs cause transformers to work in saturation regions generating voltage instabilities and eventually driving the system to collapse. Since GMS are expected to cause more pronounced disturbances at high latitudes, we addressed the effects of extreme GMS on the Scandinavian 400 kV interconnected power transmission grid, including Finland, Sweden and Norway. By applying extreme 100-year-benchmark scenarios, we analyzed potential space-weather triggered voltage instabilities in the power grid considering mono-phase transformers, which are known to be more vulnerable to GIC injection, and three-phase transformers, which are more resistant. We assumed that every node of the grid included either transformers of the mono-phase type, or three-phase transformers.Our simulations indicate that the three-phase configuration of the network is significantly more robust than the mono-phase one. Our study indicates that for a system with only three-phase transformers the likelihood of grid collapse is very low, and collapse only occurs for the worst-case scenario with extremely high geoelectric field intensities. In such a case, the increase in reactive power demand caused by transformer saturation is too high for the system to continue to provide power. Our results indicate that lines that experience higher reactive power losses during normal operation are more likely to increase losses during a GMS event. According to our study, the portion of the Scandinavian interconnected power transmission grid most vulnerable to extreme space weather is the part where the highest reactive losses in transmission lines and in voltage magnitudes are observed. This corresponds to the southern parts of Sweden and

  14. Analysis of electromagnetic interference from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Peter W.; Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Hurysz, B.; Luo, Z.; Denny, Hugh W.; Millard, David P.; Herkert, R.; Wang, R.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to analyze the potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) originating from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom. The approach consists of four steps: (1) developing analytical tools (models and computer programs); (2) conducting parameterization (what if?) studies; (3) predicting the global space station EMI environment; and (4) providing a basis for modification of EMI standards.

  15. The voltage profile improvement using static var compensator (SVC) in power system transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdan, G. M.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasbullah

    2016-04-01

    In transmission system named ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ there are the voltage drop which relatively high and the voltage profile at the receiving ends below 0.95 p.u. Therefore, this research proposed a method to improve the voltage profile in the transmission system using one of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology which is Static Var Compensator (SVC) and ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung’ as the object. This research aims to get the voltage profile in ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ before and after connected to SVC and to set optimal location and rating of SVC to maintain the voltage profile at the system that has desire range (0.95 p.u - 1.05 p.u). To get the result in accordance with these objects, Newton -Raphson power flow solution is applied to the system. The result of Newton- Raphson power flow solution of the system shows the voltage profile before connecting to SVC are averagely 140.95 kV or 0.94 p.u while after connecting to SVC are 145.28 kV or 0.97 p.u. The SVC installation is connected to ‘Bandung Utara I’ as the weakest bus, and the SVC rating is -250 Mvar to 300 Mvar.

  16. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  17. Evaluation of a Closed Loop Inductive Power Transmission System on an Awake Behaving Animal Subject

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils’ relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

  18. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW.

  19. Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Majid; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB(®) environment.

  20. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  1. Performance Of The DIII-D ECH High Power Transmission Lines And Launching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengher, Mirela; Lohr, J.; Gorelov, Y.; Torrezan, A.; Ponce, D.; Moeller, C.; Ellis, R. A.; Kolemen, E.

    2015-11-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) transmission system on the DIII D tokamak consists of corrugated coaxial 31.75 mm waveguide transmission lines and steerable launching mirrors. Total power injected into plasma can reach up to 3.5 MW, with pulse length up to 5 seconds. The ECH power injected to the tokamak from each gyrotron is measured on a shot-to-shot basis and shows individual average injected powers from a gyrotron into the plasma between 540 and 700 kW. The transmission coefficient including the waveguide line and the MOU is between -1.04 dB and -1.43 dB. The maximum ECH energy injected into DIII-D is 16.6 MJ. The HE11 mode content is over 85 % for all the lines. The four dual waveguide launchers have increased poloidal scanning speed, and can steer the RF beams 40 degrees poloidally in 200 ms, with real-time poloidal motion control by the plasma control system. A new method of in-situ calibration of the mirror angle was used in conjunction with the upgrading of the encoders and motors for the launchers. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Microwave Power Transmission Technologies for SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Naoki; Hashimoto, Kozo

    This paper describes the wireless power transmission via microwave (MPT) system for the Space Solar Power Station/Satellite (SPS). The SPS will be hugest space system and we need high efficient, huge, high accurate, light weight and inexpensive phased array for the SPS. Now we do not have any commercial MPT system on ground. Therefore, we have to consider the roadmap of the MPT system from the ground application to the SPS. We propose three step application of the MPT as follows
    1st Step: Weak Power Wireless Power Transmission (Ubiquitous Power Source, RF-ID, Energy Harvesting) under Present Radio Wave Configuration or High Power Wireless Power Transmission in Closed Area
    2nd Step: High Power Wireless Power Transmission to/from Moving Target/Source with Phased Array under New Radio Wave Configuration (Special Frequency for WPT) on Ground
    3rd (Final) Step: Wireless Power Transmission in Space (SPS)

  3. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Maksim V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature) as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  4. Management of the geomagnetically induced current risks on the national grid company's electric power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erinmez, I. Arslan; Kappenman, John G.; Radasky, William A.

    2002-03-01

    The National Grid Company plc (NGC) is the owner and operator of one of the world's largest privatised high-voltage electric power transmission systems in England and Wales at 400 and 275kV. As owner operator it is responsible for the secure and reliable delivery of electrical energy to all the 25 million electricity supply customers in England and Wales. The transmission and distribution systems in UK have experienced significant effects during past geomagnetic storm events especially during solar cycles 21 and 22. These effects included generator reactive power output swings, voltage dips, negative sequence alarms and transformer failures. Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) monitoring was installed in 1989 and operational procedures were put in place based on global solar weather forecasts. These measures were not capable of delivering reliable information and thus gave many false operational alarms. Their only real use was for post event forensic purposes. Since the cycle 22 solar peak activity the UK transmission system has developed to become more meshed, heavily loaded and dependent on the availability of reactive compensation equipment for voltage control. NGC carried out GIC impact risk assessment in 1998. This reviewed available options for managing this risk including investigation of blocking measures, a reliable local GIC forecast, GIC monitoring, a review of transmission equipment capabilities to withstand GIC conditions and operational procedures to manage the risk. As a result of the risk assessment NGC completed installation of a Metatech Spacecast/Powercast space weather forecasting system in May 1999. EPRI Sunburst 2000 based transformer monitoring systems were fully integrated in January 2000 in time for peak solar storm activity in solar cycle 23. This paper will describe the risk analysis undertaken, the risk management processes put in place and the performance of the forecasting and monitoring systems, respectively.

  5. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils.

  6. Cooling test of the 500 m class superconducting DC power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirofumi; Ivanov, Yury V.; Chikumoto, Noriko; Inoue, Noriyuki; Takano, Hirohisa; Yamaguchi, Satarou; Ishiyama, Kotaro; Oishi, Zenji; Koshizuka, Hiromi; Watanabe, Michihiko; Masuda, Takato; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sawamura, Toru

    2017-02-01

    Recently, 500 m and 1000 m class superconducting DC power transmission systems were constructed in the Ishikari area in Japan and the cooling test of the 500 m system was performed. The heat leak of the cryogenic pipe and the total heat load of the system were estimated in the cooling test. The cryogenic pipe of the system has two inner pipes in one outer pipe for circulation. The heat leak was 0.98 W/m and 0.44 W/m for each inner pipe. The total heat load of the system was 1.37 kW except for the heat load by the current feeding and the circulation pumps, while the total cooling power of the system was approximately 3 kW. The pressure drop of the circulation was measured to be 19.5 kPa at the rated flow rate of 30 L/min for the 1000 m circulation both ways in the 500 m transmission line. By the cooling test, it was confirmed that the system can be operated stably.

  7. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  8. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx.

  9. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  10. Experimental study on an S-band near-field microwave magnetron power transmission system on hundred-watt level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Jiang, Wan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Chengyang; Huang, Kama; Liu, Changjun

    2015-11-01

    A multi-magnetron microwave source, a metamaterial transmitting antenna, and a large power rectenna array are presented to build a near-field 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission system. The square 1 m2 rectenna array consists of sixteen rectennas with 2048 Schottky diodes for large power microwave rectifying. It receives microwave power and converts them into DC power. The design, structure, and measured performance of a unit rectenna as well as the entail rectenna array are presented in detail. The multi-magnetron microwave power source switches between half and full output power levels, i.e. the half-wave and full-wave modes. The transmission antenna is formed by a double-layer metallic hole array, which is applied to combine the output power of each magnetron. The rectenna array DC output power reaches 67.3 W on a 1.2 Ω DC load at a distance of 5.5 m from the transmission antenna. DC output power is affected by the distance, DC load, and the mode of microwave power source. It shows that conventional low power Schottky diodes can be applied to a microwave power transmission system with simple magnetrons to realise large power microwave rectifying.

  11. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  12. Mitigating the Detrimental Impacts of Solar PV Penetration on Electric Power Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Nitin

    At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO 2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.

  13. History of wireless power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Simplified power shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.A.

    1987-04-21

    A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

  15. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  16. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

  17. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  18. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Harold T.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  19. Improvement of Steering Feel of Electric Power Steering System with Variable Gear Transmission System Using Decoupling Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yokoi, Akitoshi; Iwasaki, Makoto; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Ito, Norihisa; Uryu, Nobuhiko; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    In this paper a new control method of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system with Variable Gear Transmission System (VGTS) is proposed. The control purpose is to achieve the desired steering gear ratio and the desired power assist with good steering feel. The basic idea of controller design is to apply decoupling control to this system and to separately design controllers for two decoupled systems. The angle control system and the torque control system are designed for the decoupled systems. In the angle control system the PID control is used for the desired gear ratio. In the torque control system the PID control is used for the desired assist torque designed so as to achieve good steering feel. In order to evaluate steering feel the Lissajous curve between the steering torque and steering angle is used. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified experimentally.

  20. Optical retrodirective tracking system approach using an array of phase conjugators for communication and power transmission.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian A; Matoba, Osamu; Kaya, Nobuyuki

    2007-07-20

    A new concept for a retrodirective tracking system applicable for communication and power transmission is proposed. In the proposed concept, the power transmitter utilizes a receiver's pilot signal to obtain information about its direction by conjugating the signal's phase inside a nonlinear medium. Power is therefore transmitted back to the receiver by the phase-conjugated signal beam. The power can be concentrated by an array of phase conjugators, which provides a large aperture so that the intensity can be increased on the receiver's photovoltaic panels compared to a single element. Controlling the phase and the direction of the readout beams in the four-wave-mixing process provides control over the interference pattern, its position, and its size. A numerical analysis is given for the phase and spot size control, and measurements with two Co-doped Sr(x)Ba(1-x)Nb(2)O(6) (Co:SBN) crystals confirm the occurrence of interference that is achieved for the case of two beams.

  1. Research Plan for Study of Biological and Ecological Effects of the Solar Power Satellite Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A programmatic research plan for a three year study is presented to generate knowledge on effects of the continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission that the Solar Power Satellite might have on biological and ecological elements, within and around the rectenna receiving site.

  2. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 2: Introduction, organization, environmental and spaceborne systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Introduction, organization, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations for each of the spaceborne subsystems are presented. Environmental effects - propagation analyses are presented with appendices covering radio wave diffraction by random ionospheric irregularities, self-focusing plasma instabilities and ohmic heating of the D-region. Analyses of dc to rf conversion subsystems and system considerations for both the amplitron and the klystron are included with appendices for the klystron covering cavity circuit calculations, output power of the solenoid-focused klystron, thermal control system, and confined flow focusing of a relativistic beam. The photovoltaic power source characteristics are discussed as they apply to interfacing with the power distribution flow paths, magnetic field interaction, dc to rf converter protection, power distribution including estimates for the power budget, weights, and costs. Analyses for the transmitting antenna consider the aperture illumination and size, with associated efficiencies and ground power distributions. Analyses of subarray types and dimensions, attitude error, flatness, phase error, subarray layout, frequency tolerance, attenuation, waveguide dimensional tolerances, mechanical including thermal considerations are included. Implications associated with transportation, assembly and packaging, attitude control and alignment are discussed. The phase front control subsystem, including both ground based pilot signal driven adaptive and ground command approaches with their associated phase errors, are analyzed.

  3. A wireless transmission system powered by an enzyme biofuel cell implanted in an orange.

    PubMed

    MacVittie, Kevin; Conlon, Tyler; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-12-01

    A biofuel cell composed of catalytic electrodes made of "buckypaper" modified with PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and FAD-dependent fructose dehydrogenase on the anode and with laccase on the cathode was used to activate a wireless information transmission system. The cathode/anode pair was implanted in orange pulp extracting power from its content (glucose and fructose in the juice). The open circuit voltage, Voc, short circuit current density, jsc, and maximum power produced by the biofuel cell, Pmax, were found as ca. 0.6 V, ca. 0.33 mA·cm(-2) and 670 μW, respectively. The voltage produced by the biofuel cell was amplified with an energy harvesting circuit and applied to a wireless transmitter. The present study continues the research line where different implantable biofuel cells are used for the activation of electronic devices. The study emphasizes the biosensor and environmental monitoring applications of implantable biofuel cells harvesting power from natural sources, rather than their biomedical use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-power microwave transmission systems for electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma heating

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    This progress report is for the sixth year of a grant from the US Department of Energy for the design, development, and fabrication of ECRH transmission and mode conversion systems to transport microwave power from a gyrotron to a magnetically confined plasma. The design and low-power testing of new and improved components for such systems and development of underlying theory is the focus of this project. Devising and improving component testing and diagnostic techniques is also an important part of this effort. The development of possible designs for sections of gyrotrons themselves, such as tapers or Vlasov-type launchers, in support of the Varian gyrotron development program is also considered when appropriate. We also provide support to other groups working on ECR heating of magnetically confined plasmas such as the groups at General Atomics, the University of Texas at Austin, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. During the last year, we designed and had fabricated a two-dimensional Vlasov antenna system for a 110 GHz TE{sub 15,2} mode gyrotron for possible use at General Atomics. The system included the launcher section, a visor, main reflector, and focusing reflector. Programs to generate the tool-path profiles to cut the General Atomics'' Vlasov components on a milling machine were developed. We have also developed state-of-the art theory and programs for three-dimensional whispering-gallery-mode Vlasov antenna systems. A design for a 110 GHz TE{sub 01}-TE{sub 15,2} mode converter system for cold testing WGM Vlasov antenna systems was developed and is currently being fabricated also.

  5. Laser power transmission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Christiansen, W. H.; Hertzberg, A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of studies which have led to the design of a conceptual device in which the limitation of transforming heat into coherent radiation can be examined. By exploring the basic thermodynamic relationships controlling the operation of this device, it is concluded that a closed-cycle gasdynamic laser is possible in which all of the shaft energy supplied can be turned into laser radiation. Hence, it is possible in principle to convert heat into coherent radiation with approximately the same efficiency with which heat may be converted into electricity. By modifying the closed-cycle-gasdynamic-laser system, this system can be operated in reverse and the incoming radiation may be used to pump the gas in the loop so that shaft power can be extracted. By carefully controlling the temperature distribution in this machine, laser energy can be converted into useful shaft energy with an efficiency approaching 1 .

  6. Distributed decision-making in electric power system transmission maintenance scheduling using multi-agent systems (MAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhong

    In this work, motivated by the need to coordinate transmission maintenance scheduling among a multiplicity of self-interested entities in restructured power industry, a distributed decision support framework based on multiagent negotiation systems (MANS) is developed. An innovative risk-based transmission maintenance optimization procedure is introduced. Several models for linking condition monitoring information to the equipment's instantaneous failure probability are presented, which enable quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of maintenance activities in terms of system cumulative risk reduction. Methodologies of statistical processing, equipment deterioration evaluation and time-dependent failure probability calculation are also described. A novel framework capable of facilitating distributed decision-making through multiagent negotiation is developed. A multiagent negotiation model is developed and illustrated that accounts for uncertainty and enables social rationality. Some issues of multiagent negotiation convergence and scalability are discussed. The relationships between agent-based negotiation and auction systems are also identified. A four-step MAS design methodology for constructing multiagent systems for power system applications is presented. A generic multiagent negotiation system, capable of inter-agent communication and distributed decision support through inter-agent negotiations, is implemented. A multiagent system framework for facilitating the automated integration of condition monitoring information and maintenance scheduling for power transformers is developed. Simulations of multiagent negotiation-based maintenance scheduling among several independent utilities are provided. It is shown to be a viable alternative solution paradigm to the traditional centralized optimization approach in today's deregulated environment. This multiagent system framework not only facilitates the decision-making among competing power system entities, but

  7. HTS Transmission Cable System for installation in the Long Island Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Frank; Durand, Fabien; Maguire, James

    2015-10-05

    Department of Energy (DOE) Award DE-FC26-07NT43240 was issued on October 1, 2007. Referred to as LIPA2, the principal objectives of the project were to develop key components required to deploy and demonstrate second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables in a 600 meter (2000 feet) underground segment of a 138kV three-phase transmission circuit of the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) power grid. A previous effort under DOE Award DE-FC36-03GO13032 (referred to as LIPA1) resulted in installation (and subsequent successful operation) of first-generation (1G) HTS cables at the LIPA site. As with LIPA1, American Superconductor (AMSC) led the effort for LIPA2 and was responsible for overall management of the project and producing sufficient 2G wire to fabricate the required cable. Nexans' tasks included design/manufacture/installation of the cable, joint (splice), cable terminations and field repairable cryostat; while work by Air Liquide involved engineering and installation support for the refrigeration system modifications.

  8. Measured Phase Performance of the Photonics System for Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeper, Herbert R.; Arndt, Dickey G.

    2002-01-01

    A microwave wireless power transmission has a large phased array antenna which focuses its beam onto a ground rectenna. The microwave beam is steered using retrodirective phase control which has the necessary safety feature of always focusing the beam onto the rectenna. It is not possible for the beam to "wander" around the countryside. In order for the retrodirective phase control technique to work, it is necessary to distribute a very stable phase reference throughout the antenna to each subarray. A photonics system which modulates an RF signal onto a laser which is then transmitted via fiber optic cables over the 500 meter transmit antenna. Since there will be regions of various temperature ranges over the antenna due to the heat generated in the microwave tubes, the DC/DC converters at each subarray, and the DC power line I2R losses. The photonics system must be able to maintain a stable phase reference despite varying temperature increases in the fiber optic cables. In a study to determine the induced phase changes over various temperatures for a number of commercially available fiber optic cables, a test program has been initiated at the NASA Johnson Space Center. In addition to the regular fiber cables being tested, special cables with a low coefficient of thermal expansion have been investigated. In each test the phase of a microwave signal transmitted over the fiber cables is measured while the operating temperature is varied inside a thermal test chamber. This paper describes a possible configuration for the photonics system within the transmit array, the test system, and the test results. Recommendations for future studies are also included.

  9. Interface Control Document for the EMPACT Module that Estimates Electric Power Transmission System Response to EMP-Caused Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, Kenneth Alan; Mccown, Andrew William

    2016-06-26

    The EPREP code is designed to evaluate the effects of an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) on the electric power transmission system. The EPREP code embodies an umbrella framework that allows a user to set up analysis conditions and to examine analysis results. The code links to three major physics/engineering modules. The first module describes the EM wave in space and time. The second module evaluates the damage caused by the wave on specific electric power (EP) transmission system components. The third module evaluates the consequence of the damaged network on its (reduced) ability to provide electric power to meet demand. This third module is the focus of the present paper. The EMPACT code serves as the third module. The EMPACT name denotes EMP effects on Alternating Current Transmission systems. The EMPACT algorithms compute electric power transmission network flow solutions under severely damaged network conditions. Initial solutions are often characterized by unacceptible network conditions including line overloads and bad voltages. The EMPACT code contains algorithms to adjust optimally network parameters to eliminate network problems while minimizing outages. System adjustments include automatically adjusting control equipment (generator V control, variable transformers, and variable shunts), as well as non-automatic control of generator power settings and minimal load shedding. The goal is to evaluate the minimal loss of customer load under equilibrium (steady-state) conditions during peak demand.

  10. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of using the Series Resonant inverter as the driver module for the high frequency power system on the Space Station. This study evaluates the performance of the Series Resonant driver when it was operated with a dc input voltage and run through a series of tests to determine its start-up performance, response to load changes, load regulation, and efficiency. Also, this study compares the Series Resonant driver to another kind of driver that uses a Power Transistor snubber. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is initiated. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  11. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  12. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  13. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  14. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (8)First HVDC Transmission System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampei, Masatoshi

    This paper is an episode concerning the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link that is the first High Voltage DC Current transmission system in Japan. The effort to the commissioning of the first stage of this system is explained. Moreover, it explains the research and development executed to achieve 600MW of this system that is the final stage. In addition, the adoption episode of the frequency control method introduced for Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link is explained.

