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Sample records for pp pp scatterings

  1. Collective phenomena in pp and ep scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, Francesco Giovanni; Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, László

    2017-03-01

    Bjorken scaling violation in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering (DIS) is related to the rise of hadronic cross sections by using the additive quark model. Of special interest is the connection between saturation in the low-x behavior of the DIS structure functions (SF) and possible slow-down of the pp cross section rise due to saturation effects. We also identify saturation effects in the DIS SF with phase transition that can be described by the Van der Waals equation of state.

  2. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  3. TEST OF PARITY CONSERVATION IN pp SCATTERING AT 46 MEV

    SciTech Connect

    von Rossen, P.; von Rossen, U.; Conzett, H.E.

    1980-06-01

    An experiment has been designed to measure the effect of parity non conservation in {vector p}-p scattering near 50 MeV. A target-detector system has been constructed which permits an extremely accurate comparison of the cross sections for incident protons of positive versus negative helicity. Our first measurements give a value of A{sub z}=(-1.3±2.3)x10{sup -7} for the longitudinal analyzing power. The present is done with a 50-MeV polarized proton beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-Inch cyclotron. The atomic-beam type polarized ion source permits selection of ground state atomic hydrogen hyperfine states to provide the reversal of the proton polarization, This is done by rapid and automatic switching of the weak and intermediate field RF transitions, This selection in the neutral atomic beam minimizes beam intensity and position modulations which are coherent (i.e, in phase) with the reversal of the spin, as compared with any scheme whereby the spin reversal is achieved by magnetic and/or electric fields acting on an ion beam. Since the polarization direction is provided by the magnetic field, the beam from the cyclotron has only transverse (vertical) polarition. A solenoidal magnetic field used to precess the spin axis 90° into the horizontal plane, after which a dipole beam through an angle of 47.7° and precesses the spin axis into the beam direction, Thus, spin-reversal at the source results in proton helicity reversal at the target.

  4. P(P bar)P elastic scattering and cosmic ray data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FAZAL-E-ALEEM; Saleem, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the total cross section for pp elastic scattering at cosmic ray energies, as well as the total cross section, the slope parameter b(s,t) and the differential cross section for small momentum transfer at ISR and collider energies for p(p)p elastic scattering can be simultaneously fitted by using a simple Regge pole model. The results of this theory is discussed in detail.

  5. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Frankfurt, L.; Hyde, C. E.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2007-03-01

    We study rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H=dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp{yields}p+(gap)+H+(gap)+p. Our approach is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent because they proceed over widely different time and distance scales. We implement this idea in a partonic description of proton structure, which allows for a model-independent treatment of the interplay of hard and soft interactions. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons, whose amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distribution (GPD), measured in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate neglecting correlations between hard and soft interactions (independent interaction approximation). We obtain an analytic expression for the RGS probability in terms of the phenomenological pp elastic scattering amplitude, without reference to the eikonal approximation. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons ('diffraction pattern'). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the

  6. Scattered P'P' waves observed at short distances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul S.; Rost, Sebastian; Shearer, Peter M.; Thomas, Christine

    2011-01-01

    We detect previously unreported 1 Hz scattered waves at epicentral distances between 30° and 50° and at times between 2300 and 2450 s after the earthquake origin. These waves likely result from off-azimuth scattering of PKPbc to PKPbc in the upper mantle and crust and provide a new tool for mapping variations in fine-scale (10 km) mantle heterogeneity. Array beams from the Large Aperture Seismic Array (LASA) clearly image the scattered energy gradually emerging from the noise and reaching its peak amplitude about 80 s later, and returning to the noise level after 150 s. Stacks of transverse versus radial slowness (ρt, ρr) show two peaks at about (2, -2) and (-2,-2) s/°, indicating the waves arrive along the major arc path (180° to 360°) and significantly off azimuth. We propose a mantle and surface PKPbc to PKPbc scattering mechanism for these observations because (1) it agrees with the initiation time and distinctive slowness signature of the scattered waves and (2) it follows a scattering path analogous to previously observed deep-mantle PK•KP scattering (Chang and Cleary, 1981). The observed upper-mantle scattered waves and PK•KP waves fit into a broader set of scattered waves that we call P′•d•P′, which can scatter from any depth, d, in the mantle.

  7. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy pp and pp¯ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energymore » $pp$ and $$p\\bar p $$ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $$1/p_T^n$$ at high $$p_T$$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $$p_T$$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $$p_T$$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $$p_T$$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $$p \\bar p$$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Lastly, because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $$p\\bar p$$ collisions.« less

  8. Direct experimental reconstruction of the pp elastic scattering matrix at 579 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Eisenegger, C.; Hausammann, R.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Leo, W.R.; Morenzoni, S.; Onel, Y.; Rapin, D.; Mango, S.

    1981-04-20

    We have made, for the first time, a direct reconstruction of the pp elastic scattering matrix at 579 MeV from a series of experiments performed with a polarized beam line. Fifteen observables consisting of the polarization, two-spin correlation and transfer parameters, and three-spin parameters were measured at seven angles between 66/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/ center of mass. The experimental results and reconstructed amplitudes are presented and compared to a phase-shift analysis.

  9. Deep-Elastic pp Scattering at Lhc from LOW-x Gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M.; Kašpar, J.; Luddy, R. J.

    Deep-elastic pp scattering at c.m. energy 14 TeV at LHC in the momentum transfer range 4 GeV2 ≲ |t| ≲ 10 GeV2 is planned to be measured by the TOTEM group. We study this process in a model where the deep-elastic scattering is due to a single hard collision of a valence quark from one proton with a valence quark from the other proton. The hard collision originates from the low-x gluon cloud around one valence quark interacting with that of the other. The low-x gluon cloud can be identified as color glass condensate and has size ≃0.3 F. Our prediction is that pp dσ/dt in the large |t| region decreases smoothly as momentum transfer increases. This is in contrast to the prediction of pp dσ/dt with visible oscillations and smaller cross sections by a large number of other models.

  10. {omega} production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, G.; Vidya, M.S.; Deepak, P.N.; Balasubramanyam, J.; Venkataraya

    2005-09-01

    A model-independent irreducible tensor formalism that was developed earlier to analyze measurements of p-vectorp-vector{yields}pp{pi} deg. is extended to present a theoretical discussion of p-vectorp-vector{yields}pp{omega} and of {omega} polarization in pp{yields}pp{omega}-vector and in pp-vector{yields}pp{omega}-vector. The recent measurement of an unpolarized differential cross section for pp{yields}pp{omega} is analyzed by use of this theoretical formalism.

  11. QCD CORRECTIONS TO DILEPTON PRODUCTION NEAR PARTONIC THRESHOLD IN PP SCATTERING.

    SciTech Connect

    SHIMIZU, H.; STERMAN, G.; VOGELSANG, W.; YOKOYA, H.

    2005-10-02

    We present a recent study of the QCD corrections to dilepton production near partonic threshold in transversely polarized {bar p}p scattering, We analyze the role of the higher-order perturbative QCD corrections in terms of the available fixed-order contributions as well as of all-order soft-gluon resummations for the kinematical regime of proposed experiments at GSI-FAIR. We find that perturbative corrections are large for both unpolarized and polarized cross sections, but that the spin asymmetries are stable. The role of the far infrared region of the momentum integral in the resummed exponent and the effect of the NNLL resummation are briefly discussed.

  12. Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Campajola, L.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillá, V.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gialanella, L.; Gulino, M.; Gyürky, G.; Kiss, G.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Ordine, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.

    2008-12-01

    Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p+d→p+p+n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.

  13. Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Campajola, L.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Kiss, G.; Somorjai, E.; Gialanella, L.; Ordine, A.

    2008-12-15

    Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p + d{yields}p + p + n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.

  14. Parity-Violating Interaction Effects I: The Longitudinal Asymmetry in pp Elastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    J. Carlson; R. Schiavilla; V. Brown; B. Gibson

    2001-09-01

    The proton-proton parity-violating longitudinal asymmetry is calculated in the lab-energy range 0--350 MeV, using a number of different, latest-generation strong-interaction potentials--Argonne {nu}{sub 18}, Bonn-2000, and Nijmegen-I--in combination with a weak-interaction potential consisting of rho- and omega-meson exchanges--the model known as DDH. The complete scattering problem in the presence of parity-conserving, including Coulomb, and parity-violating potentials is solved in both configuration- and momentum-space. The predicted parity-violating asymmetries are found to be only weakly dependent upon the input strong-interaction potential adopted in the calculation. Values for the rho- and omega-meson weak coupling constants h{sub {rho}}{sup pp} and h{sub {omega}}{sup pp} are determined by reproducing the measured asymmetries at 13.6 MeV, 45 MeV, and 221 MeV.

  15. Coulomb suppression in the low-energy p-p elastic scattering via the Trojan Horse Method

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Campajola, L.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, G.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Gialanella, L.

    2010-11-24

    We present here an important test of the main feature of the Trojan Horse Method (THM), namely the suppression of Coulomb effects in the entrance channel due to off-energy-shell effects. This is done by measuring the THM p-p elastic scattering via the p+d{yields}p+p+n reaction at 4.7 and 5 MeV, corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. In contrast to the on-energy-shell (OES) case, the extracted p-p cross section does not exhibit the Coulomb-nuclear interference minimum due to the suppression of the Coulomb amplitude. This is confirmed by the half-off-energy shell (HOES) calculations and strengthened by the agreement with the calculated OES nuclear cross sections.

  16. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Guryn, W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from {radical}s = 50 GeV to {radical}s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions. In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 < {vert_bar}t{vert_bar} < 0.12 (GeV/c){sup 2}, they will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, {sigma}{sub tot} and {sigma}{sub el}; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, {rho}; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium {vert_bar}t{vert_bar}-region, {vert_bar}t{vert_bar} < 1.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}, they plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, and the s and {vert_bar}t{vert_bar} dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin states {Delta}{sigma}{sub T}, the analyzing power, A{sub N}, and the transverse spin correlation parameter A{sub NN}. The behavior of the analyzing power A{sub N} at RHIC energies in the dip region of d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied. The relation of pp elastic scattering to the beam polarization measurement at RHIC is also discussed.

  17. Suppression of the Coulomb Interaction in the Off-Energy-Shell p-p Scattering from the p+d{yields}p+p+n Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mudo, F.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Kiss, G.; Somorjai, E.

    2007-06-22

    Off-energy-shell effects in p-p scattering have been investigated at p-p relative energies from 600 down to 80 keV applying the Trojan horse method (THM) to the p+d{yields}p+p+n reaction at 5 MeV. In contrast with the on-energy-shell case, no Coulomb-nuclear interference minimum has been found in the extracted THM p-p cross section, due to the suppression of the Coulomb amplitude as predicted by the half-off-energy shell calculations. This hypothesis is strengthened by the agreement between THM p-p data and calculated on-energy-shell n+n, n+p and nuclear p+p cross sections.

  18. PP prune users guide.

    Treesearch

    N.A. Bolon; R.D. Fight; J.M. Cahill

    1992-01-01

    The PP PRUNE program allows users to conduct a financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). The increase in product value and rate of return from pruning the butt 16.5-foot log can be estimated. Lumber recovery information is based on actual mill experience with pruned and unpruned logs. Users supply lumber prices...

  19. Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Investigations on Irradiated iPP-VGCNF Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Arnold; Chipara, Dorina; Lozano, Karen; Chipara, Mircea

    Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) has been loaded by various amounts of Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofiber (VGCNF), ranging between 0 and 20 % wt., via melt mixing. The as obtained nanocomposites were gamma irradiated in air, at room temperature, at a dose rate of about 1 kGy/h and various integral doses ranging between 0 and 28 kGy. by using a 60Co source. Wide Angle X-Ray Spectroscopy has been used to quantify the changes in the crystalline structure and the degree of crystallinity of iPP-VGCNFs nanocomposites. The measurements have been carried out by a Bruker Discover 8 spectrometer. Additional measurements have been performed by Raman spectroscopy using a Renishaw InVia microscope system operating at 532 and 785 nm. The experimental spectra of the nanocomposite were fitted by assuming a superposition of extended Breit-Wigner-Fano line shapes. It is concluded that the observed modifications noticed in these nanocomposites are dominated by the radiation-induced degradation of the polymeric matrix. Differential Scanning calorimetry data provided additional information regarding the effect of the nanofiller on the degree of crystallinity.

  20. Spin parameter measurements in p-p elastic scattering at 6 and 11. 75 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Results of recent analyses of two ZGS experiments at 6 and 11.75 GeV/c are presented. At 6 GeV/c the double scattering parameters K/sub LS/, K/sub NN/, D/sub SS/, H/sub LSN/, and H/sub NSS/ were measured as part of a program to determine the p-p elastic scattering amplitudes. Approximate values for the amplitudes are given. Preliminary data for C/sub SS/ and C/sub LS at 11.75 GeV/c are given and features of the data are compared with previous measurements of C/sub NN/. The combined C/sub SS/ and C/sub NN/ data allow a determination of ..delta..sigma/sub T//sup el/. 11 references, 6 figures.

  1. A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD renormalization is described, with applications to high energy elastic pp-scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, H. M.; Tsang, P. H.; Gabellini, Y.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2016-11-01

    A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.

  2. Locally homogeneous pp-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globke, Wolfgang; Leistner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    We show that every n-dimensional locally homogeneous pp-wave is a plane wave, provided it is indecomposable and its curvature operator, when acting on 2-forms, has rank greater than one. As a consequence we obtain that indecomposable, Ricci-flat locally homogeneous pp-waves are plane waves. This generalises a classical result by Jordan, Ehlers and Kundt in dimension 4. Several examples show that our assumptions on indecomposability and the rank of the curvature are essential.

  3. {Delta} isobars and (p,p') reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, F.; Stephenson, E. J.

    2001-09-01

    We explore the role of coupling to {Delta} isobars (in both the N{Delta} and {Delta}{Delta} channels) in medium modifications of the effective NN interaction that drives 200-MeV proton inelastic scattering. A comparison of the predictions to natural-parity (p,p') cross section and analyzing power data show that isobar degrees of freedom in the medium generate overly repulsive effective interactions. Furthermore, this model extension is unable to resolve difficulties observed earlier describing polarization transfer measurements in some high-spin, unnatural-parity (p,p') transitions.

  4. Elastic pp scattering from the optical point to past the dip: An empirical parametrization from ISR to the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, D. A.; Pancheri, G.; Grau, A.; Pacetti, S.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the main features of recent LHC data on elastic pp scattering through a simple parametrization to the amplitude, inspired by a model proposed by Barger and Phillips in 1973, comprised of two exponentials with a relative phase. Despite its simplicity, this parametrization reproduces two essential aspects of the elastic differential cross section: the well-known precipitous descent in the forward direction and a sharp “dip” structure. To include a complete description of data sets near -t=0, we correct the original parametrization. We examine two possibilities: the presence of the two-pion threshold singularity or a multiplicative factor reflecting the proton form factor. We find good descriptions of LHC7 and ISR data in either case. The form-factor model allows simple predictions for higher energies through asymptotic theorems and asymptotic sum rules in impact parameter space. We present predictions for this model at higher LHC energies, which can be used to test whether asymptotia is reached. The black-disk limit in this model is seen to be reached only for s˜106TeV.

  5. A Complete Set of In-Plane Spin-Transfer Coefficients for p+p Elastic Scattering at 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, W. A.; Wissink, S. W.; Bacher, A. D.; Betker, A. C.; Black, T.; Choi, S.; Jiang, K.; Schmitt, W. M.; Sowinski, J.; Stephenson, E. J.; Yu, C.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary analysis has been completed for high precision measurements of the in-plane spin-transfer coefficients D_LL', D_LS', D_SL', and D_SS' for p+p elastic scattering at 200 MeV. The measurements were performed on the IUCF K600 spectrometer at lab frame angles between 5 and 15 degrees. These data span a kinematic regime (q = 50 - 170 MeV/c) which was chosen specifically to maximize sensitivity to the value of the neutral pion coupling constant g_0^2. In combination with previous spin-transfer and spin-correlation observables measured at IUCF, these results constitute an extremely robust set of single-energy high-precision polarization data for p+p scattering. Preliminary results will be presented and compared to predictions from several phase shift solutions and potential model calculations. Implications of these data for specific aspects of the NN interaction will be discussed.

  6. Excitation of 0/sup -/ states by /sup 16/O(pp')/sup 16/O inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hosono, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Kondo, M.; Matsuoka, N.; Saito, T.; Matsuki, S.; Ogino, K.; Kato, S.

    1984-08-01

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for 0/sup -/ states in /sup 16/O have been measured in inelastic scattering of 65 MeV polarized protons. This is the first observation of both isovector and isoscalar 0/sup +/..-->..0/sup -/ transitions in proton scattering on a particular isotope. Microscopic distorted-wave Born approximations and distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations do not describe very well either experimental cross sections or analyzing powers. It is suggested that more complicated reaction mechanisms and wave functions may be needed to describe these transitions.

  7. Properties of nanocomposite PP fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smole, Majda S.; Stakne, Kristina; Svetec, Diana G.; Kleinschek, Karin S.; Ribitsch, Volker

    2005-06-01

    PP-based nanocomposite fibres were prepared by direct polymer melt intercalation. With the intention to determine the size and dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, fibres were plasma etched and SEM observations were performed. The influence of nanofiller content and coupling agent on electrokinetic properties was studied. PP monofilament fibres exhibit hydrophobe character with negative zeta potential value. The zeta potential value of co-polymer PP fibre decreases with increasing PPAA content and the isoelectric point IEP of co-polymer samples shifts towards acid region. Addition of modified montmorillonite due to the particles electropositive character, affects the reduction of zeta potential value and a slight shift of IEP towards neutral region is observed. Nano-particles content influences electrokinetic fibres properties, i.e. ZP value is changed, however IE point is not significantly changed by different concentrations of nanofiller. In addition to, mechanical properties of nanocomposite fibres were determined.

  8. Φ Production in pp Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibirtsev, Alexander

    The data for near-threshold cross section for the reaction pppp published by the DISTO and ANKE Collaboration are analyzed in order to evaluate the OZI ratio at low energies by taking into account corrections from the kinematics and the final-state interaction. Combining these new data with the few measurements available at higher energies the limit for the OZI rule violation is evaluated and the possible contribution from a five-quark baryonic resonance coupled to the p system is estimated.

  9. Spin analyzing power in p-p elastic scattering at 28 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, P.H.; O'Fallon, J.R.; Danby, G.T.

    1983-03-14

    The analyzing power, A, was measured in proton-proton elastic scattering with use of a polarized proton target and 28-GeV/c primary protons from the alternating-gradient synchrotron. Over the P/sub perpendicular//sup 2/ range of 0.5 to 2.8 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, the data show interesting structure. There is a rather sharp dip at P/sub perpendicular//sup 2/ = 0.8 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ corresponding to the break in the elastic differential cross section at the end of the diffraction peak.

  10. Investigation of the NN interaction from polarization transfer experiments in low energy pp scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, R.; Albert, J.; Clajus, M.; Egun, P. M.; Glombik, A.; Grüebler, W.; Hautle, P.; Kretschmer, W.; Nebert, P.; Rauscher, A.; Schmelzbach, P. A.; Šlaus, I.

    1993-03-01

    The polarization-Transfer observables Kyy1(θ), Kxx1(θ) and Kzx1(θ) for proton-proton scattering have been measured at Ep = 25.68MeV. A simultaneous phase-shift analysis of these new data with differential cross section and analyzing power data at the same energy resulted in a very accurate determination of the p-wave phase-shift combinations ΔC, ΔLS and ΔT and of the 3F2-3P2 mixing parameter ɛ2. With this complete set of high precision data a critical test of microscopic NN-potential models has been performed.

  11. Parity-violating interaction effects: The longitudinal asymmetry in pp elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J.; Schiavilla, R.; Brown, V. R.; Gibson, B. F.

    2002-03-01

    The proton-proton parity-violating longitudinal asymmetry is calculated in the laboratory-energy range 0-350 MeV, using a number of different, latest-generation strong-interaction potentials-Argonne v18, Bonn-2000, and Nijmegen-I-in combination with a weak-interaction potential consisting of ρ- and ω-meson exchanges-the model known as DDH. The complete scattering problem in the presence of parity conserving, including Coulomb, and parity-violating potentials is solved in both configuration and momentum space. The predicted parity-violating asymmetries are found to be only weakly dependent upon the input strong-interaction potential adopted in the calculation. Values for the ρ- and ω-meson weak coupling constants hppρ and hppω are determined by reproducing the measured asymmetries at 13.6 MeV, 45 MeV, and 221 MeV.

  12. Study of {psi}(2S) decays to {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp, and search for pp threshold enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Sun, W. M.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.

    2010-11-01

    The decays of {psi}(2S) into {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp have been studied with the CLEO-c detector using a sample of 24.5x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) events obtained from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations at {radical}(s)=3686 MeV. The data show evidence for the excitation of several N{sup *} resonances in p{pi}{sup 0} and p{eta} channels in {pi}{sup 0}pp and {eta}pp decays, and f{sub 2} states in {gamma}pp decay. Branching fractions for decays of {psi}(2S) to {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp have been determined. No evidence for pp threshold enhancements was found in the reactions {psi}(2S){yields}Xpp, where X={gamma}, {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}. We do, however, find confirming evidence for a pp threshold enhancement in J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}pp as previously reported by BES.

  13. Chiral power counting and pp {r_arrow} pp{pi}{sup 0} near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kolck, U.; Miller, G.A.

    1995-10-01

    The pp {r_arrow} pp{pi}{sup 0} reaction is studied near threshold using power counting arguments based on chiral perturbation theory with an explicit {Delta} degree of freedom. Important contributions include the so-called impulse term, rescattering via the {Delta} and rescattering via the (off-shell) seagull term responsible for s-wave pion-nucleon scattering. These contributions largely cancel so that their sum greatly underpredicts the total cross-section. Other mechanisms are also discussed. The inclusion of the previously proposed {sigma} meson exchange mechanism is not sufficient to resolve the discrepancy with experiment.

  14. Comparison of the pp → π+pn and pp → π+d production rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fäldt, G.; Wilkin, C.

    2017-07-01

    Fully constrained bubble chamber data on the pp →π+ pn and pp →π+ d reactions are used to investigate the ratio of the counting rates for the two processes at low pn excitation energies. Whereas the ratio is in tolerable agreement with that found in a high resolution spectrometer experiment, the angular distribution in the final pn rest frame shows that the deviation from the predictions of final state interaction theory must originate primarily from higher partial waves in the pn system. These considerations might also be significant for the determination of the S-wave Λp scattering length from data on the pp →K+ Λp reaction.

  15. Evidence for back scattering of near-podal seismic P'P' waves from the 150-220 km zone in Earth's upper mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Tkalcic, H; Flanagan, M P; Cormier, V F

    2005-07-15

    The deepest and most inaccessible parts of Earth's interior--the core and core-mantle boundary regions can be studied from compressional waves that turn in the core and are routinely observed following large earthquakes at epicentral distances between 145{sup o} and 180{sup o} (also called P', PKIKP or PKP waves). P'P' (PKPPKP) are P' waves that travel from a hypocenter through the Earth's core, reflect from the free surface and travel back through the core to a recording station on the surface. P'P' waves are sometimes accompanied by precursors, which were reported first in the 1960s as small-amplitude arrivals on seismograms at epicentral distances of about 50{sup o}-70{sup o}. Most prominent of these observed precursors were explained by P'P' waves generated by earthquakes or explosions that did not reach the Earth's surface but were reflected from the underside of first order velocity discontinuities at 410 and 660 km in the upper mantle mantle. Here we report the discovery of hitherto unobserved near-podal P'P' waves (at epicentral distance less than 10{sup o}) and very prominent precursors preceding the main energy by as much as 55 seconds. We interpret these precursors as a back scattered energy from undocumented structure in the upper mantle, in a zone between 150 and 220 km depth beneath Earth's surface. From these observations, we identify a frequency dependence of Q (attenuation quality factor) in the lithosphere that can be modeled by a flat relaxation spectrum below about 0.05-0.1 Hz and increasing with as the first power of frequency above this value, confirming pioneering work by B. Gutenberg.

  16. pp interactions in extended air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendi Kohara, A.; Ferreira, Erasmo; Kodama, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  17. D/sub SS/, D/sub LS/, D/sub LL/ and P for pp elastic scattering at 699 and 750 MeV/sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Cremans, D.J.; Hollas, C.L.; McNaughton, K.H.; Riley, P.J.; Rodebaugh, R.F.; Xu, S.; Bonner, B.E.; McNaughton, M.W.; Van Dyck, O.B.; Sun, T.

    1983-01-01

    The pp elastic scattering amplitudes have been extensively investigated at intermediate energies over the past several years. Sufficient data exist for the extraction of the amplitudes at 548 and 445 MeV and at 800 and 647 MeV. Few observables have been measured at energies between 650 and 800 MeV. To provide data in this energy region we have made measurements of the depolariztion parameters D/sub SS/, D/sub LS/ and D/sub LL/ and the polarization parameter P at center of mass angles between 40/sup 0/ and 120/sup 0/ at 699 and 750 MeV.

  18. Angular dependence of the pp elastic-scattering analyzing power between 0.8 and 2.8 GeV. II. Results for higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Allgower, C.E.; Beddo, M.E.; Grosnick, D.P.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Lopiano, D.; Spinka, H.M.; Ball, J.; Chamouard, P.; Combet, M.; Fontaine, J.; Kunne, R.; Sans, J.; Janout, Z.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Matafonov, V.N.; Pisarev, I.L.; Popov, A.A.; Usov, Y.A.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Zhdanov, A.A.

    1999-11-01

    Measurements at 18 beam kinetic energies between 1975 and 2795 MeV and at 795 MeV are reported for the pp elastic-scattering single spin parameter A{sub ooon}=A{sub oono}=A{sub N}=P. The c.m. angular range is typically 60{endash}100{degree}. These results are compared to previous data from Saturne II and other accelerators. A search for energy-dependent structure at fixed c.m. angles is performed, but no rapid changes are observed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. KSC-99pp1521

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-13

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A loggerhead shrike perches on a branch in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The loggerhead shrike prefers grasslands, orchards and open areas with scattered trees throughout a range extending from southern Canada to southern Florida and the Gulf Coast. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects

  20. KSC-00pp0092

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-20

    Traveling west to east, the full moon, viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 10:35 p.m. EST, moves into the Earth's shadow during a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through -when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is "full." During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse

  1. KSC-00pp0093

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-20

    Viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 10:59 p.m. EST, the full moon, traveling west to east, is three-quarters of the way into the Earth's shadow during a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through -when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is "full." During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse

  2. KSC-00pp0096

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-20

    In this lunar eclipse viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at midnight, the full moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere. This light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through -when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse

  3. KSC-00pp0091

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-20

    Traveling west to east, the full moon, viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 10:18 p.m. EST, begins moving into the Earth's shadow, at the start of a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through -when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is "full." During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse

  4. KSC-00pp0094

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-20

    Viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 11:25 p.m. EST, the full moon, traveling west to east, is nearly completely in the Earth's shadow, producing a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through -when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is "full." During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse

  5. KSC-00pp0095

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-20

    In this lunar eclipse viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 11:55 p.m., the full moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere. This light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through -when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse

  6. Distribution of Oil in a PP/EPDM Thermoplastic Elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yutaka; Okada, Tetsuo; Inoue, Takashi

    Distribution of oil in a commercial PP(polypropylene)/EPDM(ethylene-propyrene-diene rubber) thermoplastic elastomer was analyzed by light scattering. It was shown that the oil preferentially stays in EPDM particles at low temperatures and it migrates to PP matrix at high temperatures. That is, the oil is expected to play a dual role; softener at ambient temperature and plasticizer at processing temperature. The temperature dependence of oil distribution was nicely interpreted by a thermodynamic discussion.

  7. Synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies of shear-induced crystallization in iPP/UHMWPE solution blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Orta, Carlos; Somani, Rajesh; Yang, Ling; Hsiao, Benjamin; Marom, Gad

    2003-03-01

    Shear-induced crystallization of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) blends was studied under isothermal conditions. Sample mixing was carried out in Xylene to ensure the intimate molecular interactions between iPP and UHMWPE chains. The blends were isothermally crystallized at 145oC (above the melting point of UHMWPE) after being subjected to a shear rate of 60 1/s for 5 s. The initial crystalline structure of iPP, determined by synchrotron SAXS and WAXS techniques, showed only a Kebab-like lamellar morphology. The induction time of crystallization decreased with the increase of molecular weight in the iPP matrix. The kebab structures were probably initiated from the oriented long PE chains (due to their very long relaxation times), which served as nucleation sites for iPP. The orientation of i-PP crystals and the crystallization rate was found to increase with the amount of UHMWPE and the molecular weight of the iPP matrix.

  8. Event patterns (particle scatter plots) extracted from charged particle spectra in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Liu, Fu-Hu; Fakhraddin, Sakina; Rahim, Magda A.; Duan, Mai-Ying

    2017-02-01

    The transverse momentum (p T) and pseudorapidity (η) spectra of charged particles produced in proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described by a hybrid model. In the model, the p T spectrum is described by a two-component distribution which contains an inverse power-law suggested by quantum chromodynamic calculus and an Erlang distribution resulted from a multisource thermal model. The η spectrum is described by a Gaussian rapidity (y) distribution resulted from the Landau hydrodynamic model and the two-component p T distribution, where the conversion between y and η is accurately considered. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in pp collisions at center-of-mass energy \\sqrt{s}=2.76 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair \\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=2.76 TeV. Based on the parameter values extracted from p T and η or y spectra, the event patterns or particle scatter plots in three-dimensional velocity and momentum spaces are obtained.

  9. Setting the scale of the pp and pp total cross sections using AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Domokos, Sophia K.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Mann, Nelia

    2010-11-15

    This paper is an addendum to earlier work where we computed the Pomeron contribution to pp and pp scattering in AdS/QCD. Our model for pp scattering in the Regge regime depends on four parameters: the slope and intercept of the Pomeron trajectory {alpha}{sub c}{sup '}, {alpha}{sub c}(0), a mass scale M{sub d}, which determines a form factor entering into matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, and a coupling {lambda}{sub P} between the lightest spin-two glueball and the proton, which sets the overall scale of the total cross section. Here we perform a more detailed computation of {lambda}{sub P} in the Sakai-Sugimoto model by using the construction of nucleons as instantons of the dual 5D gauge theory and an effective 5D fermion description of these nucleons which has been successfully used to compute a variety of nucleon-meson couplings. We find {lambda}{sub P,SS{approx_equal}}6.38 GeV{sup -1}, which is in reasonable agreement with the value {lambda}{sub P,fit}=8.28 GeV{sup -1} determined by fitting single Pomeron exchange to data.