  15. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E. F.; Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicated the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  16. A high-performance ultrasonic system for the simultaneous transmission of data and power through solid metal barriers.

    PubMed

    Lawry, Tristan J; Wilt, Kyle R; Ashdown, Jon D; Scarton, Henry A; Saulnier, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a system capable of simultaneous high-power and high-data-rate transmission through solid metal barriers using ultrasound. By coaxially aligning a pair of piezoelectric transducers on opposite sides of a metal wall and acoustically coupling them to the barrier, an acoustic- electric transmission channel is formed which prevents the need for physical penetration. Independent data and power channels are utilized, but they are only separated by 25.4 mm to reduce the system's form factor. Commercial off-the-shelf components and evaluation boards are used to create realtime prototype hardware and the full system is capable of transmitting data at 17.37 Mbps and delivering 50 W of power through a 63.5-mm thick steel wall. A synchronous multi-carrier communication scheme (OFDM) is used to achieve a very high spectral efficiency and to ensure that there is only minor interference between the power and data channels. Also presented is a discussion of potential enhancements that could be made to greatly improve the power and data-rate capabilities of the system. This system could have a tremendous impact on improving safety and preserving structural integrity in many military applications (submarines, surface ships, unmanned undersea vehicles, armored vehicles, planes, etc.) as well as in a wide range of commercial, industrial, and nuclear systems.

  17. Potential of laser for SPS power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

  18. Transmission line pulse system for avalanche characterization of high power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Michele; Ascione, Giovanni; De Falco, Giuseppe; Maresca, Luca; De Laurentis, Martina; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Because of the increasing in power density of electronic devices for medium and high power application, reliabilty of these devices is of great interest. Understanding the avalanche behaviour of a power device has become very important in these last years because it gives an indication of the maximum energy ratings which can be seen as an index of the device ruggedness. A good description of this behaviour is given by the static IV blocking characteristc. In order to avoid self heating, very relevant in high power devices, very short pulses of current have to be used, whose value can change from few milliamps up to tens of amps. The most used method to generate short pulses is the TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) test, which is based on charging the equivalent capacitance of a transmission line to high value of voltage and subsequently discharging it onto a load. This circuit let to obtain very short square pulses but it is mostly used for evaluate the ESD capability of semiconductor and, in this environment, it generates pulses of low amplitude which are not high enough to characterize the avalanche behaviour of high power devices . Advanced TLP circuit able to generate high current are usually very expensive and often suffer of distorption of the output pulse. In this article is proposed a simple, low cost circuit, based on a boosted-TLP configuration, which is capable to produce very square pulses of about one hundreds of nanosecond with amplitude up to some tens of amps. A prototype is implemented which can produce pulses up to 20A of amplitude with 200 ns of duration which can characterize power devices up to 1600V of breakdown voltage. Usage of microcontroller based logic make the circuit very flexible. Results of SPICE simulation are provided, together with experimental results. To prove the effectiveness of the circuit, the I-V blocking characteristics of two commercial devices, namely a 600V PowerMOS and a 1200V Trench-IGBT, are measured at different

  19. Current evaluation of hydraulics to replace the cable force transmission system for body-powered upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M

    1990-01-01

    Present body-powered upper-limb prostheses use a cable control system employing World War II aircraft technology to transmit force from the body to the prosthesis for operation. The cable and associated hardware are located outside the prosthesis. Because individuals with arm amputations want prostheses that are natural looking with a smooth, soft outer surface, a design and development project was undertaken to replace the cable system with hydraulics located inside the prosthesis. Three different hydraulic transmission systems were built for evaluation, and other possibilities were explored. Results indicate that a hydraulic force transmission system remains an unmet challenge as a practical replacement for the cable system. The author was unable to develop a hydraulic system that meets the necessary dynamic requirements and is acceptable in size and appearance.

  20. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 3, section 8: Mechanical systems and flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    The efforts and recommendations associated with preliminary design and concept definition for mechanical systems and flight operations are presented. Technical discussion in the areas of mission analysis, antenna structural concept, configuration analysis, assembly and packaging with associated costs are presented. Technology issues for the control system, structural system, thermal system and assembly including cost and man's role in assembly and maintenance are identified. Background and desired outputs for future efforts are discussed.

  1. The Himalayan hydro machine and space transmission power systems - An Asian dream of 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admoddie, M.

    The advantages and disadvantages for the development of hydroelectric power are assessed for the Himalayan Rectangle, an area rising 1500 km north of a baseline between Karachi and Mandalay. This area has the potential for possessing one of the world's greatest power production capabilities. Among the disadvantages cited are the political instability and religious fundamentalism of the area, the bankrupt governments, environmental degradation, and inefficient power and irrigation systems. The advantages include the millions of talented and enterprising people in the region awaiting higher opportunities who are eager to improve their families' living standards and the large untapped hydropower resources. The concepts for hydropower development are discussed and go beyond the technologies of power and water. They include catchment ecodevelopment strategies with massive afforestation plans, setting up plans to strengthen village-level institutions to manage local natural biomass and water assets, the conversion of this regional hydropower potential into a subcontinental power system, and the exporting of power and the development of an interregional and international power grid by 2030, when both oil and local ecosystems would be dangerously depleted.

  2. Development of simultaneous measurement system of birefringence, optical rotational power, and transmission spectra for chiral liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengyu; Ishikawa, Ken

    2016-05-01

    A novel experimental setup used to measure the important optical properties of liquid crystal materials is proposed. The setup allows us to measure electric-field-induced birefringence, optical rotational power, and transmission spectra consecutively. This system can be widely applied to characterize liquid crystal materials including blue phases, ferroelectric liquid crystals, and other chiral phases. We adopted this system to study the phase transition behavior of a V-shape switching ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture and made an important correction of experimental results previously reported by Sandhya et al. [ Europhys. Lett. 90, 56005 (2010)]. This finding proves the advantage of this system compared with the measurement method using individual systems.

  3. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  4. Number of lightning discharges causing damage to lightning arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, E. P.

    2009-07-15

    Damage by lightning discharges to lightning arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of lightning arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a lightning current. The lightning currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a lightning discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the lightning current increases, which greatly reduces the number of lightning discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of lightning arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of lightning discharges per year which damage lightning arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.

  5. a High-Power Microwave Transmission and Launching System for Plasma Heating on the Ornl ATF Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy Stuart

    1990-01-01

    A high power microwave transmission and launching system has been developed for Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) of plasmas in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) fusion confinement experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Microwave power is generated by two 53 GHz, 200 KW cw gyrotron tubes. A waveguide transmission and launching system for each tube has been designed and built with the goal of depositing the maximum amount of power at the center of the plasma. Centralized deposition of the microwave power is possible at high frequencies by use of a launcher with a narrow radiated beamwidth and carefully controlled polarization to couple to electrons at the cyclotron resonant surface. In order for the transmission systems to operate at this high frequency and power level, highly over-moded waveguides have been used to reduce losses and arcing. To produce a narrow, polarized beam, the waveguide system was designed for minimum parasitic mode conversion so that the launcher can operate with nearly a single input mode. Several waveguide components were developed for the waveguide system including: a waveguide mode analyzing directional coupler, a rippled-wall mode converter, improved miter bends, and vacuum pumpout sections. To determine the mode purity of these components and efficiency of the system, laboratory measurement techniques for over-moded waveguide component evaluation were developed. A polarization controlled beam launcher was developed which launches a ~ 12 cm (-20 dB) beamwidth linearly polarized beam. The plane of polarization can be rotated to allow optimum coupling to either extra-ordinary or ordinary plasma waves. The transmission and launching system performed reliably. Modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in the ATF plasma and measurement of beam absorption and plasma parameters were performed to determine the overall effectiveness of the ECH system. A coupled-mode wave propagation code was written to investigate the effect of magnetic

  6. Overhead electric power transmission line jumpering system for bundles of five or more subconductors

    DOEpatents

    Winkelman, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Jumpering of electric power transmission lines at a dead end tower. Two transmission line conductor bundles each contain five or more spaced apart subconductors (5) arranged in the shape of a cylinder having a circular cross section. The ends of each bundle of subconductors are attached with insulators to a dead end tower (1). Jumpering allows the electric current to flow between the two bundles of subconductors using jumper buses, internal jumper conductors, and external jumper conductors. One or more current collecting jumper buses (37) are located inside each bundle of subconductors with each jumper bus being attached to the end of a subconductor. Small-diameter internal jumper conductors (33) are located in the inherently electrically shielded area inside each bundle of subconductors with each subconductor (except ones having an attached jumper bus) having one internal jumper conductor connected between that subconductor's end and a jumper bus. Large-diameter external jumper conductors (9) are located outside each bundle of subconductors with one or more external jumper conductors being connected between the jumper buses in one bundle of subconductors and the jumper buses in the other bundle.

  7. Generation/transmission power system reliability evaluation by Monte-Carlo simulation assuming a fuzzy load description

    SciTech Connect

    Saraiva, J.T.; Miranda, V.; Pinto, L.M.V.G.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a Monte-Carlo algorithm considering loads defined by fuzzy numbers. In this methodology states are sampled according to the probabilistic models governing the life cycle of system components while fuzzy concepts are used to model uncertainty related to future load behavior. This model can be used to evaluate generation/transmission power system reliability for long term planning studies as one uses the more adequate uncertainty models for each type of data. For each sampled state a Fuzzy Optimal Power Flow is run so that one builds its power not supplied membership function. The paper proposes new indices reflecting the integration of probabilistic models and fuzzy concepts and discusses the application of variance reduction techniques if loads are defined by fuzzy numbers. A case-study based on the IEEE 30 bus system illustrates this methodology.

  8. Generation/transmission power system reliability evaluation by Monte-Carlo simulation assuming a fuzzy load description

    SciTech Connect

    Saraiva, J.T.; Miranda, V.; Pint, L.M.V.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a Monte-Carlo algorithm considering loads defined by fuzzy numbers. In this methodology states are sampled according to the probabilistic models governing the life cycle of system components while fuzzy concepts are used to model uncertainty related to future load behavior. This model can be used to evaluate generation/transmission power system reliability for long term planning studies as one uses the more adequate uncertainty models for each type of data. For each sampled state a Fuzzy Optimal Power Flow is run so that one builds its power not supplied membership function. The paper proposes new indices reflecting the integration of probabilistic models and fuzzy concepts and discusses the application of variance reduction techniques if loads are defined by fuzzy numbers. A case-study based on the IEEE 30 bus system illustrates this methodology.

  9. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 4: Sections 9 through 14 with appendices. [ground tests and antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave rectifier technology, approaches to the receiving antenna, topology of rectenna circuits, assembly and construction, ROM cost estimates are discussed. Analyses and cost estimates for the equipment required to transmit the ground power to an external user. Noise and harmonic considerations are presented for both the amplitron and klystron and interference limits are identified and evaluated. The risk assessment discussion is discussed wherein technology risks are rated and ranked with regard to their importance in impacting the microwave power transmission system. The system analyses and evaluation are included of parametric studies of system relationships pertaining to geometry, materials, specific cost, specific weight, efficiency, converter packing, frequency selection, power distribution, power density, power output magnitude, power source, transportation and assembly. Capital costs per kW and energy costs as a function of rate of return, power source and transportation costs as well as build cycle time are presented. The critical technology and ground test program are discussed along with ROM costs and schedule. The orbital test program with associated critical technology and ground based program based on full implementation of the defined objectives is discussed.

  10. A wireless power transmission system for implantable devices in freely moving rodents.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Sung June

    2014-08-01

    Reliable wireless power delivery for implantable devices in animals is highly desired for safe and effective experimental use. Batteries require frequent replacement; wired connections are inconvenient and unsafe, and short-distance inductive coupling requires the attachment of an exterior transmitter to the animal's body. In this article, we propose a solution by which animals with implantable devices can move freely without attachments. Power is transmitted using coils attached to the animal's cage and is received by a receiver coil implanted in the animal. For a three-dimensionally uniform delivery of power, we designed a columnar dual-transmitter coil configuration. A resonator-based inductive link was adopted for efficient long-range power delivery, and we used a novel biocompatible liquid crystal polymer substrate as the implantable receiver device. Using this wireless power delivery system, we obtain an average power transfer efficiency of 15.2% (minimum efficiency of 10% and a standard deviation of 2.6) within a cage of 15×20×15 cm3.

  11. Development of real-time voltage stability monitoring tool for power system transmission network using Synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulok, Md Kamrul Hasan

    Intelligent and effective monitoring of power system stability in control centers is one of the key issues in smart grid technology to prevent unwanted power system blackouts. Voltage stability analysis is one of the most important requirements for control center operation in smart grid era. With the advent of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Synchrophasor technology, real time monitoring of voltage stability of power system is now a reality. This work utilizes real-time PMU data to derive a voltage stability index to monitor the voltage stability related contingency situation in power systems. The developed tool uses PMU data to calculate voltage stability index that indicates relative closeness of the instability by producing numerical indices. The IEEE 39 bus, New England power system was modeled and run on a Real-time Digital Simulator that stream PMU data over the Internet using IEEE C37.118 protocol. A Phasor data concentrator (PDC) is setup that receives streaming PMU data and stores them in Microsoft SQL database server. Then the developed voltage stability monitoring (VSM) tool retrieves phasor measurement data from SQL server, performs real-time state estimation of the whole network, calculate voltage stability index, perform real-time ranking of most vulnerable transmission lines, and finally shows all the results in a graphical user interface. All these actions are done in near real-time. Control centers can easily monitor the systems condition by using this tool and can take precautionary actions if needed.

  12. Transmission Characteristics Simulation on Power Line Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, Masashi; Nakabayashi, Miyuki; Abe, Junichi; Tanabe, Shinji

    In Power Line Communication (PLC) systems, medium and low voltage power distribution lines are used as a communication network. However, since no consideration is given to signal transmission characteristics in the high frequency used for PLC systems, reflections caused by impedance mismatches deteriorate transmission characteristics. If channel characteristics of power lines can be estimated by simulation, it will be efficient for the design and the operation of PLC networks. This paper proposes a method to estimate transmission characteristics of a channel model between a transmitter and a receiver installed on a distribution network. Propagation characteristics of PLC signals at each distribution facility is described using two port networks. A channel model is automatically generated from the combination of component models along the topology of distribution network and the locations of a transmitter and a receiver. The proposed method was validated using measurement data of a test distribution network and was proved to be effective.

  13. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  14. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  15. Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.

  16. A Gastrointestinal Electrical Stimulation System Based on Transcutaneous Power Transmission Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bingquan; Wang, Yongbing; Yan, Guozheng; Jiang, Pingping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been suggested as a possible treatment for various functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). This paper presents a transcutaneous power supplied implantable electrical stimulation system. This technology solves the problem of supplying extended power to an implanted electrical stimulator. After implantation, the stimulation parameters can be reprogrammed by the external controller and then transmitted to the implanted stimulator. This would enable parametric studies to investigate the efficacy of various stimulation parameters in promoting gastrointestinal contractions. A pressure detector in the internal stimulator can provide real-time feedback about variations in the gastrointestinal tract. An optimal stimulation protocol leading to cecal contractions has been proposed: stimulation bursts of 3 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude, 40 Hz frequency, and 20 s duration. The animal experiment demonstrated the functionality of the system and validated the effects of different stimulation parameters on cecal contractions. PMID:25053939

  17. Initial Review of Methods for Cascading Failure Analysis in Electric Power Transmission Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kirschen, Daniel; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Podmore, Robin; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-09

    Large blackouts are typically caused by cascading failure propagating through a power system by means of a variety of processes. Because of the wide range of time scales, mulitple interacting processes, and the hugh number of possible interactions, the simulation and analysis of cascading blackouts is extremely complicated. This paper defines cascading failure for blackouts and gives an initial review of the current understanding, industrial tools, and the challenges and emerging methods of analysis and simulation.

  18. Issues arising with the application of optical fiber transmission in class 1E systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-12-31

    The application of fiber optic links and networks in safety-critical systems in the next generation of nuclear power plants, as well as in some digital upgrades in present-day plants, will mean that these links must be highly reliable and able to withstand the effect of environmental stressors present at the installation location. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related mechanisms of fiber optic transmission components and identifies environmental stressors that could adversely affect their reliability over the long term. Some of the standards that could be used in their qualification for safety-critical applications are also discussed briefly.

  19. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

  20. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-08-20

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from the electric facilities; (2) increase the program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This DEIS establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this EIS). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed: manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 24 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, they consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would factor a management approach that

  1. Position and Orientation Insensitive Wireless Power Transmission for EnerCage-Homecage System.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yaoyao; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Wang, Zheyuan; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Madsen, Teresa E; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a new headstage architecture as part of a smart experimental arena, known as the EnerCage-HC2 system, which automatically delivers stimulation and collects behavioral data over extended periods with minimal small animal subject handling or personnel intervention in a standard rodent homecage. Equipped with a four-coil inductive link, the EnerCage-HC2 system wirelessly powers the receiver (Rx) headstage, irrespective of the subject's location or head orientation, eliminating the need for tethering or carrying bulky batteries. On the transmitter (Tx) side, a driver coil, five high-quality (Q) factor segmented resonators at different heights and orientations, and a closed-loop Tx power controller create a homogeneous electromagnetic (EM) field within the homecage 3-D space, and compensate for drops in power transfer efficiency (PTE) due to Rx misalignments. The headstage is equipped with four small slanted resonators, each covering a range of head orientations with respect to the Tx resonators, which direct the EM field toward the load coil at the bottom of the headstage. Moreover, data links based on Wi-Fi, UART, and Bluetooth low energy are utilized to enables remote communication and control of the Rx. The PTE varies within 23.6%-33.3% and 6.7%-10.1% at headstage heights of 8 and 20 cm, respectively, while continuously delivering >40 mW to the Rx electronics even at 90° rotation. As a proof of EnerCage-HC2 functionality in vivo, a previously documented on-demand electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus, eliciting consistent head rotation, is demonstrated in three freely behaving rats.

  2. Rectangular coils optimization for wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhu; Guo, Yong-Xin; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Wirelessly coupled coils are crucial for efficient power transmission in various applications. Previous design methods are only eligible for improving the efficiency of circular or square coils. This paper presents a method of characterizing and optimizing rectangular coils used in inductively coupled systems. After setting up a lumped component model for inductive coils, the efficiency can be expressed in terms of geometrical parameters of the coils. Subsequently, the power efficiency can be plotted versus these parameters in Matlab, thus getting the desired coils for optimum power transfer. With this design procedure from mathematical optimization, we eventually designed two rectangular coils spaced 10 mm apart, which achieves a power transmission efficiency of 46.4% at a frequency of 3 MHz. The design methodology is verified by simulation and measurement.

  3. The value of compressed air energy storage with wind in transmission-constrained electric power systems

    DOE PAGES

    Denholm, Paul; Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2009-05-05

    In this paper, we examine the potential advantages of co-locating wind and energy storage to increase transmission utilization and decrease transmission costs. Co-location of wind and storage decreases transmission requirements, but also decreases the economic value of energy storage compared to locating energy storage at the load. This represents a tradeoff which we examine to estimate the transmission costs required to justify moving storage from load-sited to wind-sited in three different locations in the United States. We examined compressed air energy storage (CAES) in three “wind by wire” scenarios with a variety of transmission and CAES sizes relative to amore » given amount of wind. In the sites and years evaluated, the optimal amount of transmission ranges from 60% to 100% of the wind farm rating, with the optimal amount of CAES equal to 0–35% of the wind farm rating, depending heavily on wind resource, value of electricity in the local market, and the cost of natural gas.« less

  4. The value of compressed air energy storage with wind in transmission-constrained electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2009-05-05

    In this paper, we examine the potential advantages of co-locating wind and energy storage to increase transmission utilization and decrease transmission costs. Co-location of wind and storage decreases transmission requirements, but also decreases the economic value of energy storage compared to locating energy storage at the load. This represents a tradeoff which we examine to estimate the transmission costs required to justify moving storage from load-sited to wind-sited in three different locations in the United States. We examined compressed air energy storage (CAES) in three “wind by wire” scenarios with a variety of transmission and CAES sizes relative to a given amount of wind. In the sites and years evaluated, the optimal amount of transmission ranges from 60% to 100% of the wind farm rating, with the optimal amount of CAES equal to 0–35% of the wind farm rating, depending heavily on wind resource, value of electricity in the local market, and the cost of natural gas.

  5. Effects of interactions between stations on the calculation of geomagnetically induced currents in an electric power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, R.

    2008-07-01

    "Geomagnetically induced currents" (GIC) in ground-based technological networks are a manifestation of space weather. GIC are a potential source of problems to the systems and therefore important in practice. GIC in a power system (or in principle in any other discretely-earthed system) can be calculated conveniently by using matrix equations presented earlier. Since temporal variations associated with GIC are slow compared to the 50/60 Hz frequency used in power transmission, a dc treatment is acceptable. An essential quantity in calculations of GIC in a power grid is the earthing impedance matrix, which is the transfer function coupling GIC flowing to (from) the Earth with the voltages between the earthing points, called nodes or (sub)stations, and a remote earth. The diagonal elements of the matrix equal the earthing resistances of the nodes whereas an off-diagonal element expresses how much GIC at one earthing point affects the voltage at another node. In GIC calculations, except for some special treatments of individual sites, the off-diagonal elements are usually neglected by saying simply that the earthing points (are assumed to) lie distantly enough. In this paper, we examine the effects of off-diagonal elements of the earthing impedance matrix, i.e. the effects of interactions between different stations, on GIC calculations in greater detail and more quantitatively than before. We consider a fictitious system that represents a high-voltage power grid and a simple "network" consisting of two stations with a line connecting them. For both systems, the conclusion can be drawn that the off-diagonal elements do not play a major role in practice. Modelling them only approximately, or even ignoring them, is not of great significance compared to other shortcomings involved in GIC calculations. This is particularly true when looking at a power grid as a whole although at some individual stations the neglect may lead to larger errors in GIC values.

  6. Design and Prototype Development of a Wireless Power Transmission System for a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    assembled, each consisting of microwave rectifier, antenna and a miniature DC motor . It was demonstrated that a 1.8-Watt, 1.3-GHz microwave signal could...power the DC motor at free space distance of 30 inches from transmitting antenna to prototype MAV. Greater operating distances are proposed by using higher transmitting power and antenna gain.

  7. Wireless Power Transmission Technology Development and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinsiek, F.; Weber, K.-H.; Foth, W.-P.; Foth, H. J.; Schäfer, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology has been treated to a wide extent in the recent years. A broad variety of applications has been investigated, from earth to orbit, orbit to earth, in-orbit and planetary ones, as for moon and Mars missions. In this course the question to use laser or microwave technology has widely been discussed. Beaming energy to spacecrafts could provide an important space mission-economic potential. It promises significant reduction in the cost of access to space, for scientific and commercial missions, and increases the mission capabilities for in-space systems. For the future enhancement of ISS capabilities and operational efficiency, the use of WPT technology became part of the technology research planning for the ISS. The WPT may have the potential of providing operational benefits, increase of spacecraft systems efficiency for elements like co-orbiting platforms, transfer vehicles or other ISS related in-orbit spacecrafts, and planetary exploration vehicles. The laser technology provides specific technical, operational and economic benefits compared to microwave applications and provides the actual basis for the envisioned wireless power transmission concepts. An outlook in terms of future wireless power perspectives, both for terrestrial as for space-to-space scenarios is given; these applications are part of a technology demonstration roadmap for wireless power transmission key- and supporting technologies, which is characterized by dedicated technology demonstration milestones on ground and in space. The actual technology development philosophy as conceived at EADS-Space Transportation is described and includes main system demonstration missions, as a laboratory test bed employing a small rover system, a scaled airship model demonstration as planned in 2004 and an experiment onboard the International Space Station ISS. These demonstrations represent milestones in terms of technical capability verification on the way to

  8. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-07

    Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  9. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  10. DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant to Vyborg

    SciTech Connect

    Koshcheev, L. A.; Shul'ginov, N. G.

    2011-05-15

    DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant (LAES) to city of Vyborg is proposed. This will provide a comprehensive solution to several important problems in the development and control of the unified power system (EES) of Russia.

  11. Transmission final lenses in the HiPER laser fusion power plant: system design for temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Garoz, D.; Le Garrec, B.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-12-01

    The European laser fusion project HiPER is developing technologically feasible components for a laser fusion power plant with an evacuated dry wall chamber which is likely to operate with a shock ignition scheme and direct targets. One of the key components is the final optics. In this work, we consider silica transmission final lenses and address the major issues regarding the unavoidable neutron irradiation they must withstand. For pre-commercial power plants (150 MJ target yield at 10 Hz) a distance of 16 m between the final lenses and target leads to maximum lens temperatures within tolerable limits. However, a non-uniform steady-state temperature profile is a major concern because it is the origin of unacceptable aberrations that severely affect the target spots. We have devised an active intervention system based on a heat-transfer fluid to keep the temperature profile as smooth as possible. The main characteristics of the temperature control system are defined throughout this work and enable the operation of the plant, both for the start-up procedure and for normal operation.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Electromagnetic Pulse (MHD-EMP) Interaction with Power Transmission and Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    reproduced below: " NPCC (Northeast Power Coordinating Council) - The Radisson-Sandy Pond HVDC line tripped Monday morning (October 28) because...filters on the linefailed. Very early Tuesday morning, the Madawaska HVDC tie between Quebec and New Brunswick tripped. Transformer problems were reported...reported that on Monday (October 28) about 15 capacitor banksat seven substations (115 and 230 kV) tripped. The Blackwater HVDC tiebetween WSCC and SPP

  13. Microwave power - An energy transmission alternative for the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalos, E.; Sperber, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent technological advances related to the feasibility of efficient RF-dc rectification make it likely that by the year 2000 the transmission of power through space will have become a practical reality. Proposals have been made to power helicopters, aircraft, balloons, and rockets remotely. Other proposals consider the transfer of power from point to point on earth via relay through space or a transmission of power from large power sources in space. Attention has also been given to possibilities regarding the transmission of power between various points in the solar system. An outline is provided of the microwave power transmission system envisaged for the solar power satellite, taking into account the transmitting antenna, the receiver on earth, aspects of beam formation and control, transmitter options, the receiving antenna design, and cost and efficiency considerations.

  14. Modular inductive power transmission system for high misalignment electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chun; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Ching, Tze Wood; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives a design method of power transmitter for electric vehicle wireless charging applications. Uniform magnetic field is targeted for better modular application and misalignment adaption. Rectangular coil and spiral windings are specially selected for evaluation. The compound winding is chosen for optimization. The magnetic flux density is studied by calculating the mutual inductance per area. By optimally choosing the turns and pitch distances of the spiral winding, a uniform magnetic field is achieved. Using finite element analysis, the performances of the transmitter are evaluated, including its tolerance to misalignment.

  15. The optimization of wireless power transmission: design and realization.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Liu, Hua; Wang, Zhiwu; Jiang, Pingping; Shi, Yu

    2012-09-01

    A wireless power transmission system is regarded as a practical way of solving power-shortage problems in multifunctional active capsule endoscopes. The uniformity of magnetic flux density, frequency stability and orientation stability are used to evaluate power transmission stability, taking into consideration size and safety constraints. Magnetic field safety and temperature rise are also considered. Test benches are designed to measure the relevent parameters. Finally, a mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed to improve transmission efficiency. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, various systems for a wireless active capsule endoscope are designed and evaluated. The optimal power transmission system has the capability to supply continuously at least 500 mW of power with a transmission efficiency of 4.08%. The example validates the feasibility of the proposed method. Introduction of novel designs enables further improvement of this method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  17. Development of a bidirectional transcutaneous optical data transmission system for artificial hearts allowing long-distance data communication with low electric power consumption.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Inoue, Yusuke; Makino, Tsutomu; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a wavelength division bidirectional transcutaneous optical data transmission system using amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The bidirectional optical data transmission system consists of two kinds of light emitting diodes (LEDs) having different wavelengths and an ASK modulator and demodulator. Two narrow directional visible LEDs with a peak output wavelength of 590 nm were used to transmit data from inside the body to outside the body, and a narrow directional near-infrared LED with a peak output wavelength of 940 nm was used for transmission from outside the body to inside the body. The ASK modulator employs a carrier pulse signal (50 kHz) to support a maximum data transmission rate of 9600 bps. An in vitro experiment showed that the maximum tissue thickness of near-infrared optical data transmission without error was 45 mm; the figure was 20 mm for visible optical data transmission. There was no interference between the signals under full-duplex data transmission. Electric power consumption for the data transmission links was 122 mW for near-infrared light and 162 mW (81 mW x 2) for visible light. From the above results, a bidirectional transcutaneous optical data transmission system promises adequate performance for monitoring and control of an artificial heart.

  18. PLANETSYS, a Computer Program for the Steady State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Planetary Power Transmission System: User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Kleckner, R. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Dyba, G. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1981-01-01

    The material presented is structured to guide the user in the practical and correct implementation of PLANETSYS which is capable of simulating the thermomechanical performance of a multistage planetary power transmission. In this version of PLANETSYS, the user can select either SKF or NASA models in calculating lubricant film thickness and traction forces.

  19. Development of a leak location system for use on underground electric power transmission cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. A.

    1982-10-01

    This report describes a study to evaluate methods for locating leaks of dielectric fluid from buried high voltage cable systems. Two primary types of leak location systems were investigated: (1) systems that will rapidly isolate the leak within a manhole section, typically 1000 m long on a feeder that might be 30 km long; and (2) systems that will then pinpoint the location of the leak. Rapid leak isolation was accomplished by developing an enhanced conductivity oil probe which allows the injection of a small quantity of conductive oil and which indicates the path of the oil as it drifts downstream in the direction of the leak. Two methods for pinpointing the leak were proven. The more successful method was the use of trained leak location dogs which were found to have far better sensitivity than instruments and which could detect cable oil alone without the need for additives. A tracer gas injection and detection scheme was developed for use in areas where the dogs may be unsuitable.

  20. Workshop on Microwave Power Transmission and Reception. Workshop Paper Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Microwave systems performance and phase control are discussed. Component design and reliability are highlighted. The power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectennas, and solid state configurations are described. The proper sizing of microwave transmission systems is also discussed.

  1. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  2. Datacast: The transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. P.

    1988-03-01

    The BBC Datacast service allows one-way transmission of general data services for public service data broadcasting or for commercial purposes using the existing teletext system as the carrier. Such uses were anticipated when the 1976 UK teletext specification was written, so Datacast can co-exist with the normal teletext service (Ceefax) without problems. This Report provides a detailed specification of the Datacast transmission standard.

  3. Wireless power transmission for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Josh; Song, Kyo D.; Yang, Sang Y.; Kim, Jaehwan; Park, Yeonjoon; Choi, Sang H.

    2009-03-01

    We studied the wireless power transmission capabilities of microwave through human skin-tissue. Microwave transmission through simulated human skins was tested with rectenna array as a power receiver located under the simulated human skin tissue. Most of transplanted medical devices and sensors require power to operate autonomously but currently by imbedded battery. Wireless power transmission alleviates the needs of imbedded power source and hard-wire power network. We used human skin-like materials, such as various polyurethanes and pork skin, under X-band microwave exposure. Transmission rate through various polyurethanes under the threshold limit value (TLV) and dielectric constant was measured in this experiment. It is also critical to measure specific absorption rates (SAR) of polyurethanes and transmission rates through polyurethanes as well as pork skin. This paper presents power transmission rates under varying thickness of polyurethanes, and effectiveness and efficiency of rectennas under the TLV of microwave power. In addition, we will discuss milimeter wave thermograph and hazards the absorption characteristics of human skin under 8-13 GHz using the results of polyurethanes and pork skin.

  4. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  5. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Fox, Joe [Spanish Fork, UT

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  6. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Fikes, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP). combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the moon. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term. we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth. Power Relay Satellites are also considered as a potential near- to mid-term means to transmit power from Earth to Space and back to distant receiving sites on Earth. This paper briefly considers microwave and laser beaming for an initial Power Relay Satellite system, and concludes that anticipated advancements in laser technology make laser-based concepts more attractive than microwave-based concepts. Social and economic considerations are briefly discussed, and a conceptual description for a laser-based system is offered for illustrative purposes. Continuing technological advances are needed if laser-based systems are to become practical and efficient or near- and far-term applications.

  7. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Fikes, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP). combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the moon. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term. we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth. Power Relay Satellites are also considered as a potential near- to mid-term means to transmit power from Earth to Space and back to distant receiving sites on Earth. This paper briefly considers microwave and laser beaming for an initial Power Relay Satellite system, and concludes that anticipated advancements in laser technology make laser-based concepts more attractive than microwave-based concepts. Social and economic considerations are briefly discussed, and a conceptual description for a laser-based system is offered for illustrative purposes. Continuing technological advances are needed if laser-based systems are to become practical and efficient or near- and far-term applications.

  8. Laser power transmission concepts for Martian applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Conway, E. J.; Meador, W. E.; Humes, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Long-term, highly reliable, flexible power will be required to support many diverse activities on Mars and for rapid development of the Mars environment. The potential of laser power transmission for supporting science, materials processing, transportation, and human habitats is discussed. Some advantageous locations for laser power stations in Mars orbit are developed.

  9. Design and simulation of printed spiral coil used in wireless power transmission systems for implant medical devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Fang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Printed Spiral Coil (PSC) is a coil antenna for near-field wireless power transmission to the next generation implant medical devices. PSC for implant medical device should be power efficient and low electromagnetic radiation to human tissues. We utilized a physical model of printed spiral coil and applied our algorithm to design PSC operating at 13.56 MHz. Numerical and electromagnetic simulation of power transfer efficiency of PSC in air medium is 77.5% and 71.1%, respectively. The simulation results show that the printed spiral coil which is optimized for air will keep 15.2% power transfer efficiency in human subcutaneous tissues. In addition, the Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR) for this coil antenna in subcutaneous at 13.56 MHz is below 1.6 W/Kg, which suggests this coil is implantable safe based on IEEE C95.1 safety guideline.

  10. Transmission Of Power Via Combined Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    Laser Diode Array (LDA) appears to be most efficient means of transferring power from Earth to satellites and between satellites, in terms of mass and size, of various laser configurations. To form large-scale-array amplifier (LSAA), element LDA's must generate well-defined diffraction-limited beams. Coherent matching of phases among LDA's enables system to generate good beam pattern in far field over thousands of kilometers. By passing beam from master laser through number of LDA amplifiers simultaneously, one realizes coherence among amplified output beams. LSAA used for transmission of power with efficiency of approximately 80 percent into receiver of moderate size at 5,000 km. Also transmits data at high rates by line-of-sight rather than fiber optics.

  11. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Davis, Dean; Born, Andrew; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near-term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 15 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  12. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  13. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  14. ULTRA HIGH POWER TRANSMISSION LINE TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ultra-high power transmission line techniques including both failure mechanisms and component design are discussed. Failures resulting from...a waveguide. In view of the many advantages of the low loss mode in circular waveguide for ultra-high power levels, a mode transducer and a two...percent of the peak power of a standard rectangular wave guide. Water cooling is provided for high average power operation. Analysis of mode sup pression

  15. Design and Analysis of a UHF Transmission Line Coupler for Telemetry and Power Harvesting in a Passive Sensor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLisle, Jean-Jacques

    The intra-coaxial transmission line coupler TXC is a four port device designed to harvest power from a host coaxial transmission line and to provide telemetry for remote sensing applications via the same host transmission line. Seven different TXC structures were designed and fabricated to study the effects of varying specific geometric features on the electrical characteristics of the TXC. Each TXC structure was tested using a RF vector network analyzer and analyzed using a commercially available finite-element numerical simulator. Two main observations resulted from the study: 1) the resonant frequency depends mainly on the value of the tuning capacitor and the loop inductance of the TXC, and 2) the electrical characteristics are relatively insensitive to variations in all geometric features except the TXC loop surface area and, to a lesser extent, the separation distance between the coax center conductor and the TXC loop. It was found that the output impedance, Q-factor, voltage transfer characteristic, and power transfer characteristic computed from simulations were systematically greater than those computed from experiment. It was shown that by using experimental results to "fit" the simulations, a much better agreement could be obtained between experimental and simulation results.

  16. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  17. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper two basic WPT options, using radio waves and light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  18. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2007-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this presentation, two basic WPT options, using radio waves an d light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in nearterm space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  19. Power transmission and reception. An overview and perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Systems definition and assessment of the microwave power transmission and reception (PTAR) system for the solar power satellite are surveyed. Five different options are discussed and the separate antenna concept using the linear beam klystron to convert from dc to RF energy is described in detail.

  20. Power transmission and reception. An overview and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-07-01

    Systems definition and assessment of the microwave power transmission and reception (PTAR) system for the solar power satellite are surveyed. Five different options are discussed and the separate antenna concept using the linear beam klystron to convert from dc to RF energy is described in detail.

  1. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  2. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  3. [A cross-sectional study about the effects of residential exposure to power transmission line on human nervous system symptoms and hematology].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Feng, Jia-wu; Peng, Xiao-wu; Mei, Yong; Shi, Yu-qing; Jiang, Gao-feng; Ye, Fang-li; Song, Shi-zhen

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the possible effects on nervous system and health condition under the exposure to electromagnetic field. Take the resident around the power transmission line as the objects and were divided into 3 groups by the distance from the power transmission line 20 m, 100 m and 500 m, respectively. Some living conditions and health conditions were recorded by face-to-face the questionnaire survey, and Hematological indices of each groups were examined including IgG, IgM, leukocyte formulae, erythrocyte, hemoglobin and platelet. There was no significant difference in each group, according exposure of daily life, such as drinking and smoking (P > 0.05). Compared with the each distance groups, it was presented significant difference between the distance from the power transmission line and the incidence of headache or dizziness, insomnia and easy weary and so on (P < 0.05). In hematology aspect, with the horizontal distance from the power transmission line decreasing, PLT level of residents was reductive and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001), whereas leukocyte formulae, erythrocyte, hemoglobin, IgG and IgM had no significant difference among each group (P < 0.05). Closely exposure to electromagnetic field may induce headache and so on and decrease the level of PLT.

  4. Earth to space dc to dc power transmission system utilizing a microwave beam as source of energy for electric propelled interorbital vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper contributes to the credibility of an electric propelled interorbital transportation system by introducing a new low-mass source of continuous dc power for electric propulsion and illustrating how the source can be economically tied to an electric utility on earth by an electronically steered microwave beam. The new thin-film rectenna, which functions as the receiving end of an earth-to-space microwave power transmission system is described. It is easily fabricated, is over 80 percent efficient, has a specific mass of no more than 2 kilograms per kilowatt of continuous dc power output, and is well adapted for deployment in space. The paper then describes a complete system consisting of the interorbital vehicle and the microwave power transmission system that supplies it with power. A design scenario is used to obtain performance data from the system in terms of vehicle transfer times, payload fractions, and costs. Electric energy costs are found to be less than $1000 per kilogram of payload delivered to geosynchronous orbit from low-earth orbit.

  5. Pulse transmission transceiver architecture for low power communications

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-05

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A method of pulse transmission communications includes: generating a modulated pulse signal waveform; transforming said modulated pulse signal waveform into at least one higher-order derivative waveform; and transmitting said at least one higher-order derivative waveform as an emitted pulse. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  6. A general design of magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transmission circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wenxu; Chen, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    As a new kind of power transmission way, wireless power transmission technology has great advantages compared with traditional power transmission way.This paper introduces the basic structure and working principle of magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transmission. Based on this, main circuit design and analysis of the transmission system is given. What’s more, about the future research work is its functional operation accomplishment.

  7. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  8. Resonant ultrasonic wireless power transmission for bio-implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Youm, Woosub; Hwang, Gunn; Moon, Kee S.; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present the ultrasonic wireless power transmission system as part of a brain-machine interface (BMI) system in development to supply the required electric power. Making a small-size implantable BMI, it is essential to design a low power unit with a rechargeable battery. The ultrasonic power transmission system has two piezoelectric transducers, facing each other between skin tissues converting electrical energy to mechanical vibrational energy or vice versa. Ultrasound is free from the electromagnetic coupling effect and medical frequency band limitations which making it a promising candidate for implantable purposes. In this paper, we present the design of piezoelectric composite transducer, the rectifier circuit, and rechargeable battery that all packaged in biocompatible titanium can. An initial prototype device was built for demonstration purpose. The early experimental results demonstrate the prototype device can reach 50% of energy transmission efficiency in a water medium at 20mm distance and 18% in animal skin tissue at 18mm distance, respectively.

  9. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  10. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  11. Beamed microwave power transmission and its application to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William C.; Eves, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    The general principles and special components of beamed microwave power transmission systems are outlined and their application to the space program are discussed. The beamed system is defined as starting with a dc source of power at the transmitting end, converting it to a microwave beam for transmission through space, and ending with the dc power output at the receiving end. An experimentally measured and certified dc-to-dc efficiency of 54 percent has been achieved, using this definition. The application discussed is that of a LEO to GEO transportation system that depends upon vehicles propelled by electric thrusters whose power is supplied by a microwave beam originating at the earth's surface. The advantages of the all-electronic system over a chemically propelled system are enumerated. The principles of space propulsion, particularly as they relate to electric propulsion, are outlined. Key components of the system and environmental considerations are discussed.