  10. Production of associated Y and open charm hadrons in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV via double parton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Associated production of bottomonia and open charm hadrons in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV is observed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 accumulated with the LHCb detector. The observation of five combinations, Y(1S)D0, Y(2S)D0, Y(1S)D+, Y(2S)D+ and Y(1S)D s + , is reported. Production crosssections are measured for Y(1S)D0 and Y(1S)D+ pairs in the forward region. The measured cross-sections and the differential distributions indicate the dominance of double parton scattering as the main production mechanism. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Analysis of Vernier Scans during the PP2PP run in 2009 (pp at 100 GeV/beam)

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.

    2011-12-13

    At the end of RHIC's 2009 operation a dedicated run for the PP2PP experiment (part of the STAR experiment) took place from Jun 29 to Jul 06 2009. Polarized protons were accelerated to 100 GeV using ramp-file pp100-90pp2pp with a {beta}* = 22 m in IR6. Since only transverse polarization was required no rotator ramp was in use. The PP2PP experiment consists mainly of two Roman Pot detectors (one horizontal and one vertical) on either side of IR6 in the outgoing-beam arms between the Q3 and Q4 magnets. The yellow pots are in sector 5, the blue ones in sector 6. Roman Pot type detectors are installed inside the beampipe causing an accelerator safety concern. To address this concern there is a limit to the allowable total beam current in the machine while Roman Pots are enabled to move closer to the beam. This limit was set to a motion limit of 5 mm from the center of the beampipe and 50 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} beam current per ring. In order to reduce the background in the detectors, beams were scraped using the RHIC collimator system prior to moving the pots closer. This was typically repeated several times throughout a store since beam halo reforms over the course of hours.

  12. Differential regulation of single CFTR channels by PP2C, PP2A, and other phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Pato, M D; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1998-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel activity declines rapidly when excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or human airway cells because of membrane-associated phosphatase activity. In the present study, we found that CFTR channels usually remained active in patches excised from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing CFTR. Those patches with stable channel activity were used to investigate the regulation of CFTR by exogenous protein phosphatases (PP). Adding PP2A, PP2C, or alkaline phosphatase to excised patches reduced CFTR channel activity by > 90% but did not abolish it completely. PP2B caused weak deactivation, whereas PP1 had no detectable effect on open probability (Po). Interestingly, the time course of deactivation by PP2C was identical to that of the spontaneous rundown observed in some patches after excision. PP2C and PP2A had distinct effects on channel gating Po declined during exposure to exogenous PP2C (and during spontaneous rundown, when it was observed) without any change in mean burst duration. By contrast, deactivation by exogenous PP2A was associated with a dramatic shortening of burst duration similar to that reported previously in patches from cardiac cells during deactivation of CFTR by endogenous phosphatases. Rundown of CFTR-mediated current across intact T84 epithelial cell monolayers was insensitive to toxic levels of the PP2A inhibitor calyculin A. These results demonstrate that exogenous PP2C is a potent regulator of CFTR activity, that its effects on single-channel gating are distinct from those of PP2A but similar to those of endogenous phosphatases in CHO, BHK, and T84 epithelial cells, and that multiple protein phosphatases may be required for complete deactivation of CFTR channels.

  13. Damping of forward neutrons in pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate absorptive corrections to single pion exchange in the production of leading neutrons in pp collisions. Contrary to the usual procedure of convolving the survival probability with the cross section, we apply corrections to the spin amplitudes. The nonflip amplitude turns out to be much more suppressed by absorption than the spin-flip one. We identify the projectile proton Fock state responsible for the absorptive corrections as a color octet-octet 5-quarks configuration. Calculations within two very different models, color-dipole light-cone description, and in hadronic representation, lead to rather similar absorptive corrections. We found a much stronger damping of leading neutrons than in some of previous estimates. Correspondingly, the cross section is considerably smaller than was measured at ISR. However, comparison with recent measurements by the ZEUS collaboration of neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering provides a strong motivation for challenging the normalization of the ISR data. This conjecture is also supported by preliminary data from the NA49 experiment for neutron production in pp collisions at SPS.

  14. Progesterone-associated proteins PP12 and PP14 in the human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Rutanen, E M; Koistinen, R; Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Suikkari, A M; Huhtala, M L

    1987-01-01

    Two proteins, designated as PP12 and PP14 were originally isolated from soluble extracts of the human placenta and its adjacent membranes. We have shown that they are synthesized by decidualized/secretory endometrium and not by placenta. Both proteins occur at high concentrations in human amniotic fluid, which is therefore an excellent source for purification. PP12 is a 34-kDa glycoprotein, which has an N-terminal amino acid sequence of Ala-Pro-Trp-Gln-Cys-Ala-Pro-Cys-Ser-Ala. This is identical with that of somatomedin-binding protein purified from the amniotic fluid. PP12 too binds somatomedin-C, or IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I). Human secretory endometrium synthesizes and secretes PP12, and progesterone stimulates its secretion. PP14 is a 28-kDa glycoprotein. Its N-terminal sequence shows homology to that of beta-lactoglobulins from various species. We have found PP14 in the human endometrium, serum and milk. Immunologically, PP14 is related to progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PEP), alpha-2 pregnancy-associated endometrial protein (alpha-2, PEG), endometrial protein 15 (EP15), alpha-uterine protein (AUP) and chorionic alpha-2 microglobulin (CAG-2). In ovulatory menstrual cycles, the concentration of PP14 increases in endometrial tissue as the secretory changes advance. In serum, the PP14 concentration begins to rise later than the progesterone levels, and high serum PP14 levels are maintained for the first days of the next cycle. By contrast, no elevation of serum PP14 level is seen in anovulatory cycles. Our results show that progesterone-associated proteins are synthesized by the human endometrium and appear in the peripheral circulation, where they can be quantitatively measured using immunochemical techniques.

  15. Spinning, structure and properties of PP/CNTs and PP/carbon black composite fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcincin, A.; Hricova, M.; Ujhelyiova, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of the compatibilisers-dispersants and other nanofillers on melt spinning of the polypropylene (PP) composites, containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon black pigment (CBP) has been investigated. Further, the structure and selected properties of composite fibers, such as mechanical and electrical have been studied. The results revealed, that percolation threshold for PP/CBP composite fibres was situated within the concentration of 15 - 20 wt%, what is several times higher than for PP/CNTs fibers.

  16. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO4 nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  17. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The…

  18. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The…

  19. Measurement and analysis of the pp{yields}pp{gamma} reaction at 310 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Nakayama, K.; Wilkin, C.

    2011-05-15

    The pp{yields}pp{gamma} reaction has been studied at a beam energy of 310 MeV by detecting both final protons at the PROMICE-WASA facility and identifying the photon through the resulting missing-mass peak. The photon angular distribution in the center-of-mass system and those of the proton-proton relative momentum with respect to the beam direction and to that of the recoil photon were determined reliably up to a final pp excitation energy of E{sub pp}{approx}30 MeV. Except for very small E{sub pp} values, the behavior of these distributions with excitation energy is well reproduced by a new refined model of the hard bremsstrahlung process. The model reproduces absolutely the total cross section and its energy dependence to within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties.

  20. ICI/BASF PP for acrylics swap

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    ICI (London) and BASF (Ludwigshafen) have announced their long-awaited polypropylene (PP) for acrylics swap deal. ICI is buying BASF's European acrylic resin business, and the German firm will acquire ICI's European PP operations. The deal is due for completion by mid-1993, subject to regulatory approvals. BASF, hitherto a small-scale PP producer, doubles capacity to 600,000 m.t./year and moves up the European PP league to number three, behind Himont and Shell. BASF, whose process is used in the plants, secures a foothold in the UK PP market, where Shell - planning a merger with Himont - is the only other producer, with 170,000 m.t./year. ICI's purchase involves BASF's Resart GmbH and Critesa SA subsidiaries, located at Mainz, Germany and near Barcelona, Spain, respectively. The business - which will add about [Brit pounds]60 million ($93 million) to ICI Acrylics [Brit pounds]300-million revenues - employs 400 people, who will transfer to ICI.

  1. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Fostriecin, Cytostatin, and Key Analogs, with PP1, PP2A, PP5, and (β12–β13)-Chimeras (PP1/PP2A and PP5/PP2A), Provide Further Insight into the Inhibitory Actions of Fostriecin Family Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Swingle, Mark R.; Amable, Lauren; Lawhorn, Brian G.; Buck, Suzanne B.; Burke, Christopher P.; Ratti, Pukar; Fischer, Kimberly L.; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    Fostriecin and cytostatin are structurally related natural inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases, with promising antitumor activity. The total synthesis of these antitumor agents has enabled the production of structural analogs, which are useful to explore the biological significance of features contained in the parent compounds. Here, the inhibitory activity of fostriecin, cytostatin, and 10 key structural analogs were tested in side-by-side phosphatase assays to further characterize their inhibitory activity against PP1c (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit), PP2Ac (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit), PP5c (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 5 catalytic subunit), and chimeras of PP1 (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1) and PP5 (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 5), in which key residues predicted for inhibitor contact with PP2A (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A) were introduced into PP1 and PP5 using site-directed mutagenesis. The data confirm the importance of the C9-phosphate and C11-alcohol for general inhibition and further demonstrate the importance of a predicted C3 interaction with a unique cysteine (Cys269) in the β12–β13 loop of PP2A. The data also indicate that additional features beyond the unsaturated lactone contribute to inhibitory potency and selectivity. Notably, a derivative of fostriecin lacking the entire lactone subunit demonstrated marked potency and selectivity for PP2A, while having substantially reduced and similar activity against PP1 and PP1/PP2A- PP5/PP2A-chimeras that have greatly increased sensitivity to both fostriecin and cytostatin. This suggests that other features [e.g., the (Z,Z,E)-triene] also contribute to inhibitory selectivity. When considered together with previous data, these studies suggest that, despite the high structural conservation of the catalytic site in PP1, PP2A and PP5, the development of highly selective catalytic inhibitors should be feasible. PMID:19592665

  2. New boundaries for the "ppK-" production in p+p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, Eliane

    2014-11-01

    The HADES collaboration has searched for the anti-kaonic nuclear cluster "ppK-" in p+p collisions by its decay into pΛ. In the course of this analysis several cross checks had to be performed. This report discusses two examples thereof. In one test it was checked whether the presence of background events could introduce a bias on the applied partial wave analysis. The second item discussed here is the extraction of the total pK+Λ production cross section necessary to derive the absolute upper limit on the "ppK-" production cross section.

  3. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. 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L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2014-12-01

    A measurement of the total pp cross section at the LHC at √{ s} = 7 TeV is presented. In a special run with high-β⋆ beam optics, an integrated luminosity of 80 μb-1 was accumulated in order to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the | t | range from 0.01 GeV2 to 0.1 GeV2 to extrapolate to | t | → 0, the total cross section, σtot (pp → X), is measured via the optical theorem to be:

  4. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. 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J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. 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S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Ezzi, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gasnikova, K.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. 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E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reed, R. G.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reiss, A.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosien, N.-A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, K.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shirabe, S.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shope, D. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-10-01

    A measurement of the total pp cross section at the LHC at √{ s} = 8 TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of 500 μb-1 was accumulated in a special run with high-β⋆ beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the -t range from 0.014 GeV2 to 0.1 GeV2 to extrapolate t → 0, the total cross section, σtot (pp → X), is measured via the optical theorem to be

  5. Regulation of PP2A by Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Joshua; Ogretmen, Besim

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is a primary regulator of cellular proliferation through targeting of proliferative kinases, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis inhibitors. It is through the regulation of these regulatory elements that gives PP2A tumor suppressor functions. In addition to mutations on the regulatory subunits, the phosphatase/tumor suppressing activity of PP2A is also inhibited in several cancer types due to overexpression or modification of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as SET/I2PP2A. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the interactions between the lipid signaling molecules, selectively sphingolipids, and the PP2A inhibitor SET for the regulation of PP2A, and the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids as PP2A activators for tumor suppression via targeting SET oncoprotein. PMID:25642418

  6. Regulation of PP2A by Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Joshua; Ogretmen, Besim

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is a primary regulator of cellular proliferation through targeting of proliferative kinases, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis inhibitors. It is through the regulation of these regulatory elements that gives PP2A tumor suppressor functions. In addition to mutations on the regulatory subunits, the phosphatase/tumor suppressing activity of PP2A is also inhibited in several cancer types due to overexpression or modification of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as SET/I2PP2A. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the interactions between the lipid signaling molecules, selectively sphingolipids, and the PP2A inhibitor SET for the regulation of PP2A, and the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids as PP2A activators for tumor suppression via targeting SET oncoprotein.

  7. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in pp collisions at s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.

    2016-08-16

    A measurement of the total pp cross section at the LHC at √s = 8 TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of 500 μb–1 was accumulated in a special run with high-β* beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t. Here, the measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS.

  8. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, P.L.; Quack, E.; Ruuskanen, P.V. |

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  9. Status of K-pp Search Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Tomofumi

    After the claims on the experimental evidence of the "K-pp" bound state by the FINUDA and DISTO collaborations, there are several new data recently reported. Some of them observed signals, while some others not. These results are introduced and the consistency and sensitivities among these data are briefly discussed.

  10. Angular dependence of the pp elastic-scattering analyzing power between 0.8 and 2.8 GeV. I. Results for 1.80{endash}2.24 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Allgower, C.E.; Beddo, M.E.; Grosnick, D.P.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Lopiano, D.; Spinka, H.M.; Ball, J.; Beauvais, P.; Bedfer, Y.; Chamouard, P.; Combet, M.; Fontaine, J.; Kunne, R.; Lagniel, J.M.; Lemaire, J.L.; Milleret, G.; Sans, J.; Boutefnouchet, A.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Whitten, C.A.; Demierre, P.; Hess, R.; Janout, Z.F.; Rapin, D.; Vuaridel, B.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Zhdanov, A.A.

    1999-11-01

    Experimental results are presented for the pp elastic-scattering single spin observable A{sub oono}=A{sub ooon}=A{sub N}=P, or the analyzing power, at 19 beam kinetic energies between 1795 and 2235 MeV. The typical c.m. angular range is 60{endash}100{degree}. The measurements were performed at Saturne II with a vertically polarized beam and target (transverse to the beam direction and scattering plane), a magnetic spectrometer and a recoil detector, both instrumented with multiwire proportional chambers, and beam polarimeters. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Analyzing power measurements in high-P/sub perpendicular to//sup 2/ p-p elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R.S.; Brown, K.A.; Bruni, R.J.; Cameron, P.R.; Crabb, D.G.; Cummings, R.L.; Khiari, F.Z.; Krisch, A.D.; Lin, A.M.T.; Terwilliger, K.M.

    1984-05-23

    The analyzing power in 28 GeV/c proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at P/sub perpendicular to//sup 2/ = 5.95 and 6.56 (GEV/c)/sup 2/ y/sub g/ a polarized proton target and an unpolarized proton beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. Results indicate that the analyzing power, A, is rising sharply with P/sub perpendicular to//sup 2/. Previous measurements of the analyzing power, A, in p + p ..-->.. p + p suggested a rise in A at large-P/sub perpendicular to//sup 2/, but the statistical uncertainty in the highest point at P/sub perpendicular to//sup 2/ = 5.95 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ made it impossible to determine the magnitude of the increase. In an effort to clarify this situation, we made new measurements of A at P/sub perpendicular to//sup 2/ = 5.95 and 6.56 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. An unpolarized beam of typically 5 x 10/sup 10/ 28 GeV/c protons from the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory was incident upon the University of Michigan polarized proton target. This target contains irradiated ammonia beads cooled to 0.5/sup 0/K by a /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He evaporation refrigerator, in a 2.5 T magnetic field. The polarizing transitions are driven by a 70 GHz microwave system. The polarization of the hydrogen protons is measured with a 107 MHz NMR system, and is typically P/sub T/ = 45% with beam and 60% without beam.

  12. Beam optics and the pp2pp experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Pile P. H.; Guryn, W.; Lee, J.H.; Tepikian, S.; Yip, K.

    2012-05-20

    The newly installed forward detector system at the STAR experiment at RHIC measures small angle elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons on polarized protons. The detector system makes use of a pair of Roman Pot (RP) detectors, instrumented with silicon detectors, and located on either side of the STAR intersection region downstream of the DX and D0 dipoles and quadrupole triplets. The parallel to point optics is designed so that scattering angles are determined from position measurements at the RP's with small error. The RP setup allows measurement of position and angle for a subset of the scattered protons. With this position/angle correlations at the RP's can be compared with optics model predictions to get a measure of the accuracy of the quadrupole triplet current settings. The current in each quadrupole in the triplets is comprised of sums and differences of up to six power supplies and an overall 1% error in the triplet field strengths results in a 4% error in four-momentum transfer squared. This technique is also useful to check the polarity of the skew elements located in each quadrupole triplet. Results of the analysis will be presented.

  13. Leishmania donovani phosphoproteins pp41 and pp29 re-establishes host protective immune response in visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Das, Pranati; Amit, Ajay; Singh, Shubhankar Kumar; Chaudhary, Rajesh; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Yadav, Anupam; Pandey, Krishna; Das, Vidya Nand Rabi; Sundram, Shanty; Das, P; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2015-02-01

    As phospho proteins are reported to be involved in virulence and survival, the ability of Leishmania to inhibit macrophage effector functions may result from a direct interference of leishmanial molecules with macrophage signal transduction pathways. Several such proteins such as pp63, pp41 and pp29 have also been identified as a Th1 stimulatory protein in the Leishmania donovani. In the present study, the immunogenicity of a cocktail of pp63+pp41+pp29 was assessed by estimation of serum antibody titre, nitric oxide(NO) production, estimation of Th1 cytokine(IFN-γ) as well as Th2 cytokines(IL-4), and determination of parasite load in L. donovani infected mice. In the group immunized with antigenic cocktail there was a sharp rise in antibody titer up to Day 20 which reduced considerably by Day 50. Groups of mice vaccinated with pp63, pp41, pp29 and the antigenic cocktail expressed 10-fold, 16-fold, 22-fold and 25-fold increase respectively in NO production by splenocytes. The animal groups immunized with pp63, pp41, pp29 and the antigenic cocktail showed reduced parasite load in the liver and spleen, as well as increased IFN-gamma production in the spleen. Furthermore immunized animals remained with a normal hematological profile, whereas L. donovani in unimmunized mice lead to significant anemia.

  14. Branching fractions for {chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}, pp{eta}, and pp{omega}

    SciTech Connect

    Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hunt, J. M.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.

    2010-07-01

    Using a sample of 25.9x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) decays acquired with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we report branching fractions for the decays {chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}, pp{eta}, and pp{omega}, with J=0, 1, 2. Our results for B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}) and B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{eta}) are consistent with, but more precise than, previous measurements. Furthermore, we include the first measurement of B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{omega}).

  15. Structure investigations of PP-PA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Jaroslaw; Wlochowicz, Andrzej; Slusarczyk, Czeslaw

    1997-02-01

    In the paper we have used the SAXS method in order to determine the supermolecular structure parameters, including the transition layer thickness, of polypropylene/polyamide-6 (PP/PA) blends. The transition layer thickness has been obtained by means of two methods elaborated by Koberstein and co-workers and by Ruland, respectively. Both these methods assume that changes of the electron density in the transition region can be described by a Gaussian function with a standard deviation (sigma) . The parameter (sigma) have been determined graphically from the appropriate plots. Then, the thickness of the phase boundary E was estimated as (root)12(sigma) . The investigated PP/PA blends are multiphase systems and the problem of determination of the boundary width is more complicated because the meaning of Porod's law must be considered with caution. This problem is discussed based on wide range of the investigated samples prepared over various pressure and crystallization temperature conditions.

  16. PP: A Lisp Pretty Printing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function is like PRIN1 except that it does not force ,PRINT-ESCAPE, to be T. The...PRINT-CASE, and ,PRINT- GENSYM , respectively. (’llhe last four of these variables are not supported by release 5 of the I isp Machine System...variables. PP:SET-INTERACTIVE-CONTROL-VARIABLES &key :escape :base :pretty :level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function specifies

  17. Nuclear trafficking of the human cytomegalovirus pp71 (ppUL82) tegument protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Weiping; Westgard, Elizabeth; Huang Liqun; Ward, Michael D.; Osborn, Jodi L.; Chau, Nha H.; Collins, Lindsay; Marcum, Benjamin; Koach, Margaret A.; Bibbs, Jennifer; Semmes, O. John; Kerry, Julie A.

    2008-06-20

    The human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp71 localizes to the nucleus immediately upon infection, and functions to initiate viral gene expression. Analysis of a series of random insertion mutations revealed that sequences within the mid region (MR) of pp71 are important for localization to the nucleus. Fusion of MR sequences with eGFP revealed that amino acids 94 to 300 were sufficient to target proteins to the nucleus. Random substitution mutagenesis within this domain resulted in two double substitution mutants, pp71P203T/T223M and pp71T228M/L275Q, with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization. Disruption of nuclear targeting resulted in relocalization of the fusion proteins to a distinct perinuclear region. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we determined that threonine 223 can be phosphorylated. Mutation of this residue to a phosphomimetic amino acid resulted in abrogation of nuclear targeting. These results strongly suggest that the intracellular trafficking of pp71 is regulated by phosphorylation.

  18. Inner Core Imaging Using P'P'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; Ward, J. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's inner core is a surprisingly complex region of our planet. Simple models of inner core solidification and evolution would lead us to expect a layered structure, which has "frozen in" in information about the state of the core at the time of solidification. However, seismic observations of Earth's inner core are not dominated by a radial "tree-ring" like pattern, but instead have revealed a hemispherical dichotomy in addition to depth dependent variations. There is a degree-one structure in isotropic and anisotropic velocities and in attenuation between the so-called eastern and western hemispheres of the inner core, with different depth distributions proposed for these varying phenomena. A range of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hemispherical differences. These include models that require differences between the two hemispheres at the time of formation, post-solidification texturing, convection in the inner core, or hybrid mechanisms. Regional observations of the inner core suggest that a simple division between East and West may not be able to fully capture the structure present in the inner core. More detailed seismic observations will help us to understand the puzzle of the inner core's evolution. In this study we focus on updating observations of the seismic phase P'P', an inner core sensitive body wave with a more complex path than those typically used to study the inner core. By making new measurements of P'P' we illuminate new regions of the core with a high frequency phase that is sensitive to small scale structures. We examine the differential travel times of the different branches of P'P' (PKIKPPKIKP and PKPPKP), comparing the arrival time of inner core turning branch, P'P'df, with the arrival times of branches that turn in the outer core. P'P' is a relatively small amplitude phase, so we use both linear and non-linear stacking methods to make observations of the P'P' signals. These measurements are sensitive to the broad scale

  19. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV Δpp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged Δpp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ΔUS2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, Δpp65ab protected against ΔUS2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ΔUS2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  20. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    PubMed Central

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While deletion of pp65ab slightly reduced growth in vitro and increased defective particle formation, the protein composition of secreted virions was largely unchanged. Interestingly, pp65 was not required for primary and persistent infection in animals. Immune responses induced by RhCMVΔpp65ab did not prevent reinfection with rhesus CMV; however, reinfection with RhCMVΔUS2-11, which lacks viral-encoded MHC-I antigen presentation inhibitors, was prevented. Unexpectedly, induction of pp65b-specific T cells alone did not protect against RhCMVΔUS2-11 challenge, suggesting that T cells targeting multiple CMV antigens are required for protection. However, pp65-specific immunity was crucial for controlling viral dissemination during primary infection, as indicated by the marked increase of RhCMVΔpp65ab genome copies in CMV-naive, but not CMV-immune, animals. Our data provide rationale for inclusion of pp65 into CMV vaccines but also demonstrate that pp65-induced T cell responses alone do not recapitulate the protective effect of natural infection. PMID:24691437

  1. Exclusive pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-} reaction: From the threshold to LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Lebiedowicz, P.; Szczurek, A.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate differential distributions for the four-body pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-} (and pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-}) reaction which constitutes an irreducible background to three-body processes pp{yields}ppM, where M are a broad resonances in the {pi}{sup +{pi}-} channel, e.g., M={sigma}, {rho}{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 2}(1275), f{sub 0}(1500). We include both double-diffractive contribution (both Pomeron and Reggeon exchanges) as well as pion-pion rescattering contribution. The first process dominates at higher energies and small pion-pion invariant masses while the second becomes important at lower energies and higher pion-pion invariant masses. The amplitude(s) is(are) calculated in the Regge approach. We compare our results with measured cross sections for the Intersecting Storage Ring and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiments. We make predictions for future experiments at the anti-Proton ANnihilation at DArmstadt (PANDA), Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Tevatron, and LHC energies. Differential distributions in invariant two-pion mass, pion rapidities and transverse momenta of pions are presented. The two-dimensional distribution in (y{sub {pi}}{sup +},y{sub {pi}}{sup -}) is particularly interesting. The higher the incident energy, the higher preference for the same-hemisphere emission of pions. The processes considered constitute a sizeable contribution to the total nucleon-nucleon cross section as well as to pion inclusive cross section.

  2. Spin transfer measurements for pp-->pp at 800 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, M. W.; Bonner, B. E.; Cornelius, W. D.; Hoffman, E. W.; van Dyck, O. B.; York, R. L.; Ransome, R. D.; Hollas, C. L.; Riley, P. J.; Toshioka, K.

    1982-04-01

    The spin depolarization parameters DNN, DSS, DLS, and the spin transfer parameters KNN, KSS, KLS have been measured for pp-->pp at 800 MeV. Angular range is 21 to 90° c.m. for the D parameters, and 46 to 90° c.m. for the K parameters. Typical uncertainties are about +/-0.025. These data, when combined with previous data make possible a complete isovector phase shift and amplitude analysis at 800 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 1H(p,p)1H, E=800 MeV, measured DNN, DSS, DLS, KNN, KSS, KLS, θ=21 to 90° c.m.

  3. Receptors on phaeochromocytoma cells for two members of the PP-fold family--NPY and PP.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, T W; Sheikh, S P; O'Hare, M M

    1987-12-10

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) belong to a family of regulatory peptides which hold a distinct tertiary structure, the PP-fold, even in dilute aqueous solution. High-affinity receptors, specific for both PP and NPY, are described on the rat phaeochromocytoma cell line, PC-12. The binding of [125I-Tyr36]PP to PC-12 cells was inhibited by concentrations of unlabeled PP which correspond to physiological concentrations of the hormone, 10(-11)-10(-9) mol/l. The affinity of the receptor for the neuropeptide, NPY, was 10(2)-times lower than that of the PP receptor. C-terminal fragments of both PP (PP24-36) and NPY (NPY13-36) were between 10(2)- and 10(3)-times less potent in displacing the radiolabeled 36-amino-acid peptides from their respective receptors. It is concluded that PC-12 cells are suited for structure-function studies of the PP-fold peptides and studies on the cellular events following cellular binding of PP-fold peptides.

  4. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed.

  5. Development and characterization of antibacterial nanocomposite fiber based on PP/PET/nanosilver compatibilized with PP-g-MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, A.; Golshan Ebrahimi, N.

    2010-03-01

    The polypropylene (PP) /polyethylene terephthalate (PET) /Nanosilver (Ag) nanocomposite fibers were prepared for the achievement of permanent antibacterial activity to common synthetic textile. The fibers were melt-spun by co-extrusion of PP/PET with compatibilizer (PP-g-MA) as core and PP/Ag master-batches as sheath and vice versa then fiber formation was carried out through the spinneret. The effects of content PP-g-MA as compatibilizer were also investigated. The morphology and mechanical properties of uncompatibilized and compatibilized PP/PET fibers were comprehensively assessed utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile test experiments. It was observed that the fibrillar distributed morphology achieved at 3.5 Wt% of PP-g-MA has a significant performance. The antibacterial activity of nanosilver in fibers was evaluated after certain contact time and calculated by percent reduction of two kinds of bacteria; Staphylococus aureus and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial efficacy of spun fibers was excellent when the masterbatch used as the sheath. The SEM micrograph of these fibers (PP/ PP-g-MA/PET)/(PP/Nanosilver) shows nearly good distribution of nanosilver particles with little aggregation. Mechanical and antibacterial properties data have also shown that the fiber has a significant performance when the master-batch used as the sheath.

  6. The extended PP1 toolkit: designed to create specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Mathieu; Peti, Wolfgang; Ragusa, Michael J.; Beullens, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Protein Ser/Thr phosphatase-1 (PP1) catalyzes the majority of eukaryotic protein dephosphorylation reactions in a highly regulated and selective manner. Recent studies have identified an unusually diversified PP1 interactome with the properties of a regulatory toolkit. PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) function as targeting subunits, substrates and/or inhibitors. As targeting subunits, PIPs contribute to substrate selection by bringing PP1 into the vicinity of specific substrates and by modulating substrate specificity via additional substrate docking sites or blocking substrate-binding channels. Many of the nearly 200 established mammalian PIPs are predicted to be intrinsically disordered, a property that facilitates their binding to a large surface area of PP1 via multiple docking motifs. These novel insights offer perspectives for the therapeutic targeting of PP1 by interfering with the binding of PIPs or substrates. PMID:20399103

  7. Leading neutrons from polarized pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2008-10-13

    We calculate the cross section and single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, A{sub n}(t) for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and non-flip amplitudes, which leads to an appreciable spin asymmetry. However, the asymmetry observed recently in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC at very small |t|{approx}0.01 GeV{sup 2} cannot be explained by this mechanism.