  12. How financial transmission rights curb market power

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all, of the congestion rents. This extends work in this area by Shmuel Oren which was limited to the case in which generators could not purchase financial transmission rights. One form of financial rights, Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs), is shown to be so effective in reducing market power that as few as two generators facing a demand curve with zero elasticity may be forced to sell at marginal cost. The extent to which market power is limited depends on the extent to which total generation capacity exceeds export capacity and on the size of individual generators. A relationship is derived that determines when TCCs will eliminate market power. In the case of a three line network, it is shown that the reduction in market power that can be accomplished with {open_quotes}active transmission rights{close_quotes} can also be accomplished with simple contracts for differences.

  13. Free-space microwave-power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory-scale wireless transmission of microwave power approaches fifty-four percent efficiency. DC is converted to a 2.45-GHz signal and is transmitted through horn antenna array; microwave signal is received at rectenna and is simultaneously collected and rectified back to dc at receiving sites; dc is then processed for wired distribution.

  14. Four speed ratio automatic power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Daggett, W.E.; Zaracki, S.J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a multiple speed power transmission. It comprises: a power input shaft, a power output shaft and an intermediate shaft located between the input shaft and the output shaft, each shaft being coaxially aligned; first, second and third planetary gear units, each unit having a ring gear, a sun gear, a carrier and planet pinions mounted on the carrier in neshing engagement with the sun gear and ring gear; overdrive brake means; coast clutch means; direct clutch means; band brake means; intermediate brake means; a first overrunning brake; and a second overrunning clutch.

  15. Optical data transmission systems in radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, Branko

    1989-05-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optical data transmission includes a wide variety of particle accelerator, detector and nuclear power facility applications in which transmission systems are required to withstand exposure to the radiation background. Fiber optic links provide several major advantages over conventional electronic data transmission systems. These include immunity to electromagnetic interference and low transmission losses for very high data rates. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in radiation environment is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides, photodiodes and associated electronics components and subassemblies.

  16. Time and frequency transfer by the Master-Slave Returnable Timing System technique - Application to solar power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the Master Slave Returnable Timing System (MSRTS) is presented which combines the advantages of the master slave (MS) and the Returnable Timing System (RTS) for time and frequency transfer. The basic idea of MSRTS is to send the time-frequency signal received at a particular node back to the sending node. The delay accumulated by this return signal is used to advance the phase of the master (sending) node thereby canceling the effect of the delay introduced by the path. The method can be used in highly accurate clock distribution systems required in avionics, computer communications, and large retrodirective phased arrays such as the Solar Power Satellite.

  17. Watt-level wireless power transmission to multiple compact receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraud, A.; Munzer, D. J.; Althar, M.; Garraud, N.; Arnold, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports an electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) system using a low-frequency (300 Hz) magnetic field to transmit watt-scale power levels to multiple compact receivers. As compared to inductively or resonantly coupled coils, EWPT facilitates transmission to multiple non-interacting receivers with little restriction on their orientation. A single 3.0 cm3 receiver achieves 1.25 W power transmission with 8% efficiency at a distance of 1 cm (350 mW/cm3 power density) from the transmitter. The same prototype achieves 9 mW at a distance of 9 cm. Moreover, we demonstrate simultaneous recharge of two wearable devices, using two receivers located in arbitrary positions and orientations.

  18. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  19. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  20. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  1. Integrated power system

    SciTech Connect

    Waddington, C.

    1987-10-13

    An integrated power system is described for transmitting power from a gas turbine engine, including a gas producer and a free turbine engine, to the driving elements of a vehicle comprising: a pair of independent output shafts; a pair of combining planetary gear systems, each being drivingly coupled to an associated one of the output shafts; a variable speed transmission drivingly coupled to the free power turbine; drive means operatively connecting the transmission and each of the combining planetary gear systems; steering means operatively coupled to each of the combining planetary gear systems for selectively driving at least one of the combining planetary gear systems; the steering means including a variable displacement hydraulic motor in driving engagement with the planetary gear systems and an hydraulic pump in driving engagement with the transmission for supplying fluid under pressure to the hydraulic motor to thereby effect steering of the vehicle; a fuel control for controlling the power output of the gas turbine engine; and an adjustable relief valve operatively interposed between the hydraulic motor and the hydraulic pump, the valve being responsive to the fuel control to establish a maximum fluid pressure imparted by the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic motor.

  2. 78 FR 39280 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15685] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power... hydroelectric generating facilities for the Corps and Southwestern's transmission system. The Revised Power... and non-Federal power and associated energy from the transmission system of Southwestern. \\2...

  3. Geomagnetic storm of 29-31 October 2003: Geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Lindahl, Sture; Viljanen, Ari; Pirjola, Risto

    2005-08-01

    On 30 October 2003, an ongoing geomagnetic superstorm knocked down a part of the high-voltage power transmission system in southern Sweden. The blackout lasted for an hour and left about 50,000 customers without electricity. The incident was probably the most severe geomagnetically induced current (GIC) failure observed since the well-known March 1989 Québec blackout. The "three-phase" storm produced exceptionally large geomagnetic activity at the Fennoscandian auroral region. Although the diversity of the GIC drivers is addressed in the study, the problems in operating the Swedish system during the storm are attributed geophysically to substorms, storm sudden commencement, and enhanced ionospheric convection, all of which created large and complex geoelectric fields capable of driving large GIC. On the basis of the basic twofold nature of the failure-related geoelectric field characteristics, a semideterministic approach for forecasting GIC-related geomagnetic activity in which average overall activity is supplemented with statistical estimations of the amplitudes of GIC fluctuations is suggested. The study revealed that the primary mode of GIC-related failures in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system were via harmonic distortions produced by GIC combined with too sensitive operation of the protective relays. The outage in Malmö on 30 October 2003 was caused by a combination of an abnormal switching state of the system and tripping of a low-set residual overcurrent relay that had a high sensitivity for the third harmonic of the fundamental frequency.

  4. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  5. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  6. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  7. Diode laser power module for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.; Conway, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress with powerful, efficient, and coherent monolithic diode master-oscillator/power-amplifier (M-MOPA) systems is promising for the development of a space-based diode laser power station. A conceptual design of a 50-kW diode laser power module was made for space-based power stations capable of beaming coherent power to the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites. The laser diode power module consists of a solar photovoltaic array or nuclear power source, diode laser arrays (LDAs), a phase controller, beam-steering optics, a thermal management unit, and a radiator. Thermal load management and other relevant aspects of the system (such as power requirements and system mass) are considered. The 50-kW power module described includes the highest available efficiency of LD M-MOPA system to date. However, the overall efficiency of three amplifier stages, including the coupling efficiency, turns out to be 55.5 percent. Though a chain of PA stages generates a high-power coherent beam, there is a penalty due to the coupling loss between stages. The specific power of the 50-kW module using solar power is 6.58 W/kg.

  8. Diode laser power module for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.; Conway, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress with powerful, efficient, and coherent monolithic diode master-oscillator/power-amplifier (M-MOPA) systems is promising for the development of a space-based diode laser power station. A conceptual design of a 50-kW diode laser power module was made for space-based power stations capable of beaming coherent power to the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites. The laser diode power module consists of a solar photovoltaic array or nuclear power source, diode laser arrays (LDAs), a phase controller, beam-steering optics, a thermal management unit, and a radiator. Thermal load management and other relevant aspects of the system (such as power requirements and system mass) are considered. The 50-kW power module described includes the highest available efficiency of LD M-MOPA system to date. However, the overall efficiency of three amplifier stages, including the coupling efficiency, turns out to be 55.5 percent. Though a chain of PA stages generates a high-power coherent beam, there is a penalty due to the coupling loss between stages. The specific power of the 50-kW module using solar power is 6.58 W/kg.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section....307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all... keyways shall be filled up or covered. (5) Power-transmission apparatus located in basements. All...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section....307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all... keyways shall be filled up or covered. (5) Power-transmission apparatus located in basements. All...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all types and... apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all types and... apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers...

  13. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  14. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  15. Power delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a power delivery system for connecting a transmission to an output shaft of an engine, the transmission including a dog clutch for establishing a power transmission route by the engagement of the dog clutch, the power delivery system comprising; a clutch for disconnecting the engagement between an output member of the fluid coupling and the output shaft when the dog clutch is operated in order to switch between an on-state and an off-state. The clutch includes a clutch plate case in the form of a hollow cylinder which is connected to the turbine shell. A clutch disk wheel connected to the output shaft. A first set of clutch plates supports the clutch plate case, and a second set of clutch plates supports the clutch disk wheel. The first and second sets of clutch plates are positioned within the case adjacent the radially inward periphery of the fluid coupling; the clutch is engaged when the first and second sets of clutch plates are selectively pressed; an oil pump for supplying oil into the fluid coupling case; and the oil pump positioned within the case adjacent the radially inward periphery of the clutch.

  16. Computation of electric power production cost with transmission contraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Robert Leonard

    The production cost in operating an electric power system is the cost of generation to meet the customer load or demand. Production costing models are used in analysis of electric power systems to estimate this cost for various purposes such as evaluating long term investments in generating capacity, contracts for sales, purchases, or trades of power. A multi-area production costing model includes the effects of transmission constraints in calculating costs. Including transmission constraints in production costing models is important because the electric power industry is interconnected and trades or sales of power amongst systems can lower costs. This thesis develops an analytical model for multi-area production costing. The advantage of this approach is that it explicitly examines the underlying structure of the problem. The major contributions of our research are as follows. First, we develop the multivariate model not just for transportation type models of electric power network flows, but also for the direct current power flow model. Second, this thesis derives the multi-area production cost curve in the general case. This new result gives a simple formula for determination of system cost and the gradient of cost with respect to transmission capacities. Third, we give an algorithm for generating the non-redundant constraints from a Gale-Hoffman type region. The Gale-Hoffman conditions characterize feasibility of flow in a network. We also gather together some existing and new results on Gale-Hoffman regions and put them in a unified framework. Fourth, in order to derive the multi-area production cost curves and also to perform the integration of the multivariate Edgeworth series, we need wedge shaped regions (a wedge is the affine image of an orthant). We give an algorithm for decomposing any polyhedral set into wedges. Fifth, this thesis gives a new method for one dimensional numerical integration of the trivariate normal. The best methods previously known

  17. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  18. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  19. Methods and systems for micro transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-12-23

    Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

  20. 47 CFR 74.750 - Transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission system facilities. 74.750 Section... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.750 Transmission system facilities. (a) A low power TV, TV...) Transmitting antennas, antennas used to receive the signals to be rebroadcast, and transmission lines are...

  1. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... transmission system facilities. (a) The following changes are prohibited: (1) Those that would result in...

  2. 47 CFR 74.750 - Transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission system facilities. 74.750 Section... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.750 Transmission system facilities. (a) A low power TV, TV...) Transmitting antennas, antennas used to receive the signals to be rebroadcast, and transmission lines are...

  3. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... transmission system facilities. (a) The following changes are prohibited: (1) Those that would result in...

  4. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... transmission system facilities. (a) The following changes are prohibited: (1) Those that would result in...

  5. 77 FR 61592 - American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel Energy Services Inc,. Northern States Power Company, a Wisconsin Corporation, Northern States Power Company, a Minnesota Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 1,...

  6. Near field effects of millimeter-wave power transmission for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.; Lee, Kunik; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-04-01

    An integration of micro devices system and wireless power transmission (WPT) technology offers a great potential to revolutionize current health care devices. The system integration of wireless power transmission devices with smart microsensors is crucial for replacing a power storage devices and miniaturizing wireless biomedical systems. Our research goal is to replace battery power supply with an implantable millimeter-wave rectenna. Recently, a hat system with a small millimeter-wave antenna which can feed millimeter-wave power to thin-film rectenna array embedding Schottky diodes was introduced for neural sensing and stimulation applications. In order to prove the design concept and investigate wireless power coupling efficiency under the system design, near-field wireless power transmission was studied in terms of wave frequency and distance. Also, in this paper, we will present the influence of biological objects to the wireless power transmission, simulating the experimental conditions of human objects for future medical applications.

  7. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, H.; Dowis, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    The original study of transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC), which was completed in September 1975, was updated in June 1978. The present 1983 revision takes cognizance of recent changes in the electric power situation of the PNW with respect to: (1) forecasts of load growth, (2) the feasibility of early use of 1100 kV transmission, and (3) the narrowing opportunities for siting nuclear plants in the region. The purpose of this update is to explore and describe additions to the existing transmission system that would be necessary to accommodate three levels of generation at HNEC. Comparisons with a PNW system having new thermal generating capacity distributed throughout the marketing region are not made as was done in earlier versions.

  8. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  9. Electronic and mechanical improvement of the receiving terminal of a free-space microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advancements were made in a number of areas: improved efficiency of basic receiving element at low power density levels, improved resolution and confidence in efficiency measurements mathematical modelling and computer simulation of the receiving element and the design, construction, and testing of an environmentally protected two-plane construction suitable for low cost, highly automated construction of large receiving arrays.

  10. Reorganization of the electric transmission system in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sbertoli, L.V. )

    1994-06-01

    The Argentine electric system was developed from isolated local services, and, as the years went by, it became a well-integrated grid. Except for some services in the southernmost region, the national interconnected system supplies electric power to final users throughout the country. The paper discusses: Argentine interconnected system; private companies and public service; electric power sector transformation; transmission network privatization; transmission rates; concession (license) contract; extensions and other transmission concessions.

  11. Power Flow Controller for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller for Wind and Solar Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow controller to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its controller will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s controller is better suited to control power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and solar power systems than traditional transformer-based controllers are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow controller can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.

  12. 47 CFR 74.750 - Transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.750 Transmission system facilities. (a) A low power TV, TV... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission system facilities. 74.750...

  13. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  14. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  15. Novel binary PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission expansion planning considering power losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuty; Haryono, T.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the issue that have to be faced caused by addition of large scale power generation into the existing power system. Optimization need to be conducted to get optimal solution technically and economically. Several mathematic methods have been applied to provide optimal allocation of new transmission line such us genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and tabu search. This paper proposed novel binary particle swarm optimization (NBPSO) to determine which transmission line should be added to the existing power system. There are two scenerios in this simulation. First, considering transmission power losses and the second is regardless transmission power losses. NBPSO method successfully obtain optimal solution in short computation time. Compare to the first scenario, the number of new line in second scenario which regardless power losses is less but produces high power losses that cause the cost becoming extremely expensive.

  16. An asymmetric resonant coupling wireless power transmission link for Micro-Ball Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the design and optimization of a wireless power transmission link targeting Micro-Ball Endoscopy applications. A novel asymmetric resonant coupling structure is proposed to deliver power to an endoscopic Micro-Ball system for image read-out after it is excreted. Such a technology enables many key medical applications with stringent requirements for small system volume and high power delivery efficiency. A prototyping power transmission sub-system of the Micro-Ball system was implemented. It consists of primary coil, middle resonant coil, and cube-like full-direction secondary receiving coils. Our experimental results proved that 200mW of power can be successfully delivered. Such a wireless power transmission capability could satisfy the requirements of the Micro-Ball based endoscopy application. The transmission efficiency is in the range of 41% (worst working condition) to 53% (best working condition). Comparing to conventional structures, Asymmetric Resonant Coupling Structure improves power efficiency by 13%.

  17. Simple-1: Development stage of the data transmission system for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarce, Andrés; Sebastián Rodríguez, Juan; Galvez, Julián; Gómez, Alejandro; García, Manuel J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the development stage of a communication module for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model. The communication module was named. Simple-1 and this work considers its design, construction and testing. A rocket model Estes Ventris Series Pro II® was modified to introduce, on the top of the payload, several sensors in a CanSat form factor. The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was designed and fabricated from Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components and assembled in a cylindrical rack structure similar to this small format satellite concept. The sensors data was processed using one Arduino Mini and transmitted using a radio module to a Software Defined Radio (SDR) HackRF based platform on the ground station. The Simple-1 was tested using a drone in successive releases, reaching altitudes from 200 to 300 meters. Different kind of data, in terms of altitude, position, atmospheric pressure and vehicle temperature were successfully measured, making possible the progress to a next stage of launching and analysis.

  18. Downhole Data Transmission System

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe

    2003-12-30

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  19. Downhole Data Transmission System

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe

    2004-04-06

    A system for transmitting data through a string of down-hole components. In accordance with one aspect, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each downhole component includes a pin end and a box end, with the pin end of one downhole component being adapted to be connected to the box end of another. Each pin end includes external threads and an internal pin face distal to the external threads. Each box end includes an internal shoulder face with internal threads distal to the internal shoulder face. The internal pin face and the internal shoulder face are aligned with and proximate each other when the pin end of the one component is threaded into a box end of the other component.

  20. Downhole data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe

    2006-06-20

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  1. HIGH FREQUENCY POWER TRANSMISSION LINE FOR CYCLOTRONS AND THE LIKE

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, W.J.

    1954-04-20

    High-frequency power transmission systems, particularly a stacked capacitance alternating power current transmission line wherein maximum utilization of the effective conductios skin of the line conductors is achieved while enabling a low impedance to be obtained are reported. The transmission line consists of a number of flat metal strips with interleaved dielectric strips. The metal dielectric strips are coiled spirally with the axis of the spiral extending along the length of the strips, and the alternating metal strips at the output end have outwardly extending aligned lugs which are directly strapped together and connected to the respective terminals on the load. At the input end of the transmission line, similarly, the alternate metal strips are directly strapped together and connected to an altereating current source. With the arrangement described each metal strip conducts on both sides, so that the metal strips are designed to have a thickness corresponding to twice the depth of the "skin effect" conducting lamina of each conductor at the source frequency.

  2. Photon machines. [thermal gasdynamic lasers for power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Christiansen, W. H.; Johnston, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The basic thermodynamics of thermal lasers of the gas-dynamic type are reviewed, and it is shown that an efficient coherent photon generator can be developed on a closed-cycle principle. The efficiency limits of such a device are explored, and the results of the analysis indicate that the production efficiency of coherent radiation from heat can, in the limit of high component efficiency, be equal to that of the production of work. An indispensable element of any power transmission system also involves an engine capable of transforming the transmitted energy into useful shaft power. It is shown that a closed-cycle system may also be developed in principle which can transform the transmitted laser radiation into shaft power with an efficiency approaching one.

  3. Infrared Applications In Transmission System Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Guy; Fernandez, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Five California Utilities participated in an electric power transmission and distribution system survey in the late fall of 1987. The survey consisted of visual and Infrared (IR) inspection of 12.5-kV to 230-kV AC transmission lines and equipment. This paper summarizes the results of the survey, including a cost/benefit analysis. The participating utilities, under Western Area Power Administration's sponsorship, were the City of Lodi, City of Roseville, Plumas-Sierra Rural Electric Cooperative, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and Sierra Pacific Power Company. Three hundred miles of line and thirty substations were inspected using a helicopter and a high resolution infrared camera with visual recording capabilities. The transmission and distribution system covered a broad range of terrain; valleys, foothills, and mountains. All five utilities recognized the value of the IR inspection. The procedure gave the maintenance staff advanced notice of problem areas such as (1) loose connections on switches, (2) unbalanced lines, (3) poor splices, and (4) capacitor and transformer bank malfunction. In addition, the staff saw its potential in environmental and safety applications. The initial data shows an increased capacity carrying and reliability providing capability of about 50 KW per 100 transmission line miles. This capability increase results in a B/C ratio of about three. Other applications in transmission system surveys are worthy of study. These applications include power theft and vandalism. Also, the Utility can use technology as an effective public relations tool with customers by providing services such as roof and building envelope inspections.

  4. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  5. The unified power flow controller: A new approach to power transmission control

    SciTech Connect

    Gyugyi, L.; Schauder, C.D.; Williams, S.L.; Rietman, T.R.; Torgerson, D.R.; Edris, A.

    1995-04-01

    This paper shows that the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is able to control both the transmitted real power and, independently, the reactive power flows at the sending-and the receiving-end of the transmission line. The unique capabilities of the UPFC in multiple line compensation are integrated into a generalized power flow controller that is able to maintain prescribed, and independently controllable, real power and reactive power flow in the line. The paper describes the basic concepts of the proposed generalized P and Q controller and compares it to the more conventional, but related power flow controller, such as the Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor and Thyristor-Controlled Phase Angle Regulator. The paper also presents results of computer simulations showing the performance of the UPFC under different system conditions.

  6. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of...

  7. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of...

  8. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of...