  8. Psychosine induces the dephosphorylation of neurofilaments by deregulation of PP1 and PP2A phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Zhu, Hongling; Givogri, Maria I.; Chidavaenzi, Robstein L.; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Krabbe disease, a genetic demyelinating syndrome caused by deficiency of galactosyl-ceramidase and the resulting accumulation of galactosyl-sphingolipids, develop signs of a dying-back axonopathy compounded by a deficiency of large-caliber axons. Here, we show that axonal caliber in Twitcher mice, an animal model for Krabbe disease, is impaired in peripheral axons and is accompanied by a progressive reduction in the abundance and phosphorylation of the three neurofilament (NF) subunits. These changes correlate with an increase in the density of NFs per cross-sectional area in numerous mutant peripheral axons and abnormal increases in the activity of two serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) in mutant tissue. Similarly, acutely isolated mutant cortical neurons show abnormal phosphorylation of NFs. Psychosine, the neurotoxin accumulated in Krabbe disease, was sufficient to induce abnormal dephosphorylation of NF subunits in a normal motor neuron cell line as well as in acutely isolated normal cortical neurons. This in vitro effect was mediated by PP1 and PP2A, which specifically dephosphorylated NFs. These results demonstrate that the reduced caliber observed in some axons in Krabbe disease involves abnormal dephosphorylation of NFs. We propose that a psychosine-driven pathogenic mechanism through deregulated phosphotransferase activities may be involved in this process. PMID:22326830

  9. Study of the decay mechanism for B→pp¯K and B→pp¯π

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle Collaboration; Wei, J.-T.; Wang, M.-Z.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Balagura, V.; Barberio, E.; Bay, A.; Belous, K.; Bitenc, U.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, A.; Chen, K.-F.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiang, C.-C.; Cho, I.-S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Cole, S.; Danilov, M.; Dash, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Fratina, S.; Gabyshev, N.; Golob, B.; Ha, H.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, K.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Lin, S.-W.; Liu, Y.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Matyja, A.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, K. S.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schümann, J.; Seidl, R.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shiu, J.-G.; Singh, J. B.; Sokolov, A.; Somov, A.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tajima, O.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tian, X. C.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uehara, S.; Ueno, K.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Vinokurova, A.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Wedd, R.; Won, E.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the characteristics of the low mass pp¯ enhancements near threshold in the three-body decays B→pp¯K and B→pp¯π. We observe that the proton polar angle distributions in the pp¯ helicity frame in the two decays have the opposite polarity, and measure the forward-backward asymmetries as a function of the pp¯ mass for the pp¯K mode. We also search for the intermediate two-body decays, B→p¯Δ and B→pΔ, and set upper limits on their branching fractions. These results are obtained from a 414 fb data sample that contains 449×10BB¯ events collected near the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy ee collider.

  10. Ongoing advances in quantitative PpIX fluorescence guided intracranial tumor resection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jonathan D.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Bravo, Jaime J.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-03-01

    Aminolevulinc-acid induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) is being investigated as a biomarker to guide neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. ALA-PpIX fluorescence can be observed visually in the surgical field; however, raw fluorescence emissions can be distorted by factors other than the fluorophore concentration. Specifically, fluorescence emissions are mixed with autofluorescence and attenuated by background absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Recent work at Dartmouth has developed advanced fluorescence detection approaches that return quantitative assessments of PpIX concentration, which are independent of background optical properties. The quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach has increased sensitivity to residual disease within the resection cavity at the end of surgery that was not visible to the naked eye through the operating microscope. This presentation outlines clinical observations made during an ongoing investigation of ALA-PpIX based guidance of tumor resection. PpIX fluorescence measurements made in a wide-field hyperspectral imaging approach are co-registered with point-assessment using a fiber optic probe. Data show variations in the measured PpIX accumulation among different clinical tumor grades (i.e. high grade glioma, low grade glioma), types (i.e. primary tumors. metastases) and normal structures of interest (e.g. normal cortex, hippocampus). These results highlight the contrast enhancement and underscore the potential clinical benefit offered from quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration during resection of intracranial tumors.

  11. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; ...

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possiblemore » effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.« less

  12. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; Tarasov, Andrey

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possible effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.

  13. Strangeness production in AA and pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Boost-invariant hadron production in high-energy collisions occurs in causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) are conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. Their size is determined by two time scales: the equilibration time specifying the formation of a quark-gluon plasma, and the hadronization time, specifying the onset of confinement. The expected values for these scales provide the theoretical basis for the suppression observed for strangeness production in elementary interactions ( pp , e^+e^- below LHC energies. In contrast, the space-time superposition of individual collisions in high-energy heavy-ion interactions leads to higher energy densities, resulting in much later hadronization and hence much larger hadronization volumes. This largely removes the causality constraints and results in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full chemical equilibrium. In the present paper, we determine the collision energies needed for that; we also estimate when pp collisions reach comparable hadronization volumes and thus determine when strangeness suppression should disappear there as well.

  14. New KF-PP-SVM classification method for EEG in brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Banghua; Han, Zhijun; Zan, Peng; Wang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Classification methods are a crucial direction in the current study of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To improve the classification accuracy for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, a novel KF-PP-SVM (kernel fisher, posterior probability, and support vector machine) classification method is developed. Its detailed process entails the use of common spatial patterns to obtain features, based on which the within-class scatter is calculated. Then the scatter is added into the kernel function of a radial basis function to construct a new kernel function. This new kernel is integrated into the SVM to obtain a new classification model. Finally, the output of SVM is calculated based on posterior probability and the final recognition result is obtained. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed KF-PP-SVM method, EEG data collected from laboratory are processed with four different classification schemes (KF-PP-SVM, KF-SVM, PP-SVM, and SVM). The results showed that the overall average improvements arising from the use of the KF-PP-SVM scheme as opposed to KF-SVM, PP-SVM and SVM schemes are 2.49%, 5.83 % and 6.49 % respectively.

  15. Isoliensinine induces dephosphorylation of NF-kB p65 subunit at Ser536 via a PP2A-dependent mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: roles of impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction.

    PubMed

    Shu, Guangwen; Zhang, Lang; Jiang, Shanqing; Cheng, Zhuo; Wang, Guan; Huang, Xu; Yang, Xinzhou

    2016-06-28

    Our previous study discovered that isoliensinine (isolie) triggers hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis via inducing p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536 and inhibition of NF-κB. Here, we showed that isolie promoted p65/PP2A interaction in vitro and in vivo. Repression of PP2A activity or knockdown of the expression of PP2A-C (the catalytic subunit of PP2A) abrogated isolie-provoked p65 dephosphorylation. I2PP2A is an endogenous PP2A inhibitor. Isolie directly impaired PP2A/I2PP2A interaction. Knockdown of I2PP2A boosted p65/PP2A association and p65 dephosphorylation. Overexpression of I2PP2A restrained isolie-induced p65 dephosphorylation. Untransformed hepatocytes were insensitive to isolie-induced NF-κB inhibition and cell apoptosis. In these cells, basal levels of I2PP2A and p65 phosphorylation at Ser536 were lower than in HCC cells. These findings collectively indicated that isolie suppresses NF-κB in HCC cells through impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction and stimulating PP2A-dependent p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536.

  16. Isoliensinine induces dephosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit at Ser536 via a PP2A-dependent mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: roles of impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Guangwen; Zhang, Lang; Jiang, Shanqing; Cheng, Zhuo; Wang, Guan; Huang, Xu; Yang, Xinzhou

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study discovered that isoliensinine (isolie) triggers hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis via inducing p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536 and inhibition of NF-κB. Here, we showed that isolie promoted p65/PP2A interaction in vitro and in vivo. Repression of PP2A activity or knockdown of the expression of PP2A-C (the catalytic subunit of PP2A) abrogated isolie-provoked p65 dephosphorylation. I2PP2A is an endogenous PP2A inhibitor. Isolie directly impaired PP2A/I2PP2A interaction. Knockdown of I2PP2A boosted p65/PP2A association and p65 dephosphorylation. Overexpression of I2PP2A restrained isolie-induced p65 dephosphorylation. Untransformed hepatocytes were insensitive to isolie-induced NF-κB inhibition and cell apoptosis. In these cells, basal levels of I2PP2A and p65 phosphorylation at Ser536 were lower than in HCC cells. These findings collectively indicated that isolie suppresses NF-κB in HCC cells through impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction and stimulating PP2A-dependent p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536. PMID:27244888

  17. A new dynamic selection rule for pp into two mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niskanen, J. A.; Myhrer, F.

    1985-07-01

    We show that quark-antiquark annihilation into gluons gives a suppression of pp annihilating into π+/-ϱ+- from pp 1S0 and 3P states at threshold. Permanent address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

  18. Structural basis for transcription regulation by alarmone ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Artsimovitch, Irina; Patlan, Vsevolod; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Vassylyeva, Marina N; Hosaka, Takeshi; Ochi, Kozo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Vassylyev, Dmitry G

    2004-04-30

    Guanosine-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is a major regulator of stringent control, an adaptive response of bacteria to amino acid starvation. The 2.7 A resolution structure of the Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme in complex with ppGpp reveals that ppGpp binds to the same site near the active center in both independent RNAP molecules in the crystal but in strikingly distinct orientations. Binding is symmetrical with respect to the two diphosphates of ppGpp and is relaxed with respect to the orientation of the nucleotide base. Different modes of ppGpp binding are coupled with asymmetry of the active site configurations. The results suggest that base pairing of ppGpp with cytosines in the nontemplate DNA strand might be an essential component of transcription control by ppGpp. We present experimental evidence highlighting the importance of base-specific contacts between ppGpp and specific cytosine residues during both transcription initiation and elongation.

  19. The PP2PP experiment at RHIC: silicon detectors installed in Roman Pots for forward proton detection close to the beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bültmann, S.; Chen, W.; Chiang, I. H.; Chrien, R. E.; Drees, A.; Gill, R. L.; Guryn, W.; Landgraf, J.; Li, Z.; Ljubicic, T. A.; Lynn, D.; Pearson, C.; Pile, P.; Radeka, V.; Rusek, A.; Sakitt, M.; Scheetz, R.; Tepikian, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Pawlik, B.; Haguenauer, M.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Nurushev, S. B.; Runtzo, M. F.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Alekseev, I. G.; Kanavets, V. P.; Koroleva, L. I.; Morozov, B. V.; Svirida, D. N.; Khodinov, A.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Tang, C.; Whitehead, L.; Yeung, S.; De, K.; Guler, N.; Li, J.; Öztürk, N.; Sandacz, A.

    2004-12-01

    The PP2PP experiment is one of five experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York. It is designed to measure the elastic scattering of protons at √{s} = 50-500 GeV. The detector consists of silicon strip detectors mounted in Roman Pots and installed in the RHIC ring 60 m from the interaction region. During the engineering run of 2002 and physics run of 2003 the detectors were inserted as close as 15 mm from the proton beam. An overview of the experiment and details of the detector design and performance will be presented.

  20. /bar p/p collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. {lambda}0 Polarization in Exclusive pp Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, J.

    2006-09-25

    Among all properties of baryons, the polarization they acquire when created from unpolarized p-nucleus collisions is the most recent discovered one; so far, the origin of this polarization remains unexplained in spite of the experimental evidences accumulated in the past thirty years. Up to these days, {lambda}0 is the most studied baryon for polarization, due to it is very easy to produce {lambda}0's at the energies of the principal high energy physics accelerators of the world. This article is a review of the experimental experience accumulated on the polarization of {lambda}0 in unpolarized exclusive pp collisions as function of xF, PT, and M({lambda}0K+) in the past fifteen years here at the Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, inside Fermilab e690 and Brookhaven National Laboratory e766 collaborations.

  2. Spin transfer measurements for pp-->pp at 647 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, M. W.; Bonner, B. E.; Hoffman, E. W.; van Dyck, O. B.; Hollas, C. L.; Riley, P. J.; McNaughton, K. H.; Imai, K.; Toshioka, K.; Roberts, J.; Turpin, S. E.; Aas, B.; Rahbar, A.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements have been made of the spin depolarization parameters DNN, DSS, and DLS (27°<=θc.m.<=90°) and the spin transfer parameters KNN, KSS, and KLS (56°<=θc.m.<=90°) for pp-->pp at 647 MeV. Typical uncertainties are about 0.03 compared with about 0.1 for previous data. Previous data are reviewed. The present data are in agreement with corrected previous data, and are in agreement with Arndt's phase-shift solutions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 1H(p, p,)1H, E=647 MeV, measured DNN, DSS, DLS, KNN, KSS, KLS, θ=27° to 90° c.m.

  3. The PP2A inhibitor I2PP2A is essential for sister chromatid segregation in oocyte meiosis II.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Touati, Sandra A; Berneau, Stéphane; Cladière, Damien; Hebras, Céline; Groeme, Rachel; McDougall, Alex; Wassmann, Katja

    2013-03-18

    Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs in meiosis I and sister chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining sister chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II [1]. In all model organisms, centromeric cohesin is protected from separase-dependent removal in meiosis I through the activity of PP2A-B56 phosphatase, which is recruited to centromeres by shugoshin/MEI-S332 (Sgo) [2-5]. How this protection of centromeric cohesin is removed in meiosis II is not entirely clear; we find that all the PP2A subunits remain colocalized with the cohesin subunit Rec8 at the centromere of metaphase II chromosomes. Here, we show that sister chromatid separation in oocytes depends on a PP2A inhibitor, namely I2PP2A. I2PP2A colocalizes with the PP2A enzyme at centromeres at metaphase II, independently of bipolar attachment. When I2PP2A is depleted, sister chromatids fail to segregate during meiosis II. Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful sister chromatid segregation by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II.

  4. Properties of PP/MWCNT-COOH /PP composites made by melt mixing versus solution cast /melt mixing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholds, I.; Roja, Z.; Zicans, J.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bitenieks, J.

    2015-03-01

    An approach on improvement of the properties of polypropylene / carbon nanotube (PP/CNT) composites is reported. PP blend compositions with carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) at filler content 1.0 wt.% were researched. One part of the composites was manufactured by direct thermoplastic mixing PP with the filler, but the other one was made from solution casted masterbatch with the following thermoplastic mixing. An increase of mechanical properties (Young's modulus, storage modulus and tensile strength), compared to an increase of glass transition temperature indicated a reinforcement effect of CNTs on PP matrix, determined from the tensile tests and differential mechanical analysis (DMA), while the elongation was reduced, compared to PP matrix. By differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, the effect of nanofiller on the reorganization of PP crystallites was observed. A noticeable enhanced effect on increase of the crystallization temperature was indicated for masterbatch manufactured composite. An increase of thermal stability was also observed, compared to pristine PP and the composite made by direct thermoplastic mixing PP with the filler.

  5. Comparison of forward and backward pp pair knockout in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    DOE PAGES

    Baghdasaryan, H.; Weinstein, L. B.; Laget, J. M.; ...

    2012-06-21

    Measuring nucleon-nucleon Short Range Correlations (SRC) has been a goal of the nuclear physics community for many years. They are an important part of the nuclear wavefunction, accounting for almost all of the high-momentum strength. They are closely related to the EMC effect. While their overall probability has been measured, measuring their momentum distributions is more difficult. In order to determine the best configuration for studying SRC momentum distributions, we measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction, looking at events with high momentum protons (pp > 0.35 GeV/c) and a low momentum neutron (pn < 0.2 GeV/c). We examined two angular configurations: eithermore » both protons emitted forward or one proton emitted forward and one backward (with respect to the momentum transfer, →q). Thus, the measured relative momentum distribution of the events with one forward and one backward proton was much closer to the calculated initial-state pp relative momentum distribution, indicating that this is the preferred configuration for measuring SRC.« less

  6. Comparison of forward and backward pp pair knockout in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, H.; Weinstein, L. B.; Laget, J. M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Sanctis, E.; De Vita, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hicks, K.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pisano, S.; Pozdniakov, S.; Procureur, S.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Saini, M. S.; Saylor, N. A.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.

    2012-06-01

    Measuring nucleon-nucleon short range correlations (SRCs) has been a goal of the nuclear physics community for many years. They are an important part of the nuclear wave function, accounting for almost all of the high-momentum strength. They are closely related to the EMC effect. While their overall probability has been measured, measuring their momentum distributions is more difficult. In order to determine the best configuration for studying SRC momentum distributions, we measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction, looking at events with high-momentum protons (pp>0.35 GeV/c) and a low-momentum neutron (pn<0.2 GeV/c). We examined two angular configurations: either both protons emitted forward or one proton emitted forward and one backward (with respect to the momentum transfer, q⃗). The measured relative momentum distribution of the events with one forward and one backward proton was much closer to the calculated initial-state pp relative momentum distribution, indicating that this is the preferred configuration for measuring SRC.

  7. Intracellular uptake and behavior of two types zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) micelles, SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP as anticancer agents; unique intracellular disintegration of SMA micelles.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Gahininath, Bharate; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2011-11-07

    SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP are micellar drugs, encapsulating zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) with styrene maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and covalent conjugate of ZnPP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) respectively. Their intracellular uptake rate and subcellular localization were investigated. We found SMA-ZnPP showed higher and more efficient (about 2.5 times) intracellular uptake rate than PEG-ZnPP, although both SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP micelles were localized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and inhibited the target enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) similarly. Both micellar ZnPP were taken up into the tumor cells by endocytosis. Furthermore SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP were examined for their drug releasing mechanisms. Liberation of ZnPP from the SMA micelle appears to depend on cellular amphiphilic components such as lecithin, while that for PEG-ZnPP depends on hydrolytic cleavage. These results indicate that these micelle formulations make water insoluble ZnPP to water soluble practical anticancer agents.

  8. Expression of human cytomegalovirus pp150 gene in transgenic Vicia faba L. and immunogenicity of pp150 protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-03-01

    The pp150 gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was transferred into Vicia faba plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Three of five hygromycin resistant V. faba plants were identified as positive by PCR and dot-blot hybridization. The ELISA results indicated that pp150 protein from three plants of transformed V. faba leaves and seeds made up 0.005-0.015% of the total soluble protein. The results of detection by immunoblot and inhibition of immunofluorescent assay (IFA) showed that pp150 soluble protein had immunity activity. HCMV pp150-specific antibody (IgG, IgA) and IFN-gamma producing T cells were detected in 100% of the mice immunized with pp150 transgenic V. faba seeds by ELISA and intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The transgenic V. faba plants will provide new material for the development of edible vaccination against HCMV infection.

  9. Improvement of polypropylene (PP)-modified bitumen through lignin addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanita, E.; Hendrasetyawan, B. E.; Firdaus, D. F.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is usually added to bitumen to improve its mechanical properties, however, both of them have different chemical properties. To achieve best mechanical properties of the mixture, coupling agent such as lignin is importantly required. Lignin is an amorphous biopolymer, has bipolar characteristic due to its distinct chemical function which has carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenol chemical function. Otherwise, bitumen and PP have polar and non-polar characteristic, respectively. In the previous research, it is found that lignin is potential to be used as coupling agent. In order to confirm the potential of lignin as a coupling agent, there are various compounds of lignin on PP-bitumen mixtures used in this research. This experiment consists of several stages, ranging from sample preparation, characterization of raw materials, mixing, and characterization of the PP-Modified Bitumen. This experiment used hot melt mixing to mix lignin, PP, and bitumen. The result of this experimental was analyzed by using FTIR and FESEM. The addition of lignin make Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) getting better mixing and increase mechanical properties. Furthermore, FESEM characterization indicated that the addition of lignin gave better mixing of PP-Bitumen. FTIR showed a new chemical structure due to the addition of lignin. From this experiment, the addition of lignin can improve mixing between PP and Bitumen. So, we can use lignin as coupling agent.

  10. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  11. Internal meson dominance for pp-bar annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, G.; Genz, H.; Tatur, S.

    1989-04-01

    The previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model of pp-bar..-->..YY-bar, YY-bar /sup */, and Y/sup */Y-bar/sup */ (Y denotes hyperon) at low energies is modified and thereby extended to also include pp-bar..-->..nn-bar and ..delta../sup ++/Delta-bar/sup - -/. It is assumed that the same nonperturbative mechanism that mixes the different qq-bar pairs within the neutral, nonstrange mesons is also responsible for the scattering, annihilation, and creation of qq-bar pairs within the baryon-antibaryon system. More specifically, we assume that processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-bar within the baryon-antibaryon system with q = d or u and Q = d, u, or s quarks is mediated by fusion of the qq-bar to a pseudoscalar or vector meson that also within the system decays into QQ-bar. The /sup 1/S/sub 0/ pseudoscalar-meson model disagrees with experiment whereas the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ vector-meson fusion model is in reasonable agreement with it. As compared to the previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model the main change is an extension of the approximate agreement to the nonstrange final-state baryons. This is achieved since strange baryons in the model are only produced via the small ..omega..-phi mixing.

  12. Protein phosphatase 2A family members (PP2A and PP6) associate with U1 snRNP and the spliceosome during pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kamoun, Malek; Filali, Mohammed; Murray, Michael V.; Awasthi, Sita; Wadzinski, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are both important for multiple steps in the splicing pathway. Members of the PP1 and PP2A subfamilies of phospho-serine/threonine phosphatases play essential but redundant roles in the second step of the splicing reaction. PP6, a member of the PP2A subfamily, is the mammalian homologue of yeast Sit4p and ppe1, which are involved in cell cycle regulation; however, the involvement of PP6 in the splicing pathway remains unclear. Here we show that PP2A family members physically associate with the spliceosome throughout the splicing reaction. PP2A holoenzyme and PP6 were found stably associated with U1 snRNP. Together our findings indicate that these phosphatases regulate splicing catalysis involving U1 snRNP and suggest an important evolutionary conserved role of PP2A family phosphatases in pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:24064353

  13. PP and PS interferometric images of near-seafloor sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    I present interferometric processing examples from an ocean-bottom cable OBC dataset collected at a water depth of 800 m in the Gulf of Mexico. Virtual source and receiver gathers created through cross-correlation of full wavefields show clear PP reflections and PS conversions from near-seafloor layers of interest. Virtual gathers from wavefield-separated data show improved PP and PS arrivals. PP and PS brute stacks from the wavefield-separated data compare favorably with images from a non-interferometric processing flow. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Ambient Metrics for n-Dimensional pp-Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistner, Thomas; Nurowski, Pawel

    2010-06-01

    We provide an explicit formula for the Fefferman-Graham ambient metric of an n-dimensional conformal pp-wave in those cases where it exists. In even dimensions we calculate the obstruction explicitly. Furthermore, we describe all 4-dimensional pp-waves that are Bach-flat, and give a large class of Bach-flat examples which are conformally Cotton-flat, but not conformally Einstein. Finally, as an application, we use the obtained ambient metric to show that even-dimensional pp-waves have vanishing critical Q-curvature.

  15. Micro-canonical pentaquark production in ee and pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fu-Ming; Werner, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The existence of pentaquarks became questionable, because the Θ peak is observed in some p+p collisions, but not in ee annihilations. People think initial baryon number is necessary to produce pentaquarks. In this paper, we estimate and compare the production of Θ(1540) and Ξ(1860) in ee and pp collisions at different energies using Fermi statistical model as originally proposed in its microcanonical form. We find that both Θ(1540) and Ξ(1860) yield more in ee at LEP energies than in pp collisions at SPS and RHIC energies, if pentaquarks do exist. Initial baryon number is not necessary for pentaquark production.

  16. EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, A.; Schaap, D.; Manzella, G. M. R.; Pouliquen, S.; Gorringe, P.

    2012-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted a common text for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). During the one-year consultation phase that followed the release of the EU Green Paper on a Future Maritime Policy for the European Union, stakeholders gave an overwhelming positive response. Facilitating access to high quality marine data will resolve difficulties and stimulate an expansion of value-added public and commercial services, lay the foundations for sound governance and reduce uncertainties on human impact on the planet as well as of forecasts relating to the future state of the marine environment. Better and linked marine data will have an immediate impact on the planning of environmental policy and mitigation measures, and will also facilitate impact assessments and scientific work. The overall objectives of the EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) preparatory action is to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans by means of a dedicated Pilot Portal and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users from industry, public authorities and scientists. The latter implicates that it is also an objective to identify data gaps and arguments why these gaps should be filled in future monitoring. This project will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). This is done done by: 1. providing through a portal: a. access to marine data from measurement stations and ferryboxes. Both near real-time and archived data of time series are to be made available. b. metadata for these data sets using EMODnet/INSPIRE standards. c. metadata maps and overviews for whole sea-basins showing the availability of data and monitoring intensity of that

  17. Synthesis of PP-g-MA as compatibilizer for PP/PLA biocomposites: Thermal, mechanical and biodegradability properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghozali, Muhammad; Rohmah, Elfi Nur

    2017-01-01

    A synthesis of polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator has been conducted in a stainless-steel reactor at 120°C for 1 hours. The composition of maleic anhydride (MA) was varied between 10-40 phr, whereas BPO was between 0.5-2.0 phr. The grafting degree (GD) was determined by calculating the MA monomer grafted into polypropylene (PP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis was performed to study the functional group in the copolymer PP-g-MA. The result shows that the highest GD of 11.85% was obtained when the use of MA and BPO are 40 phr and 1 phr, respectively. PP/PLA biocomposites have been manufactured by adding polypropylene (PP), polylactic acid (PLA) and PP-g-MA as compatibilizer into rheomix at a temperature of 200-210°C with a stirring speed of 25 rpm for 7-10 minutes. PP/PLA biocomposites were varied at a ratio of 0/100, 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, 80/20 and 100/0. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultimate Testing Machine (UTM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and biodegradation analysis were performed to determine the functional groups, thermal stability, tensile strength and the biodegradability level of PP/PLA biocomposites, respectively. Thermal and mechanical analysis results indicate that the addition of PLA into PP/PLA biocomposites can reduce the thermal stability and mechanical properties, however the biodegradability is increased.

  18. Survival probability of large rapidity gaps in {bar p}p, pp, {gamma}p, and {gamma}{gamma} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M. M.; Halzen, F.

    2001-06-01

    Using an eikonal analysis, we simultaneously fit a QCD-inspired parametrization of all accelerator data on forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering amplitudes, together with cosmic ray data (using Glauber theory), to predict proton-air and proton-proton cross sections at energies near s{approx}30 TeV. The p-air cosmic ray measurements greatly reduce the errors in the high energy proton-proton and proton-air cross section predictions -- in turn, greatly reducing the errors in the fit parameters. From this analysis, we can then compute the survival probability of rapidity gaps in high energy {bar p}p and pp collisions, with high accuracy in a quasi-model-free environment. Using an additive quark model and vector meson dominance, we note that the survival probabilities are identical, at the same energy, for {gamma}p and {gamma}{gamma} collisions, as well as for nucleon-nucleon collisions. Significantly, our analysis finds large values for gap survival probabilities: {approx}30% at s=200 GeV, {approx}21% at s=1.8 TeV and {approx}13% at s=14 TeV.

  19. PP composites with Hybrid Nanofillers: NTC phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlin, Juha; Immonen, Kirsi

    2010-06-01

    Electric conductive plastic composites have a wide potential for commercial applications, some examples are EMI shielding housings and components in automotive industry and in consumer electronics, equipments in health care sector and fuel cell components. A phenomenon in conductive composites, especially in composites with carbon based fillers, is change of thermal induced change in conductivity as a result of morphological transitions. Usually the observed changes are practically irreversible. The phenomenon may cause increasing resistivity, usually called as "positive temperature coefficient" (PTC) or decreasing resistivity, called "negative temperature coefficient (NTC), where the new morphology created by heat treatment is more favorable for electric conductivity compared to the original state. The existence of NTC is a sing of the lost potential in material design and processing. Therefore detailed information about the phenomenon gives us tools to develop high performance conductive materials. It this paper we discuss about NTC phenomenon observed in PP composites with CNT or in-situ synthesized CNT-PANi hybrid nanofiller with an amphiphilic dispersing agent. The goal of the paper is not to present a comprehensive model of this phenomenon; we present some experimental results which may be related to polymer-filler interactions. These details are a part of this complicated phenomenon.

  20. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  1. pp interaction at very high energies in cosmic ray experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendi Kohara, A.; Ferreira, Erasmo; Kodama, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    An analysis of p-air cross section data from extensive air shower measurements is presented, based on an analytical representation of the pp scattering amplitudes that describes with high precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies. The theoretical basis of the representation, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permits reliable extrapolation to high energy cosmic ray (CR) and asymptotic energy ranges. Calculations of σ p-airprod based on Glauber formalism are made using the input values of the quantities σ , ρ , BI and BR at high energies, with attention given to the independence of the slope parameters, with {{B}R}\

  2. Effects of diffraction in pp and pA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Gösta

    2017-04-01

    Diffractive excitation is a large fraction of the pp cross section, also at high energies. Diffraction has been described by multi-Regge diagrams, or in the Good-Walker formalism as a result of fluctuations. The two formalisms are, however, just different sides of the same phenomenon. The dipole cascade formalism in impact parameter space is well suited to describe diffractive excitation including effects of saturation. Diffractive excitation is also an important effect in pA scattering, where the Glauber formalism has been used to estimate the number of NN subcollisions and of "wounded" nucleons. Diffractive excitation has here been either neglected or included in a simplified way, not including excitation of target nucleons. In this talk we discuss how these effects can be included with the help of the dipole cascade model DIPSY.

  3. High p{sub T} jet production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Eskola, K.J.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    Production rates of large p{sub T} jets in pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are studied using the next-to-leading order calculation of S. D. Ellis, Z. Zunszt and D. Soper. The computed inclusive one-jet cross sections are compared against the CERN and Fermilab jet data from p{bar p} and pp collisions. The dependence of the results on the choice of the parton distributions and renormalization/factorization scales is investigated.

  4. pp-waves with torsion and metric-affine gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasic, Vedad; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2005-10-01

    A classical pp-wave is a four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime which admits a nonvanishing parallel spinor field; here the connection is assumed to be Levi-Civita. We generalize this definition to metric compatible spacetimes with torsion and describe basic properties of such spacetimes. We use our generalized pp-waves for constructing new explicit vacuum solutions of quadratic metric-affine gravity.

  5. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gislene; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-08-29

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55's dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis.