  9. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  10. European Transmission Interconnection; Eurasian power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Systems and philosophies perceived on a grand scale, encompassing new ideas, are often characterized as a dream. But in fact, such dreams often lead to the first step to fruitful development. This article is based on a preliminary study of the existing electrical high-tension networks of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - which, as explained herein, may be merged into a multinational energy supply system. Such a system would constitute a completely interconnected Eurasian Power Grid. The idea of a Eurasian super grid, spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural and Siberia, is not new. Various studies have been conducted by both western Europe and the Soviet Union on this topic. Our world is currently in an era of extra high voltage (EHV) and ultra high voltage (UHV) electrical systems. This translates into existing UHV lines of 1150 kV which have already been proven in successful operation. Such UHV systems are capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts over a distance of a 1000 miles. Furthermore, national boundaries are not more a hindrance than the challenge of interconnecting complete networks into an overall synchronized working system with load exchange capabilities in all directions.

  11. Ecological benefits of dc power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kutuzova, N. B.

    2011-05-15

    The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

  12. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  13. A Improved Transmission System Harmonic Modeling Technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Muhammad Fayyaz

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive approach to the modeling of electric power transmission systems at harmonic frequencies is presented. For harmonic analysis it is not practically possible to model a large transmission system with its neighboring interconnected systems in detail due to computer time and memory limitations. A large number of components of a large system also makes switching studies a recognized problem with respect to the desired accuracy, and required engineering and computer time. Current methods depend on the trial and error approach or the individual analyst's knowledge of the system, which are imprecise and expensive to develop at harmonic frequencies. The approach to solve this problem involves the development of a formal method for dividing large-scale transmission systems into a main study system and a group of external systems. Then, using an efficient and appropriate method of adjoint network sensitivity analysis, the size of the system model is reduced, keeping the same frequency characteristics as that of the original system. This reduction in model size in turn accommodates larger transmission system size and increases the accuracy and computational efficiency. An efficient and accurate method is also presented that determines the relative importance of external system equivalents on the harmonic impedance of a transmission network. The bilinear theorem provides an economical method of determining the appropriate locations for simplification of external systems. Using this technique, the system model error bounds can be fixed and the high error range of the external system equivalent impedance can be reduced. For filter designs, the most important issue of computing harmonic impedance boundaries is improved by using an efficient adjoint network sensitivity analysis. Using this sensitivity analysis an order of critical components is developed. The number of outage contingencies to be analyzed is reduced by a large factor which

  14. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  15. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  17. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  18. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  19. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.; Dabkowski, J.; Hauth, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

  20. 47 CFR 73.845 - Transmission system operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73.845 Section 73.845 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.845 Transmission system operation. Each...

  1. 47 CFR 73.845 - Transmission system operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73.845 Section 73.845 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.845 Transmission system operation. Each...

  2. 47 CFR 74.750 - Transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... apparatus incorporating modulating equipment need not make equipment performance measurements and shall so... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission system facilities. 74.750 Section... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.750 Transmission system facilities. (a) A low power TV, TV...

  3. 47 CFR 73.845 - Transmission system operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73.845 Section 73.845 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.845 Transmission system operation. Each...

  4. 47 CFR 73.845 - Transmission system operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73.845 Section 73.845 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.845 Transmission system operation. Each...

  5. 47 CFR 73.845 - Transmission system operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73.845 Section 73.845 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.845 Transmission system operation. Each...

  6. 47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.751 Modification of transmission systems. (a) No change,...

  7. Demonstration of microwave power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K.; Patton, A. D.; Kennedy, M. O.; Little, F. E.; Pollock, M. A.; Hummer, K. A.; Mccleary, J. C.; Wei, B. S.; Brown, A. M.; Mcspadden, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    Three experiments are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of converting dc power into microwave or millimeter-wave beam and transmitting it to users through free space. The generator could be located on earth or on a utility power satellite. The received power would be converted back into dc or ac power. The success of the experiments could lead to the commercial use of this technology.

  8. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka's NPP candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liun, Edwaren; Suparman

    2014-09-01

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.

  9. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-05-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  10. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  11. Soldier System Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    capability 21 Photovoltaic Power Sources 23 Maximum Power Tracking in Solar Arrays 23 Optimum Configuration of Solar Array for Enhanced Power Generation...Sources", IEEE Transactions on Power Elec- tronics, vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 244-253, Jan. 2005. 9. S. Liu, R. Dougal, E. Solodovnik, "Maximum Power Tracking and...eguate FRetulat Fig. 5.5. Flow chart of control algorithm. 22 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCES MAXIMUM POWER

  12. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  13. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-09-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  14. Evaluation of a microwave high-power reception-conversion array for wireless power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Initial performance tests of a 24-sq m area array of rectenna elements are presented. The array is used as the receiving portion of a wireless microwave power transmission engineering verification test system. The transmitting antenna was located at a range of 1.54 km. Output dc voltage and power, input RF power, efficiency, and operating temperatures were obtained for a variety of dc load and RF incident power levels at 2388 MHz. Incident peak RF intensities of up to 170 mW/sq cm yielded up to 30.4 kW of dc output power. The highest derived collection-conversion efficiency of the array was greater than 80 percent.

  15. [Study on a wireless energy transmission system for the noninvasive examination micro system inside alimentary tracts].

    PubMed

    He, Xiu; Yan, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Fu-Min

    2008-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system for the MEMS system inside alimentary tracts is reported here in the paper. It consists of an automatic frequency tracking circuit of phase lock loop and phase shift PWM control circuit. Experimental results show that the energy transmission system is capable of automatic frequency-tracking and transmission power-adjusting and has stable received energy.

  16. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  17. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 2, part 3: Final briefing, 16 May 1980, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives to the microwave transmission system previously defined Solar Power Satellite Systems were investigated. These were the laser power transmission, transportation systems, and an analysis or solid state power transmission. The advantages of each system are presented.

  18. Status of the microwave power transmission components for the solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the 1970-1980 time period a substantial advance has been made in developing all portions of a microwave power transmission system for the solar power satellite (SPS). The most recent advances pertain to the transmitting portion of the system in the satellite and are based upon experimental observations of the use of the magnetron combined with a passive directional device to convert it into a highly efficient directional amplifier with excellent low-noise properties and potentially very long life. The ability of its microwave output to track a phase reference makes it possible to combine it with many other radiating units to provide a highly coherent microwave beam. The ability of its output to track an amplitude reference while operating from a dc power source with varying voltage makes it possible to eliminate most of the power conditioning equipment that would otherwise be necessary.

  19. Evaluation of underground dc transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    Progress in a program for evaluating underground dc transmission systems is reported. A basic load flow model was developed for a large ac power system. This model will be adjusted to produce representations for 4000, 8000, and 12,000 MW energy park. Load flow conditions for dc lines are being calculated. The stability of ac and dc are being examined. Short circuit duties are being calculated. Load flow computer runs are being made to demonstrate the suitability of developed ac and dc options.

  20. Development of laser transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiawu; Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Jiandong; Zhang, Xinming

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses a light transfer system of therapeutic machine using carbon-dioxide laser. This system is based on imitating human being arm motion principle, consists of optical cardans mainly and can move in three-D space freely. Through it carbon-dioxide laser (which wavelength is 10.6 micrometer) is reflected, focused or diverged and transferred to the different therapeutic part of body to realize the purpose of cutting operation, gasification, cauterization and irradiation. This system includes an indicating system using He-Ne laser, by which carbon-dioxide laser can arrive therapeutic part accurately. This system possesses some advantages e.g. an accurate transfer, large moving range, small power consumption, high power density and easy operation. At present the occupancy in home market of this kind laser transfer system products is over 95%. Some products have been exported to other countries.

  1. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  2. Power transmission behaviour of coplanar superconducting waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salz, U.; Hofschen, S.; Schneider, R.

    1993-03-01

    The authors describe the complex behavior of superconducting coplanar waveguides of varying geometries under the influence of temperature and transmitted power. For this reason high power levels up to 35 dBm have been applied to characterize the saturation behavior of the waveguides at 18 GHz. At low temperatures the transmitted power is shown to drop drastically (about 30 dB) when the waveguide leaves the superconducting state. At higher temperatures a kind of saturation state can be observed. The transmitted power coefficient first remains high and then drops slowly with increasing incident power. The superconducting waveguide recovered reversibly from the state of saturation during the entire measurement. It is shown that it is possible to calculate the current-carrying capacity by using the ratio of the area of the current flow to the complete cross section.

  3. Interference-Aware Transmission Power Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junseok; Kwon, Younggoo

    Maintaining the lowest possible transmission power in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is vulnerable to the interference fluctuations because of the bad signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR). The previous transmission power control (TPC) algorithms do not consider much for the interferences from other 2.4GHz devices, which can cause significant performance degradations in real world deployments. This paper proposes the interference-aware transmission power control (I-TPC) algorithm for WSNs. In the proposed algorithm, each node dynamically adjusts the transmission power and the received signal strength (RSS) target, hence the appropriate SINR is provided even when the wireless LAN (WLAN) interferences become strong. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the previous algorithms in terms of the energy and the packet reception ratio (PRR) performance in WLAN interference environments.

  4. Techniques and equipment for detecting and locating incipient faults in underground power transmission cable systems. Technical progress report 3, 1 July 1979-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.C.; Nanevicz, J.E.; Adamo, R.C.; Cole, C.A.; Honey, S.K.; Petro, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    The study is divided into seven tasks: (1) developing RF sounding techniques including experimental detector/locator units such as the HV crossmodulation sounder; (2) constructing a prototype swept-frequency cable sounder; (3) measuring cable characteristics; (4) developing power-transmission-line signal couplers; (5) constructing an HV source to augment experimental and prototype detector/locator units; (6) evaluating the prototype swept-frequency cable sounder; and (7) studying technically effective and economical use of incipient-fault detector/locator units.

  5. Techniques and equipment for detecting and locating incipient faults in underground power transmission cable systems. Technical progress report 2, 1 April 1979-30 June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.C.; Naneviez, J.E.; Adamo, R.C.; Cole, C.A.; Honey, S.K.; Petro, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The study has been divided into seven tasks: (1) development of RF probing techniques including experimental detector/locator units; (2) construction of a prototype detector/locator unit; (3) measurement of cable characteristics; (4) development of power-transmission-line signal couplers; (5) construction of a high-voltage (HV) source to augment experimental or prototype detector/locator units; (6) evaluation of the prototype detector/locator unit; and (7) study of technically effective and economical use of incipient-fault detector/locator units.

  6. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter

    PubMed Central

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V.

    2015-01-01

    In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter's power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110) working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1) comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2) integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time. PMID:25942641

  7. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter.

    PubMed

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V

    2015-04-30

    In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter's power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110) working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1) comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2) integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time.

  8. GTO thyristor applications for HVDC transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Sampei, M. ); Kashiwazaki, H.; Tanaka, C. ); Takahashi, T.; Horivchi, T. )

    1990-07-01

    The development of a large capacity gate turn off thyristor (GTO) has made it possible to manufacture self-commutated convertors employing GTO for power applications. In this paper, conceptual designs for convertor station equipment for a HVDC transmission system employing current as well as voltage source type GTO convertors (simply referred to as VSTGC and CSTGC) are presented. The study result indicates that the VSTGC is preferable over the CSTGC. Also presented in this paper is a preliminary economic comparison between two HVDC system alternatives for applying power to a weak ac system, one employing a self-commutated GTO convertor and the other employing a combination of line-commutated convertor and a synchronous condenser. The result indicates that the two HVDC convertor station alternatives cost about the same.

  9. Market Based Analysis of Power System Interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obushevs, Artjoms; Turcik, Mario; Oleinikova, Irina; Junghans, Gatis

    2011-01-01

    Analysis in this Article is focused on usage of transmission grid under liberalized market with implicit transmission capacity allocation method, e.g. Nordic market. Attention is paid on fundamental changes in transmission utilization and its economical effective operation. For interconnection and power flow analysis and losses calculation model of Nordic grid was developed and transmission losses calculation method was created. Given approach will improve economical efficiency of system operation in electricity market conditions.

  10. Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  11. Test Results From a Simulated High-Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was modified to simulate high-voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high-frequency ac power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  12. Photovoltaic power systems workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, H. J.; Given, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discussions are presented on apparent deficiencies in NASA planning and technology development relating to a standard power module (25-35 kW) and to future photovoltaic power systems in general. Topics of discussion consider the following: (1) adequate studies on power systems; (2) whether a standard power system module should be developed from a standard spacecraft; (3) identification of proper approaches to cost reduction; (4) energy storage avoidance; (5) attitude control; (6) thermal effects of heat rejection on solar array configuration stability; (7) assembly of large power systems in space; and (8) factoring terrestrial photovoltaic work into space power systems for possible payoff.

  13. A Novel Oscillating Rectenna for Wireless Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSpadden, J. O.; Dickinson, R. M.; Fan, L.; Chang, K.

    1998-01-01

    A new concept for solid state wireless microwave power transmission is presented. A 2.45 GHz rectenna element that was designed for over 85% RF to dc power conversion efficiency has been used to oscillate at 3.3 GHz with an approximate 1% dc to RF conversion efficiency.

  14. A Novel Oscillating Rectenna for Wireless Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSpadden, J. O.; Dickinson, R. M.; Fan, L.; Chang, K.

    1998-01-01

    A new concept for solid state wireless microwave power transmission is presented. A 2.45 GHz rectenna element that was designed for over 85% RF to dc power conversion efficiency has been used to oscillate at 3.3 GHz with an approximate 1% dc to RF conversion efficiency.

  15. Gear synchronizer assembly for power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, K.; Terakura, Y.; Funato, Y.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a gear synchronizer assembly comprising a gear member rotatable on a transmission shaft, a spline piece mounted on the gear member for rotation and formed at one side with a conical portion with external spline teeth. The improvement on the clutch sleeve is formed at an inner periphery with a first internal radial projection of large circumferential width. A pair of circumferentially spaced second internal radial projections of small circumferential width are arranged at opposite sides of the first internal radial projection. The first and second internal radial projections each are formed at one side with a pair of chamfers and axially movable in corresponding axial grooves in the cylindrical hub portion of the hub member. The synchronizer ring is formed with a pair of raised portions arranged to be engaged with the first internal radial projection. Synchronizer ring is further formed with another pair of raised portions which are arranged to be engaged with the second internal radial projections.

  16. Critical points and transitions in an electric power transmission model for cascading failure blackouts.

    PubMed

    Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.; Dobson, I.; Newman, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    Cascading failures in large-scale electric power transmission systems are an important cause of blackouts. Analysis of North American blackout data has revealed power law (algebraic) tails in the blackout size probability distribution which suggests a dynamical origin. With this observation as motivation, we examine cascading failure in a simplified transmission system model as load power demand is increased. The model represents generators, loads, the transmission line network, and the operating limits on these components. Two types of critical points are identified and are characterized by transmission line flow limits and generator capability limits, respectively. Results are obtained for tree networks of a regular form and a more realistic 118-node network. It is found that operation near critical points can produce power law tails in the blackout size probability distribution similar to those observed. The complex nature of the solution space due to the interaction of the two critical points is examined.(c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  18. Grassroots Technological Resistance: The People's Power Project and the Impossible Dream of Wireless Transmission of Energy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Pete

    2017-09-01

    In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla. This self-funded conglomeration of farmers and amateur researchers formed the People's Power Project (PPP) and set about building Tesla's system for the wireless transmission of energy. Using archival documents, this paper recounts this episode and argues that, in this case, the potential for successful grassroots action was derailed by the influence of longstanding myths about Tesla and his devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  20. Power transmission with parallel identical countershafts

    SciTech Connect

    Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an improvement in multiple countershaft transmissions. It includes a housing having a casing, a first end support and a second end support; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end support; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the casing; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in one of the end supports and in the casing for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; a plurality of ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectable with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the first ratio gear and a second ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  1. Gear synchronizer assembly for power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, K.; Terakura, Y.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a gear synchronizer assembly comprising a gear member rotatable on a transmission shaft, a spline piece formed at one side thereof with a conical portion and thereon with external splines and mounted on a hub portion of the gear member for rotation therewith, and a synchronizer ring mounted on the conical portion of the spline piece for frictional engagement therewith. A hub member is fixedly mounted on the shaft for rotation therewith and has a cylindrical hub portion encircling the synchronizer ring and is formed thereon with external splines. A clutch sleeve encircles the cylindrical hub portion of the hub member and has internal splines in continual engagement with the external splines of the hub member. The clutch sleeve is axially shiftable toward and away from the gear member to be engaged at the internal splines thereof with the external splines of the spline piece. A thrust means is included for moving the synchronizer ring toward the spline piece in shifting operation of the clutch sleeve toward the gear member to effect the frictional engagement of the synchronizer ring with the spline piece. The improvement described here wherein the clutch sleeve is formed at its inner periphery with an internal radial projection axially movable in a corresponding axial groove formed in the cylindrical hub portion of the hub member, and wherein the thrust means comprises a radially contractible annular resilient member arranged in surrounding relationship with the synchronizer ring.

  2. Thermoelectronic laser energy conversion for power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Yuen, C.

    1977-01-01

    Long distance transmission of power in space by means of laser beams is an attractive concept because of the very narrow beam divergence. Such a system requires efficient means to both generate the laser beam and to convert the light energy in the beam into useful electric output at the receiver. A plasma-type device known as a Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) has been studied as a method of converting a 10.6 micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. In the TELEC process, electromagnetic radiation is absorbed directly in the plasma electrons producing a high electron temperature. The energetic electrons diffuse out of the plasma striking two electrodes with different areas. Since more electrons are collected by the larger electrode there is a net transport of current, and an EMF is generated in the external circuit. The smaller electrode functions as an electron emitter to provide continuity of the current. Waste heat is rejected from the large electrode. A design for a TELEC system with an input 1 MW laser beam was developed as part of the study. The calculated performance of the system showed an overall efficiency of about 42%.

  3. Thermoelectronic laser energy conversion for power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Yuen, C.

    1977-01-01

    Long distance transmission of power in space by means of laser beams is an attractive concept because of the very narrow beam divergence. Such a system requires efficient means to both generate the laser beam and to convert the light energy in the beam into useful electric output at the receiver. A plasma-type device known as a Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) has been studied as a method of converting a 10.6 micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. In the TELEC process, electromagnetic radiation is absorbed directly in the plasma electrons producing a high electron temperature. The energetic electrons diffuse out of the plasma striking two electrodes with different areas. Since more electrons are collected by the larger electrode there is a net transport of current, and an EMF is generated in the external circuit. The smaller electrode functions as an electron emitter to provide continuity of the current. Waste heat is rejected from the large electrode. A design for a TELEC system with an input 1 MW laser beam was developed as part of the study. The calculated performance of the system showed an overall efficiency of about 42%.

  4. Power system applications for phasor measurement units

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.O. Jr. ); Butts, M.M.; Sterlina, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the applications for a system that can determine the state of the power system at a given instant over any area. The topics of the article include fault recording applications, disturbance recording applications, transmission and generation modeling verification applications, power system stabilizer test applications, and a discussion of future enhancements and applications.

  5. Development of Live-working Robot for Power Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Ren, Chengxian; Li, Jinliang; Li, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Dream-I, the first reconfigurable live-working robot for power transmission lines successfully developed in China, has the functions of autonomous walking on lines and accurately positioning. This paper firstly described operation task and object of the robot; then designed a general platform, an insulator replacement end and a drainage plate bolt fastening end of the robot, presented a control system of the robot, and performed simulation analysis on operation plan of the robot; and finally completed electrical field withstand voltage tests in a high voltage hall as well as online test and trial on actual lines. Experimental results show that by replacing ends of manipulators, the robot can fulfill operation tasks of live replacement of suspension insulators and live drainage plate bolt fastening.

  6. Rate and power efficient image compressed sensing and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanigan, Saheed; Cao, Lei; Viswanathan, Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a suboptimal quantization and transmission scheme for multiscale block-based compressed sensing images over wireless channels. The proposed method includes two stages: dealing with quantization distortion and transmission errors. First, given the total transmission bit rate, the optimal number of quantization bits is assigned to the sensed measurements in different wavelet sub-bands so that the total quantization distortion is minimized. Second, given the total transmission power, the energy is allocated to different quantization bit layers based on their different error sensitivities. The method of Lagrange multipliers with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions is used to solve both optimization problems, for which the first problem can be solved with relaxation and the second problem can be solved completely. The effectiveness of the scheme is illustrated through simulation results, which have shown up to 10 dB improvement over the method without the rate and power optimization in medium and low signal-to-noise ratio cases.

  7. Boost type PWM HVDC transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, B.T.; Wang, X. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that conventional HVdc is built around the mercury arc rectifier or the thyristor which requires line commutation. The advances of fast, high power GTO's and future devices such as MCT's with turn off capabilities, are bringing PWM techniques within the range of HVdc applications. By combining PWM techniques to the boost type bridge topology, one has an alternate system of HVdc Transmission. On the ac side, the converter station has active controls over: the voltage amplitude, the voltage angle and the frequency. On the dc side, parallel connections facilitate multi-terminal load sharing by simple local controls so that redundant communication channels are not required. Bidirectional power through each station is accomplished by the reversal of the direction of dc current flow. These claims have been substantiated by experimental results from laboratory size multi-terminal models.

  8. Flex-gear electrical power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an alternative way of transferring electricity across a continuously rotating joint, with little wear and the potential for low electrical noise. The problems with wires, slip rings, electromagnetic couplings, and recently invented roll-rings are discussed. Flex-gears, an improvement of roll-rings, are described. An entire class of flexgear devices is developed. Finally, the preferred flex-gear device is optimized for maximum electrical contact and analyzed for average mechanical power loss and maximum stress. For a device diameter of six inches, the preferred device is predicted to have a total electrical contact area of 0.066 square inches. In the preferred device, a small amount of internal sliding produces a 0.003 inch-pound torque that resists the motion of the device.

  9. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P

    2014-12-01

    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  10. Continuously-Variable Positive-Mesh Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed transmission with continuously-variable speed ratio couples two mechanical trigonometric-function generators. Transmission is expected to handle higher loads than conventional variable-pulley drives; and, unlike variable pulley, positive traction through entire drive train with no reliance on friction to transmit power. Able to vary speed continuously through zero and into reverse. Possible applications in instrumentation where drive-train slippage cannot be tolerated.

  11. HVDC power transmission environmental issues review

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.H.; Weil, D.E.; Stewart, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report strives to define the various environmental effects associated with HVDC lines, discusses the current knowledge of their potential effects on biological and non-biological systems, and compares these effects associated with ac lines where appropriate.

  12. Meteorological effects on laser propagation for power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    An examination of possible laser operating parameters for power transmission to earth from solar power satellites is presented, with particular attention paid to assuring optimal delivery at midlatitudes. The degradation of beam efficiency due to molecular scattering, molecular absorption, aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption during beam propagation through the atmosphere can be alleviated by judicious choice of wavelength windows, elevating the receptor sites, using a vertical propagation path, or by hole boring, i.e., vaporizing the aerosol particles in the beam path. Analyses are given for the beam propagation through fog, haze, clouds, and snow using various transitions. Only weapons-quality lasers are seen as being capable of boring through clouds and aerosols, employing a CW beam with superimposed pulses at high power densities. It is concluded that further short wavelength transmission experiments be performed to demonstrate transmission feasibility with the CW/pulsed mode of beam propagation.

  13. Meteorological effects on laser propagation for power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    An examination of possible laser operating parameters for power transmission to earth from solar power satellites is presented, with particular attention paid to assuring optimal delivery at midlatitudes. The degradation of beam efficiency due to molecular scattering, molecular absorption, aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption during beam propagation through the atmosphere can be alleviated by judicious choice of wavelength windows, elevating the receptor sites, using a vertical propagation path, or by hole boring, i.e., vaporizing the aerosol particles in the beam path. Analyses are given for the beam propagation through fog, haze, clouds, and snow using various transitions. Only weapons-quality lasers are seen as being capable of boring through clouds and aerosols, employing a CW beam with superimposed pulses at high power densities. It is concluded that further short wavelength transmission experiments be performed to demonstrate transmission feasibility with the CW/pulsed mode of beam propagation.

  14. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  15. Optical power source control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husbands, C. R.

    1984-05-01

    An optical power source control system having a four port optical coupler, an optical receiver and associated comparator circuits operably connected to the optical transmission line connecting the source to an output connector. When the output connector is mated with another connector, the receiver senses the optical energy reflected from the glass/air and air/glass interfaces of the connectors and provides an appropriate signal. This signal is sufficiently high when compared to a threshold voltage level to permit the power source to operate. When the output connector is in the unmated condition the reflected optical power from the air/glass interface is no longer present and therefore the signal from the receiver falls below the threshold voltage level. With this reduced signal level, power flow to the optical source is removed or reduced thereby controlling the operation of the optical power source.

  16. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  17. 47 CFR 74.750 - Transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.750 Transmission system facilities. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station shall operate with a transmitter that is either certificated for licensing...

  18. POWER GRID DYNAMICS: ENHANCING POWER SYSTEM OPERATION THROUGH PRONY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, C.; Huang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Prony Analysis is a technique used to decompose a signal into a series consisting of weighted complex exponentials and promises to be an effi cient way of recognizing sensitive lines during faults in power systems such as the U.S. Power grid. Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) was used to simulate the performance of a simple two-area-four-generator system and the reaction of the system during a line fault. The Dynamic System Identifi cation (DSI) Toolbox was used to perform Prony analysis and use modal information to identify key transmission lines for power fl ow adjustment to improve system damping. The success of the application of Prony analysis methods to the data obtained from PSLF is reported, and the key transmission line for adjustment is identifi ed. Future work will focus on larger systems and improving the current algorithms to deal with networks such as large portions of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) power grid.

  19. Cogeneration power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Cogeneration is defined as the combination of electrical generation and process heat for more efficient use of fuel. Comparisons of energy utilization in conventional electric power plants and cogeneration electric power plants are presented. Characteristics of various cogeneration systems are also presented. Systems are analyzed for use in utility systems and industrial systems. Economic and cost analysis are reviewed.

  20. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya

    2016-05-24

    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  1. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  2. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  3. Solid state sandwich concept: Designs, considerations and issues. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in analysis and design of solid state approaches to the solar power satellite microwave power transmission system is reviewed with special emphasis on the Sandwich concept and the issues of maintenance of low junction temperatures for amplifiers to assure acceptable lifetime. Ten specific issues or considerations are discussed and their resolution or status is presented.

  4. Microwave beam power transmission at an arbitrary range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, L. R.; Christian, J. L., Jr.; Acosta, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The power transfer efficiency between two circular apertures at an arbitrary range is obtained numerically. The apertures can have generally different sizes and arbitrary taper illuminations. The effects of distance and taper illumination on the transmission efficiency are investigated for equal size apertures. The result shows that microwave beam power is more effective at close ranges, namely distances less than 2D(exp 2)/lambda. Also shown was the power transfer efficiency increase with taper illumination for close range distances. A computer program was developed for calculating the power transfer efficiency at an arbitrary range.

  5. Direct current power delivery system and method

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  6. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  7. GOPEX laser transmission and monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, G.; Masters, K.

    1993-01-01

    The laser transmission and monitoring system for the Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX) at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in Wrightwood, California is described. The transmission system configuration and the data measurement techniques are described. The calibration procedure and the data analysis algorithm are also discussed. The mean and standard deviation of the laser energy transmitted each day of GOPEX show that the laser transmission system performed well and within the limit established in conjunction with the Galileo Project for experiment concurrence.

  8. Enhanced Wireless Power Transmission Using Strong Paramagnetic Response.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dukju; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-03-01

    A method of quasi-static magnetic resonant coupling has been presented for improving the power transmission efficiency (PTE) in near-field wireless power transmission, which improves upon the state of the art. The traditional source resonator on the transmitter side is equipped with an additional resonator with a resonance frequency that is tuned substantially higher than the magnetic field excitation frequency. This additional resonator enhances the magnetic dipole moment and the effective permeability of the power transmitter, owing to a phenomenon known as the strong paramagnetic response. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results show increased PTE due to amplification of the effective permeability. In measurements, the PTE was improved from 57.8% to 64.2% at the nominal distance of 15 cm when the effective permeability was 2.6. The power delivered to load was also improved significantly, with the same 10 V excitation voltage, from 0.38 to 5.26 W.

  9. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  10. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  11. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  12. Research on the technology and economic calculation model of power transmission line considering environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yiqun; Sun, Chenjun; Zeng, Ming

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of the modern energy supply system, power grid has a very important influence on the regional energy system, especially in the context of large-scale development of new energy sources, cross transmission line planning is the key to optimize the energy supply system. First of all, this paper starts from the typical regional energy problem analysis, proposes the thought of relying on cross transmission to solve the problems of energy supply; Secondly, this paper analyzes the external environment and the effect of cross transmission, establishes the technical and economic model of transmission planning based on cost effectiveness; Finally, according to the example of China's energy system in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei region, to carry out technical and economic analysis of transmission line technology, and give the relevant recommendations.

  13. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  14. Case study on the US superconducting power transmission program

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, E.F.

    1996-02-01

    After the 1911 discovery of superconductivity (the abrupt loss of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures), attempts were made to make practical use of this phenomenon. Initially these attempts failed, but in the early 1960s (after 50 years of research) they succeeded. By then, the projected growth in the production and consumption of electrical energy required much higher capacity power transmission capabilities than were available or likely to become available from incremental improvements in existing transmission technology. Since superconductors were capable in principle of transmitting huge amounts of power, research programs to develop and demonstrate superconducting transmission lines were initiated in the US and abroad. The history of the US program, including the participants, their objectives, funding and progress made, is outlined. Since the R&D program was terminated before the technology was completely demonstrated, the reasons for and consequences of this action are discussed in a final section.

  15. Optical fiber transmission of high power excimer laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Pini, R; Salimbeni, R; Vannini, M

    1987-10-01

    An experimental investigation of optical fiber transmission of high power excimer laser radiation is presented. Different types of commercially available UV fiber have been tested, measuring energy handling capabilities and transmission losses of short samples at the XeCl (308-nm) and KrF (249-nm) wavelengths by using a standard excimer laser. A power density dependent damage process has been observed over 1 GW/cm(2). Fiber losses due to different radii of curvature are also reported. Experimental results have been examined to evaluate the effectiveness of excimer laser transmission through optical fibers for such medical uses as laser angioplasty, including also a comparison between the use of KrF or XeCl emission lines for this purpose. Finally, optimum excimer laser characteristics to increase the energy coupling in fibers are discussed.

  16. Space Station power system issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite.

  17. Fully Implantable Deep Brain Stimulation System with Wireless Power Transmission for Long-term Use in Rodent Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Man Seung; Moon, Hyun Seok; Kim, Hee Chan; Park, Hyung Woo; Lim, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study to develop new deep-brain stimulation system for long-term use in animals, in order to develop a variety of neural prostheses. Methods Our system has two distinguished features, which are the fully implanted system having wearable wireless power transfer and ability to change the parameter of stimulus parameter. It is useful for obtaining a variety of data from a long-term experiment. Results To validate our system, we performed pre-clinical test in Parkinson's disease-rat models for 4 weeks. Through the in vivo test, we observed the possibility of not only long-term implantation and stability, but also free movement of animals. We confirmed that the electrical stimulation neither caused any side effect nor damaged the electrodes. Conclusion We proved possibility of our system to conduct the long-term pre-clinical test in variety of parameter, which is available for development of neural prostheses. PMID:25810853

  18. Fully Implantable Deep Brain Stimulation System with Wireless Power Transmission for Long-term Use in Rodent Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Heo, Man Seung; Moon, Hyun Seok; Kim, Hee Chan; Park, Hyung Woo; Lim, Young Hoon; Paek, Sun Ha

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study to develop new deep-brain stimulation system for long-term use in animals, in order to develop a variety of neural prostheses. Our system has two distinguished features, which are the fully implanted system having wearable wireless power transfer and ability to change the parameter of stimulus parameter. It is useful for obtaining a variety of data from a long-term experiment. To validate our system, we performed pre-clinical test in Parkinson's disease-rat models for 4 weeks. Through the in vivo test, we observed the possibility of not only long-term implantation and stability, but also free movement of animals. We confirmed that the electrical stimulation neither caused any side effect nor damaged the electrodes. We proved possibility of our system to conduct the long-term pre-clinical test in variety of parameter, which is available for development of neural prostheses.

  19. Power modules and projected power systems evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    Photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear power systems are considered to supply future earth orbital electrical power requirements. A growth scenario from a 25-kW Power Module in the early Shuttle era to the 5- to 10-GW Satellite Power System in the year 2000 is presented. Photovoltaic systems are presently baselined in this evolution. The Photovoltaic Power System and subsystem growth projections, consistent with this scenario, were developed and are summarized.

  20. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  1. Electrical power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

  2. Comparison of electrically driven lasers for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G.; Conway, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    High-power lasers in space could provide power for a variety of future missions such as spacecraft electric power requirements and laser propulsion. This study investigates four electrically pumped laser systems, all scaled to 1-MW laser output, that could provide power to spacecraft. The four laser systems are krypton fluoride, copper vapor, laser diode array, and carbon dioxide. Each system was powered by a large solar photovoltaic array which, in turn, provided power for the appropriate laser power conditioning subsystem. Each system was block-diagrammed, and the power and efficiency were found for each subsystem block component. The copper vapor system had the lowest system efficiency (6 percent). The CO2 laser was found to be the most readily scalable but has the disadvantage of long laser wavelength.

  3. Controlling power systems during emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschen, D.S.; Wollenberg, B.F.; Irisarri, G.D.; Bann, J.J.; Miller, B.N.

    1989-04-01

    Economic and social factors in many parts of the world now require power systems to be operated at less generation reserve and closer to transmission flow and contingency voltage limits than formerly practiced. The result has been an increase in the complexity of power systems operations. The installation of computerized Energy Management Systems (EMS) has helped alleviate some of these difficulties: Supervisory Control And Data-Acquisition (SCADA) systems have made possible the centralization of the decision-making process. Advanced applications such as optimal power flow and security analysis have helped operators maintain the system in a secure and optimal state. Expert system technology is now being implemented in EMS installations to provide operators with the tools necessary to meet the needs just described. This article explores some applications of expert systems to power system control and shows how they can be used to alleviate the burden on the operators during emergency periods. To this end, the design and implementation of two applications are presented: An intelligent alarm processor (IAP); and A program for the diagnosis of system faults (DSF).

  4. Optimal operating frequency in wireless power transmission for implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ada S Y; O'Driscoll, Stephen; Meng, Teresa H

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines short-range wireless powering for implantable devices and shows that existing analysis techniques are not adequate to conclude the characteristics of power transfer efficiency over a wide frequency range. It shows, theoretically and experimentally, that the optimal frequency for power transmission in biological media can be in the GHz-range while existing solutions exclusively focus on the MHz-range. This implies that the size of the receive coil can be reduced by 10(4) times which enables the realization of fully integrated implantable devices.

  5. Power Systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Power systems integration in large flexible space structures is discussed with emphasis upon body control. A solar array is discussed as a typical example of spacecraft configuration problems. Information on how electric batteries dominate life-cycle costs is presented in chart form. Information is given on liquid metal droplet generators and collectors, hot spot analysis, power dissipation in solar arrays, solar array protection optimization, and electromagnetic compatibility for a power system platform.

  6. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Ronald J.

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  7. High power laser apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A high-power, continuous-wave laser was designed for use in power transmission and energy-collecting systems, and for producing incoherent light for pumping a laser material. The laser has a high repetitive pulsing rate per unit time, resulting in a high-power density beam. The laser is composed of xenon flash tubes powered by fast-charging capacitors flashed in succession by a high-speed motor connected to an automobile-type distributor.

  8. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  9. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  10. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Ling, Yunpeng

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the Central Office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (Zhong Fa No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price to improve the investment efficiency of power grid projects after the power reform in China.

  12. Demonstration of low power penalty of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in long-haul transmission.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huaxiang; Long, Qifeng; Tan, Wei; Li, Li; Wang, Xingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-12-03

    We demonstrate error-free 80km transmission by a silicon carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder modulator at 10Gbps and the power penalty is as low as 1.15dB. The devices were evaluated through the bit-error-rate characterizations under the system-level analysis. The silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator was also analyzed comparatively with a lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator in back-to-back transmission and long-haul transmission, respectively, and verified the negative chirp parameter of the silicon modulator through the experiment. The result of low power penalty indicates a practical application for the silicon modulator in the middle- or long-distance transmission systems.

  13. TROPIX Power System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-01-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  14. TROPIX power system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-09-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  15. A stable wireless energy transmission system for gastrointestinal microsystems.

    PubMed

    Xin, W H; Yan, G Z; Wang, W X

    2010-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system using a Helmholtz primary coil outside and a 3-dimensional secondary coil inside the body is introduced. It is designed to transmit stable power to a gastrointestinal microsystem regardless of its position and orientation when working in the gastric tract. Up to 310 mW of usable DC power can be delivered under worst-case geometrical conditions. Measured data of the system performance are presented and evaluated.

  16. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  17. Face Gear Technology for Aerospace Power Transmission Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The use of face gears in an advanced rotorcraft transmission design was first proposed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company during their contracted effort with the U.S. Army under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. Face gears would be used to turn the corner between the horizontal gas turbine engine and the vertical output rotor shaft--a function currently done by spiral bevel gears. This novel gearing arrangement would substantially lower the drive system weight partly because a face gear mesh would be used to split the input power between two output gears. However, the use of face gears and their ability to operate successfully at the speeds and loads required for an aerospace environment was unknown. Therefore a proof-of-concept phase with an existing test stand at the NASA Lewis Research Center was pursued. Hardware was designed that could be tested in Lewis' Spiral Bevel Gear Test Rig. The initial testing indicated that the face gear mesh was a feasible design that could be used at high speeds and load. Surface pitting fatigue was the typical failure mode, and that could lead to tooth fracture. An interim project was conducted to see if slight modifications to the gear tooth geometry or an alternative heat treating process could overcome the surface fatigue problems. From the initial and interim tests, it was apparent that for the surface fatigue problems to be overcome the manufacturing process used for this component would have to be developed to the level used for spiral bevel gears. The current state of the art for face gear manufacturing required using less than optimal gear materials and manufacturing techniques because the surface of the tooth form does not receive final finishing after heat treatment as it does for spiral bevel gears. This resulted in less than desirable surface hardness and manufacturing tolerances. An Advanced Research and Projects Agency (ARPA) Technology Reinvestment Project has been funded to investigate

  18. The Ames Power Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osetinsky, Leonid; Wang, David

    2003-01-01

    The Ames Power Monitoring System (APMS) is a centralized system of power meters, computer hardware, and specialpurpose software that collects and stores electrical power data by various facilities at Ames Research Center (ARC). This system is needed because of the large and varying nature of the overall ARC power demand, which has been observed to range from 20 to 200 MW. Large portions of peak demand can be attributed to only three wind tunnels (60, 180, and 100 MW, respectively). The APMS helps ARC avoid or minimize costly demand charges by enabling wind-tunnel operators, test engineers, and the power manager to monitor total demand for center in real time. These persons receive the information they need to manage and schedule energy-intensive research in advance and to adjust loads in real time to ensure that the overall maximum allowable demand is not exceeded. The APMS (see figure) includes a server computer running the Windows NT operating system and can, in principle, include an unlimited number of power meters and client computers. As configured at the time of reporting the information for this article, the APMS includes more than 40 power meters monitoring all the major research facilities, plus 15 Windows-based client personal computers that display real-time and historical data to users via graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The power meters and client computers communicate with the server using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) on Ethernet networks, variously, through dedicated fiber-optic cables or through the pre-existing ARC local-area network (ARCLAN). The APMS has enabled ARC to achieve significant savings ($1.2 million in 2001) in the cost of power and electric energy by helping personnel to maintain total demand below monthly allowable levels, to manage the overall power factor to avoid low power factor penalties, and to use historical system data to identify opportunities for additional energy savings. The APMS also

  19. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  20. Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2012-08-01

    The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  1. Ice and snow effect on wireless power transmission by magnetic resonant coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shun, Endo; Baba, Ryouichi; Furuta, Kenta; Nunokawa, Kazuki; Takahashi, Wataru; Maruyama, Tamami

    2017-07-01

    In areas where snow has accumulated, it is necessary to consider the effect of snow on the wireless power transmission (WPT) system. This study focused on the variation in power flow through the WPT system due to thickness variation of ice and the dielectric constant of snow. A measurement system was created and power flow measured as S-parameters to study snow and ice influence. It was found that ice cover caused the WPT coils to detune, which when asymmetric caused high losses. However, completely filling the space between the coils with ice caused equal frequency shifts in both coils allowing the WPT system to operate at the shifted frequency.

  2. A Q-Modulation Technique for Efficient Inductive Power Transmission.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Lee, Byunghun; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-12-01

    A fully-integrated power management ASIC for efficient inductive power transmission has been presented capable of automatic load transformation using a method, called Q-modulation. Q-modulation is an adaptive scheme that offers load matching against a wide range of loading (RL ) and coupling distance (d23 ) variations in inductive links to maintain high power transfer efficiency (PTE). It is suitable for inductive powering implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs), recharging mobile electronics, and electric vehicles. In Q-modulation, the zero-crossings of the induced current in the receiver (Rx) LC-tank are detected and a low-loss switch chops the Rx LC-tank for part of the power carrier cycle to form a high-Q LC-tank and store the maximum energy, which is then transferred to RL by opening the switch. By adjusting the duty cycle (D), the loaded-Q of the Rx LC-tank can be dynamically modulated to compensate for variations in RL . A Q-modulation power management (QMPM) prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35-μm standard CMOS process, occupying 4.8 mm(2). In a 1.45 W wireless power transfer setup, using a class-E power amplifier (PA) operating at 2 MHz, the QMPM successfully increased the inductive link PTE and the overall power efficiency by 98.5% and 120.7% at d23 = 8 cm, respectively, by compensating for 150 Ω variation in RL at D = 45%.