  6. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55’s dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis. PMID:27551057

  7. Rac GTPase signaling through the PP5 protein phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Saverio; Darden, Thomas; Erxleben, Christian; Romeo, Charles; Russo, Angela; Martin, Negin; Rossie, Sandra; Armstrong, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the Rac-dependent mechanism of KCNH2 channel stimulation by thyroid hormone in a rat pituitary cell line, GH4C1, with the patch-clamp technique. Here we present physiological evidence for the protein serine/threonine phosphatase, PP5, as an effector of Rac GTPase signaling. We also propose and test a specific molecular mechanism for PP5 stimulation by Rac-GTP. Inhibition of PP5 with the microbial toxin, okadaic acid, blocked channel stimulation by thyroid hormone and by Rac, but signaling was restored by expression of a toxin-insensitive mutant of PP5, Y451A, which we engineered. PP5 is unique among protein phosphatases in that it contains an N-terminal regulatory domain with three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) that inhibit its activity. Expression of the TPR domain coupled to GFP blocked channel stimulation by the thyroid hormone. We also show that the published structures of the PP5 TPR domain and the TPR domain of p67, the Rac-binding subunit of NADPH oxidase, superimpose over 92 α carbons. Mutation of the PP5 TPR domain at two predicted contact points with Rac-GTP prevents the TPR domain from functioning as a dominant negative and blocks the ability of Y451A to rescue signaling in the presence of okadaic acid. PP5 stimulation by Rac provides a unique molecular mechanism for the antagonism of Rho-dependent signaling through protein kinases in many cellular processes, including metastasis, immune cell chemotaxis, and neuronal development. PMID:16549782

  8. K restriction inhibits protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) and suppression of PP2B decreases ROMK channel activity in the CCD

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Lin, Dao-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Yan; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2009-01-01

    We used Western blot analysis to examine the effect of dietary K intake on the expression of serine/threonine protein phosphatase in the kidney. K restriction significantly decreased the expression of catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase (PP)2B but increased the expression of PP2B regulatory subunit in both rat and mouse kidney. However, K depletion did not affect the expression of PP1 and PP2A. Treatment of M-1 cells, mouse cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, or 293T cells with glucose oxidase (GO), which generates superoxide anions through glucose metabolism, mimicked the effect of K restriction on PP2B expression and significantly decreased expression of PP2B catalytic subunits. However, GO treatment increased expression of regulatory subunit of PP2B and had no effect on expression of PP1, PP2A, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1D. Moreover, deletion of gp91-containing NADPH oxidase abolished the effect of K depletion on PP2B. Thus superoxide anions or related products may mediate the inhibitory effect of K restriction on the expression of PP2B catalytic subunit. We also used patch-clamp technique to study the effect of inhibiting PP2B on renal outer medullary K (ROMK) channels in the CCD. Application of cyclosporin A or FK506, inhibitors of PP2B, significantly decreased ROMK channels, and the effect of PP2B inhibitors was abolished by blocking p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK. Furthermore, Western blot demonstrated that inhibition of PP2B with cyclosporin A or small interfering RNA increased the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK. We conclude that K restriction suppresses the expression of PP2B catalytic subunits and that inhibition of PP2B decreases ROMK channel activity through stimulation of MAPK in the CCD. PMID:18184875

  9. Evidence for a J/{psi}pp Pauli strong coupling?

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.; Li, X.; Roberts, W.

    2008-03-01

    The couplings of charmonia and charmonium hybrids (generically {psi}) to pp are of great interest in view of future plans to study these states using an antiproton storage ring at GSI. These low to moderate energy {psi}pp couplings are not well understood theoretically, and currently must be determined from experiment. In this paper we note that the two independent Dirac ({gamma}{sub {mu}}) and Pauli ({sigma}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}) pp couplings of the J/{psi} and {psi}{sup '} can be constrained by the angular distribution of e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}(J/{psi},{psi}{sup '}){yields}pp on resonance. A comparison of our theoretical results to recent unpolarized data allows estimates of the pp couplings; in the better determined J/{psi} case the data is inconsistent with a pure Dirac ({gamma}{sub {mu}}) coupling, and can be explained by the presence of a {sigma}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} term. This Pauli coupling may significantly affect the cross section of the PANDA process pp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}J/{psi} near threshold. There is a phase ambiguity that makes it impossible to uniquely determine the magnitudes and relative phase of the Dirac and Pauli couplings from the unpolarized angular distributions alone; we show in detail how this can be resolved through a study of the polarized reactions.

  10. Onset of radial flow in p+p collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Kun; Zhu, Yinying; Liu, Weitao; ...

    2015-02-23

    It has been debated for decades whether hadrons emerging from p+p collisions exhibit collective expansion. The signal of the collective motion in p+p collisions is not as clear as in heavy-ion collisions because of the low multiplicity and large fluctuation in p+p collisions. Tsallis Blast-Wave (TBW) model is a thermodynamic approach, introduced to handle the overwhelming correlation and fluctuation in the hadronic processes. We have systematically studied the identified particle spectra in p+p collisions from RHIC to LHC using TBW and found no appreciable radial flow in p+p collisions below √s = 900 GeV. At LHC higher energy of 7more » TeV in p+p collisions, the radial flow velocity achieves an average of (β) = 0.320 ± 0.005. This flow velocity is comparable to that in peripheral (40-60%) Au+Au collisions at RHIC. In addition, breaking of the identified particle spectra mT scaling was also observed at LHC from a model independent test.« less

  11. PP2A Regulates HDAC4 Nuclear Import

    PubMed Central

    Paroni, Gabriela; Cernotta, Nadia; Dello Russo, Claudio; Gallinari, Paola; Pallaoro, Michele; Foti, Carmela; Talamo, Fabio; Orsatti, Laura; Steinkühler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Different signal-regulated serine/threonine kinases phosphorylate class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) to promote nuclear export, cytosolic accumulation, and activation of gene transcription. However, little is known about mechanisms operating in the opposite direction, which, possibly through phosphatases, should promote class II HDACs nuclear entry and subsequent gene repression. Here we show that HDAC4 forms a complex with the PP2A holoenzyme Cα, Aα, B/PR55α. In vitro and in vivo binding studies demonstrate that the N-terminus of HDAC4 interacts with the catalytic subunit of PP2A. HDAC4 is dephosphorylated by PP2A and experiments using okadaic acid or RNA interference have revealed that PP2A controls HDAC4 nuclear import. Moreover, we identified serine 298 as a putative phosphorylation site important for HDAC4 nuclear import. The HDAC4 mutant mimicking phosphorylation of serine 298 is defective in nuclear import. Mutation of serine 298 to alanine partially rescues the defect in HDAC4 nuclear import observed in cells with down-regulated PP2A. These observations suggest that PP2A, via the dephosphorylation of multiple serines including the 14-3-3 binding sites and serine 298, controls HDAC4 nuclear import. PMID:18045992

  12. Ecotoxicity of pp'DDE to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, Roberta; Croce, Valeria; Noè, Francesca; Ponti, Benedetta; Quadroni, Silvia; Galassi, Silvana

    2013-10-01

    pp'-Dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (pp'DDE), a metabolite of pp'-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane poses a risk for many ecosystems in spite of the banning of the parent compound because of its persistence and bioaccumulability. Nevertheless, the knowledge of acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms is still very poor. In the present study, Daphnia magna was exposed to varying concentrations of pp'DDE in water and through diet to determine both acute toxicity and potential for effects on reproduction and survivability. The 48 h IC50 was 5.08 μg L(-1) (3.76-7.01 μg L(-1)). As pp'DDE concentration in water was not stable and the amount assumed by food cannot be established with certainty, the results of chronic toxicity tests were expressed as the concentration in the organism which caused a negative effect. Grazing activity was affected with a pp'DDE concentration in the organism of 24 ng mg(-1) d.w., while the lowest observed effect concentration for fecundity reduction was 109 ng mg(-1) d.w.

  13. pp-->pΛK+ reaction in search for the K-pp state - quest for a kaonic nuclei -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken; Kienle, Paul; Maggiora, Marco; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2011-10-01

    The dibaryonic kaonic nuclear bound state, K-pp is searched by studying an exclusive p+p→p+Λ+K+ process at several beam energies. A signature of the K-pp is explored in a p+p→X(≡K-pp)+K+ reaction that follows a decay of the X into p+Λ. We found in a missing-mass ΔM(K+) spectrum and a Λp invariant-mass M(Λp) spectrum of DISTO data at 2.85 GeV a resonance with M = 2267 MeV/c2 and Γ = 118 MeV. Those events are found to be associated with a mono energetic kaon. We investigate this resonance as a candidate of the K-pp further also with a different beam energies.

  14. Synthesis of Highly Selective Submicromolar Microcystin‐Based Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatase (PP)2A over PP1

    PubMed Central

    Fontanillo, Miriam; Zemskov, Ivan; Häfner, Maximilian; Uhrig, Ulrike; Salvi, Francesca; Simon, Bernd; Wittmann, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research and therapeutic targeting of the phosphoserine/threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A is hindered by the lack of selective inhibitors. The microcystin (MC) natural toxins target both phosphatases with equal potency, and their complex synthesis has complicated structure–activity relationship studies in the past. We report herein the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of 11 MC analogues, which was accomplished through an efficient strategy combining solid‐ and solution‐phase approaches. Our approach led to the first MC analogue with submicromolar inhibitory potency that is strongly selective for PP2A over PP1 and does not require the complex lipophilic Adda group. Through mutational and structural analyses, we identified a new key element for binding, as well as reasons for the selectivity. This work gives unprecedented insight into how selectivity between these phosphatases can be achieved with MC analogues. PMID:27723199

  15. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken’ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass. PMID:25038254

  16. Site specificity of DSP-PP cleavage by BMP1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Robert T; Lim, Glendale L; Yee, Colin T; Fuller, Robert S; Ritchie, Helena H

    2014-08-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4' (i.e. the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1'P2'P3'P4') sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e. xMQx|DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their effects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here, we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4' sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4' cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site.

  17. Overexpression of RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, induces the growth suppression of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Ochi, Kozo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-01-01

    Two genes encoding RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, which are involved in the synthesis of bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) for the stringent response, were isolated from the moss, Physcomitrella patens. A complementary analysis of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b in Escherichia coli showed that these genes had ppGpp biosynthetic activity. The recombinant PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b were also shown to synthesize ppGpp in vitro. Both proteins were localized to the chloroplasts of P. patens. Expression of the PpRSH genes was induced upon treatment with abscisic acid or abiotic stresses, such as dehydration and UV irradiation. Overexpression of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b caused suppression of the growth in response to 1% (w/v) of glucose. The present study suggests the existence of a mechanism to regulate the growth of P. patens, which is governed by plant RSH in chloroplasts.

  18. Auxin promotes the transition from chloronema to caulonema in moss protonema by positively regulating PpRSL1and PpRSL2 in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Dolan, Liam

    2011-10-01

    Protonemata are multicellular filamentous networks that develop following the germination of a haploid moss spore and comprise two different cell types - chloronema and caulonema. The ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE1 (PpRSL1) and PpRSL2 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and auxin promote the development of caulonema in Physcomitrella patens but the mechanism by which these regulators interact during development is unknown. We characterized the role of auxin in regulating the function of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 in the chloronema-to-caulonema transition during protonema development. Here, we showed that a gradient of cell identity developed along protonemal filaments; cells were chloronemal in proximal regions near the site of spore germination becoming progressively more caulonemal distally as filaments elongated. Auxin controlled this transition by positively regulating the expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 genes. Auxin did not induce caulonemal development in Pprsl1 Pprsl2 double mutants that lack PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 gene activity while constitutive co-expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 in the absence of auxin was sufficient to program constitutive caulonema development. Together, these data indicate that auxin positively regulates PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 whose expression is sufficient to promote caulonema differentiation in moss protonema.

  19. Silencing I2PP2A Rescues Tau Pathologies and Memory Deficits through Rescuing PP2A and Inhibiting GSK-3β Signaling in Human Tau Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yao; Ma, Rong-Hong; Li, Xia-Chun; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Shi, Hai-Rong; Wei, Wei; Luo, Dan-Ju; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Increase of inhibitor-2 of protein phosphatase-2A I2PP2A is associated with protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) inhibition and tau hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Down-regulating I2PP2A attenuated amyloidogenesis and improved the cognitive functions in transgenic mice expressing amyloid precursor protein (tg2576). Here, we found that silencing I2PP2A by hippocampal infusion of Lenti - siI2PP2A down-regulated I2PP2A (~45%) with reduction of tau phosphorylation/accumulation, improvement of memory deficits, and dendritic plasticity in 12-month-old human tau transgenic mice. Silencing I2PP2A not only restored PP2A activity but also inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) with a significant activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt. In HEK293/tau and N2a/tau cells, silencing I2PP2A by pSUPER - siI2PP2A also significantly reduced tau hyperphosphorylation with restoration of PP2A activity and inhibition of GSK-3β, demonstrated by the decreased GSK-3β total protein and mRNA levels, and the increased inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β at serine-9. Furthermore, activation of PKA but not Akt mediated the inhibition of GSK-3β by I2PP2A silencing. We conclude that targeting I2PP2A can improve tau pathologies and memory deficits in human tau transgenic mice, and activation of PKA contributes to GSK-3β inhibition induced by silencing I2PP2A in vitro, suggesting that I2PP2A is a promising multiple target of AD. PMID:24987368

  20. Ectopic expression of inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) can be used to analyze roles of PP1 in Drosophila development.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Daimark; Szöor, Balázs; Gross, Sascha; Vereshchagina, Natalia; Alphey, Luke

    2003-01-01

    We have identified two proteins that bind with high specificity to type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP1) and have exploited their inhibitory properties to develop an efficient and flexible strategy for conditional inactivation of PP1 in vivo. We show that modest overexpression of Drosophila homologs of I-2 and NIPP1 (I-2Dm and NIPP1Dm) reduces the level of PP1 activity and phenotypically resembles known PP1 mutants. These phenotypes, which include lethality, abnormal mitotic figures, and defects in muscle development, are suppressed by coexpression of PP1, indicating that the effect is due specifically to loss of PP1 activity. Reactivation of I-2Dm:PP1c complexes suggests that inhibition of PP1 activity in vivo does not result in a compensating increase in synthesis of active PP1. PP1 mutants enhance the wing overgrowth phenotype caused by ectopic expression of the type II TGF beta superfamily signaling receptor Punt. Using I-2Dm, which has a less severe effect than NIPP1Dm, we show that lowering the level of PP1 activity specifically in cells overexpressing Punt is sufficient for wing overgrowth and that the interaction between PP1 and Punt requires the type I receptor Thick-veins (Tkv) but is not strongly sensitive to the level of the ligand, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), nor to that of the other type I receptors. This is consistent with a role for PP1 in antagonizing Punt by preventing phosphorylation of Tkv. These studies demonstrate that inhibitors of PP1 can be used in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner to examine the developmental roles of PP1. PMID:12750335

  1. Review of hydrophilic PP membrane for organic waste removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariono, Danu; Wardani, Anita Kusuma

    2017-05-01

    The acceleration of industrialization in developing countries has given an impact of environmental pollution rapidly, such as contamination of groundwater with organic waste. To solve this problem, some membrane techniques have been performed to remove organic waste from water, such as membrane contactors, membrane bioreactors, and supported liquid membranes. Polypropylene (PP) membrane is one of the promising candidates for these membrane processes due to its chemical stability, low cost, good mechanical resistance, and being easily available. However, different processes require membranes with different surface properties. Hydrophobic PP membranes with excellent chemical stability can be directly used in membrane contactors, in which the organic phase wets the porous membrane and slightly excessive pressure applied to the other phase. On the other hand, hydrophilization of PP membrane is necessary for some other processes, such as for fouling reduction on membrane bioreactors due to organic matters deposition. The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of removal of organic waste by PP membrane. Moreover, the effects of PP surface hydrophilization on antifouling properties are also discussed.

  2. PP2C gamma: a human protein phosphatase with a unique acidic domain.

    PubMed

    Travis, S M; Welsh, M J

    1997-08-04

    We have cloned a novel cDNA from human skeletal muscle which encodes a protein phosphatase with a unique acidic domain. It is 34% identical to mammalian PP2C alpha and PP2C beta and we call it PP2C gamma. It more closely resembles PP2Cs from Paramecium tetraurelia and Schizosaccharomyces pombe than mammalian PP2Cs. Northern blot analysis shows that PP2C gamma is widely expressed, and is most abundant in testis, skeletal muscle, and heart. Like known PP2Cs, recombinant PP2C gamma requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. Unlike any other known phosphatase, PP2C gamma has a highly acidic domain: 75% of the 54 residues are glutamate or aspartate.

  3. Step-Cycle Mechanical Processing of Gels of sPP-b-EPR-b-sPP Triblock Copolymer in Mineral Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Niu, Y; Fredrickson, G; Kramer, E; Shin, Y; Shimizu, F; Zuo, F; Rong, L; Hsiao, B; Coates, G

    2010-01-01

    Gels of syndiotactic polypropylene-b-ethylene-propylene-rubber-b-syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP-EPR-sPP) were prepared by dissolving {approx}6 wt % of the triblock copolymer in mineral oil at 170 C and then cooling to room temperature in several steps to crystallize the sPP block. The gel was subjected to step-cycle processing by first extending it to a given maximum tensile strain, followed by decreasing the load to zero. The cycle was then repeated to a higher maximum strain and so on until the sample either failed or it reached an ultimate predetermined strain. The true stress and true strain {var_epsilon}{sub H} during each cycle were recorded, including the true strain at zero load {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} after each cycle that resulted from the plastic deformation of the sPP crystals in the gel. The initial Young's modulus E{sub init} and maximum tangent modulus E{sub max} in each cycle undergo dramatic changes as a function of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, with Einit decreasing for {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} {le} 0.1 and then increasing slowly as {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} increases to 1 while E{sub max} increases rapidly over the entire range of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, resulting in a ratio of E{sub max}/E{sub init} > 1000 at the highest maximum (nominal) strain of 20. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering patterns from the deformed and relaxed gels, as well as on previous results on deformation of semicrystalline random copolymers by Strobl and co-workers, we propose that the initial decrease in Einit with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is due to a breakup of the network of the original sPP crystal lamellae while the increase in E{sub max} with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is caused by the conversion of the sPP lamellae into fibrils of an aspect ratio that increases with further plastic deformation. The gel elastic properties can be understood as those of a short fiber composite with a highly deformable matrix. At zero stress the random copolymer midblock chains that connect the

  4. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  5. SPINatU-70: An Experiment to Measure the Analyzing Power An in Very-high-P⊥2 p-p Elastic Scattering at 70 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppov, V. G.; Alexeeva, L. V.; Anferov, V. A.; Courant, E. D.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Fidecaro, G.; Fidecaro, M.; Khiari, F. Z.; Koutin, S. V.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Lin, A. M. T.; Lorenzon, W.; Morozov, V. S.; Peaslee, D. C.; Peters, C. C.; Raymond, R. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Stewart, J. A.; Varzar, S. M.; Wong, V. K.; Yonehara, K.; Crabb, D. G.; Ado, Yu. M.; Afonin, A. G.; Belousov, V. I.; Chujko, B. V.; Davidenko, A. N.; Galyaev, N. A.; Garkusha, V. I.; Grishin, V. N.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kharlov, Yu. V.; Kotov, V. I.; Kusnetsov, A. V.; Medvedev, V. A.; Melnik, Yu. M.; Mochalov, V. V.; Mysnik, A. I.; Nurushev, S. B.; Prudkoglyad, A. F.; Semenov, P. A.; Solovianov, V. L.; Stepanov, V. P.; Teplyakov, V. A.; Troshin, S. M.; Ufimtsev, A. G.; Ukhanov, M. N.; Yakutin, A. E.; Zapolsky, V. N.; Zarucheisky, V. G.; Borisov, N. S.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Nikitin, V. A.; Nomokonov, P. V.; Rufanov, I. A.; Pilipenko, Yu. K.; Delheij, P. P. J.; van Oers, W. T. H.; Zelenski, A. N.

    2003-07-01

    The SPIN@U-70 experiment plans to measure the one-spin analyzing power An for 70 GeV proton-proton elastic scattering at large P⊥2 values of 1 to 12 (GeV/c)2. The Michigan frozen NH3 polarized proton target (Solid PPT) should later be installed in the Channel 8 extracted beam-line of the 70 GeV U-70 accelerator in IHEP, Protvino. The forward-scattered protons are detected by small scintillation counters placed at about 9 m from the PPT, while the recoil-scattered protons are detected by a 35-m-long focusing magnetic spectrometer, with a 12 degree vertical bend, placed at 30 degrees to the beam. A tune-up run for testing the beam and the spectrometer, using a polyethylene target, was carried out in April 2002 at IHEP. The layout and the results of the test run are presented.

  6. Molecular mechanism of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1cα-PP1r7) in spermatogenesis of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Song, Zhen Hui; Zhu, Hong Hong; Zhou, Zuo Yong; Zeng, Yuan Qin

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariasis is one of the most important, but neglected, zoonoses, which is mainly caused by Toxocara canis. To better understand the role of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in reproductive processes of male adult T. canis, differential expression analysis was used to reveal the profiles of PP1 catalytic subunit α (PP1cα) gene Tc-stp-1 and PP1 regulatory subunit 7 (PP1r7) gene TcM-1309. Indirect fluorescence immunocytochemistry was carried out to determine the subcellular distribution of PP1cα. Double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) assays were employed to illustrate the function and mechanism of PP1cα in male adult reproduction. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed transcriptional consistency of Tc-stp-1 and TcM-1309 in sperm-producing germline tissues and localization research showed cytoplasmic distribution of PP1cα in sf9 cells, which indicated relevant involvements of PP1cα and PP1r7 in spermatogenesis. Moreover, spatiotemporal transcriptional differences of Tc-stp-1 were determined by gene knockdown analysis, which revealed abnormal morphologies and blocked meiotic divisions of spermatocytes by phenotypic aberration scanning, thereby highlighting the crucial involvement of PP1cα in spermatogenesis. These results revealed a PP1cα-PP1r7 mechanism by which PP1 regulates kinetochore-microtubule interactions in spermatogenesis and provided important clues to identify novel drug or vaccine targets for toxocariasis control.

  7. pp wave big bangs: Matrix strings and shrinking fuzzy spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sumit R.; Michelson, Jeremy

    2005-10-15

    We find pp wave solutions in string theory with null-like linear dilatons. These provide toy models of big bang cosmologies. We formulate matrix string theory in these backgrounds. Near the big bang 'singularity', the string theory becomes strongly coupled but the Yang-Mills description of the matrix string is weakly coupled. The presence of a second length scale allows us to focus on a specific class of non-Abelian configurations, viz. fuzzy cylinders, for a suitable regime of parameters. We show that, for a class of pp waves, fuzzy cylinders which start out big at early times dynamically shrink into usual strings at sufficiently late times.

  8. Near-Threshold Production of ϕ Mesons in pp Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, M.; Maeda, Y.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koch, H. R.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Barsov, S.; Borgs, W.; Büscher, M.; Dimitrov, V. I.; Dymov, S.; Hejny, V.; Kleber, V.; Koptev, V.; Kulessa, P.; Mersmann, T.; Merzliakov, S.; Mussgiller, A.; Nekipelov, M.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Pysz, K.; Schleichert, R.; Stein, H. J.; Ströher, H.; Watzlawik, K.-H.; Wüstner, P.

    2006-06-01

    The pp→ppϕ reaction has been studied at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Jülich, using the internal beam and ANKE facility. Total cross sections have been determined at three excess energies γ near the production threshold. The differential cross section closest to threshold at γ=18.5MeV exhibits a clear S wave dominance as well as a noticeable effect due to the proton-proton final-state interaction. Taken together with data for ppω production, a significant enhancement of the ϕ/ω ratio of a factor 8 is found compared to predictions based on the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule.

  9. ρ0 Meson Production in the pp Reactions with Disto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabura, P.; Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R.; Bland, L. C.; Brenschede, A.; Brochard, F.; Bussa, M. P.; Choi, Seonho; Colantoni, M. L.; Dressler, R.; Dzemidzic, M.; Faivre, J.-Cl.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Foryciarz, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; Heinz, S.; Jacobs, W. W.; Kühn, W.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Manara, A.; Panzieri, D.; Pfaff, H.-W.; Piragino, G.; Popov, A.; Ritman, J.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tosello, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Zosi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Total and differential cross sections for the exclusive reaction ppppρ0 observed via the π+π- decay channel have been measured at pbeam= 3.67 GeV/c. The observed total meson production cross section is determined to be (23.4 ± 0.8 ± 8)μb and is significantly lower than typical cross sections used in model calculations for heavy ion collisions. The differential cross sections measured indicate a strong anisotropy ( ˜ \\cos2 θ ρ0^ CM) in the ρ0 meson production.

  10. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in pp collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s}=7 $$ TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2016-11-21

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb–1, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum pT ≥ 20 GeV and pseudorapidity |η| ≤ 4.4, and at least onemore » having pT ≥ 42.5 GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be fDPS = 0.092–0.011+0.005(stat.)–0.037+0.033(syst.). After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space regions, the effective cross-section, σeff , was determined to be σeff = 14.9–1.0+1.2(stat.)– 3.8+5.1(syst.) mb. This result is consistent within the quoted uncertainties with previous measurements of σeff , performed at centre-of-mass energies between 63 GeV and 8 TeV using various final states, and it corresponds to 21–6+7% of the total inelastic cross-section measured at √s = 7 TeV. As a result, the distributions of the observables sensitive to the contribution of hard double-parton scattering, corrected for detector effects, are also provided.« less

  11. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Carney, R. M. D.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Ezzi, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. 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E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauch, D. M.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reed, R. G.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reiss, A.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Roloff, J.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosien, N.-A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, K.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shirabe, S.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shope, D. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sideras Haddad, E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-11-01

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √{s}=7 TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37 .3 pb-1, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum p T ≥ 20 GeV and pseudorapidity | η| ≤ 4 .4, and at least one having p T ≥ 42 .5 GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be f DPS = 0.092 - 0.011 + 0.005 (stat.) - 0.037 + 0.033 (syst.). After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space regions, the effective cross-section, σ eff , was determined to be σ eff = 14. 9 - 1.0 + 1.2 (stat.) - 3.8 + 5.1 (syst.) mb. This result is consistent within the quoted uncertainties with previous measurements of σ eff , performed at centre-of-mass energies between 63 GeV and 8 TeV using various final states, and it corresponds to 21 - 6 + 7 % of the total inelastic cross-section measured at √{s}=7 TeV. The distributions of the observables sensitive to the contribution of hard double-parton scattering, corrected for detector effects, are also provided. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; ...

    2016-11-01

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s=7 TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb -1 , collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum p T ≥ 20 GeV and pseudorapidity |η| ≤ 4.4, and at leastmore » one having p T ≥ 42.5 GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be f DPS = 0.092 - 0.011 + 0.005 (stat.) - 0.037 + 0.033 (syst.). After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space regions, the effective cross-section, σ eff , was determined to be σ eff = 14. 9 - 1.0 + 1.2 (stat.) - 3.8 + 5.1 (syst.) mb. This result is consistent within the quoted uncertainties with previous measurements of σ eff , performed at centre-of-mass energies between 63 GeV and 8 TeV using various final states, and it corresponds to 21 - 6 + 7 % of the total inelastic cross-section measured at s=7 TeV. The distributions of the observables sensitive to the contribution of hard double-parton scattering, corrected for detector effects, are also provided.« less

  13. PP13, Maternal ABO Blood Groups and the Risk Assessment of Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Meiri, Hamutal; Erez, Offer; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Barna, Laszlo; Szilagyi, Andras; Ackerman, Ron; Sammar, Marei; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Kovalszky, Ilona; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Chong Jai; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Gonen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Placental Protein 13 (PP13), an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. Methods and Findings We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078) and Hispanic (n = 242) women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13 - blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. Conclusions ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test. PMID:21799738

  14. Polarisations of the Z and W bosons in the processes pp → ZH and pp → W ± H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Junya

    2017-08-01

    The Z boson in the process pp → ZH and the W + and W - in the process pp → W ± H can be in polarised states. The polarisation density matrix of the Z ( W) boson contains the complete information about a state of polarisation of the Z ( W) boson, and HZZ, HZγ and HWW interactions may be studied in detail from a careful analysis of these matrices. In this paper, a systematic approach to analyse these polarisation density matrices is presented. With the aim of making maximum use of the polarisation information, all of the elements of the polarisation density matrices are related with observables, which are measurable at the environment of pp collisions. Consequences of non-standard HZZ, HZγ and HWW interactions for these observables are discussed.

  15. Characterization of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases from the moss Physcomitrella patens: PpPIPK1 and PpPIPK2.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Laura; Balbi, Virginia; Dove, Stephen K; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Mikami, Koji; Sommarin, Marianne

    2009-03-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) play a major role in eukaryotic cells, despite being a minor component of most membranes. This is the first report on PI metabolism in a bryophyte, the moss Physcomitrella patens. Moss PI composition is similar to that of other land plants growing under normal conditions. In contrast to the large number of PIPK genes present in flowering plants, the P. patens genome encodes only two type I/II PIPK genes, PpPIPK1 and PpPIPK2, which are very similar at both the nucleotide and protein product levels. However, the expression of the two genes is differentially regulated, and in vitro biochemical characterization shows that the resulting enzymes have different substrate specificities. PpPIPK1 uses PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P with similar preference and also metabolizes PtdIns(3,4)P(2) to produce PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), a PI not yet detected in intact plant cells. PpPIPK2 prefers PtdIns as substrate and is much less active towards PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P. Thus, PpPIPK2 shows properties reminiscent of both PtdInsP-kinase and PtdIns-kinases. Moreover, a substitution of glutamic acid by alanine in the activation loop drastically reduced PpPIPK1 activity and altered the substrate specificity to PtdIns5P being the preferred substrate compared with PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P. These findings demonstrate that the substrate specificity of plant PIPKs is determined in a plant-specific manner, which provides new insights into the regulatory modes of PIPK activity in plants.

  16. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt{s}=7 $ TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. 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M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shirabe, S.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shope, D. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sideras Haddad, E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-11-21

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb–1, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum pT ≥ 20 GeV and pseudorapidity |η| ≤ 4.4, and at least one having pT ≥ 42.5 GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be fDPS = 0.092–0.011+0.005(stat.)–0.037+0.033(syst.). After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space regions, the effective cross-section, σeff , was determined to be σeff = 14.9–1.0+1.2(stat.)– 3.8+5.1(syst.) mb. This result is consistent within the quoted uncertainties with previous measurements of σeff , performed at centre-of-mass energies between 63 GeV and 8 TeV using various final states, and it corresponds to 21–6+7% of the total inelastic cross-section measured at √s = 7 TeV. As a result, the distributions of the observables sensitive to the contribution of hard double-parton scattering, corrected for detector effects, are also provided.

  17. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Aluminum setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-10-02

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Aluminum stores.

  18. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Au setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-08-25

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Au stores.

  19. An Ultra-High-Throughput Screen for Catalytic Inhibitors of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases Types 1 and 5 (PP1C and PP5C).

    PubMed

    Swingle, Mark; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Saldanha, S Adrian; Chase, Peter; Eberhart, Christina; Salter, Edward A; D'Arcy, Brandon; Schroeder, Chad E; Golden, Jennifer E; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Hodder, Peter; Honkanen, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Although there has been substantial success in the development of specific inhibitors for protein kinases, little progress has been made in the identification of specific inhibitors for their protein phosphatase counterparts. Inhibitors of PP1 and PP5 are desired as probes for research and to test their potential for drug development. We developed and miniaturized (1536-well plate format) nearly identical homogeneous, fluorescence intensity (FLINT) enzymatic assays to detect inhibitors of PP1 or PP5. The assays were used in an ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) campaign, testing >315,000 small-molecule compounds. Both assays demonstrated robust performance, with a Z' of 0.92 ± 0.03 and 0.95 ± 0.01 for the PP1 and PP5 assays, respectively. Screening the same library with both assays aided the identification of class inhibitors and assay artifacts. Confirmation screening and hit prioritization assays used [(32)P/(33)P]-radiolabel protein substrates, revealing excellent agreement between the FLINT and radiolabel assays. This screening campaign led to the discovery of four novel unrelated small-molecule inhibitors of PP1 and ~30 related small-molecule inhibitors of PP5. The results suggest that this uHTS approach is suitable for identifying selective chemical probes that inhibit PP1 or PP5 activity, and it is likely that similar assays can be developed for other PPP-family phosphatases.

  20. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Hung; Liang, Huike; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Li, Tianhong; Qi, Yafei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE), we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO) and Prunus persica FT (PpFT) from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time. PMID:25905637

  1. Genetic characterization of two fully sequenced multi-drug resistant plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 from Leclercia adecarboxylata

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengjun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Qiang; Luo, Wenbo; Tong, Yigang; Zhang, Defu; Wang, Qian; Feng, Wei; Chen, Weijun; Fan, Yahan; Xia, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported the complete sequence of the resistance plasmid pP10164-NDM, harboring blaNDM (conferring carbapenem resistance) and bleMBL (conferring bleomycin resistance), which is recovered from a clinical Leclercia adecarboxylata isolate P10164 from China. This follow-up work disclosed that there were still two multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 coexisting in this strain. pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 were completely sequenced and shown to carry a wealth of resistance genes, which encoded the resistance to at least 10 classes of antibiotics (β-lactams. macrolides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, amphenicols, quaternary ammonium compounds, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, and rifampicin) and 7 kinds of heavy mental (mercury, silver, copper, nickel, chromate, arsenic, and tellurium). All of these antibiotic resistance genes are associated with mobile elements such as transposons, integrons, and insertion sequence-based transposable units, constituting a total of three novel MDR regions, two in pP10164-2 and the other one in pP10164-3. Coexistence of three resistance plasmids pP10164-NDM, pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 makes L. adecarboxylata P10164 tend to become extensively drug-resistant. PMID:27658354

  2. Evidence for Non-Exponential Differential Cross-Section of pp Elastic Scattering at Low |t| and √s = 8 TeV by TOTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csörgő, T.

    2016-07-01

    Recently published and preliminary results of the TOTEM experiment are presented, emphasizing a recent discovery of a non-exponential behaviour of the differential crosssection of elastic proton-proton scattering, that TOTEM measured with an unprecedented precision at the centre-of-mass energy √s = 8 TeV based on a high-statistics data sample obtained with the β* = 90 m optics of CERN LHC. Both the statistical and systematic uncertainties remained below 1%, except for the t-independent contribution from the overall normalisation. This measurement allowed TOTEM to exclude a purely exponential differential cross-section in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.027 < |t| < 0.2 GeV2 with a significance greater than 7σ. In this context we also highlight the innovative TOTEM recalibration of LHC optics, that used elastic scattering data measured by the world's largest and most complex Roman Pot detector system, and discuss recent preliminary TOTEM data on the Coulomb-Nuclear interference region with its physics implications.

  3. The Hyperon {Lambda}(1405) in p+p reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenson, Johannes

    2011-10-21

    We present an analysis of the hyperon {Lambda}(1405) for p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy. The data were taken with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES). A {Lambda}(1405) signal could be reconstructed in both charged decay channels ({Lambda}(1405){yields}{Sigma}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}).

  4. Optical screw-wrench for interlocking 2PP-microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Zyla, G.; Ksouri, S. I.; Esen, C.; Ostendorf, A.

    2016-03-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) has emerged as a powerful platform for processing three-dimensional microstructures with high resolution. Furthermore, by adding nanoparticles of different materials to the photopolymer the microstructures can be functionalized, e.g. magnetic or electric properties can be adjusted. However, to combine different functions within one microstructure or to manufacture complex microsystems, assembling techniques for multiple 2PP written building blocks are required. In this paper a qualitative approach for assembling microstructures utilizing optical forces is presented. Therefore, screw and nut shaped microstructures are produced by 2PP-technique and screwed together using a holographic optical tweezer (HOT). The interlocking structures are trapped and rotated into each other to cause connection. In this paper the used parameters and possible designs of the interlocking connection are discussed. These findings provide not only the assembling of building blocks to complex microstructures, rather different functionalized 2PP-microstructures can be combined by simply screwing them together with the use of optical forces.

  5. Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Sharma, A.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Abdelalim, A. 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M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bahinipati, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Behnamian, H.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Kim, H.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Rusakov, S. V.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. 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M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Diamond, B.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. 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F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Kumar, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. 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A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at √{ s} = 5 , 7, and 13TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0pb-1 (5 TeV), 6.2pb-1 (7 TeV), and 0.7pb-1 (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v2) and third-order (v3) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v2 of KS0 and Λ / Λ ‾ particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v2 values of charged hadrons (mostly pions), KS0 , and Λ / Λ ‾, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pT ≈ 2GeV/ c. For 13 TeV data, the v2 signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. These observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

  6. Associated strangeness production in pp collisions near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, P.

    2004-08-01

    Motivated by the ongoing discussion concerning the nature of the scalar resonances f0(980) and a0(980), the COSY-11 collaboration has taken exclusive data on the ppppK+K- reaction near the production threshold. A first total cross section σ = (1.80 ± 0.27-0.35+0.28) nb for the excess energy Q = 17 MeV has been determined. In contrary to the η, ω, and η' single meson production studies which clearly show the strong pp final state interaction (FSI), the cross section values obtained at COSY-11 and DISTO can be both described by a fit with a four-body phase space including the proton-proton final state interaction as well as with one-meson exchange calculations neglecting FSI effects. Therefore, one might think about a compensation of the strong pp interaction through a pK- FSI effect or an additional degree of freedom caused by the four-body final state. In the latter case, strong FSI effects can be expected at Q-values very close to the K+K- production threshold. Such a motivation triggered — in combination with the investigation of the KK¯ interaction being relevant to the structure of the f0 (980) — further measurements at the excess energies Q = 10 and Q = 28 MeV at COSY-11.

  7. Measurement of the forward energy flow in pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

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Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The energy flow created in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] is studied within the pseudorapidity range 1.9<η<4.9 with data collected by the LHCb experiment. The measurements are performed for inclusive minimum-bias interactions, hard scattering processes and events with an enhanced or suppressed diffractive contribution. The results are compared to predictions given by Pythia-based and cosmic-ray event generators, which provide different models of soft hadronic interactions.

  8. Toughening of wood plastic composite based on X-PP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meekum, U.; Khongrit, A.

    2016-03-01

    Wood plastic composite(WPC) based on crosslinked polypropylene(X-PP)/wood flour was explored. The peroxide/silane was used as crosslinking system. The sauna incubation under moisture saturated oven was applied to accelerate the competition of the siloxy/moisture networking reaction. There were three parts of the research work; design of experiment, toughening of WPC and the effect of peroxide, silane and PP copolymer on properties of the WPC, respectively. In this published work, the toughness improvement of the composite was focused. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer(EPDM) were employed to improve impact strength via blending with x-PP matrix. Composites were compounded into pellets by co-rotational twin screw extruder and test specimens were prepared by injection molding. Sauna incubation at 105°C for 12 hrs in oven chamber was performed to accelerate the final silane condensation crosslink reaction. MFI, impact strength, flexural properties and heat deflection temperature measurement were conducted. Impact strength, HDT and flexural modulus were improved with increasing UHMWPE content, and the optimal values around 5-10 phr of UHMWPE were achieved. Addition of EPDM elastomer to the matrix blends, reduced flexural strength and modulus but increased impact strength. While incorporation of EPDM into the PP/UHMWPE blends was exhibited much higher impact strength than that of the PP/UHMWPE binary blends. Silane crosslinked through sauna treatment improved the impact strength. HDT were also much risen for the crosslinked composite comparing with the non-crosslinked one.

  9. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Zongqiang; Zhang Ke; Zhang Zhiping; Liu Yalan; Zhou Yafeng; Wei Hongping; Zhang Xian-En

    2009-09-30

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  10. Improved murine glioma detection following modified diet and photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Pogue, Brian W.

    2007-02-01

    The Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) - Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) system is unique in the world of photosensitizers in that the prodrug ALA is enzymatically transformed via the tissue of interest into fluorescently detectable levels of PpIX. This system can be used to monitor cellular metabolism of tumor tissue for applications such as therapy monitoring. Detecting PpIX fluorescence noninvasively has proven difficult due to the high levels of PpIX produced in the skin compared to other tissue both with and without ALA administration. In the current study, methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration have been examined. Use of a purified diet is found to decrease both skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration, while addition of a broad spectrum antibiotic to the water shows little effect. Following ALA administration, improved brain tumor detection is seen when skin PpIX fluorescence is photobleached via blue light prior to transmission spectroscopic measurements of tumor bearing and control animals. Both of these methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration are shown to have a large effect on the ability to detect tumor tissue PpIX fluorescence noninvasively in vivo.

  11. Mechanism of Inhibition of PP2A Activity and Abnormal Hyperphosphorylation of Tau by I2PP2A/SET

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Lisette; Chen, She; Liu, Fei; Li, Bin; Khatoon, Sabiha; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity, which is compromised in Alzheimer disease brain, is regulated by two endogenous inhibitors, one of them being I2PP2A, a 277 amino acid long protein also known as SET. Here we report that both the amino terminal fragment (I2NTF; aa 1–175) and the carboxy terminal fragment (I2CTF; aa 176–277) of I2PP2A inhibit PP2A by binding to its catalytic subunit PP2Ac and cause hyperphosphorylation of tau. The C-terminal acidic region in I2CTF and Val 92 in I2NTF are essential for their association with PP2Ac and inhibition of the phosphatase activity. PMID:21806989

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel mammalian PP2C isozyme.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y; Quirion, R; Shen, S H

    1998-12-25

    PP2C is a structurally diversified protein phosphatase family with a wide range of functions in cellular signal transduction. A novel PP2C subtype, designated PP2Cdelta, was identified from a rat cDNA clone, which encodes a protein of 392 amino acid residues. While PP2Cdelta shares approximately 30% sequence identity in its catalytic domain with the mammalian PP2C, it lacks a 90-residue carboxyl-terminal sequence conserved in mammalian PP2C. Northern blot analysis showed that PP2Cdelta is widely expressed in rat tissues. The transcription of the PP2Cdelta gene was activated in response to stress, such as the addition of ethanol to the culture medium or UV irradiation of cells. Recombinant PP2Cdelta purified from bacteria exhibited a potent Mn2+-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase activity. Unlike other members of the PP2C family, the activity of PP2Cdelta was inhibited, rather than stimulated, by Mg2+. Transfection with PP2Cdelta resulted in inhibition of cell growth, precluding generation of stable 293 or CHO transfectants. Using a modified tetracycline-regulated PP2Cdelta-GFP dicistronic expression cassette, it was revealed that overexpression of PP2Cdelta blocked cell cycle progression and arrested cells at early S phase, resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis and leading to cell death. These results suggest that PP2Cdelta plays a role in regulation of cell cycle progression via dephosphorylation of its substrates whose appropriate phosphorylation states might be crucial for cell proliferation.

  13. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken'ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Targeting of Protein Phosphatases PP2A and PP2B to the C-terminus of the L-type Calcium Channel Cav1.2†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Ginsburg, Kenneth S.; Hall, Duane D.; Zimmermann, Maike; Stein, Ivar S.; Zhang, Mingxu; Tandan, Samvit; Hill, Joseph A.; Horne, Mary C.; Bers, Donald; Hell, Johannes W.

    2010-01-01

    The L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 forms macromolecular signaling complexes that comprise the β2 adrenergic receptor, trimeric Gs protein, adenylyl cyclase, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA1) for efficient signaling in heart and brain. The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP2B are part of this complex. PP2A counteracts increase in Cav1.2 channel activity by PKA and other protein kinases, whereas PP2B can either augment or decrease Cav1.2 currents in cardiomyocytes depending on the precise experimental conditions. We found that PP2A binds to two regions in the C-terminus of the central, pore-forming α1 subunit of Cav1.2: one region spans residues 1795-1818 and the other residues 1965-1971. PP2B binds immediately downstream of residue 1971. Injection of a peptide that contained residues 1965-1971 and displaced PP2A but not PP2B from endogenous Cav1.2 increased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated L-type Ca2+ currents in acutely isolated cardiomyocytes. Together with our biochemical data, these physiological results indicate that anchoring of PP2A at this site of Cav1.2 in the heart negatively regulates cardiac L-type currents, likely by counterbalancing basal and stimulated phosphorylation that is mediated by PKA and possibly other kinases. PMID:21053940

  15. Combining polyethylene and polypropylene: Enhanced performance with PE/iPP multiblock polymers.

    PubMed

    Eagan, James M; Xu, Jun; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Thurber, Christopher M; Macosko, Christopher W; LaPointe, Anne M; Bates, Frank S; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2017-02-24

    Polyethylene (PE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) constitute nearly two-thirds of the world's plastic. Despite their similar hydrocarbon makeup, the polymers are immiscible with one another. Thus, common grades of PE and iPP do not adhere or blend, creating challenges for recycling these materials. We synthesized PE/iPP multiblock copolymers using an isoselective alkene polymerization initiator. These polymers can weld common grades of commercial PE and iPP together, depending on the molecular weights and architecture of the block copolymers. Interfacial compatibilization of phase-separated PE and iPP with tetrablock copolymers enables morphological control, transforming brittle materials into mechanically tough blends.

  16. PP2A inhibition as a novel therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Paula; Cristóbal, Ion; Manso, Rebeca; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Rojo, Federico

    2015-08-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a well-known tumor suppressor frequently inhibited in human cancer. Alterations affecting PP2A subunits together with the deregulation of endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as CIP2A and SET have been described as contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A in prostate cancer. Moreover, recent findings highlight that functional inactivation of PP2A could represent a key event in the acquisition of castration-resistant phenotype and a novel molecular target with high impact at both clinical and therapeutic levels in prostate cancer.

  17. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation promotes axonal growth and recovery in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Kun; Yu, Wei; Gao, Shutao; Hu, Shunze; Sun, Xuying; Huang, Hui

    2015-12-15

    Current treatments to restore neurological deficits caused by axonal disconnection following central nervous system (CNS) injury are extremely limited. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), one of the main serine-threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells, dephosphorylates collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) in the developing CNS. In our study, we found that the major CNS inhibiting substrates, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin associated glycoproteins (MAG), activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but inactivated PP2A and downstream CRMP2. Both EGFR inactivation and PP2A activation promoted axon elongation in vitro in the presence of inhibitory substrates. EGFR blockage by AG1478 selectively attenuated the inactive form of PP2A in pY307 phosphorylation, thus increasing PP2A activity. EGFR activation by EGF attenuated PP2A activity, whereas mutation of Y307 to phenylalanine abolished the effect. Furthermore, PP2A activity was down-regulated immediately after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Chronic application of d-erythro-sphingosine (DES), the PP2A agonist, to spinal cord-lesioned rats enhanced the activity of this phosphatase and dephosphorylated CRMP2 around the lesion. PP2A activation induced significant axon sprouting in the lesioned spinal cord and promoted function recovery after SCI. These findings suggest that PP2A works downstream of EGFR and dephosphorylates CRMP2 after CNS injury. Therefore, therapies targeting PP2A may be effective following SCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural basis of PP2A activation by PTPA, an ATP-dependent activation chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Feng; Stanevich, Vitali; Wlodarchak, Nathan; Sengupta, Rituparna; Jiang, Li; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Xing, Yongna

    2013-10-08

    Proper activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit is central for the complex PP2A regulation and is crucial for broad aspects of cellular function. The crystal structure of PP2A bound to PP2A phosphatase activator (PTPA) and ATPγS reveals that PTPA makes broad contacts with the structural elements surrounding the PP2A active site and the adenine moiety of ATP. PTPA-binding stabilizes the protein fold of apo-PP2A required for activation, and orients ATP phosphoryl groups to bind directly to the PP2A active site. This allows ATP to modulate the metal-binding preferences of the PP2A active site and utilize the PP2A active site for ATP hydrolysis. In vitro, ATP selectively and drastically enhances binding of endogenous catalytic metal ions, which requires ATP hydrolysis and is crucial for acquisition of pSer/Thr-specific phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both PP2A- and ATP-binding are required for PTPA function in cell proliferation and survival. Our results suggest novel mechanisms of PTPA in PP2A activation with structural economy and a unique ATP-binding pocket that could potentially serve as a specific therapeutic target.

  19. The Role of the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Placental Protein 13 (PP13) in Pregnancy Evaluated with Recombinant PP13 and the DelT221 PP13 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Sammar, Marei; Nisamblatt, Shahar; Gonen, Ron; Huppertz, Berthold; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Osol, George; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Placental protein 13 (PP13), a placenta specific protein, is reduced in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. A naturally occurring PP13 deletion of thymidine at position 221 (DelT221 or truncated variant) is associated with increased frequency of severe preeclampsia. In this study we compared the full length (wildtype) PP13 and the truncated variant. Methods Full length PP13 or its DelT221 variant were cloned, expressed and purified from E-Coli. Both variants were administrated into pregnant rats at day 8 of pregnancy for slow release (>5 days) through osmotic pumps and rat blood pressure was measured. Animals were sacrificed at day 15 or day 21 and their utero-placental vasculature was examined. Results The DelT221 variant (11 kDA) lacked exon 4 and a part of exon 3, and is short of 2 amino acids involved in the carbohydrate (CRD) binding of the wildtype (18 kDA). Unlike the wildtype PP13, purification of DelT221 variant required special refolding. PP13 specific poly- clonal antibodies recognized both PP13 and DelT221 but PP13 specific monoclonal antibodies recognized only the wildtype, indicating the loss of major epitopes. Wildtype PP13 mRNA and its respective proteins were both lower in PE patients compared to normal pregnancies. The DelT221 mutant was not found in a large Caucasian cohort. Pregnant rats exposed to wildtype or DelT221 PP13 variants had significantly lower blood pressure compared to control. The wildtype but not the DelT221 mutant caused extensive vein expansion. Conclusion This study revealed the importance of PP13 in regulating blood pressure and expanding the utero-placental vasculature in pregnant rats. PP13 mutant lacking amino acids of the PP13 CRD domain fails to cause vein expansion but did reduce blood pressure. The study provides a basis for replenishing patients at risk for preeclampsia by the full length but not the truncated PP13. PMID:25079598

  20. Cytosolic ppGpp accumulation induces retarded plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuta; Masuda, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria a second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), synthesized upon nutrient starvation, controls many gene expressions and enzyme activities, which is necessary for growth under changeable environments. Recent studies have shown that ppGpp synthase and hydrolase are also conserved in eukaryotes, although their functions are not well understood. We recently showed that ppGpp-overaccumulation in Arabidopsis chloroplasts results in robust growth under nutrient-limited conditions, demonstrating that the bacterial-like stringent response at least functions in plastids. To test if ppGpp also functions in the cytosol, we constructed the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Bacillus subtilis ppGpp synthase gene yjbM. Upon induction of the gene, the mutant synthesizes ∼10-20-fold higher levels of ppGpp, and its fresh weight was reduced to ˜80% that of the wild type. These results indicate that cytosolic ppGpp negatively regulates plant growth and development.

  1. Molecular mutagenesis of ppGpp: turning a RelA activator into an inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Beljantseva, Jelena; Kudrin, Pavel; Jimmy, Steffi; Ehn, Marcel; Pohl, Radek; Varik, Vallo; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Shingler, Victoria; Tenson, Tanel; Rejman, Dominik; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2017-01-01

    The alarmone nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance and virulence, making (p)ppGpp-mediated signaling a promising target for development of antibacterials. Although ppGpp itself is an activator of the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase RelA, several ppGpp mimics have been developed as RelA inhibitors. However promising, the currently available ppGpp mimics are relatively inefficient, with IC50 in the sub-mM range. In an attempt to identify a potent and specific inhibitor of RelA capable of abrogating (p)ppGpp production in live bacterial cells, we have tested a targeted nucleotide library using a biochemical test system comprised of purified Escherichia coli components. While none of the compounds fulfilled this aim, the screen has yielded several potentially useful molecular tools for biochemical and structural work. PMID:28157202

  2. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  3. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  4. Spin-dependent parameters P/sub n/000, D/sub n/0n0, K/sub n/00n, D/sub s/0s0, D/sub s/0k0, M/sub s/0sn, and M/sub s/0kn in pp elastic scattering at 579 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Hausammann, R.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Leo, W.R.; Morenzoni, S.; Onel, Y.; Rapin, D.; Mango, S.

    1983-06-01

    The polarization parameter P/sub n/000, the two-spin parameters D/sub n/0n0, K/sub n/00n, D/sub s/0s0, and D/sub s/0k0, and the three-spin parameters M/sub s/0sn and M/sub s/0kn have been measured for pp elastic scattering at 579 MeV between 34/sup 0/ and 118/sup 0/ center-of-mass scattering angle. The experiment was performed at SIN using a polarized proton beam, a polarized butanol target, and a polarimeter for the measurement of the polarization of the scattered proton. These data form the basis for a complete experimental determination of the scattering amplitudes.

  5. Superstring theory on pp waves with ADE geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abounasr, R.; Belhaj, A.; Rasmussen, J.; Saidi, E. H.

    2006-03-01

    We study the BMN correspondence between certain Penrose limits of type IIB superstrings on pp-wave orbifolds with ADE geometries and the set of four-dimensional {\\cal N}=2 superconformal field theories constructed as quiver gauge models classified by finite ADE Lie algebras and affine \\widehatADE Kac-Moody algebras. These models have 16 preserved supercharges and are based on systems of D3-branes and wrapped D5- and D7-branes. We derive explicitly the metrics of these pp-wave orbifolds and show that the BMN extension requires, in addition to D5-D5 open strings in bi-fundamental representations, D5-D7 open strings involving orientifolds with Sp(N) gauge symmetry. We also give the correspondence rule between leading string states and gauge-invariant operators in the {\\cal N}=2 quiver gauge models.

  6. Basal Levels of (p)ppGpp in Enterococcus faecalis: the Magic beyond the Stringent Response

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Miller, James H.; Liu, Kuanqing; Wang, Jue D.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Lemos, José A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The stringent response (SR), mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp, is a conserved bacterial adaptation system controlling broad metabolic alterations necessary for survival under adverse conditions. In Enterococcus faecalis, production of (p)ppGpp is controlled by the bifunctional protein RSH (for “Rel SpoT homologue”; also known as RelA) and by the monofunctional synthetase RelQ. Previous characterization of E. faecalis strains lacking rsh, relQ, or both revealed that RSH is responsible for activation of the SR and that alterations in (p)ppGpp production negatively impact bacterial stress survival and virulence. Despite its well-characterized role as the effector of the SR, the significance of (p)ppGpp during balanced growth remains poorly understood. Microarrays of E. faecalis strains producing different basal amounts of (p)ppGpp identified several genes and pathways regulated by modest changes in (p)ppGpp. Notably, expression of numerous genes involved in energy generation were induced in the ∆rsh ∆relQ [(p)ppGpp0] strain, suggesting that a lack of basal (p)ppGpp places the cell in a “transcriptionally relaxed” state. Alterations in the fermentation profile and increased production of H2O2 in the (p)ppGpp0 strain substantiate the observed transcriptional changes. We confirm that, similar to what is seen in Bacillus subtilis, (p)ppGpp directly inhibits the activity of enzymes involved in GTP biosynthesis, and complete loss of (p)ppGpp leads to dysregulation of GTP homeostasis. Finally, we show that the association of (p)ppGpp with antibiotic survival does not relate to the SR but rather relates to basal (p)ppGpp pools. Collectively, this study highlights the critical but still underappreciated role of basal (p)ppGpp pools under balanced growth conditions. PMID:24065631

  7. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class ("PP2C7s") which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key evolutionary

  8. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R. Glen; Moorhead, Greg B. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class (“PP2C7s”) which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key

  9. Identified hadron production in pp collisions measured with ALICE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales Morales, Yasser; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The production of identified hadrons in proton-proton collisions is frequently studied as a reference for the investigation of the strongly-interacting medium created in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, at LHC energies measurements in pp and p-Pb collisions as a function of the event multiplicity have shown some features reminiscent of those related to collective effects in Pb-Pb collisions. Thanks to its excellent PID capabilities and p Τ coverage, the ALICE detector offers a unique opportunity for the measurement of p Τ spectra, integrated yields (dN/dy) and mean transverse momenta (

    ) of identified light-flavour hadrons at midrapidity over a wide p Τ range. In this contribution, results on π, K, p, {{{K}}}{{S}}0, Λ, Ξ, Ω and K*0 as a function of multiplicity in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s}=7 {TeV} are presented. The results are compared with those measured in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. A similar evolution of the spectral shape, the p Τ-differential particle ratios and the integrated yield ratios with the charged particle multiplicity in both small and large systems is observed. The production rates of strange hadrons in pp collisions increase more than those of non-strange particles, showing an enhancement pattern with multiplicity which is remarkably similar to the one measured in p-Pb collisions. In addition, results on the production of light flavour hadrons in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s}=13 {TeV}, the highest centre-of-mass energy reached so far in the laboratory, are also presented and the behaviour observed as a function of \\sqrt{s} are discussed.

  10. Prompt photon production in p-p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleymans, J.; Quack, E.; Redlich, K.

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive photon cross-section in p-p collisions is presented. The dependence of the {gamma} rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. A comparison is made with experimental data for centre-of-mass energies ranging from 23 GeV to 1.8 TeV. Predictions of the cross-sections are given for two different sets of structure functions for RHIC and LHC energies.

  11. Angular Distributions of η Meson Production in pp Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, I.; Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R.; Bland, L. C.; Brenschede, A.; Brochard, F.; Bussa, M. P.; Choi, Seonho; Colantoni, M. L.; Dressler, R.; Dzemidzic, M.; Faivre, J.-Cl.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Foryciarz, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; Heinz, S.; Jacobs, W. W.; Kühn, W.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Manara, A.; Panzieri, D.; Pfaff, H.-W.; Piragino, G.; Popov, A.; Ritman, J.; Salabura, P.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tosello, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Zosi, G.

    With the DISTO spectrometer, exclusive η production in pp collisions have been measured at kinetic energies of Tbeam=2.15, 2.50 and 2.85 GeV, respectively, via the π+π-π0 decay channel. The resulting angular distributions of the η are important for the interpretation of dilepton spectra obtained in elementary as well as heavy ion reactions.

  12. Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-12-13

    Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at √s = 5,7, and 13TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0pb–1 (5 TeV), 6.2pb–1 (7TeV), and 0.7pb–1 (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v2) and third-order (v3) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v2 of KS0 and Λ/Λ¯ particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v2 values of chargedmore » hadrons (mostly pions), KS0, and Λ/Λ¯, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pT ≈ 2GeV/c. For 13 TeV data, the v2 signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. Finally, these observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.« less

  13. Generation IV PR and PP Methods and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-10-13

    This paper presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Particular current relevant activities will be discussed in this regard. The methodology has been illustrated in a series of demonstration and case studies and these will be summarized in the paper.

  14. Associated charmonium production in low energy pp annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.; Li, X.

    2007-03-01

    The QCD mechanisms underlying the exclusive strong decays and hadronic production amplitudes of charmonium remain poorly understood, despite decades of study and an increasingly detailed body of experimental information. One set of hadronic channels of special interest are those that include baryon-antibaryon states. These are being investigated experimentally at BES and CLEO-c in terms of their baryon resonance content, and are also of interest for the future PANDA experiment, in which charmonium and charmonium hybrids will be produced in pp annihilation in association with light mesons. In this paper we develop a simple initial-state light meson emission model of the near-threshold associated charmonium production processes pp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{psi}, and evaluate the differential and total cross sections for these reactions in this model. (Here we consider the states {psi}={eta}{sub c}, J/{psi}, {psi}{sup '}, {chi}{sub 0} and {chi}{sub 1}.) The predicted near-threshold cross section for pp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}J/{psi} is found to be numerically similar to two previous theoretical estimates, and is roughly comparable to the (sparse) existing data for this process. The theoretical charmonium angular distributions predicted by this model are far from isotropic, which may be of interest for PANDA detector design studies.

  15. Polarization Processes of Nanocomposite Silicate-EVA and PP Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Gian Carlo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Testa, Luigi; Motori, Antonio; Saccani, Andrea; Patuelli, Francesca

    Recent works indicate that polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) filled by nanosilicates may present low content of space charge and high electric strength. Investigations are being made to explain nanocomposite behaviour and characterize their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, the results of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy performed on EVA and PP filled by layered nanosized silicates are reported. Isochronal and isothermal curves of complex permittivity, as well as activation energies of the relaxation processes, are presented and discussed. Nanostructuration gives rise to substantial changes in the polarisation and dielectric loss behaviour. While the relaxation process of EVA, associated with glass transition of the material amorphous phase, results unchanged from base to nanostructured material, nanocomposites EVA and PP have shown the rise of a new process at higher temperatures respect to the typical host material processes, as well as a different distribution of relaxation processes. Changes in space charge accumulation in relation to the effectiveness of the purification process performed upon nanostructured materials are also reported: while the dispersion of the clean clays leads to a reduction of the space charge, especially at high fields, an unclean filler gives rise to significant homo-charge accumulation and interfacial polarisation phenomena.

  16. IViPP: A Tool for Visualization in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hieu; Skiba, Elizabeth; Baldwin, Doug

    2011-10-01

    Experiments and simulations in physics generate a lot of data; visualization is helpful to prepare that data for analysis. IViPP (Interactive Visualizations in Particle Physics) is an interactive computer program that visualizes results of particle physics simulations or experiments. IViPP can handle data from different simulators, such as SRIM or MCNP. It can display relevant geometry and measured scalar data; it can do simple selection from the visualized data. In order to be an effective visualization tool, IViPP must have a software architecture that can flexibly adapt to new data sources and display styles. It must be able to display complicated geometry and measured data with a high dynamic range. We therefore organize it in a highly modular structure, we develop libraries to describe geometry algorithmically, use rendering algorithms running on the powerful GPU to display 3-D geometry at interactive rates, and we represent scalar values in a visual form of scientific notation that shows both mantissa and exponent. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), with special thanks to Craig Sangster at LLE.