  3. Analysis and Control of Vibrational Power Transmission to Machinery Supporting Structures Subjected to a Multi-Excitation System, Part i: Driving Point Mobility Matrix of Beams and Rectangular Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Y. K.; White, R. G.

    1996-10-01

    The analysis and control of vibration transmission from a machine source to flexible beam- and plate-like supporting structures via the translational and rotational motions as well as the coupling between these motions are studied in these three companions papers. In these studies, co-located simultaneously acting sinusoidal force and moment excitations are assumed to act on the flexible supporting structures and the transmission of vibrational energy into the structures is expressed in terms of the time-averaged vibrational power. The driving point mobility functions of uniform beams and rectangular plates are derived in the first paper. The existence and contribution of the coupling mobility functions in the case of a multi-excitation system give rise to cancellation of vibrational power components. This observation forms the basis of the proposed vibration control technique, which is studied in the second paper. The experimental arrangements for validation of the cancellation of vibrational power components and the proposed vibration control technique with suitably designed force moment seatings are described in the third paper. The proposed vibration control technique is most suitable for the case of a low to medium constant speed machine mounted on a flexible supporting structure.

  4. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Power demand, load center assessment and transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.; Thaik, A.; Pingel, P.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study. The projected power demands and load center locations were reviewed and assessed. Alternative transmission systems were analysed and a conceptual transmission for bulk power transportation is proposed with potential line routes. Environmental impacts of the proposed transmission were also identified.

  5. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  6. Wireless power transmission applied the mutual coupling between coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Kenta; Baba, Ryouichi; Shun, Endo; Nunokawa, Kazuki; Takahashi, Wataru; Maruyama, Tamami

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the studies of wireless power transfer (WPT) to electric vehicles in motion on the snow-piled road have been reported. In WPT by magnetic field resonance method, transmission coefficient S21, which is one of the scattering parameters, from transmission coil to received coil are degraded because of misalignment of transmitting and receiving coil, the distance between these coils, and the effects of the ice and snow. This paper adopts parasitic coil as a solution to improve the reception power in which the parasitic coil is inserted between transmitting and receiving coils. Analysis and experimental results show that parasitic coil could improve the value of S21 by 15 dB using mutual coupling. LED could be light by this solution when the distance between transmitting and receiving coils are 150 mm.

  7. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project : Summary of the Supplemental Draft Environmental Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    BPA and Puget Sound Power and Light (Puget Power) are proposing to upgrade the existing electric transmission power system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area of northwest Washington to increase the capacity of the US-Canada Intertie transmission system. The project would satisfy the need to provide more ability to store and return energy with Canada, would provide additional capacity on the Intertie for anticipated increases in power transactions, and would increase flexibility in operation of the US and Canadian hydroelectric system. It would protect Puget Power`s local system against thermal overloads, and improve local reliability. In November 1993, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Whatcom County (Washington) published a draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) for the proposed Northwest Washington Transmission Project. In order to present some shifts in need for the project and to permit additional review, BPA and Whatcom County have elected to issue a Supplemental Draft EIS. This Summary presents background material, explains project needs and purposes, and then focuses on alternatives and the possible effects.

  8. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  9. Power transmission line operating modes calculation with controllable phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The article contains the analysis of the influence of the phase shifter (PS) on the energy processes in the power transmission line in terms of the two-unit model of the electric network. The approach to synthesis of the models regulated by the phase shifter providing for both calculation of the steady operation modes of the electric networks with the phase shifters and research of the electromagnetic processes and designing of the device itself is offered.

  10. Power transmission coefficients for multi-step index optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka; Arrue, Jon

    2006-02-20

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a single analytical expression of the power transmission coefficient for leaky rays in multi-step index (MSI) fibres. This expression is valid for all tunnelling and refracting rays and allows us to evaluate numerically the power attenuation along an MSI fibre of an arbitrary number of layers. We validate our analysis by comparing the results obtained for limit cases of MSI fibres with those corresponding to step-index (SI) and graded-index (GI) fibres. We also make a similar comparison between this theoretical expression and the use of the WKB solutions of the scalar wave equation.

  11. Modeling Noise in Geared Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, C. V. S. R.

    2010-11-01

    Noise is an unwanted sound that affects human and environment if not controlled properly. In the present article an effort is made to reduce noise in geared transmission systems by modeling noise. Numerical solution methods are suggested at the end. Energy considerations in geared transmissions are discussed.

  12. Transmission Subspace Tracing for MIMO Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    multiple - input multiple - output ( MIMO ...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRANSMISSION SUBSPACE TRACKING FOR MULTIPLE - INPUT MULTIPLE - OUPUT ( MIMO ) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS...publications/pubs/index.html 14. ABSTRACT This paper describes the benefits of transmission subspace tracking for multiple input multiple output

  13. Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Made Operational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2002-01-01

    A system directly measuring the transmission error between the meshing spur or helical gears was installed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and made operational in August 2001. This system employs light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the two gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. The device is capable of resolution better than 0.1 mm (one thousandth the thickness of a human hair). The measured transmission error can be displayed in a "map" that shows how the transmission error varies with the gear rotation or it can be converted to spectra to show the components at the meshing frequencies. Accurate transmission error data will help researchers better understand the mechanisms that cause gear noise and vibration and will lead to The Design Unit at the University of Newcastle in England specifically designed the new system for NASA. It is the only device in the United States that can measure dynamic transmission error at high rotational speeds. The new system will be used to develop new techniques to reduce dynamic transmission error along with the resulting noise and vibration of aeronautical transmissions.

  14. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  15. Satellite power system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, F. L.; Gordon, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    A projection of the electrical energy demands over the next 30 to 50 years, coupled with reasonable assessments of known or developable energy sources, indicates that a shortage of electrical energy will occur about the turn of the century. Recognizing the criticality of such a shortage, the Department of Energy is currently evaluating alternative power generation concepts. One of these candidate concepts is the Satellite Power System. The power levels considered during the evaluation of the various satellite systems have ranged from 5 to 10 GW. It is apparent that, with this power level, both the satellite and the rectenna must be very large and encompass a large number of complex operational system activities. Major elements of the Satellite Power System (SPS) consist of a power satellite placed in a geosynchronous equatorial orbit, and a dedicated ground receiving station (GRS) located at a selected site within the continental United States. The nominal power output of the SPS is established at 5 gigawatts (5 million kilowatts) although, because of various system constraints or losses, it may actually produce between 4 and 5 gigawatts.

  16. Electric transmission line flashover prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarh, Felix

    Near industrial, agricultural, or coastal areas, contamination is a frequent cause of insulator flashover, most cases of which result in lengthy service interruptions. Utilities spend significant amounts of money on insulator washing and cleaning before the restoration of the service. Laboratory studies and industrial experience have shown that both contamination and wetting of insulator surfaces, which initiate the flow of leakage current, are required for insulator flashover. The leakage current leading to flashover has distinctive stages of development. Flashover is preceded by dry-band arcing and extension of the arc to bridge the insulator. This combination significantly modifies both the magnitude and shape of the leakage current. A condition-based monitoring (CBM) system that monitors the easily measurable insulator leakage current as a means of assessing pollution severity and would possibly predict an approaching flashover could prove beneficial to utilities. The overall aim of this project is the development of a system that monitors pollution build-up through the signature changes in the leakage current and alerts an operator when there is a danger of flashover. The operator can, in turn, order maintenance personnel to wash the insulators. This will safeguard against unforeseen flashovers, since the system is constantly being monitored and diagnosed. Additionally, the washing cycles of insulators will be optimized, saving money and eventually rendering the power transmission system more reliable.

  17. Continuously charged flywheel type power delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.A.; Omitsu, T.

    1986-04-22

    In a method of controlling the operation of a flywheel-type power delivery system having an energy-storing flywheel, an internal combustion engine is described operatively coupled to the flywheel for delivering power to the flywheel, and a continuously variable ratio transmission operatively coupled to the flywheel for delivering power to an output shaft. The improvement described here consists of: predetermining a desired maximum output shaft speed limit; and adjusting the working displacement of the engine in proportion to the output shaft speed limit, whereby the efficient power output of the engine is tailored to the power requirements of the system.

  18. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanzhang; Ma, Xiyuan; Xu, Jian; Bao, Yi; Liao, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  19. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanzhang; Ma, Xiyuan; Xu, Jian; Bao, Yi; Liao, Siyang

    2017-06-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  20. AC power system breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wappes, Loran J.; Sundberg, R.; Mildice, J.; Peterson, D.; Hushing, S.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this program was to design, build, test, and deliver a high-frequency (20-kHz) Power System Breadboard which would electrically approximate a pair of dual redundant power channels of an IOC Space Station. This report describes that program, including the technical background, and discusses the results, showing that the major assumptions about the characteristics of this class of hardware (size, mass, efficiency, control, etc.) were substantially correct. This testbed equipment has been completed and delivered to LeRC, where it is operating as a part of the Space Station Power System Test Facility.

  1. Space-based solar power generation using a distributed network of satellites and methods for efficient space power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinko, Ryan M.; Sagar, Basant V.

    2009-12-01

    . The only satellites that are constrained to a significant mass are the beam-down satellites, which still require significant transmission arrays to sufficiently focus the beams targeting corresponding ground stations. With robust design and inherent redundancy built-in, power generation and transmission will not be interrupted in the event of mishaps like space debris collision. Furthermore, the "plug and play" nature of this system significantly reduces the cost, complexity, and risk of upgrading the system. The distributed nature of smallsat clusters maximizes the use of economies of scale. This approach retains some problems of older designs and introduces additional ones. Mitigations will be explored further. For example, the distributed nature of the system requires very precise coordination between and among satellites and a mature attitude control and determination system. Such a design incorporates multiple beaming stages, which has the potential to reduce overall system efficiency. Although this design eliminates the need for space assembly, it retains the challenge of significant on-orbit deployment of solar and transmission arrays. Space power "beaming" is a three step process that involves: 1) conversion of dc power generated by solar cells on the satellite into an electromagnetic wave of suitable frequency, 2) transmission of that wave to power stations on ground, and 3) conversion of the radio waves back into dc power. A great deal of research has been done on the use of microwaves for this purpose. Various factors that affect efficient power generation and transmission will be analyzed in this paper. Based on relevant theory and performance and optimization models, the paper proposes solutions that will help make space-based solar power generation a practical and viable option for addressing the world's growing energy needs.

  2. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander; Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails, and a

  3. Investigation of energy harvesting for magnetic sensor arrays on Mars by wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes the energy harvesting for magnetic sensor arrays on Mars, which can receive the power from Mars Rover by wireless power transmission (WPT). The schematic idea is presented with the energy receiver as the magnetic sensor and the energy transmitter as the transducer on Mars Rover. The key is to adopt the resonant inductive power transmission (IPT) topology between the magnetic sensor and Mars Rover. The basic topology and its operating principle are discussed. By using the magnetic frequency analysis with the finite element method, the output power and efficiency of the WPT system are calculated. The results show that Mars Rover could flexibly transmit its power to different types of small-size magnetic sensors based on their energy on demand using different resonant frequencies and distances.

  4. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources

    SciTech Connect

    Reale, D. V. Parson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-03-15

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV–55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  5. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources.

    PubMed

    Reale, D V; Parson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  6. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, D. V.; Parson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  7. Design and application of a test rig for super-critical power transmission shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M.; Smalley, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, assembly, operational check-out and application of a test facility for testing supercritical power transmission shafts under realistic conditions of size, speed and torque are described. Alternative balancing methods and alternative damping mechanisms are demonstrated and compared. The influence of torque upon the unbalance distribution is studied, and its effect on synchronous vibrations is investigated. The feasibility of operating supercritical power transmission shafting is demonstrated, but the need for careful control, by balancing and damping, of synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations is made clear. The facility was demonstrated to be valuable for shaft system development programs and studies for both advanced and current-production hardware.

  8. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  9. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  10. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

    2002-09-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  11. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system s described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber.

  12. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission systems described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber. 3 figs.

  13. Engineers stretch power delivery systems with technology

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, W.

    1996-09-01

    Efforts to increase electric power transmission capacity by four major distributors are described in the article. The Pennsylvania-Jersey-Maryland Power Pool restructuring for operation as an independent system operator is discussed, and equipment upgrades are briefly outlined. The Inex project of American Electric Power, which uses a unified power flow controller to operator a flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS), is highlighted. Options being considered by Electricite de France are directed at making full use of existing resources; these include optimizing conductor alloy materials and shapes, operating at maximum conductor temperatures, and using FACTS technology to maintain voltages, adjust power flows, and improve network stability. Increasing capacity in the National Grid Company (NGC) system in the United Kingdom involves a combination of load sharing according to thermal capabilities. Technical considerations of NGCs measures to more evenly match load flows to line ratings are also discussed.

  14. Methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Polk, Robert E; Svoboda, John M.; West, Phillip B.; Heath, Gail L.; Scott, Clark L.

    2016-07-19

    A sensing platform for monitoring a transmission system, and method therefor, may include a sensor that senses one or more conditions relating to a condition of the transmission system and/or the condition of an environment around the transmission system. A control system operatively associated with the sensor produces output data based on an output signal produced by the sensor. A transmitter operatively associated with the control system transmits the output data from the control system.

  15. Methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Polk, Robert E [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID; West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Heath, Gail L [Iona, ID; Scott, Clark L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-31

    A sensing platform for monitoring a transmission system, and method therefor, may include a sensor that senses one or more conditions relating to a condition of the transmission system and/or the condition of an environment around the transmission system. A control system operatively associated with the sensor produces output data based on an output signal produced by the sensor. A transmitter operatively associated with the control system transmits the output data from the control system.

  16. Methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Polk, Robert E; Svoboda, John M; West, Phillip B; Heath, Gail L; Scott, Clark L

    2015-01-27

    A sensing platform for monitoring a transmission system, and method therefor, may include a sensor that senses one or more conditions relating to a condition of the transmission system and/or the condition of an environment around the transmission system. A control system operatively associated with the sensor produces output data based on an output signal produced by the sensor. A transmitter operatively associated with the control system transmits the output data from the control system.

  17. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  18. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. D.; De Young, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-11-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  19. The window of opportunity for Wireless Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, D.P.E. Consultant

    1995-01-20

    The rationale for Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology applications is presented to meet the needs of the growing global population. These applications include high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft to supplement communication satellites, power relay satellites to acess large-scale terrestrial renewable energy sources, and solar power satellites to meet global energy demands without increasing stresses on the Earth`s ecology. An overview of past developments and demonstrations of WPT is provided and international activities in Europe, Japan, United States and the former USSR in this field highlighted. These ongoing activities are considered to provide opportunities for a growth path for commercial endeavors with defined milestones so as to gain public acceptance. The conclusion is presented that WPT technologies can provide the impetus for international cooperation to meet global energy demands, and for effective management of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial resources on an unprecedented scale. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Wei, Jiaxiang

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the central office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (in the 2015 No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price to reduce the impact of the reform on the company's international rating results and the ability to raise funds.

  1. Power transmission for four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, I.

    1987-03-17

    A power transmission is described for a vehicle having front and rear wheel drive and a prime mover, the transmission comprising: a change-speed gearing operatively disposed in a transmission casing secured to the prime mover, the gearing including an input shaft drivingly connected to the prime mover, and an output shaft drivingly connected to the input shaft; a first drive shaft drivingly connected to the front wheels; a second drive shaft coaxial with the first drive shaft and drivingly connected to the rear wheels; and an intermediate differential unit drivingly interconnecting the output shaft and the first and second drive shafts, the differential unit comprising: an input gear coaxially surrounding the first drive shaft and drivingly connected to the output shaft; coaxial planetary gear sets providing a plurality of drive power trains at different gear ratios, each of the gear set including sun, planet and ring gears. The gear sets are drivingly connected to one of the input gear and second drive shaft, and a portion of the other of the input gear and second drive shaft coaxially surround and define the ring gears of the gear sets; and means drivingly connected to the first drive shaft for selectively engaging one of the gear sets into driving connection with the first and second drive shafts.

  2. Power transmission device for four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, T.; Kawamoto, M.; Kano, T.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a power transmission device with an improved differential motion limiting mechanism for a four wheel drive vehicle having automatic transmission means, front wheel differential gear means, differential motion limiting means and transfer unit means including center differential gear means, comprising: a first gear mount casing having a gear adapted to mesh with an output of a transmission; a differential motion limiting device arranged together with a front wheel differential gear in the first gear mount casing. The front wheel differential gear having a first diff-carrier and the differential motion limiting device comprising a hydraulic friction clutch for engaging and disengaging the first gear mount casing with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear; a second gear mount casing disposed coaxially with respect to the first gear mount casing; and a transfer unit including a center differential gear arranged in the second gear mount casing, the center differential gear comprising a second diff-carrier coupled with the first gear mount casing, a first side gear coupled with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear, and a second side gear coupled with the second gear mount casing for transmitting power to the rear wheels.

  3. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanting; Yang, Yongmin; Chen, Zhongsheng

    2014-04-10

    Sub-resonances often happen in wireless power transmission (WPT) systems using coupled magnetic resonances (CMR) due to environmental changes, coil movements or component degradations, which is a serious challenge for high efficiency power transmission. Thus self-tuning is very significant to keep WPT systems following strongly magnetic resonant conditions in practice. Traditional coupled-mode ways is difficult to solve this problem. In this paper a two-port power wave model is presented, where power matching and the overall systemic power transmission efficiency are firstly defined by scattering (S) parameters. Then we propose a novel self-tuning scheme based on on-line S parameters measurements and two-side power matching. Experimental results testify the feasibility of the proposed method. These findings suggest that the proposed method is much potential to develop strongly self-adaptive WPT systems with CMR.

  4. Optimization of wireless and batteryless power transmission for micro implants in vivo environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxi, Vikhyat J.; Hariz, Alex J.

    2006-12-01

    For quite some time implantable electronic devices have been a topic of intense research. Such devices play a vital role in saving lives. Batteries were to the main source of power for micro implants in the body, and the quest has been to realize long life batteries. However, the battery size and limited lifetimes have fuelled the search for more practical alternatives1. Hence the concept of Transcutaneous Energy Transmission (TET) has become a major aim of research in microtechnology for supplying power to micro implants. Among many other endeavours, research to optimize the efficient wireless power transmission to implants2, thereby increasing lifetime of the implant and the comfort of the patient, has never been more intense. In this paper we propose to present research findings related to determination of parameters for optimal design of the power transmission system, including frequency spectrum, orientation, and component sizes. We have particularly focused on coil design implementation. Coil design is critical to efficient power transmission and data reception. We have looked at the two spiral geometries 3 with different aspect ratios. Coupling factor, mutual inductance of the coil, quality factor Q, and optimal distance between transmitter and receiver units are to be investigated. Electromagnetic simulation is to be carried out using EM3DS simulation tool for integrated inductor design. It gives us an estimation of the coupling efficiency of the coil and power efficiency of the link at specified design geometries.

  5. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  6. Lunar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Aldrin, B.

    Small areas of the moon's east and west limb surfaces can be transformed into solar collectors and transmitters, furnishing microwave power beam receivers on the moonward side of the earth with large amounts of inexpensive electricity. The receiving antennas would be 6-15 times smaller in area than a terrestrial photovoltaic array of comparable power. The lunar environment is inherently suited to the construction and long term operation of thin film-based systems for the conversion of diffuse sunlight into electricity; lunar soil, moreover, can be readily processed into glasses, ceramics, and agglutinates. The conversion of a 10,000-sq km lunar surface area into power conversion systems would allow the earth to be supplied with more power than it currently consumes.

  7. 76 FR 4103 - Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Midwest Municipal Transmission Group; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Midwest Municipal Transmission... Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group submitted an amendment to a petition for...