  17. Experimental Search for the Kaonic Nuclear State K-pp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken

    We search for the most basic kaonic nuclear state, K-pp, by studying an exclusive p + p → p + Λ + K+ process at Tp = 3.1 GeV using FOPI apparatus at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. A possible signature of the K-pp is searched as a p + p → K-pp + K+ → p + Λ + K+ reaction in the event sample of pΛK+ three body process. A missing-mass ΔM(K+) spectrum, a Λp invariant-mass M(Λp) spectrum and a mono energetic kaon will characterize such a two body process. The reaction channel is basically the same as the one which T. Yamazaki et al. very recently reported a possible hint of such state with M = 2267 MeV/c2 and Γ = 118 MeV from a re-analysis of the DISTO experiment data. The DISTO data was taken at Tp = 2.85 GeV. The beam energy of the FOPI experiment is chosen to optimize the signal to background ratio and also to see the background shape separately. FOPI data taking took place in August-September 2009 and analysis is currently undergoing.

  18. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates heterochromatin formation in interphase

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Inês J.; Budzak, James; Di Giacinto, Maria L.; Ligammari, Lorena; Gokhan, Ezgi; Spanos, Christos; Moralli, Daniela; Richardson, Christine; de las Heras, Jose I.; Salatino, Silvia; Schirmer, Eric C.; Ullman, Katharine S.; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Green, Catherine; Rappsilber, Juri; Lamble, Sarah; Goldberg, Martin W.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Vagnarelli, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Repo-Man is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting subunit that regulates mitotic progression and chromatin remodelling. After mitosis, Repo-Man/PP1 remains associated with chromatin but its function in interphase is not known. Here we show that Repo-Man, via Nup153, is enriched on condensed chromatin at the nuclear periphery and at the edge of the nucleopore basket. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates the formation of heterochromatin, dephosphorylates H3S28 and it is necessary and sufficient for heterochromatin protein 1 binding and H3K27me3 recruitment. Using a novel proteogenomic approach, we show that Repo-Man is enriched at subtelomeric regions together with H2AZ and H3.3 and that depletion of Repo-Man alters the peripheral localization of a subset of these regions and alleviates repression of some polycomb telomeric genes. This study shows a role for a mitotic phosphatase in the regulation of the epigenetic landscape and gene expression in interphase. PMID:28091603

  19. Thermal Degradation of Filler/PP Composite and Its Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Hiroshi; Funami, Fumiyasu; Yasuda, Naoki; Nomura, Manabu; Yui, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Nobuo

    To examine thermal degradation accelerated by filling inorganic particles in polypropylene (PP), the composites were made with three types of inorganic powders : talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. They were easily degraded with the fillers in this order in the thermal aging test. A commercial heat resistance agent, ‘Plenlizer MK-400’, was added while making the composites. The degradation resistance of the agent remarkably appeared in the reverse order. That is, thermal degradation was most depressed in talc-filled composite with the agent. In another experience, soxhlet extraction was carried out to the filler with an organic solvent, o-xylene, that was able to dissolve PP. A lot of inorganic ions were detected in the extractant. In particular, the detected amount of aluminum ion increased in the order of talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. This order was the same as the fillers indicated by the degree of degradation. Infrared analysis of the agent with inorganic ions in chloroform showed that the peaks due to the agent were much stronger with aluminum ion than those with iron ion. These results suggested that a cause of degradation was aluminum ion dispersed from particles to PP matrix during the molding.

  20. Silencing PP2A Inhibitor by Lenti-shRNA Interference Ameliorates Neuropathologies and Memory Deficits in tg2576 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gong-Ping; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Shi, Hai-Rong; Liu, Xing-Hua; Chai, Gao-Shang; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Peng, Cai-Xia; Hu, Juan; Li, Xia-Chun; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Deficits of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) play a crucial role in tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloid overproduction, and synaptic suppression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which PP2A is inactivated by the endogenously increased inhibitory protein, namely inhibitor-2 of PP2A (I2PP2A). Therefore, in vivo silencing I2PP2A may rescue PP2A and mitigate AD neurodegeneration. By infusion of lentivirus-shRNA targeting I2PP2A (LV-siI2PP2A) into hippocampus and frontal cortex of 11-month-old tg2576 mice, we demonstrated that expression of LV-siI2PP2A decreased remarkably the elevated I2PP2A in both mRNA and protein levels. Simultaneously, the PP2A activity was restored with the mechanisms involving reduction of the inhibitory binding of I2PP2A to PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC), repression of the inhibitory Leu309-demethylation and elevation of PP2AC. Silencing I2PP2A induced a long-lasting attenuation of amyloidogenesis in tg2576 mice with inhibition of amyloid precursor protein hyperphosphorylation and β-secretase activity, whereas simultaneous inhibition of PP2A abolished the antiamyloidogenic effects of I2PP2A silencing. Finally, silencing I2PP2A could improve learning and memory of tg2576 mice with preservation of several memory-associated components. Our data reveal that targeting I2PP2A can efficiently rescue Aβ toxicities and improve the memory deficits in tg2576 mice, suggesting that I2PP2A could be a promising target for potential AD therapies. PMID:23922015

  1. Pathologic significance of SET/I2PP2A-mediated PP2A and non-PP2A pathways in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shi-Wen; Xu, Siliang; Chen, Haibin; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Zuoqing; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    SET (SE translocation, SET), a constitutive inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is a multifunctional oncoprotein involved in DNA replication, histone modification, nucleosome assembly, gene transcription and cell proliferation. It is widely expressed in human tissues including the gonadal system and brain. Intensive studies have shown that overexpressed SET plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and may also contribute to the malignant transformation of breast and ovarian cancers. Recent studies indicated that through interaction with PP2A, SET may upregulate androgen biosynthesis and contribute to hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. This review article summarizes data concerning the SET expression in ovaries from PCOS and normal women, and analyzes the role/regulatory mechanism of SET for androgen biosynthesis in PCOS, as well as the significance of this action in the development of PCOS. The potential value of SET-triggered pathway as a therapeutic target and the application of anti-SET reagents for treating hyperandrogenism in PCOS patients are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Study of two-photon corrections in the pp{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} process: Hard rescattering mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guttmann, Julia; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Kivel, Nikolai

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the two-photon corrections to the process pp{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} at large momentum transfer, aimed to access the timelike nucleon form factors. We estimate the two-photon corrections using a hard rescattering mechanism, which has already been used to calculate the corresponding corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering. Using different nucleon distribution amplitudes, we find that the two-photon corrections to the pp{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} cross sections in the momentum transfer range 5-30 GeV{sup 2} is below the 1% level.

  3. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-02

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes.

  4. Substrate analysis of Arabidopsis PP2C-type protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Umbrasaite, Julija; Schweighofer, Alois; Meskiene, Irute

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation by protein kinases can be reversed by the action of protein phosphatases. In plants, the Ser/Thr-specific phosphatases dominate among the protein phosphatase families with the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) being the most abundant among them. PP2Cs are monomeric enzymes that require metal cations for their activity and are insensitive to known phosphatase inhibitors. PP2Cs were shown to counteract the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase/MAPK) activities in plants and to regulate developmental and stress signaling pathways. Studies of PP2C activities can be performed in vitro using recombinant proteins. The potential substrates of PP2Cs can be tested for dephosphorylation by the phosphatase in vitro. We have found that the stress-induced PP2Cs from alfalfa and Arabidopsis interact with stress-activated MAPKs in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens. Consequently, recombinant MAPKs were employed as substrates for dephosphorylation by selected PP2Cs from different family clusters. The members of the PP2C phosphatase family demonstrated specificity toward the substrate already in vitro, supporting the notion that protein phosphatases are specific enzymes. The PP2C from Arabidopsis thaliana cluster B, Arabidopsis PP2C-type phosphatase (AP2C1), and its homolog from Medicago sativa, Medicago PP2C-type phosphatase (MP2C), were able to dephosphorylate and inactivate MAPKs, whereas the ABSCISIC ACID (ABA)-INSENSITIVE 2 (ABI2) and HOMOLOGY TO ABI1 (HAB1) PP2Cs from the distinct Arabidopsis cluster A were not able to do so. The method described here can be used for the determination of PP2C protein activity and for studying the effect of mutations introduced into their catalytic domains.

  5. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  6. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  7. An altered form of pp60/sup c-src/ is expressed primarily in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Le Beau, J.M.; Wiestler, O.D.; Walter, G.

    1987-11-01

    The expression of two forms of pp60/sup c-scr/, pp60 and pp60/sup +/, was measured in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. Both forms were expressed in the CNS, whereas only pp60 was primarily detected in the peripheral nervous system. Our findings suggest that pp60/sup +/ may play a role in events important to the CNS.

  8. Generalized Dalitz plot analysis of the near-threshold pp{yields}ppK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction in view of the K{sup +}K{sup -} final state interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Silarski, M.; Czyzykiewicz, R.; Gil, D.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Smyrski, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zdebik, J.; Moskal, P.; Czerwinski, E.; Klaja, J.; Klaja, P.; Krzemien, W.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Wolke, M.; Wuestner, P.; Khoukaz, A.

    2009-10-15

    The excitation function for the pp{yields}ppK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction revealed a significant enhancement close to threshold that may plausibly be assigned to the influence of the pK{sup -} and K{sup +}K{sup -} final-state interactions. In an improved reanalysis of COSY-11 data for the pp{yields}ppK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction at excess energies of Q=10 and 28 MeV, including the proton-K{sup -} interaction, the enhancement is confirmed. Invariant mass distributions for the two- and three-particle subsystems allow us to test at low excess energies the ansatz and parameters for the description of the interaction in the ppK{sup +}K{sup -} system as derived from the COSY-ANKE data. Finally, based for the first time on the low-energy K{sup +}K{sup -} invariant mass distributions and the generalized Dalitz plot analysis, we estimate the scattering length for the K{sup +}K{sup -} interaction to be |Re(a{sub K{sup +}}{sub K{sup -}})|=0.5{sub -0.5}{sup +4.0} fm and Im(a{sub K{sup +}}{sub K{sup -}})=3.0{+-}3.0 fm.

  9. Predicting minimum-bias trigger-associated dijet correlations in p-p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, Thomas A.

    2015-08-01

    A method is derived to predict the structure of dijet-related hard components of trigger-associated (TA) hadron correlations from p-p collisions based on measured fragmentation functions (FFs) from {e}+-{e}- or p-\\bar{p} collisions and a minimum-bias (MB) jet or scattered-parton spectrum from p-\\bar{p} collisions. The method is based on the probability chain rule and Bayes’ theorem and relates a trigger-parton-associated-fragment system from reconstructed dijets to a trigger-hadron-associated hadron system from p-p data. The method is tested in this study by comparisons of FF TA structure with preliminary p-p TA data but can also be applied to p-A, d-A and A-A collisions over a range of energies. Quantitative comparisons of measured TA correlations with FF-derived predictions may confirm a quantum chromodynamics MB dijet mechanism for certain spectrum and correlation structures whose origins are currently questioned and have been attributed by some to collective expansion (flows).

  10. ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Epshtein, Vitaly; Benjamin, Bradley; Proshkin, Sergey; Mironov, Alexander; Cashel, Michael; Nudler, Evgeny

    2016-05-20

    The small molecule alarmone (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial adaptation to nutrient deprivation by altering the initiation properties of RNA polymerase (RNAP). ppGpp is generated in Escherichia coli by two related enzymes, RelA and SpoT. We show that ppGpp is robustly, but transiently, induced in response to DNA damage and is required for efficient nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER). This explains why relA-spoT-deficient cells are sensitive to diverse genotoxic agents and ultraviolet radiation, whereas ppGpp induction renders them more resistant to such challenges. The mechanism of DNA protection by ppGpp involves promotion of UvrD-mediated RNAP backtracking. By rendering RNAP backtracking-prone, ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair and prompts transitions between repair and recovery states.

  11. Study of Processing and Mechanical Behavior of Pp/clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Melt Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Sareh Mosleh; Janghorban, Kamal

    In this research, the melt blending technique was used to prepare various polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposites containing 1,3,5,7 wt% montmorillonite (MMT). A commercial organoclay (denoted K-10) served as the filler for PP matrix and the polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) was used as compatibalizer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), results of which showed that the nanocomposites are best described as intercalated-exfoliated systems. PP/MMT nanocomposites showed good thermal stability in the TGA analysis. Introducion of 3% MMT in the nanocomposites increased the onset temperature of the degradation by 27.5 °C compared to that of pure PP. Test results showed that PP/clay nanocomposites had an enhanced tensile strength, hardness and decreased wear rates.

  12. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  13. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  14. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  15. Study of e+e-→pp¯ via initial-state radiation at BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindemann, D.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wang, W. F.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    The process e+e-→pp¯γ is studied using 469fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, at an e+e- center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV. From the analysis of the pp¯ invariant mass spectrum, the energy dependence of the cross section for e+e-→pp¯ is measured from threshold to 4.5 GeV. The energy dependence of the ratio of electric and magnetic form factors, |GE/GM|, and the asymmetry in the proton angular distribution are measured for pp¯ masses below 3 GeV. The branching fractions for the decays J/ψ→pp¯ and ψ(2S)→pp¯ are also determined.

  16. Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Tenson, Tanel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    The alarmone (p)ppGpp is involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular leves of (p)ppGpp, the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters. PMID:25853779

  17. Updating Boer-Mulders functions from unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We extract the Boer-Mulders functions for the proton by combining the unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data measured by the E866/NuSea Collaboration by the assumption that the cos2{phi} asymmetry is from the Boer-Mulders functions. Using the extracted Boer-Mulders functions, we present the predictions for the cos2{phi} asymmetries in future pp experiments at J-PARC and pp experiments at PANDA and PAX.

  18. PpIX induces mitochondria-related apoptosis in murine leukemia L1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Pan; Li, Long; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a well-known sensitizer that can enhance laser light or ultrasound induced cytotoxicity in photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy. However, PpIX alone could effectively cause anti-tumor effect and the underlying mechanisms are rarely been reported. Therefore, this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which PpIX revealed anti-proliferative effect on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The accumulation of PpIX in L1210 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated with flow cytometry. The subcellular localization of PpIX and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation were determined by confocal microscope. The cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD and DAPI staining were used to detect apoptotic cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes were tested by rhodamine123 staining. DNA damage was measured by comet assay. PpIX preferentially accumulated in L1210 cells compared to PBMCs and PpIX mainly located in the mitochondria of L1210 cells. PpIX at a concentration of 1 µg/ml or above exerted significant anti-tumor effect and the cell viability loss presented PpIX dose-dependent manner. Typical apoptotic features such as chromatin condensation were observed by DAPI staining. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD analysis showed 5 µg/ml PpIX could induce about 24% cell apoptosis, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In addition, the PpIX caused MMP loss, AIF translocation to nucleus and serious DNA damage were also suppressed by CsA. The results indicate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were involved in PpIX caused cell damage on L1210 cells.

  19. A PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme directly regulates PIN phosphorylation and auxin efflux in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhang, Chen; Kania, Urszula; Chen, Fang; Xue, Qin; McCray, Tyra; Li, Gang; Qin, Genji; Wakeley, Michelle; Terzaghi, William; Wan, Jianmin; Zhao, Yunde; Xu, Jian; Friml, Jirí; Deng, Xing Wang; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-06-01

    The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin depends on the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins. While PINIOD (PID) kinase is directly involved in the phosphorylation of PIN proteins, the phosphatase holoenzyme complexes that dephosphorylate PIN proteins remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mutations simultaneously disrupting the function of Arabidopsis thaliana FyPP1 (for Phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase1) and FyPP3, two homologous genes encoding the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase6 (PP6), cause elevated accumulation of phosphorylated PIN proteins, correlating with a basal-to-apical shift in subcellular PIN localization. The changes in PIN polarity result in increased root basipetal auxin transport and severe defects, including shorter roots, fewer lateral roots, defective columella cells, root meristem collapse, abnormal cotyledons (small, cup-shaped, or fused cotyledons), and altered leaf venation. Our molecular, biochemical, and genetic data support the notion that FyPP1/3, SAL (for SAPS DOMAIN-LIKE), and PP2AA proteins (RCN1 [for ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1] or PP2AA1, PP2AA2, and PP2AA3) physically interact to form a novel PP6-type heterotrimeric holoenzyme complex. We also show that FyPP1/3, SAL, and PP2AA interact with a subset of PIN proteins and that for SAL the strength of the interaction depends on the PIN phosphorylation status. Thus, an Arabidopsis PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme acts antagonistically with PID to direct auxin transport polarity and plant development by directly regulating PIN phosphorylation.

  20. Updating Boer-Mulders functions from unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We extract the Boer-Mulders functions for the proton by combining the unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data measured by the E866/NuSea Collaboration by the assumption that the cos⁡2ϕ asymmetry is from the Boer-Mulders functions. Using the extracted Boer-Mulders functions, we present the predictions for the cos⁡2ϕ asymmetries in future pp experiments at J-PARC and pp¯ experiments at PANDA and PAX.

  1. RHIC FY15 pp Run RHIC and AGS polarization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Adams, P.

    2016-02-20

    The polarization information is important for the spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). There are discrepancies between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements. First, the face value of AGS polarization is higher than RHIC ones in general. Second, the measured polarization profile (described by the profile ratio R) is stronger in AGS than in RHIC. This note analyzes the polarization data from FY15 pp run period. The results show that the differences between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements are reasonable, but the R value difference is puzzling. The difference between blue and yellow ring is worth of spin simulation to explain.

  2. Semiclassical treatment of pp formation in p-H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.

    2005-05-01

    As the energy of an antiproton colliding with a hydrogen atom decreases, the probability for formation of protonium (pp) increases. In this work, we present a calculation of protonium formation using the Electron-Nuclear Dynamics (END) theory for projectile energies from 1 eV to 10 eV. We present preliminary results for the protonium formation cross section, the stopping cross section (nuclear and electronic). In particular, we explore the role of non-adiabatic effects and the ionization channel within the END formalism.

  3. Double Parton Interactions in pp and pA Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treleani, Daniele; Calucci, Giorgio; Salvini, Simona

    2016-11-01

    As a consequence of the increasingly large flux of partons at small x, Double Parton Interactions (DPI) play an increasingly important role at high energies. A detail understanding of DPI dynamics is therefore mandatory, for a reliable subtraction of the background in the search of new physics. On the other hand, DPI are an interesting topic of research by themselves, as DPI probe the hadron structure in a rather different way, as compared with the large pt processes usually considered. In this note we will make a short illustration of some of the main features characterizing DPI in pp and in pA collisions.

  4. Inclusive Jet Production in pp¯ Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abdesselam, A.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Begel, M.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Duensing, S.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gao, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hou, S.; Huang, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jaffré, M.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Leggett, C.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Luo, C.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Moore, R. W.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Nunnemann, T.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Papageorgiou, K.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Peters, O.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramberg, E.; Rapidis, P. A.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rha, J.; Ridel, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Tripathi, S. M.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.-M.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Wijngaarden, D. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2001-02-01

    We report a new measurement of the pseudorapidity ( η) and transverse-energy ( ET) dependence of the inclusive jet production cross section in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using 95 pb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The differential cross section d2σ/\\(dETdη\\) is presented up to \\|η\\| = 3, significantly extending previous measurements. The results are in good overall agreement with next-to-leading order predictions from QCD and indicate a preference for certain parton distribution functions.

  5. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-05

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  6. Near-threshold production of phi mesons in pp collisions.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, M; Maeda, Y; Keshelashvili, I; Koch, H R; Mikirtytchiants, S; Barsov, S; Borgs, W; Büscher, M; Dimitrov, V I; Dymov, S; Hejny, V; Kleber, V; Koptev, V; Kulessa, P; Mersmann, T; Merzliakov, S; Mussgiller, A; Nekipelov, M; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Pysz, K; Schleichert, R; Stein, H J; Ströher, H; Watzlawik, K-H; Wüstner, P

    2006-06-23

    The pp-->ppphi reaction has been studied at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Jülich, using the internal beam and ANKE facility. Total cross sections have been determined at three excess energies epsilon near the production threshold. The differential cross section closest to threshold at epsilon=18.5 MeV exhibits a clear S wave dominance as well as a noticeable effect due to the proton-proton final-state interaction. Taken together with data for ppomega production, a significant enhancement of the phi/omega ratio of a factor 8 is found compared to predictions based on the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule.

  7. From pp to AA ultra-relativistic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovici, M.; Pop, A.; Andrei, C.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Herghelegiu, A.; Tarzila, M.

    2017-06-01

    Detailed comparisons between pp (√{s }=7 TeV), p-Pb (√{SN N }=5.02 TeV) and Pb-Pb (√{SN N }=2.76 TeV) collisions in terms of ratios of normalized pT spectra, Bjorken energy density and correlation between the kinetic freeze-out temperature (Tki n f o) and average transverse expansion velocity (< βT >) parameters as a function of charged particle multiplicity/centrality are presented.

  8. Inclusive jet production in pp(macro) collisions.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B; Abdesselam, A; Abolins, M; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Alves, G A; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Baarmand, M M; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, T C; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begel, M; Belyaev, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Boehnlein, A; Bojko, N I; Borcherding, F; Brandt, A; Breedon, R; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, D; Casilum, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chekulaev, S V; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cochran, J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cummings, M A; Cutts, D; Davis, G A; Davis, K; De, K; Del Signore, K; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Di Loreto, G; Doulas, S; Draper, P; Ducros, Y; Dudko, L V; Duensing, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Dyshkant, A; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fahland, T; Feher, S; Fein, D; Ferbel, T; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Y; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Frame, K C; Fuess, S; Gallas, E; Galyaev, A N; Gao, M; Gavrilov, V; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gilmartin, R; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, P I; González Solís, J L; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graf, N; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Grinstein, S; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Gupta, A; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heuring, T; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Hou, S; Huang, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jaffré, M; Jerger, S A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Karmgard, D; Kim, S K; Klima, B; Klopfenstein, C; Knuteson, B; Ko, W; Kohli, J M; Kostritskiy, A V; Kotcher, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovsky, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kuznetsov, V E; Landsberg, G; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipton, R; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L; Lundstedt, C; Luo, C; Maciel, A K; Madaras, R J; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Martin, R D; Mauritz, K M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Meng, X C; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mokhov, N; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M; da Motta, H; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Negroni, S; Norman, D; Nunnemann, T; Oesch, L; Oguri, V; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pan, L J; Papageorgiou, K; Para, A; Parashar, N; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Patwa, A; Pawlik, B; Perkins, J; Peters, M; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piekarz, H; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Ramberg, E; Rapidis, P A; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roco, M; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rutherfoord, J; Santoro, A; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schwartzman, A; Sen, N; Shabalina, E; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V; Slattery, P; Smith, E; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Sorín, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Steinbrück, G; Stephens, R W; Stichelbaut, F; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Taylor, W; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thompson, J; Toback, D; Tripathi, S M; Trippe, T G; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; van Gemmeren, P; Vaniev, V; Van Kooten, R; Varelas, N; Volkov, A A; Vorobiev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, H; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; White, A; White, J T; Whiteson, D; Wightman, J A; Wijngaarden, D A; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yasuda, T; Yip, K; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Z; Zanabria, M; Zheng, H; Zhou, Z; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2001-02-26

    We report a new measurement of the pseudorapidity (eta) and transverse-energy ( E(T)) dependence of the inclusive jet production cross section in pp(macro) collisions at square root of s = 1.8 TeV using 95 pb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The differential cross section d(2)sigma/(dE(T)d eta) is presented up to eta = 3, significantly extending previous measurements. The results are in good overall agreement with next-to-leading order predictions from QCD and indicate a preference for certain parton distribution functions.

  9. PR55α, a Regulatory Subunit of PP2A, Specifically Regulates PP2A-mediated β-Catenin Dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Yang, Jun; Liu, Yajuan; Chen, Xi; Yu, Tianxin; Jia, Jianhang; Liu, Chunming

    2009-01-01

    A central question in Wnt signaling is the regulation of β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation. Multiple kinases, including CKIα and GSK3, are involved in β-catenin phosphorylation. Protein phosphatases such as PP2A and PP1 have been implicated in the regulation of β-catenin. However, which phosphatase dephosphorylates β-catenin in vivo and how the specificity of β-catenin dephosphorylation is regulated are not clear. In this study, we show that PP2A regulates β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation in vivo. We demonstrate that PP2A is required for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Drosophila. Moreover, we have identified PR55α as the regulatory subunit of PP2A that controls β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation. PR55α, but not the catalytic subunit, PP2Ac, directly interacts with β-catenin. RNA interference knockdown of PR55α elevates β-catenin phosphorylation and decreases Wnt signaling, whereas overexpressing PR55α enhances Wnt signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that PR55α specifically regulates PP2A-mediated β-catenin dephosphorylation and plays an essential role in Wnt signaling. PMID:19556239

  10. Characterization and interstrain transfer of prophage pp3 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Shen, Wei; Tan, Yinling; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yan; Gong, Yali; Yang, Yuhui; Zhu, Hongbin; Hu, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Prophages are major contributors to horizontal gene transfer and drive the evolution and diversification of bacteria. Here, we describe the characterization of a prophage element designated pp3 in the clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate PA1. pp3 spontaneously excises from the PA1 genome and circularizes at a very high frequency of 25%. pp3 is likely to be a defective prophage due to its inability to form plaques on P. aeruginosa indicator strains, and no phage particles could be detected in PA1 supernatants. The pp3-encoded integrase is essential for excision by mediating site-specific recombination at the 26-bp attachment sequence. Using a filter mating experiment, we demonstrated that pp3 can transfer into P. aeruginosa recipient strains that do not possess this element naturally. Upon transfer, pp3 integrates into the same attachment site as in PA1 and maintains the ability to excise and circularize. Furthermore, pp3 significantly promotes biofilm formation in the recipient. Sequence alignment reveals that the 26-bp attachment site recognized by pp3 is conserved in all P. aeruginosa strains sequenced to date, making it possible that pp3 could be extensively disseminated in P. aeruginosa. This work improves our understanding of the ways in which prophages influence bacterial behavior and evolution. PMID:28346467

  11. Protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) function in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, P L

    1998-12-01

    In the past few years, molecular cloning studies have revealed the primary structure of plant protein serine/threonine phosphatases. Two structurally distinct families, the PP1/PP2A family and the PP2C family, are present in plants as well as in animals. This review will focus on the plant PP2C family of protein phosphatases. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis have identified PP2C enzymes as key players in plant signal transduction processes. For instance, the ABI1/ABI2 PP2Cs are central components in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. Arabidopsis mutants containing a single amino acid exchange in ABI1 or ABI2 show a reduced response to ABA. Another member of the PP2C family, kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP), appears to be an important element in some receptor-like kinase (RLK) signalling pathways. Finally, an alfalfa PP2C acts as a negative regulator of a plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Thus, the plant PP2Cs function as regulators of various signal transduction pathways.

  12. The Structural Basis for Tight Control of PP2A Methylation and Function by LCMT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Stanevich, Vitali; Jiang, Li; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Li, Yongfeng; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Li, Zhu; Menden, Patrick; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Xing, Yongna

    2012-05-29

    Proper formation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes is essential for the fitness of all eukaryotic cells. Carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit plays a critical role in regulating holoenzyme assembly; methylation is catalyzed by PP2A-specific methyltransferase LCMT-1, an enzyme required for cell survival. We determined crystal structures of human LCMT-1 in isolation and in complex with PP2A stabilized by a cofactor mimic. The structures show that the LCMT-1 active-site pocket recognizes the carboxyl terminus of PP2A, and, interestingly, the PP2A active site makes extensive contacts to LCMT-1. We demonstrated that activation of the PP2A active site stimulates methylation, suggesting a mechanism for efficient conversion of activated PP2A into substrate-specific holoenzymes, thus minimizing unregulated phosphatase activity or formation of inactive holoenzymes. A dominant-negative LCMT-1 mutant attenuates the cell cycle without causing cell death, likely by inhibiting uncontrolled phosphatase activity. Our studies suggested mechanisms of LCMT-1 in tight control of PP2A function, important for the cell cycle and cell survival.

  13. The Structural Basis for Tight Control of PP2A Methylation and Function by LCMT-1

    SciTech Connect

    V Stanevich; L Jiang; K Satyshur; Y Li; P Jeffrey; Z Li; P Menden; M Semmelhack; Y Xing

    2011-12-31

    Proper formation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes is essential for the fitness of all eukaryotic cells. Carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit plays a critical role in regulating holoenzyme assembly; methylation is catalyzed by PP2A-specific methyltransferase LCMT-1, an enzyme required for cell survival. We determined crystal structures of human LCMT-1 in isolation and in complex with PP2A stabilized by a cofactor mimic. The structures show that the LCMT-1 active-site pocket recognizes the carboxyl terminus of PP2A, and, interestingly, the PP2A active site makes extensive contacts to LCMT-1. We demonstrated that activation of the PP2A active site stimulates methylation, suggesting a mechanism for efficient conversion of activated PP2A into substrate-specific holoenzymes, thus minimizing unregulated phosphatase activity or formation of inactive holoenzymes. A dominant-negative LCMT-1 mutant attenuates the cell cycle without causing cell death, likely by inhibiting uncontrolled phosphatase activity. Our studies suggested mechanisms of LCMT-1 in tight control of PP2A function, important for the cell cycle and cell survival.

  14. ToF-SIMS imaging of PE/PP polymer using multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Toyomitsu; Ikemoto, Takashi; Kohno, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in PE/PP blended-polymer film was determined by applying principal components analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) imaging, together with preprocessing by pixel binning, normalization, and autoscaling to increase image contrast by reducing topographic and charge-distribution effects. The PE/PP distribution was confirmed by MVA conducted on the image data over static limit. The MCR score with normalized-autoscaling was found to give the PE/PP distribution distinctly.

  15. Androgen ablation elicits PP1-dependence for AR stabilization and transactivation in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaming; Han, Weiwei; Gulla, Sarah; Simon, Nicholas I; Gao, Yanfei; Liu, Jihong; Wang, Liang; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Previous reports have documented protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) as an essential androgen receptor (AR) activator. However, more systemic studies are needed to further define PP1 effects on AR, particularly in the settings of prostate cancer cells and under conditions mimicking androgen ablation. PP1 effects on AR protein expression, degradation, ubiquitination, and stabilization were examined in non-prostate cancer cells, followed by validation on exogenous settings in androgen-sensitive (LNCaP and VCaP) and castration-resistant (C4-2) prostate cancer cells. Effects of PP1 on AR protein expression, on AR-mediated transcription of exogenous reporter and endogenous gene, and on LNCaP and C4-2 cell proliferation were monitored under androgen-containing versus androgen-depleted conditions to assess the effects of PP1 on AR responsiveness to androgen. In this report, we determined that PP1 functions to stabilize AR proteins that exclusively undergo the proteasome-dependent degradation, and the stimulatory effects of PP1 were predominantly mediated by the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). Consistently, PP1 enhances AR protein stability by disrupting the LBD-mediated and K48-linked ubiquitination cascade. We further validated the above findings in the prostate cancer cells by showing that PP1 inhibition can increase ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent degradation of endogenous AR under androgen deprivation. Significantly, we found that PP1 could markedly activate AR transcriptional activities under conditions mimicking androgen ablation and that androgen sensitivity was substantially evoked by PP1 inhibition in the prostate cancer cell lines. As summarized in a simplified model, our studies defined an essential PP1-mediated pathway for AR protein stabilization that can compensate the loss of androgen and established a mechanistic link between PP1 and androgen responsiveness. The amplified PP1-dependence for AR activation under the androgen ablated conditions provides a

  16. Fine-scale structure of the mid-mantle characterised by global stacks of PP precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Rost, S.; Thorne, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction zones are likely a major source of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle, which may preserve a record of the subduction history and mantle convection processes. The fine-scale structure associated with mantle heterogeneities can be studied using the scattered seismic wavefield that arrives as coda to or as energy preceding many body wave arrivals. In this study we analyse precursors to PP by creating stacks recorded at globally distributed stations. We create stacks aligned on the PP arrival in 5° distance bins (with range 70-120°) from 600 earthquakes recorded at 193 stations stacking a total of 7320 seismic records. As the energy trailing the direct P arrival, the P coda, interferes with the PP precursors, we suppress the P coda by subtracting a best fitting exponential curve to this energy. The resultant stacks show that PP precursors related to scattering from heterogeneities in the mantle are present for all distances. Lateral variations are explored by producing two regional stacks across the Atlantic and Pacific hemispheres, but we find only negligible differences in the precursory signature between these two regions. The similarity of these two regions suggests that well mixed subducted material can survive at upper and mid-mantle depth. To describe the scattered wavefield in the mantle, we compare the global stacks to synthetic seismograms generated using a Monte Carlo phonon scattering technique. We propose a best-fitting layered heterogeneity model, BRT2017, characterised by a three layer mantle with a background heterogeneity strength (ɛ = 0.8%) and a depth-interval of increased heterogeneity strength (ɛ = 1%) between 1000 km and 1800 km. The scalelength of heterogeneity is found to be 8 km throughout the mantle. Since mantle heterogeneity of 8 km scale may be linked to subducted oceanic crust, the detection of increased heterogeneity at mid-mantle depths could be associated with stalled slabs due to increases in viscosity

  17. First exclusive measurements of the K - pp state populated in the pp → K + Λ p reaction at 2.85 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Kienle, P.; Suzuki, K.; Maggiora, M.; Alexeev, (M.; Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R.; Bland, L. C.; Brenschede, A.; Brochard, F.; Bussa, M. P.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, Seonho; Colantoni, M. L.; Dressler, R.; Dzemidzic, M.; Faivre, J.-Cl.; Ferrero, L.; Foryciarz, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; Heinz, S.; Jacobs, W. W.; Kühn, W.; Maggiora, A.; Panzieri, D.; Pfaff, H.-W.; Pontecorvo, G.; Popov, A.; Ritman, J.; Salabura, P.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tosello, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Zosi), G.

    2009-09-01

    We have analyzed data of the DISTO experiment on the exclusive pp → K + Λ p process at T p = 2.85 GeV to search for a K - pp ( ≡ X) nuclear bound state to be formed in the pp → K + + X reaction. The deviation spectra of the K + missing-mass Δ M ( K + ) and Λ p invariant-mass M(Λ p) with selection of large-angle proton emission revealed a structure with M X = 2265 ±2 MeV/ c 2 and Γ X = 118 ±8 MeV.

  18. N* production from pp and p-barp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiajun; Cao Xu; Molina, R.; Oset, E.; Zou, B. S.

    2011-10-21

    With an effective Lagrangian approach, we give a full analysis on the NN{yields}NN{pi}{pi} and pp{yields}pn{pi}{sup +} reactions for proton beam energy from 1 to 1.5 GeV. The results are very consistent with the experiment data from CELSIUS, KEK, COSY, and so on. Based on these results, we consider the N-barN{yields}N-barN{pi}{pi} and p-barp{yields}p-barn{pi}{sup +} for proton beam energy up to 4 GeV. Compare to the pp collisions, there are many benefits to study N* resonances in these two reactions. And for the high proton beam energy up to 15 GeV, we consider some new resonances with hidden charm which are definitely beyond three constituent quarks model in the p-barp{yields}p-barpJ/{psi} and p-barp{yields}p-barp{eta}{sub c}, where there are very nice places to find these new N{sub cc}-bar*. The predicted results about p-barp collisions can be looked for at the forthcoming PANDA/FAIR experiments.

  19. Structure of glycopeptides isolated from bovine milk component PP3.

    PubMed

    Girardet, J M; Coddeville, B; Plancke, Y; Strecker, G; Campagna, S; Spik, G; Linden, G

    1995-12-15

    The heat-stable acid-soluble phosphoglycoprotein component PP3 was isolated from the bovine milk proteose peptone fraction by concanavalin A affinity chromatography. Glycopeptides were released by pronase digestion of the milk component PP3 and were subsequently separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on CarboPac PA-1. The primary structures of the glycan and peptide moieties of eight N-glycopeptides have been established by combining methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, 400-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and peptide sequence analysis. All the analyzed fractions contained biantennary N-acetyllactosamine-type carbohydrate chains, some of them with a GalNAc(beta 1-4)GlcNAc or a NeuAc(alpha 2-6)GalNAc(beta 1-4)GlcNAc group. This particular sequence did or did not replace the Gal(beta 1-4)GlcNAc group usually found in most N-linked glycans. Moreover, the sialylated Gal and GalNAc residues were only found on the Man(alpha 1-3) antenna.

  20. Targeting of PP2C in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ota, Irene M; Mapes, James

    2007-01-01

    Type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases or PP2Cs are monomeric metal-requiring protein phosphatases that are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are seven PP2Cs called PTCs (phosphatase 2C). Molecular genetic studies have implicated PTCs in many different functions, including RNA splicing, the unfolded protein response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and cell-cycle regulation. We have shown that three PTCs (Ptc1, Ptc2, and Ptc3), regulate the stress-activated high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Proteomics studies have provided additional possible functions for these phosphatases by identifying interacting proteins. These studies have also provided the possible means by which these phosphatases are targeted to their substrates. For example, Nbp2-Ptc1 was identified as an interacting pair in yeast two-hybrid studies, and Nbp2 was found together with Ptc1 and HOG pathway kinases. We have shown that Nbp2 is an adapter in this pathway, mediating interaction between Ptc1 and the Pbs2 MAP/ERK kinase in the HOG pathway.

  1. 5-ALA/PpIX fluorescence detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Vladimirov, Borislav; Terziev, Ivan; Ivanova, Radina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2009-07-01

    In the recent study delta-ALA/PpIX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus, stomach and colon. ALA is administered per os six to eight (depending on the lesion location) hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for the LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to re-absorption of oxy-hemoglobin in this spectral area. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence spectra are used to develop simple but effective algorithm, based on dimensionless ratio of the signals at 560 and 635 nm, for differentiation of normal/abnormal gastrointestinal tissues. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  2. The spectroscopy analyses of PpIX by ultrasound irradiation and its sonotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Kaili; Song, Ming; Liu, Quanhong

    2013-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been used as a sensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as well as in sonodynamic therapy (SDT). The photo-bleaching of PpIX has been well investigated in many experimental systems and some photo-products have also been identified in PDT. But until now, little information has been reported about the sono-damage of PpIX in SDT. So, the present study was to investigate changes of PpIX properties before and after different ultrasound treatment, and the potential interactions between PpIX, ultrasound and the irradiated cells. In cell-free system, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of PpIX in different solutions were measured by ultraviolet spectrometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The terephthalic acid dosimetry was applied to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasound cavitation by monitoring hydroxyl radical (OH) production on the thermolysis of H2O in the ultrasound field. In in vitro study, confocal microscopy was applied to detect the sub-cellular localization of PpIX in S180 cells before and after ultrasound exposure. Flow cytometry was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during PpIX-SDT. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cell viability of S180 cells after SDT treatment with or without ROS scavengers. The results show that PpIX displayed different spectral patterns in different solutions. PpIX was decomposed by ultrasound exposure as measured by the decreased absorption and fluorescence peak values in RPMI-1640 medium. In addition, the decomposition of PpIX was found to be simultaneously accompanied by OH production with increasing output power from ultrasound generator. PpIX at 1μg/ml significantly enhanced the ultrasound induced cavitation as measured by OH generation, and which was greatly eliminated by NaN3, histidine, mannitol, EDTA and catalase, but not by SOD. The in vitro study indicates more PpIX entered into S180 cells after ultrasound exposure. And, the extra-cellular Pp

  3. Delayed Amyloid Plaque Deposition and Behavioral Deficits in Outcrossed AβPP/PS1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Brian A.; Kerrisk, Meghan E.; Kaufman, Adam C.; Nygaard, Haakon B.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; Koleske, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia characterized by amyloid plaque accumulation, synapse/dendrite loss, and cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) recapitulate several aspects of this disease and provide a useful model system for studying elements of AD progression. AβPP/PS1 mice have been previously shown to exhibit behavioral deficits and amyloid plaque deposition between 4–9 months of age. We crossed AβPP/PS1 animals with mice of a mixed genetic background (C57BL/6 × 129/SvJ) and investigated the development of AD-like features in the resulting outcrossed mice. The onset of memory-based behavioral impairment is delayed considerably in outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice relative to inbred mice on a C57BL/6 background. While inbred AβPP/PS1 mice develop deficits in radial-arm water maze performance and novel object recognition as early as 8 months, outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice do not display defects until 18 months. Within the forebrain, we find that inbred AβPP/PS1 mice have significantly higher amyloid plaque burden at 12 months than outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice of the same age. Surprisingly, inbred AβPP/PS1 mice at 8 months have low plaque burden suggesting that plaque burden alone cannot explain the accompanying behavioral deficits. Analysis of AβPP processing revealed that elevated levels of soluble Aβ correlate with the degree of behavioral impairment in both strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that animal behavior, amyloid plaque deposition, and AβPP processing are sensitive to genetic differences between mouse strains. PMID:23047754

  4. Delayed amyloid plaque deposition and behavioral deficits in outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Couch, Brian A; Kerrisk, Meghan E; Kaufman, Adam C; Nygaard, Haakon B; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Koleske, Anthony J

    2013-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia characterized by amyloid plaque accumulation, synapse/dendrite loss, and cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) recapitulate several aspects of this disease and provide a useful model system for studying elements of AD progression. AβPP/PS1 mice have been previously shown to exhibit behavioral deficits and amyloid plaque deposition between 4-9 months of age. We crossed AβPP/PS1 animals with mice of a mixed genetic background (C57BL/6 × 129/SvJ) and investigated the development of AD-like features in the resulting outcrossed mice. The onset of memory-based behavioral impairment is delayed considerably in outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice relative to inbred mice on a C57BL/6 background. While inbred AβPP/PS1 mice develop deficits in radial-arm water maze performance and novel object recognition as early as 8 months, outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice do not display defects until 18 months. Within the forebrain, we find that inbred AβPP/PS1 mice have significantly higher amyloid plaque burden at 12 months than outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice of the same age. Surprisingly, inbred AβPP/PS1 mice at 8 months have low plaque burden, suggesting that plaque burden alone cannot explain the accompanying behavioral deficits. Analysis of AβPP processing revealed that elevated levels of soluble Aβ correlate with the degree of behavioral impairment in both strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that animal behavior, amyloid plaque deposition, and AβPP processing are sensitive to genetic differences between mouse strains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Association of Metal Homeostasis and (p)ppGpp Regulation in the Pathophysiology of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Winter, C; Gaca, A O; Lemos, J A

    2017-07-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, the regulatory nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp, collectively, (p)ppGpp, are required for growth in blood, survival within macrophages, and virulence. However, a clear understanding of how (p)ppGpp promotes virulence in E. faecalis and other bacterial pathogens is still lacking. In the host, the essential transition metals iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are not readily available to invading pathogens because of a host-driven process called nutritional immunity. Considering its central role in adaptation to nutritional stresses, we hypothesized that (p)ppGpp mediates E. faecalis virulence through regulation of metal homeostasis. Indeed, supplementation of serum with either Fe or Mn restored growth and survival of the Δrel ΔrelQ [(p)ppGpp(0)] strain to wild-type levels. Using a chemically defined medium, we found that (p)ppGpp accumulates in response to either Fe depletion or Mn depletion and that the (p)ppGpp(0) strain has a strong growth requirement for Mn that is alleviated by Fe supplementation. Although inactivation of the nutrient-sensing regulator codY restored some phenotypes of the (p)ppGpp(0) strain, transcriptional analysis showed that the (p)ppGpp/CodY network does not promote transcription of known metal transporters. Interestingly, physiologic and enzymatic investigations suggest that the (p)ppGpp(0) strain requires higher levels of Mn in order to cope with high levels of endogenously produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because (p)ppGpp mediates antibiotic persistence and virulence in several bacteria, our findings have broad implications and provide new leads for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive strategies against E. faecalis and beyond. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. pp{yields}p{Lambda}K{sup +} reaction in search for the K{sup -}pp state - quest for a kaonic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Ken; Kienle, Paul; Maggiora, Marco; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2011-10-21

    The dibaryonic kaonic nuclear bound state, K{sup -}pp is searched by studying an exclusive p+p{yields}p+{Lambda}+K{sup +} process at several beam energies. A signature of the K{sup -}pp is explored in a p+p{yields}X({identical_to}K{sup -}pp)+K{sup +} reaction that follows a decay of the X into p+{Lambda}. We found in a missing-mass {Delta}M(K{sup +}) spectrum and a {Lambda}p invariant-mass M({Lambda}p) spectrum of DISTO data at 2.85 GeV a resonance with M = 2267 MeV/c{sup 2} and {Gamma} = 118 MeV. Those events are found to be associated with a mono energetic kaon. We investigate this resonance as a candidate of the K{sup -}pp further also with a different beam energies.

  7. The Molecular Chaperone Hsp70 Activates Protein Phosphatase 5 (PP5) by Binding the Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Connarn, Jamie N.; Assimon, Victoria A.; Reed, Rebecca A.; Tse, Eric; Southworth, Daniel R.; Zuiderweg, Erik R. P.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is auto-inhibited by intramolecular interactions with its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Hsp90 has been shown to bind PP5 to activate its phosphatase activity. However, the functional implications of binding Hsp70 to PP5 are not yet clear. In this study, we find that both Hsp90 and Hsp70 bind to PP5 using a luciferase fragment complementation assay. A fluorescence polarization assay shows that Hsp90 (MEEVD motif) binds to the TPR domain of PP5 almost 3-fold higher affinity than Hsp70 (IEEVD motif). However, Hsp70 binding to PP5 stimulates higher phosphatase activity of PP5 than the binding of Hsp90. We find that PP5 forms a stable 1:1 complex with Hsp70, but the interaction appears asymmetric with Hsp90, with one PP5 binding the dimer. Solution NMR studies reveal that Hsc70 and PP5 proteins are dynamically independent in complex, tethered by a disordered region that connects the Hsc70 core and the IEEVD-TPR contact area. This tethered binding is expected to allow PP5 to carry out multi-site dephosphorylation of Hsp70-bound clients with a range of sizes and shapes. Together, these results demonstrate that Hsp70 recruits PP5 and activates its phosphatase activity which suggests dual roles for PP5 that might link chaperone systems with signaling pathways in cancer and development. PMID:24327656

  8. AbetaPP/APLP2 family of Kunitz serine proteinase inhibitors regulate cerebral thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Previti, Mary Lou; Nieman, Marvin T; Davis, Judianne; Schmaier, Alvin H; Van Nostrand, William E

    2009-04-29

    The amyloid beta-protein precursor (AbetaPP) is best recognized as the precursor to the Abeta peptide that accumulates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, but less is known about its physiological functions. Isoforms of AbetaPP that contain a Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain are expressed in brain and, outside the CNS, in circulating blood platelets. Recently, we showed that KPI-containing forms of AbetaPP regulates cerebral thrombosis in vivo (Xu et al., 2005, 2007). Amyloid precursor like protein-2 (APLP2), a closely related homolog to AbetaPP, also possesses a highly conserved KPI domain. Virtually nothing is known of its function. Here, we show that APLP2 also regulates cerebral thrombosis risk. Recombinant purified KPI domains of AbetaPP and APLP2 both inhibit the plasma clotting in vitro. In a carotid artery thrombosis model, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice exhibit similar significantly shorter times to vessel occlusion compared with wild-type mice indicating a prothrombotic phenotype. Similarly, in an experimental model of intracerebral hemorrhage, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice produce significantly smaller hematomas with reduced brain hemoglobin content compared with wild-type mice. Together, these results indicate that AbetaPP and APLP2 share overlapping anticoagulant functions with regard to regulating thrombosis after cerebral vascular injury.

  9. M-theory on pp-waves with a holomorphic superpotential and its matrix description

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-11-23

    We study relationships between a new class of inhomogeneous pp-waves in D = 11 supergravity and Matrix models with a generic superpotential. One can consider supermembrane in the pp-wave background and obtain the interacting matrix model via discretizing the membrane worldvolume.

  10. Noninvasive murine glioma detection improved following photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Davis, Scott C.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2008-02-01

    Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) is a prodrug which can be administered to cells, animals or patients after which it is transformed via the Heme synthesis pathway into the fluorescent molecule Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PpIX has been shown to be useful as both a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and as a fluorescence imaging contrast agent. The ALA-PpIX system not only provides contrast for fluorescence imaging but also gives information about the metabolic activity of the imaged tissue and thus could be useful for monitoring cancer therapy. In the current study skin photobleaching was examined to determine if PpIX fluorescence contrast in malignant brain tumors could be better visualized noninvasively. Red light photobleaching decreased skin PpIX fluorescence and increased the ability to noninvasively quantify PpIX fluorescence in murine gliomas, as in vivo measurements of mean PpIX fluorescence more closely matched ex vivo quantification following skin photobleaching. Three doses of blue light photobleaching (4 J/cm2, 8 J/cm2 and 12 J/cm2) were tested and determined to give similar levels of skin photobleaching as well as a similar window of decreased skin PpIX fluorescence for noninvasive fluorescence imaging following the photobleaching dose administration.

  11. Synaptic NMDA receptor stimulation activates PP1 by inhibiting its phosphorylation by Cdk5

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hailong; Sun, Lu; Siddoway, Benjamin A.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Yang, Hongtian; Gu, Hua; Nairn, Angus C.

    2013-01-01

    The serine/threonine protein phosphatase protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is known to play an important role in learning and memory by mediating local and downstream aspects of synaptic signaling, but how PP1 activity is controlled in different forms of synaptic plasticity remains unknown. We find that synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation in neurons leads to activation of PP1 through a mechanism involving inhibitory phosphorylation at Thr320 by Cdk5. Synaptic stimulation led to proteasome-dependent degradation of the Cdk5 regulator p35, inactivation of Cdk5, and increased auto-dephosphorylation of Thr320 of PP1. We also found that neither inhibitor-1 nor calcineurin were involved in the control of PP1 activity in response to synaptic NMDA receptor stimulation. Rather, the PP1 regulatory protein, inhibitor-2, formed a complex with PP1 that was controlled by synaptic stimulation. Finally, we found that inhibitor-2 was critical for the induction of long-term depression in primary neurons. Our work fills a major gap regarding the regulation of PP1 in synaptic plasticity. PMID:24189275

  12. From the Biology of PP2A to the PADs for Therapy of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Maria; Calin, George A.; Perrotti, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, an emerging role of phosphatases in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors has been established. The tumor-suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) belongs to the serine–threonine phosphatases family and accounts for the majority of serine–threonine phosphatase activity in eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have shown that inhibition of PP2A expression and/or function may contribute to leukemogenesis in several hematological malignancies. Likewise, overexpression or aberrant expression of physiologic PP2A inhibitory molecules (e.g., SET and its associated SETBP1 and CIP2A) may turn off PP2A function and participate to leukemic progression. The discovery of PP2A as tumor suppressor has prompted the evaluation of the safety and the efficacy of new compounds, which can restore PP2A activity in leukemic cells. Although further studies are needed to better understand how PP2A acts in the intricate phosphatases/kinases cancer network, the results reviewed herein strongly support the development on new PP2A-activating drugs and the immediate introduction of those available into clinical protocols for leukemia patients refractory or resistant to current available therapies. PMID:25763353

  13. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  14. Targeting Inhibitors of the Tumor Suppressor PP2A for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Amy S.; Allen-Petersen, Brittany; Daniel, Colin J.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Sarah; Impey, Soren; Oddo, Jessica; Vitek, Michael P.; Lopez, Charles; Christensen, Dale J.; Sheppard, Brett; Sears, Rosalie C.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is usually diagnosed in the advanced stages when few effective therapies are available. Given the aggressive clinical course of this disease and lack of good treatment options, the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is of the upmost importance. Several pathways shown to contribute to pancreatic cancer progression are negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Here, the endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, SET (also known as I2PP2A) and Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), were shown to be overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer, contributing to decreased PP2A activity, and overexpression and stabilization of the oncoprotein c-Myc, a key PP2A target. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A increases PP2A activity, increases c-Myc degradation, and decreases the tumorigenic potential of pancreatic cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, treatment with a novel SET inhibitor, OP449, pharmacologically recapitulates the phenotypes and significantly reduces proliferation and tumorigenic potential of several pancreatic cancer cell lines, with an accompanying attenuation of cell growth and survival signaling. Furthermore, primary cells from pancreatic cancer patients were sensitive to OP449 treatment, indicating that PP2A regulated pathways are highly relevant to this deadly disease. PMID:24667985

  15. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals new roles for the protein phosphatase PP6 in mitotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Rusin, Scott F.; Schlosser, Kate A.; Adamo, Mark E.; Kettenbach, Arminja N.

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism controlling mitotic progression. Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is an essential enzyme with conserved roles in chromosome segregation and spindle assembly from yeast to humans. We applied a baculovirus-mediated gene silencing approach to deplete HeLa cells of the catalytic subunit of PP6 (PP6c) and analyzed changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome in mitotic cells by quantitative mass spectrometry–based proteomics. We identified 408 phosphopeptides on 272 proteins that increased and 298 phosphopeptides on 220 proteins that decreased in phosphorylation upon PP6c depletion in mitotic cells. Motif analysis of the phosphorylated sites combined with bioinformatics pathway analysis revealed previously unknown PP6c–dependent regulatory pathways. Biochemical assays demonstrated that PP6c opposed casein kinase 2–dependent phosphorylation of the condensin I subunit NCAP-G, and cellular analysis showed that depletion of PP6c resulted in defects in chromosome condensation and segregation in anaphase, consistent with dysregulation of condensin I function in the absence of PP6 activity. PMID:26462736

  16. Evidence for CP violation in B+ → ppK+ decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-03

    Three-body B+ → ppK+ and B(+) → ppπ(+) decays are studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence of CP violation in the B(+) → ppK(+) decay is found in regions of the phase space, representing the first measurement of this kind for a final state containing baryons. Measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry of the light meson in the pp rest frame yield A(FB)(ppK(+),m(pp)<2.85 GeV/c(2)) = 0.495 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) and A(FB)(ppπ(+),m(pp) <2.85 GeV/c(2)) = -0.409 ± 0.033 (stat) ± 0.006 (syst). In addition, the branching fraction of the decay B(+) → Λ(1520)p is measured to be B(B(+) → Λ(1520)p) = (3.15 ± 0.48 (stat) ± 0.07 (syst) ± 0.26 (BF)) × 10(-7), where BF denotes the uncertainty on secondary branching fractions.

  17. Molecular Mechanism and Evolution of Guanylate Kinase Regulation by (p)ppGpp

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Claas, Kathy R.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Keck, James L.; Wang, Jue D.

    2015-02-01

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK), revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A survey of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria, where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). We propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria.

  18. Molecular mechanism and evolution of guanylate kinase regulation by (p)ppGpp

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; ...

    2015-02-05

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. In this paper, we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK), revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A surveymore » of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria, where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). Finally, we propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria.« less

  19. Modulation of cell spreading and migration by pp125FAK phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, S.; Mahooti-Brooks, N.; Hu, G.; Madri, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    We provide evidence for both matrix-dependent and pp60v-src tyrosine kinase-dependent modulation of cell migration via tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK, a focal adhesion kinase, thought to be involved in integrin-mediated signaling. Enhanced pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and cell spreading was associated with decreased migration. Cells plated on type I collagen were less spread and exhibited lower levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and faster migration rates compared with cells on fibronectin that were well spread, which exhibited enhanced levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and slower migration rates. Inside-out signaling via expression of pp60v-src or its kinase-negative mutant caused a decrease in cell migration by changing the extent of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation to above or below the levels obtained with control cells plated on fibronectin. Hence, pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation appears to play a role in the signaling cascade pathway involved in regulation of extracellular matrix-modulated, integrin-mediated cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7677174

  20. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades.

  1. Cytotoxicity of PP(Arg)2- and PP(Ala)2(Arg)2-based photodynamic therapy and early stage of apoptosis induction in human breast cancers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Małecki, Maciej; Milczarek, Małgorzata; Lubelska, Katarzyna; Padzik-Graczyk, Alfreda

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are cell energetic centers where ATP is produced. They also play a very important role in the PDT as intracellular sites of photosensitizer localization. Photosensitizers gathering in mitochondria (like porphyrin derivatives used in this work) are more effective in tumor cell destruction. Moreover, it was assumed that di-amino acid substituents attached to porphyrin ring will strengthen the effectivity of interaction with membrane receptors of examined cells. MTT assay was performed to investigate the influence of PP(Arg)(2) and PP(Ala)(2)(Arg)(2)-based PDT on breast cancer cell viability for 24 h, 48 h and 120 h after cell irradiation. Then the influence of PP(Ala)(2)(Arg)(2)- and PP(Arg)(2)-mediated PDT on early mitochondrial apoptosis induction via measurements of the transmembrane mitochondrial potential changes was examined. Results showed that lower energy doses and maximal nontoxic photosensitizer doses of PP(Ala)(2)(Arg)(2) and PP(Arg)(2) applied in PDT can imply apoptotic cell death. It was confirmed that modification of the protoporphyrin IX by attaching two alanine substituents raised the efficiency of photodynamic therapy.

  2. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades. PMID:26690982

  3. Additional diterpenes from Physcomitrella patens synthesized by copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin; Bach, Søren Spanner; Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Lunde, Christina; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional diterpene synthase, copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (PpCPS/KS), catalyses the formation of at least four diterpenes, including ent-beyerene, ent-sandaracopimaradiene, ent-kaur-16-ene, and 16-hydroxy-ent-kaurene. The enzymatic activity has been confirmed through generation of a targeted PpCPS/KS knock-out mutant in P. patens via homologous recombination, through transient expression of PpCPS/KS in Nicotiana benthamiana, and expression of PpCPS/KS in E. coli. GC-MS analysis of the knock-out mutant shows that it lacks the diterpenoids, supporting that all are products of PpCPS/KS as observed in N. benthamiana and E. coli. These results provide additional knowledge of the mechanism of this bifunctional diterpene synthase, and are in line with proposed reaction mechanisms in kaurene biosynthesis.

  4. Spin Effects in High-P(T)^2 p+p --> p+p at 800 to 900 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Court, G.R.; Crabb, D.G.; Krisch, A.D.; Lin, A.M.T.; Raymond, R.S.; Roser, T.; Terwilliger, K.M.; Gialas, I.; Khiari, F.Z.; Raylmann, R.R.; Danby, G.T.; /Brookhaven /CERN /Fermilab /Maryland U. /Michigan U. /MIT /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M /ETH Zurich

    1986-03-07

    We propose to study the spin-orbit Analyzing Power, A, in p+p + p+p at large P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}. We propose to run at Fermilab around Fall 1987 and scatter a high intensity unpolarized proton beam of 800 to 900 GeV from a Polarized Proton Target; we would measure the difference between the d{sigma}/dt when the target spin is up and when it is down. Our main goal is to see if the unexpected large values of A recently found at the 28 GeV AGS in proton-proton elastic scattering persist to Fermilab energies. The large A value of 24 {+-} 8% at P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2} = 6.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} was not only unexpected but also seems difficult to reconcile with the A = 0 prediction of conventional models of strong interactions, such as perturbative QCD. The validity of perturbative QCD is believed to improve with increasing energy and with increasing P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}, and this proposed Fermilab experiment would increase the incident energy by about a factor of 30. The experiment would be done using a Polarized Proton Target (PPT) employing radiation-doped NH{sup 3} beads and a 'local' cooling power of about 130 mW at 1/2{sup o} K. Such a target could be used with a beam intensity of 3 to 6 10{sup 10} protons per second, which is 1.5 to 3.0 10{sup 12} protons per pulse with Fermilab's 50 sec rep rate. This high beam intensity would allow good measurements out to about P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2} = 10 (GeV/c){sup 2} where the p+p {yields} p+p cross section is quite small. We propose to run in an underground target station such as P-West, which is ideally suited for such a high-P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2} elastic scattering experiment. We would use a double-arm spectrometer consisting of magnets with considerable bending power and high resolution scintillation hodoscopes and wire chambers. The hodoscopes should operate successfully in the somewhat hostile environment caused by some 10{sup 12} protons per pulse. The resulting good resolution on

  5. VII Workshop Italiano sulla fisica pp a LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCpp2016 è la settima edizione dell'incontro nazionale sulla fisica p-p a LHC. Questa serie di incontri è nata a Pisa nel 2003 con lo scopo di stimolare lo scambio di idee tra le comunità sperimentali di ATLAS, CMS e LHCB e la comunità teorica. Caratteristica fondamentale di questi incontri è la preparazione di larga parte dei talk in collaborazione tra i vari esperimenti e la comunità teorica. Largo spazio nella preparazione e presentazione dei talk viene dato ai giovani ricercatori. In questa settima edizione, che si tiene di nuovo a Pisa, vogliamo concentrare l'attenzione sulle potenzialità di scoperta offerte dai dati raccolti durante il runII di LHC.