  8. Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

  9. Technologies for Lunar Surface Power Systems Power Beaming and Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzwell, Neville; Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Chang, Kai; Little, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Wireless power transmission within a given working area is required or enabling for many NASA Exploration Systems. Fields of application include robotics, habitats, autonomous rendezvous and docking, life support, EVA, and many others. In robotics applications, for example, the robots must move in the working area without being hampered by power cables and, meanwhile, obtain a continuous and constant power from a power transmitter. The development of modern technology for transmitting electric power over free space has been studied for several decades, but its use in a system has been mainly limited to low power, 1-2 Vdc output voltage at a transmission distance of few meters for which relatively less than 0.5 mW/cm2 is required (e.g., Radio frequency identification RFID). Most of the rectenna conversion efficiency research to date has concentrated in low GHz frequency range of 2.45 to 10 GHz, with some work at 35 GHz. However, for space application, atmospheric adsorbtion is irrelevant and higher frequency systems with smaller transmit and receive apertures may be appropriate. For high power, most of the work on rectennas has concentrated on optimizing the conversion efficiency of the microwave rectifier element; the highest power demonstrated was 35 kW of power over a distance of 1.5 km. The objective of this paper is to establish the manner in which a very large number of very low power microwave devices can be synchronized to provide a beam of microwaves that can be used to efficiently and safely transport a significant amount of power to a remote location where it can be converted to dc (or ac) power by a ``rectenna.'' The proposed system is based on spatial power combining of the outputs of a large number of devices synchronized by mutual injection locking. We have demonstrated at JPL that such power could be achieved by combining 25 sources in a configuration that allows for convenient steering of the resulting beam of microwaves. Retrodirective beam

  10. Two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Jhang, Tai-Wei

    2014-04-01

    This Letter proposes and demonstrates a two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission system employing interleavers to deliver intensity-modulated CATV/phase-modulated RoF/intensity-remodulated 16-QAM-OFDM signals over two 20 km SMF links. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that interleavers have been employed in two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission systems. The downstream light is successfully intensity-remodulated with a 16-QAM-OFDM signal for uplink transmission. We obtained excellent performance from the CNR/CSO/CTB/BER for CATV/RoF/16-QAM-OFDM signal transmissions. The proposed systems offer impressive performance features to deliver hybrid CATV/RoF/16-QAM-OFDM signals.

  11. Transient analysis of heat transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phetteplace, G. E.

    1981-12-01

    This report develops a method of analysis for heat transmission systems operating under district heating load conditions. The method accounts for the effects of heat source and load characteristics. The use of thermal energy storage systems is outlined and advantages are given. The transmission model itself considers the following technical aspects: (1) frictional pressure losses in piping system, (2) pump characteristics, (3) pump driver characteristics, and (4) heat losses from the buried piping. The capital costs considered are the piping system and necessary pumps. Operation and maintenance costs include cost of heat loss and cost of pumping energy input. Allowances are also made for system maintenance and repair over the assumed lifetime.

  12. A Q-Modulation Technique for Efficient Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    A fully-integrated power management ASIC for efficient inductive power transmission has been presented capable of automatic load transformation using a method, called Q-modulation. Q-modulation is an adaptive scheme that offers load matching against a wide range of loading (RL) and coupling distance (d23) variations in inductive links to maintain high power transfer efficiency (PTE). It is suitable for inductive powering implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs), recharging mobile electronics, and electric vehicles. In Q-modulation, the zero-crossings of the induced current in the receiver (Rx) LC-tank are detected and a low-loss switch chops the Rx LC-tank for part of the power carrier cycle to form a high-Q LC-tank and store the maximum energy, which is then transferred to RL by opening the switch. By adjusting the duty cycle (D), the loaded-Q of the Rx LC-tank can be dynamically modulated to compensate for variations in RL. A Q-modulation power management (QMPM) prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35-μm standard CMOS process, occupying 4.8 mm2. In a 1.45 W wireless power transfer setup, using a class-E power amplifier (PA) operating at 2 MHz, the QMPM successfully increased the inductive link PTE and the overall power efficiency by 98.5% and 120.7% at d23 = 8 cm, respectively, by compensating for 150 Ω variation in RL at D = 45%. PMID:27087699

  13. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  14. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  15. APEnet+ 34 Gbps data transmission system and custom transmission logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Cicero, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2013-12-01

    APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate the efficiency of a custom logic able to sustain 2.6 GB/s per link with an FPGA on-chip memory footprint of 40 KB, providing deadlock-free routing and systemic awareness of faults. Finally, we show the preliminary results obtained with the embedded transceivers of a next-generation FPGA and outline some ideas to increase the performance with the same FPGA memory footprint.

  16. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution... § 1910.269 Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. Note: OSHA is staying the... the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution... § 1910.269 Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. Note: OSHA is staying the... the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and...

  19. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  20. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  1. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  2. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  3. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  4. Multi-angle pinion and gear power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, F.M.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a worm and gear power transmission which consists of a housing, an input shaft, two axially aligned, different ratio worms formed on the input shaft in the housing. It also includes a pair of gears spaced apart in the housing such that a first gear of the pair meshes with one of the worms, and a second gear of the pair meshes with the other worm, the first and second gears positioned such that planes through the gears and the axis of the input shaft are at a right angle to one another, and output shafts extending out of the housing from the respective gears.

  5. Study of novel concepts of power transmission gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivin, Eugene I.

    1991-01-01

    Two concepts in power transmission gear design are proposed which provide a potential for large noise reduction and for improving weight to payload ratio due to use of advanced fiber reinforced and ceramic materials. These concepts are briefly discussed. Since both concepts use ultrathin layered rubber-metal laminates for accommodating limited travel displacements, properties of the laminates, such as their compressive strength, compressive and shear moduli were studied. Extensive testing and computational analysis were performed on the first concept gears (laminate coated conformal gears). Design and testing of the second conceptual design (composite gear with separation of sliding and rolling motions) are specifically described.

  6. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  7. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  8. Micro-size antenna structure with vertical nanowires for wireless power transmission and communication.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong-Gu; Jeong, Yeri; Shin, Jeong Hee; Choi, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Jang, Jae Eun

    2014-11-01

    For biomedical implanted devices, a wireless power or a signal transmission is essential to protect an infection and to enhance durability. In this study, we present a magnetic induction technique for a power transmission without any wire connection between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) in a micro scale. Due to a micro size effect of a flat spiral coil, a magnetic inductance is not high. To enhance the magnetic inductance, a three dimensional magnetic core is added to an antenna structure, which is consisted of ZnO nano wires coated by a nickel (Ni) layer. ZnO nano wires easily supply a large effective surface area with a vertical structural effect to the magnetic core structure, which induces a higher magnetic inductance with a ferro-magnetic material Ni. The magnetic induction antenna with the magnetic core shows a high inductance value, a low reflection power and a strong power transmission. The power transmission efficiencies are tested under the air and the water medium are almost the same values, so that the magnetic induction technique is quite proper to body implanted systems.

  9. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  10. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  11. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  12. Recent Accomplishments in Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Skinner, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Wireless power transmission can be accomplished over long distances using laser power sources and photovoltaic receivers. Recent research at AMOS has improved our understanding of the use of this technology for practical applications. Research by NASA, Boeing, the University of Alabama-Huntsville, the University of Colorado, Harvey Mudd College, and the Naval Postgraduate School has tested various commercial lasers and photovoltaic receiver configurations. Lasers used in testing have included gaseous argon and krypton, solid-state diodes, and fiber optic sources, at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infra-red. A variety of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic have been tested with these sources. Safe operating procedures have been established, and initial tests have been conducted in the open air at AMOS facilities. This research is progressing toward longer distance ground demonstrations of the technology and practical near-term space demonstrations.

  13. Multi-time scale dynamics in power electronics-dominated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoming; Hu, Jiabing; Cheng, Shijie

    2017-09-01

    Electric power infrastructure has recently undergone a comprehensive transformation from electromagnetics to semiconductors. Such a development is attributed to the rapid growth of power electronic converter applications in the load side to realize energy conservation and on the supply side for renewable generations and power transmissions using high voltage direct current transmission. This transformation has altered the fundamental mechanism of power system dynamics, which demands the establishment of a new theory for power system control and protection. This paper presents thoughts on a theoretical framework for the coming semiconducting power systems.

  14. Multi-time scale dynamics in power electronics-dominated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoming; Hu, Jiabing; Cheng, Shijie

    2017-07-01

    Electric power infrastructure has recently undergone a comprehensive transformation from electromagnetics to semiconductors. Such a development is attributed to the rapid growth of power electronic converter applications in the load side to realize energy conservation and on the supply side for renewable generations and power transmissions using high voltage direct current transmission. This transformation has altered the fundamental mechanism of power system dynamics, which demands the establishment of a new theory for power system control and protection. This paper presents thoughts on a theoretical framework for the coming semiconducting power systems.

  15. Planning considerations for the intermountain HVDC transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Beshir, M.J.; Gee, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Planning of an HVDC transmission system embedded into an existing ac network may require unique control and converter equipment capability in order to satisfy stability requirements of the network. The planning and design of the Intermountain Power Project HVDC transmission system are based on unique control performance features for power transfers during terminal ac faults, rapid power recovery following fault clearing and utilization of exceptionally high transient overload capability of 2 per unit during the post-fault period to maintain system stability. The Department, in its efforts to meet the Western Systems Coordinating Council's (WSCC) reliability criteria, developed and incorporated into its HVDC specifications very rigorous reliability and availability requirements. One objective of this project was to attain the unusually low bipolar converter system outage frequency goal of one outage in five years to achieve a bipole performance rating equivalent to two ac circuits of similar capability. The reliability goals of this project have provided one of the impetus for revisions to the WSCC Reliability Criteria for System Design. The reliability goals and other features adopted for the Intermountain HVDC transmission system are discussed in this paper and study results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of various controls implemented as stability enhancement techniques.

  16. UNISAT-3 Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Bulgarelli, Fabio; Graziani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    An overview of the UNISAT-3 microsatellite power subsystem is given. This is an educational, low weight and low cost microsatellite designed, built, launched and operated in space by students and professors of Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, at University of Rome "La Sapienza". The satellite power system is based on terrestrial technology solar arrays and NiCd batteries. The microsatellite hosts other solar arrays, including multi-junction solar cells and mono- crystalline silicon high efficiency solar cells, in order to compare their behaviour in orbit. Moreover a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking ) system has been designed and tested, and it is a technological payload of UNISAT-3. The MPPT design follows the studies performed in the field of solar powered racing cars, with modifications to make the system suitable for use in space. The system design, numerical simulation and hardware ground testing are described in the paper. The experiment and the performance evaluation criterion are described, together with the preliminary results of the first eight months of operation in orbit.

  17. A Hybrid LCC-VSC HVDC Transmission System Supplying a Passive Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, Omar

    High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems continue to be an excellent asset in modern power systems, mainly for their ability to overcome the problems of AC transmission, such as the interconnection of asynchronous grids, stability of long transmission lines, and use of long cables for power transmission. In the past 20 years, Voltage Source Converter (VSC)-HVDC transmission systems were developed and installed in many projects, thereby adding more operational benefits to DC transmission option, such as high controllability, ability to supply weak networks, and reduced converter reactive power demand. Nevertheless, VSC-HVDC transmission suffers from the disadvantages of high losses and cost. In this research, a hybrid HVDC employing a Line Commutated Converter (LCC) as rectifier and a VSC as inverter is used to supply a passive network through a DC cable. The hybrid system is best suited for unidirectional power transmission scenarios, such as power transmission to islands and remote load centers, where the construction of new transmission lines is prohibitively expensive. Control modes for the rectifier and inverter are selected and implemented using Proportional Integral (PI) controllers. Special control schemes are developed for abnormal operating conditions such as starting at light load and recovering from AC network faults. The system performance under steady state and transient conditions is investigated by EMTP-RV simulations. The results show the feasibility of the hybrid system.

  18. NASA helicopter transmission system technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Helicopter Transmission System Technology Program is to improve specific mechanical components and the technology for combining these into advanced drive systems to make helicopters more viable and cost competitive for commerical applications. The history, goals, and elements of the program are discussed.

  19. Analysis of large power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dommel, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-oriented power systems analysis procedures in the electric utilities are surveyed. The growth of electric power systems is discussed along with the solution of sparse network equations, power flow, and stability studies.

  20. High precision ultrasonic guided wave technique for inspection of power transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Wang, Enrong; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Due to the merits of high inspection speed and long detecting distance, Ultrasonic Guided Wave(UGW) method has been commonly applied to the on-line maintenance of power transmission line. However, the guided wave propagation in this structure is very complicated, leading to the unfavorable defect localization accuracy. Aiming at this situation, a high precision UGW technique for inspection of local surface defect in power transmission line is proposed. The technique is realized by adopting a novel segmental piezoelectric ring transducer and transducer mounting scheme, combining with the comprehensive characterization of wave propagation and circumferential defect positioning with multiple piezoelectric elements. Firstly, the propagation path of guided waves in the multi-wires of transmission line under the proposed technique condition is investigated experimentally. Next, the wave velocities are calculated by dispersion curves and experiment test respectively, and from comparing of the two results, the guided wave mode propagated in transmission line is confirmed to be F(1,1) mode. Finally, the axial and circumferential positioning of local defective wires in transmission line are both achieved, by using multiple piezoelectric elements to surround the stands and send elastic waves into every single wire. The proposed research can play a role of guiding the development of highly effective UGW method and detecting system for multi-wire transmission line.

  1. Prospects of thermionic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1978-01-01

    Potential thermionic power systems for space or terrestrial applications are described so that the development goals can be clearly identified. The thermionic power systems considered are a space nuclear power system, a fossil-fuel thermionic topping steam power system, a solar thermionic topping steam power system, and advanced systems. Attention is given to a discussion of the current status of technology development in thermionic converters and associated elements in power systems. Future prospects of thermionic power systems are also discussed. It is concluded that thermionic conversion has a great potential for a variety of applications.

  2. Power systems testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) will give the U.S. a permanent manned presence in space in 1999. The SSF underwent its final design concept in 1991. Launches of hardware will begin in late 1995, and the SSF will become operational in the man tended configuration in 1997. Additional Space Shuttle flights between 1997 and 1999 will complete the SSF. Along with international partners, a crew of four astronauts will conduct long-term experimentation in the microgravity environment of the orbiting spacecraft. Lewis Research Center, along with its prime contractor, will provide the electrical power system (EPS) for SSF. Two major testing facilities at the Lewis Research Center will support the Lewis EPS. The Power Systems Facility provides test beds for life testing the station batteries and the power management distribution system testbed. This testbed simulates two channels of the EPS. The Space Power Facility at the Lewis Plum Brook Station is the largest vacuum chamber in the world. Within this chamber, a simulated space environment, testing of full-size EPS components will occur.

  3. Expert system for first order inelastic analysis of transmission towers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Kempner, L. Jr. ); Mueller, W. III )

    1992-01-01

    The concept of an Expert System is not new. It has been around since the days of the early computers when scientists had dreams of robot automation to do everything from washing windows to automobile design. This paper discusses an application of an expert system and addresses software development issues and various levels of expert system development form a structural engineering viewpoint. An expert system designed to aid the structural engineer in first order inelastic analysis of latticed steel transmission powers is presented. The utilization of expert systems with large numerical analysis programs is discussed along with the software development of such a system.

  4. Performance evaluation of power transmission coils for powering endoscopic wireless capsules.

    PubMed

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of H-field generated by a simple solenoid, pair of solenoids, pair of double-layer solenoids, segmented-solenoid, and Helmholtz power transmission coils (PTCs) to power an endoscopic wireless capsule (WC). The H-fields were computed using finite element analysis based on partial differential equations. Three parameters were considered in the analysis: i) the maximum level of H-field (Hmax) to which the patient's body would be exposed, ii) the minimum level of H-field (Hmin) effective for power transmission, and iii) uniformity of H-field. We validated our analysis by comparing the computed data with data measured from a fabricated Helmholtz PTC. This analysis disclosed that at the same excitation power, all the PTCs are able to transfer same amount of minimum usable power since they generated almost equal value of Hmin. The level of electromagnetic exposure and power transfer stability across all the PTCs would vary significantly which is mainly due to the different level of Hmax and H-field uniformity. The segmented solenoid PTC would cause the lowest exposure and this PTC can transfer the maximum amount of power. The Helmholtz PTC would be able to transfer the most stable power with a moderate level of exposure.

  5. Heatpipe power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to develop a design approach that could enable the development of near-term, low-cost, space fission-power systems. Sixteen desired attributes were identified for such systems and detailed analyses were performed to verify that they are feasible. Preliminary design work was performed on one concept, the Heatpipe Power system (HPS). As a direct result of this project, funding was obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to build and test an HPS module. The module tests went well, and they now have funding to build a bimodal module.

  6. Wireless power transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  7. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  8. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  9. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  10. Complex Dynamics of the Power Transmission Grid (and other Critical Infrastructures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, David

    2015-03-01

    Our modern societies depend crucially on a web of complex critical infrastructures such as power transmission networks, communication systems, transportation networks and many others. These infrastructure systems display a great number of the characteristic properties of complex systems. Important among these characteristics, they exhibit infrequent large cascading failures that often obey a power law distribution in their probability versus size. This power law behavior suggests that conventional risk analysis does not apply to these systems. It is thought that much of this behavior comes from the dynamical evolution of the system as it ages, is repaired, upgraded, and as the operational rules evolve with human decision making playing an important role in the dynamics. In this talk, infrastructure systems as complex dynamical systems will be introduced and some of their properties explored. The majority of the talk will then be focused on the electric power transmission grid though many of the results can be easily applied to other infrastructures. General properties of the grid will be discussed and results from a dynamical complex systems power transmission model will be compared with real world data. Then we will look at a variety of uses of this type of model. As examples, we will discuss the impact of size and network homogeneity on the grid robustness, the change in risk of failure as generation mix (more distributed vs centralized for example) changes, as well as the effect of operational changes such as the changing the operational risk aversion or grid upgrade strategies. One of the important outcomes from this work is the realization that ``improvements'' in the system components and operational efficiency do not always improve the system robustness, and can in fact greatly increase the risk, when measured as a risk of large failure.

  11. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  12. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  13. A test system for teaching overall power system reliability assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Billinton, R.; Jonnavithula, S.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents the concept of overall power system reliability evaluation using an educational test system. The paper extends an existing test system by developing the necessary distribution and subtransmission networks. The extended test system has all the main facilities, such as generation, switching stations, transmission, sub transmission and radial distribution networks found in a practical system. The test system, is however, sufficiently small that students can analyze it using hand calculations or by developing small computer programs to fully understand the reliability models and evaluation techniques. Overall power system reliability evaluation is concerned with providing acceptable customer service. This is an important concern in today`s electric utility environment. This should therefore be an essential element in teaching power system reliability evaluation at either the graduate or undergraduate level. The extended test system presented in this paper and the concepts presented assist in satisfying this requirement.

  14. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puers, R.; Carta, R.; Thoné, J.

    2011-05-01

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules.

  15. High power connection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Christopher E.; Beer, Robert C.; McCall, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    A high power connection system adapted for automotive environments which provides environmental and EMI shielding includes a female connector, a male connector, and a panel mount. The female connector includes a female connector base and a snap fitted female connector cover. The male connector includes a male connector base and a snap fitted male connector cover. The female connector base has at least one female power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective female power terminal. The male connector base has at least one male power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective male power terminal. The female connector is covered by a cover seal and a conductive shroud. A pair of lock arms protrude outward from the front end of the male connector base, pass through the panel mount and interface with a lever of a lever rotatably connected to the shroud to thereby mechanically assist mating of the male and female connectors. Safety terminals in the male and female connectors provide a last-to-connect-first-to-break connection with an HVIL circuit.

  16. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  17. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  18. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Kiu, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes.

  19. Wind Farm Power System Model Development: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.

    2004-07-01

    In some areas, wind power has reached a level where it begins to impact grid operation and the stability of local utilities. In this paper, the model development for a large wind farm will be presented. Wind farm dynamic behavior and contribution to stability during transmission system faults will be examined.

  20. New Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2001-01-01

    The prime source of vibration and noise in a gear system is the transmission error between the meshing gears. Transmission error is caused by manufacturing inaccuracy, mounting errors, and elastic deflections under load. Gear designers often attempt to compensate for transmission error by modifying gear teeth. This is done traditionally by a rough "rule of thumb" or more recently under the guidance of an analytical code. In order for a designer to have confidence in a code, the code must be validated through experiment. NASA Glenn Research Center contracted with the Design Unit of the University of Newcastle in England for a system to measure the transmission error of spur and helical test gears in the NASA Gear Noise Rig. The new system measures transmission error optically by means of light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. A photodetector circuit converts the light to an analog electrical signal. To increase accuracy and reduce "noise" due to transverse vibration, there are parallel light paths at the top and bottom of the gears. The two signals are subtracted via differential amplifiers in the electronics package. The output of the system is 40 mV/mm, giving a resolution in the time domain of better than 0.1 mm, and discrimination in the frequency domain of better than 0.01 mm. The new system will be used to validate gear analytical codes and to investigate mechanisms that produce vibration and noise in parallel axis gears.