  6. CCK, PYY and PP: the control of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Simpson, K; Parker, J; Plumer, J; Bloom, S

    2012-01-01

    The control of food intake consists of neural and hormonal signals between the gut and central nervous system (CNS). Gut hormones such as CCK, PYY and PP signal to important areas in the CNS involved in appetite regulation to terminate a meal. These hormones can act directly via the circulation and activate their respective receptors in the hypothalamus and brainstem. In addition, gut vagal afferents also exist, providing an alternative pathway through which gut hormones can communicate with higher centres through the brainstem. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that peripheral administration of certain gut hormones reduces food intake and leads to weight loss. Gut hormones are therefore potential targets in the development of novel treatments for obesity and analogue therapies are currently under investigation.

  7. Rheological and thermal properties of PP-based WPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, V.; Mollica, F.; El Kissi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) has attracted great interest in outdoor building products for the reduced cost and the possibility of using recycled materials. Nevertheless the material shows two problems: the large viscosity due to the presence of high concentrations of filler and the degradation of cellulose during processing The aim of this work was to investigate the rheological and thermal properties of WPC. The material used for the experiments was a commercial PP-based WPC compound, with different concentrations of natural fibers (30, 50, 70% wt.). The thermal properties were studied to check for degradation of natural fibers during the subsequent rheological tests. Analyzing the storage and loss moduli and the complex viscosity curves obtained using a parallel plate rheometer it was possible to observe some features related to the viscoelastic nature of the composite.

  8. {phi} meson production in pp annihilation at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Srisuphaphon, S.; Yan, Y.; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2011-10-01

    Apparent channel-dependent violations of the Okubo-Zwieg-Iizuka (OZI) rule in nucleon-antinucleon annihilation reactions in the presence of an intrinsic strangeness component in the nucleon are discussed. Admixture of ss quark pairs in the nucleon wave function enables the direct coupling to the {phi}-meson in the annihilation channel without violating the OZI rule. Three forms are considered in this work for the strangeness content of the proton wave function, namely, the uud cluster with a ss sea-quark component, kaon-hyperon clusters based on a simple chiral quark model, and the pentaquark picture uudss. Nonrelativistic quark model calculations reveal that the strangeness magnetic moment {mu}{sub s} and the strangeness contribution to the proton spin {sigma}{sub s} from the first two models are consistent with recent experimental data, where {mu}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub s} are negative. For the third model, the uuds subsystem with the configurations [31]{sub FS}[211]{sub F}[22]{sub S} and [31]{sub FS}[31]{sub F}[22]{sub S} leads to negative values of {mu}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub s}. With effective quark line diagrams incorporating the {sup 3}P{sub 0} model, we give estimates for the branching ratios of the annihilation reactions at rest pp{yields}{phi}X (X={pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, {rho}{sup 0}, {omega}). Results for the branching ratios of {phi}X production from atomic pp s-wave states are for the first and third model found to be strongly channel dependent, in good agreement with measured rates.

  9. Molecular cloning, expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Yan; He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Song, Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Li, Ling; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cai, Wen-Jing; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-11-01

    In the wild, mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) only feed on live prey fish, refusing dead prey. When reared in ponds, training will result in some mandarin fish accepting artificial diets. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of the individual difference. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a suppressor of learning and long-term memory (LTM) in mammals. In the present study, the relationship between PP1 and the individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish was investigated. The complete CDS (coding sequence) of four PP1 isoforms (PP1caa, PP1cab, PP1cb and PP1cc) were cloned in mandarin fish. The amino acid sequences of these PP1 isoforms are highly conserved in different species. The mRNA expressions of PP1caa and PP1cb in brain of artificial diet feeders were significantly higher than those in nonfeeders, suggesting the deficiency in the maintenance of long-term memory of its natural food habit (live prey fish). The SNP loci in PP1caa and PP1cb were also found to be associated with the individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish. These SNPs of PP1caa and PP1cb genes could be useful markers for gene-associated breeding of mandarin fish, which could accept artificial diets. In conclusion, different mRNA expression and SNPs of PP1caa and PP1cb genes in feeders and nonfeeders of artificial diets might contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of inclusive jet spectra in pp, p–Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions with the ALICE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haake, Rüdiger; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Highly energetic jets are sensitive probes of the kinematic properties and the topology of high energy hadron collisions. Jets are collimated sprays of charged and neutral particles, which are produced in fragmentation of hard scattered partons from an early stage of the collision. In ALICE, jets have been measured in pp, p–Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions at several collision energies. While analyses of Pb–Pb events unveil properties of the hot and dense medium formed in heavy-ion collisions, pp and p–Pb collisions can shed light on hadronization and cold nuclear matter effects in jet production. Additionally, pp and p–Pb collisions serve as a baseline for disentangling hot and cold nuclear matter effects. A possible modification of the initial state is tested in p–Pb analyses. For the extraction of a jet signal, the exact evaluation of the background from the underlying event is an especially important ingredient. Due to the different nature of underlying events, each collision system requires a different analysis technique for removing the effect of the background on the jet sample. The focus of this publication is on the ALICE measurements of nuclear modification factors connecting p–Pb and Pb–Pb events to pp collisions. Furthermore, the radial jet structure is explored by comparing jet spectra reconstructed with different resolution parameters.

  11. Basal levels of (p)ppGpp in Enterococcus faecalis: the magic beyond the stringent response.

    PubMed

    Gaca, Anthony O; Kajfasz, Jessica K; Miller, James H; Liu, Kuanqing; Wang, Jue D; Abranches, Jacqueline; Lemos, José A

    2013-09-24

    The stringent response (SR), mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp, is a conserved bacterial adaptation system controlling broad metabolic alterations necessary for survival under adverse conditions. In Enterococcus faecalis, production of (p)ppGpp is controlled by the bifunctional protein RSH (for "Rel SpoT homologue"; also known as RelA) and by the monofunctional synthetase RelQ. Previous characterization of E. faecalis strains lacking rsh, relQ, or both revealed that RSH is responsible for activation of the SR and that alterations in (p)ppGpp production negatively impact bacterial stress survival and virulence. Despite its well-characterized role as the effector of the SR, the significance of (p)ppGpp during balanced growth remains poorly understood. Microarrays of E. faecalis strains producing different basal amounts of (p)ppGpp identified several genes and pathways regulated by modest changes in (p)ppGpp. Notably, expression of numerous genes involved in energy generation were induced in the rsh relQ [(p)ppGpp(0)] strain, suggesting that a lack of basal (p)ppGpp places the cell in a "transcriptionally relaxed" state. Alterations in the fermentation profile and increased production of H2O2 in the (p)ppGpp(0) strain substantiate the observed transcriptional changes. We confirm that, similar to what is seen in Bacillus subtilis, (p)ppGpp directly inhibits the activity of enzymes involved in GTP biosynthesis, and complete loss of (p)ppGpp leads to dysregulation of GTP homeostasis. Finally, we show that the association of (p)ppGpp with antibiotic survival does not relate to the SR but rather relates to basal (p)ppGpp pools. Collectively, this study highlights the critical but still underappreciated role of basal (p)ppGpp pools under balanced growth conditions. Drug-resistant bacterial infections continue to pose a significant public health threat by limiting therapeutic options available to care providers. The stringent response (SR), mediated by the accumulation of

  12. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composite

    Treesearch

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Plasma-assisted surface treatment on thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and polypropylene (PP) film was investigated to obtain interfacial adhesion at the wood fiber and PP interface. A metal plate between electrodes prevented thermal damage to the TMP fiber handsheets and PP film. Oxygen-plasma treatment provided better surface activation on the TMP fiber and...

  13. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications.

  14. 78 FR 19194 - P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying... Division, P&P Computers (``P&P'') was convicted of violating the International Emergency Economic Powers... IEEPA and the Iranian Transactions Regulations by exporting computer and related equipment from the...

  15. PP2B and PP1α cooperatively disrupt 7SK snRNP to release P-TEFb for transcription in response to Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruichuan; Liu, Min; Li, Huan; Xue, Yuhua; Ramey, Wanichaya N.; He, Nanhai; Ai, Nanping; Luo, Haohong; Zhu, Ying; Zhou, Nan; Zhou, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), consisting of Cdk9 and cyclin T, stimulates RNA polymerase II elongation and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA processing. To accommodate different growth conditions and transcriptional demands, a reservoir of P-TEFb is kept in an inactive state in the multisubunit 7SK snRNP. Under certain stress or disease conditions, P-TEFb is released to activate transcription, although the signaling pathway(s) that controls this is largely unknown. Here, through analyzing the UV- or hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced release of P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP, an essential role for the calcium ion (Ca2+)–calmodulin–protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) signaling pathway is revealed. However, Ca2+ signaling alone is insufficient, and PP2B must act sequentially and cooperatively with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α) to disrupt 7SK snRNP. Activated by UV/HMBA and facilitated by a PP2B-induced conformational change in 7SK snRNP, PP1α releases P-TEFb through dephosphorylating phospho-Thr186 in the Cdk9 T-loop. This event is also necessary for the subsequent recruitment of P-TEFb by the bromodomain protein Brd4 to the preinitiation complex, where Cdk9 remains unphosphorylated and inactive until after the synthesis of a short RNA. Thus, through cooperatively dephosphorylating Cdk9 in response to Ca2+ signaling, PP2B and PP1α alter the P-TEFb functional equilibrium through releasing P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP for transcription. PMID:18483222

  16. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators.

  17. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; ...

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculationsmore » and various Monte Carlo event generators.« less

  18. Measurements of the spin-correlation parameters A/sub 00k/k, A/sub 00k/s, and A/sub 00s/s in p-p elastic scattering between 400 and 600 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Hausammann, R.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Leo, W.R.; Morenzoni, S.; Onel, Y.; Rapin, D.; Mango, S.

    1983-07-01

    We have measured the spin-correlation parameters A/sub 00k/k, A/sub 00k/s, and A/sub 00s/s in p-p scattering between 400 and 600 MeV using a longitudinally polarized beam and a butanol target polarized in the horizontal plane. Owing to the restrictive geometrical acceptance of the target, the polarization axis of the target was oriented at an angle ..cap alpha.. with respect to beam direction. The parameters A/sub 00k/k and A/sub 00k/s were therefore measured as a linear combination at 577, 536, 514, 494, and 445 MeV. These experiments were extended to the measurement of A/sub 00k/s and A/sub 00s/s by using a transversely polarized beam. We present the results, which are compared with phase-shift predictions.

  19. A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease.

    PubMed

    Boevink, Petra C; Wang, Xiaodan; McLellan, Hazel; He, Qin; Naqvi, Shaista; Armstrong, Miles R; Zhang, Wei; Hein, Ingo; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R J

    2016-01-29

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c-1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease.

  20. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Xiong, Qing; Cheng, Tong; Li, Qing-Tian; Liu, Xin-Lei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lai, Yong-Cai; Du, Wei-Guang; Man, Wei-Qun; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-03-28

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic locus during domestication. Introgression of genes from wild soybeans may broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits. Here, through whole-genome sequencing of an RIL population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44, and mapping of QTLs for seed weight, we discover that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase of seed weight/size in transgenic plants. The PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes. The PP2C-1 was further found to associate with a transcription factor GmBZR1 and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1. In contrast, a PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at N-terminus does not exhibit this function. Moreover, the GmBZR1 can promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants. Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions, we find that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele, suggesting that these accessions can be improved through introduction of the PP2C-1 allele. Our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1, which can enhance seed weight/size. Manipulation of the allele by molecule-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  1. Characterization of pp85; A target of oncogenes and growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.; Liu, Y.; Schaffhausen, B.S. ); Druker, B.; Roberts, T.M. )

    1990-06-01

    An 85,000-molecular-weight polypeptide (85 K polypeptide) has previously been identified as a common substrate for tyrosine phosphorylation upon polyomavirus middle T transformation or upon platelet-derived growth factor stimulation of 3T3 cells. In each case, pp85 has an associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.The tissue distribution of pp85 was determined by middle T blotting experiments; the highest levels were found in brain, lung, and spleen tissues. High-resolution examination of 85 K by isoelectric focusing demonstrated that there are at least 10 different forms. These were resolved into two families, 85 K and 86 K; the ratio of the two families changed in different cells. Similar forms were found for pp85 associated with pp60{sup v-{ital src}}. Individual species within each family differed by phosphorylation. This paper reports that analysis of pp85 and pp86 by immunoprecipitation with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed increasing phosphorylation in response to middle T or pp60{sup v-{ital src}} transformation.

  2. Phenothiazines induce PP2A-mediated apoptosis in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Alejandro; Pan, Li; Groen, Richard W.J.; Baleydier, Frederic; Kentsis, Alex; Marineau, Jason; Grebliunaite, Ruta; Kozakewich, Elena; Reed, Casie; Pflumio, Francoise; Poglio, Sandrine; Uzan, Benjamin; Clemons, Paul; VerPlank, Lynn; An, Frank; Burbank, Jason; Norton, Stephanie; Tolliday, Nicola; Steen, Hanno; Weng, Andrew P.; Yuan, Huipin; Bradner, James E.; Mitsiades, Constantine; Look, A. Thomas; Aster, Jon C.

    2014-01-01

    T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive cancer that is frequently associated with activating mutations in NOTCH1 and dysregulation of MYC. Here, we performed 2 complementary screens to identify FDA-approved drugs and drug-like small molecules with activity against T-ALL. We developed a zebrafish system to screen small molecules for toxic activity toward MYC-overexpressing thymocytes and used a human T-ALL cell line to screen for small molecules that synergize with Notch inhibitors. We identified the antipsychotic drug perphenazine in both screens due to its ability to induce apoptosis in fish, mouse, and human T-ALL cells. Using ligand-affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a perphenazine target. T-ALL cell lines treated with perphenazine exhibited rapid dephosphorylation of multiple PP2A substrates and subsequent apoptosis. Moreover, shRNA knockdown of specific PP2A subunits attenuated perphenazine activity, indicating that PP2A mediates the drug’s antileukemic activity. Finally, human T-ALLs treated with perphenazine exhibited suppressed cell growth and dephosphorylation of PP2A targets in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the recurring identification of phenothiazines as a class of drugs with anticancer effects. Furthermore, these data suggest that pharmacologic PP2A activation in T-ALL and other cancers driven by hyperphosphorylated PP2A substrates has therapeutic potential. PMID:24401270

  3. [Two-photon excitation fluorescence of 5-ALA induced PpIX in DHL cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zu-Fang; Chen, Rong; Li, Yong-Zeng; Chen, Guan-Nan; Chen, Xian-Ling; Feng, Shang-Yuan; Jia, Pei-Min

    2008-11-01

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is a novel imaging technique, which is primarily sensitive to a specimen's response coming from an in-focus plane, thus has low photo-bleaching and photo-damage to biological samples. 5-ALA induced production of PpIX in DHL cells was excited by 820 nm femtosecond laser; two-photon excitation fluorescence of single cell was obtained in Lambda mode of laser scanning confocal microscope. The specific fluorescence intensity of PpIX which accumulated in DHL cells was measured at 2, 4 and 10 mmol x L(-1) concentration of 5-ALA with different incubation time, which reflected the kinetics of 5-ALA accumulated in DHL cells. Accumulation of PpIX in DHL cells was a dynamic change process. Biphasic alterations of PpIX accumulation were noted: PpIX content enhanced with the increasing time and reached the maximal value around 3 h, however PpIX content decreased in the subsequent incubation time. Results indicate that two-photon fluorescence based on laser scanning microscope can be a useful technology for studying the kinetics of 5-ALA induced PpIX production in DHL cells and other leukemia cells.

  4. Greatwall dephosphorylation and inactivation upon mitotic exit is triggered by PP1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sheng; Vigneron, Suzanne; Robert, Perle; Strub, Jean Marc; Cianferani, Sara; Castro, Anna; Lorca, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Entry into mitosis is induced by the activation of cyclin-B-Cdk1 and Greatwall (Gwl; also known as MASTL in mammals) kinases. Cyclin-B-Cdk1 phosphorylates mitotic substrates, whereas Gwl activation promotes the phosphorylation of the small proteins Arpp19 and ENSA. Phosphorylated Arpp19 and/or ENSA bind to and inhibit PP2A comprising the B55 subunit (PP2A-B55; B55 is also known as PPP2R2A), the phosphatase responsible for cyclin-B-Cdk1 substrate dephosphorylation, allowing the stable phosphorylation of mitotic proteins. Upon mitotic exit, cyclin-B-Cdk1 and Gwl kinases are inactivated, and mitotic substrates are dephosphorylated. Here, we have identified protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) as the phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation of the activating site (Ser875) of Gwl. Depletion of PP1 from meioticXenopusegg extracts maintains phosphorylation of Ser875, as well as the full activity of this kinase, resulting in a block of meiotic and mitotic exit. By contrast, preventing the reactivation of PP2A-B55 through the addition of a hyperactive Gwl mutant (GwlK72M) mainly affected Gwl dephosphorylation on Thr194, resulting in partial inactivation of Gwl and in the incomplete exit from mitosis or meiosis. We also show that when PP2A-B55 is fully reactivated by depleting Arpp19, this protein phosphatase is able to dephosphorylate both activating sites, even in the absence of PP1.

  5. A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease

    PubMed Central

    Boevink, Petra C.; Wang, Xiaodan; McLellan, Hazel; He, Qin; Naqvi, Shaista; Armstrong, Miles R.; Zhang, Wei; Hein, Ingo; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c–1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease. PMID:26822079

  6. Distinct roles of ppGpp and DksA in Legionella pneumophila differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dalebroux, Zachary D.; Yagi, Brian F.; Sahr, Tobias; Buchrieser, Carmen; Swanson, Michele S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY To transit between hosts, intracellular Legionella pneumophila transform into a motile, infectious, transmissive state. Here we exploit the pathogen’s life cycle to examine how guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and DksA cooperate to govern bacterial differentiation. Transcriptional profiling revealed that during transmission alarmone accumulation increases the mRNA for flagellar and Type IV-secretion components, secreted host effectors, and regulators, and decreases transcripts for translation, membrane modification and ATP synthesis machinery. DksA is critical for differentiation, since mutants are defective for stationary phase survival, flagellar gene activation, lysosome avoidance, and macrophage cytotoxicity. The roles of ppGpp and DksA depend on the context. For macrophage transmission, ppGpp is essential, whereas DksA is dispensable, indicating ppGpp can act autonomously. In broth, DksA promotes differentiation when ppGpp levels increase, or during fatty acid stress, as judged by flaA expression and evasion of degradation by macrophages. For flagella morphogenesis, DksA is required for basal fliA (σ28) promoter activity. When alarmone levels increase, DksA cooperates with ppGpp to generate a pulse of Class II rod RNA or to amplify the Class III sigma factor and Class IV flagellin RNAs. Thus, DksA responds to the level of ppGpp and other stress signals to coordinate L. pneumophila differentiation. PMID:20199605

  7. Catalytic mechanism and allosteric regulation of an oligomeric (p)ppGpp synthetase by an alarmone

    PubMed Central

    Steinchen, Wieland; Schuhmacher, Jan S.; Altegoer, Florian; Fage, Christopher D.; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Bange, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-based second messengers serve in the response of living organisms to environmental changes. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) [collectively named “(p)ppGpp”] act as alarmones that globally reprogram cellular physiology during various stress conditions. Enzymes of the RelA/SpoT homology (RSH) family synthesize (p)ppGpp by transferring pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP. Little is known about the catalytic mechanism and regulation of alarmone synthesis. It also is unclear whether ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functions. Here, we unravel the mechanism and allosteric regulation of the highly cooperative alarmone synthetase small alarmone synthetase 1 (SAS1) from Bacillus subtilis. We determine that the catalytic pathway of (p)ppGpp synthesis involves a sequentially ordered substrate binding, activation of ATP in a strained conformation, and transfer of pyrophosphate through a nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction. We show that pppGpp—but not ppGpp—positively regulates SAS1 at an allosteric site. Although the physiological significance remains to be elucidated, we establish the structural and mechanistic basis for a biological activity in which ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functional roles. PMID:26460002

  8. Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) composites filled with modified shell waste.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z T; Chen, T; Li, H Y; Xia, M S; Ye, Y; Zheng, H

    2013-11-15

    Shell waste, with its high content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) plus organic matrix, has a potential to be used as a bio-filler. In this work, shell waste was modified by furfural and then incorporated to reinforce polypropylene (PP). The shell waste and modified powder were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical and thermal properties of neat PP and PP composites were investigated as well. Thermal gravimetric (TG) analyses confirmed the reinforcing role of modified powder in PP composites. The mechanical properties studied showed that adding modified powder could significantly increase the impact strength, elongation at break point and flexural modulus of composites. The maximum incorporation content could reach 15 wt.% with a good balance between toughness and stiffness of PP composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the modified powder could act as a nucleating agent and thus increase the crystallization temperature of PP. Polarized optical microscopy (POM) observation also indicated that the introduction of modified powder could promote the heterogeneous nucleation of PP matrix.

  9. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation.

  10. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation. PMID:23900426

  11. Anticancer effect of PP31J isolated from Physalis pubescens L. in human cervical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenjie; Wang, Qianqian; Chen, Lifeng; Huang, Lu; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Extracts derived from Physalis pubescens L. may function as cancer therapies. The pharmacological effects of PP31J on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were investigated in this study. HeLa cells were treated with PP31J, and then cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution were measured using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry. Protein expression levels of regulators of cell apoptosis and cell cycle were also examined using western blotting. Our data show that PP31J inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. Significant growth inhibition compared to the vehicle-treated group was observed using a concentration of 5 μM PP31J at 24, 48, and 72 h. PP31J also selectively arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 phase at 40 μM (P < 0.05) and in the G2/M phase at 20 μM (P < 0.01) and 40 μM (P < 0.001). Our results further demonstrate a significant increase in cell apoptosis (P < 0.001) following PP31J treatment (10, 20, and 40 μM). Immunoblotting data show that PP31J downregulated (P < 0.01) the expression of Bcl-xL and decreased (P < 0.05) the expression of Survivin and Cyclin D1 at 20 and 40 μM. This study shows the anti-tumor activity of PP31J in HeLa cells and that the effects of PP31J on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction were partially attributed to the regulation of Cyclin D1, Survivin, and Bcl-xL. PMID:28559997

  12. Targeting inhibitors of the tumor suppressor PP2A for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Amy S; Allen-Petersen, Brittany; Daniel, Colin J; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Sarah; Impey, Soren; Oddo, Jessica; Vitek, Michael P; Lopez, Charles; Christensen, Dale J; Sheppard, Brett; Sears, Rosalie C

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is usually diagnosed in the advanced stages when few effective therapies are available. Given the aggressive clinical course of this disease and lack of good treatment options, the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is of the upmost importance. Several pathways that have shown to contribute to pancreatic cancer progression are negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Here, the endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, SET (also known as I2PP2A) and cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), were shown to be overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer, contributing to decreased PP2A activity and overexpression and stabilization of the oncoprotein c-Myc, a key PP2A target. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A increases PP2A activity, increases c-Myc degradation, and decreases the tumorigenic potential of pancreatic cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, treatment with a novel SET inhibitor, OP449, pharmacologically recapitulates the phenotypes and significantly reduces proliferation and tumorigenic potential of several pancreatic cancer cell lines, with an accompanying attenuation of cell growth and survival signaling. Furthermore, primary cells from patients with pancreatic cancer were sensitive to OP449 treatment, indicating that PP2A-regulated pathways are highly relevant to this deadly disease. The PP2A inhibitors SET and CIP2A are overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and are important for pancreatic cancer cell growth and transformation; thus, antagonizing SET and/or CIP2A may be an innovative approach for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Targeting c-MYC by antagonizing PP2A inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Janghorban, Mahnaz; Farrell, Amy S; Allen-Petersen, Brittany L; Pelz, Carl; Daniel, Colin J; Oddo, Jessica; Langer, Ellen M; Christensen, Dale J; Sears, Rosalie C

    2014-06-24

    The transcription factor c-MYC is stabilized and activated by phosphorylation at serine 62 (S62) in breast cancer. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical negative regulator of c-MYC through its ability to dephosphorylate S62. By inactivating c-MYC and other key signaling pathways, PP2A plays an important tumor suppressor function. Two endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, I2PP2A, Inhibitor-2 of PP2A (SET oncoprotein) and cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), inactivate PP2A and are overexpressed in several tumor types. Here we show that SET is overexpressed in about 50-60% and CIP2A in about 90% of breast cancers. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A reduces the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro or in vivo with OP449, a novel SET antagonist, also decreases the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells and induces apoptosis. We show that this is, at least in part, due to decreased S62 phosphorylation of c-MYC and reduced c-MYC activity and target gene expression. Because of the ubiquitous expression and tumor suppressor activity of PP2A in cells, as well as the critical role of c-MYC in human cancer, we propose that activation of PP2A (here accomplished through antagonizing endogenous inhibitors) could be a novel antitumor strategy to posttranslationally target c-MYC in breast cancer.

  14. Differential expression between "DSP-only" and DSP-PP523 transcripts in rat molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Qin; Song, Ryan M; Ritchie, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To compare the expression patterns of two multiple transcripts derived from DSP-PP gene during tooth development. One is DSP-only transcript (i.e. does not encode PP) and the other is DSP-PP523 transcript, a main DSP-PP transcript. Unique antisense and sense riboprobes were generated from DSP-only and DSPPP523 cDNAs for in situ studies to examine DSP-only and DSP-PP523 transcript expression in developing molars. Paraffin-embedded sections (5-7μ m) from embryonic 20day, postnatal 2, 3 and 6days were deparaffined and hydrated. Tissues were prehybridized, then hybridized with DSP-only and DSP-PP523 anti-sense (AS) or sense (S) Digoxigenin labeled-riboprobes overnight, and washed. Anti-Digoxigenin antibodies conjugated to alkaline phosphatase were used to detect the presence of bound riboprobes by color reaction with NBT/BCIP. Stro-1 antibody was used for immunohistochemical analysis of Stro-1 protein expression in rat molars. We found that unlike the DSP-PP523 transcript, the DSP-only transcript does not express in the entire polarized mature odontoblasts but is expressed in the areas subjacent to the mature odontoblast layer. In addition, DSP-only transcript is expressed in the dental pulp. Interestingly, Stro-1 protein, a stem cell marker, was also identified in the areas subjacentto odontoblasts and in dental pulp. Differential expression of DSP-only and DSP-PP523 transcripts suggest that these two kinds of transcripts may play different roles during dentinogenesis. DSP-PP523 transcript is expressed in mature odontoblasts, which actively participates in dentin formation. DSP-only transcript might have a different function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PP: A graphics post-processor for the EQ6 reaction path code

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.W.

    1994-09-01

    The PP code is a graphics post-processor and plotting program for EQ6, a popular reaction-path code. PP runs on personal computers, allocates memory dynamically, and can handle very large reaction path runs. Plots of simple variable groups, such as fluid and solid phase composition, can be obtained with as few as two keystrokes. Navigation through the list of reaction path variables is simple and efficient. Graphics files can be exported for inclusion in word processing documents and spreadsheets, and experimental data may be imported and superposed on the reaction path runs. The EQ6 thermodynamic database can be searched from within PP, to simplify interpretation of complex plots.

  16. Is the Z0 observed in pp collisions a composite object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, F. M.

    1983-12-01

    If the Z0 boson is made of colored subconstituents it can be produced in pp (and pp) collisions through the subprocess gluon + gluon --> Z0 + gluon. The rate is estimated from the Z0 - γ mixing parameter and found comparable to that of the Drell-Yan process. Events with a large pTZ0 and a large pT balancing gluon should be observed at the pp collider. Address after October 1, 1983: Dêpartment de Physique Mathématique, USTL, 34060 Montpellier Cedex, France.

  17. Energy calibration of tagged photons by the d(γ,π-pp) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yun-Cheng; Nobuyuki, Chiga; Yu, Fujii; Kenta, Futatsukawa; Osamu, Hashimoto; Kentaro, Hirose; Takatsugu, Ishikawa; Hiroki, Kanda; Masashi, Kaneta; Daisuke, Kawama; Yue, Ma; Kazushige, Maeda; Tomofumi, Maruta; Nayuta, Maruyama; Akihiko, Matsumura; Youhei, Miyagi; Koji, Miwa; Satoshi, Nakamura N.; Hajime, Shimizu; Koutarou, Shirotori; Koutaku, Suzuki; Tadaaki, Tamae; Hirokazu, Tamura; Kyo, Tsukada; Wang, Tie-Shan; Hirohito, Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    The energy of tagged photons, which were provided from the internal photon tagging system of the Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, has been calibrated using the d(γ,π-pp) reaction. Charged pions and protons in the final state were detected with the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer (NKS2). Photon energies were obtained from the reaction of d(γ,π-pp). The derived photon energy was consistent with the design of the tagger system and the previous measurement using electron-positron pair production. The consistency demonstrates the performance of NKS2 and the capability of the photon energy calibration using d(γ,π-pp).

  18. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break.

  19. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break. PMID:21378115

  20. Associated strangeness production in the pp{yields}pK{sup +}K{sup -}p and pp{yields}pK{sup +{pi}0{Sigma}0} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Jujun; Wilkin, Colin

    2010-08-15

    The total and differential cross sections for associated strangeness production in the pp{yields}pK{sup +}K{sup -}p and pp{yields}pK{sup +{pi}0{Sigma}0} reactions have been studied in a unified approach using an effective Lagrangian model. It is assumed that both the K{sup -}p and {pi}{sup 0{Sigma}0} final states originate from the decay of the {Lambda}(1405) that was formed in the production chain pp{yields}p(N*(1535){yields}K{sup +{Lambda}}(1405)). The available experimental data are well reproduced, especially the ratio of the two total cross sections, which is much less sensitive to the particular model of the entrance channel. The significant coupling of the N*(1535) to {Lambda}(1405)K is further evidence for large ss-bar components in the quark wave function of the N*(1535).

  1. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan; Cheng, Long; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  2. Regulation of the phosphatase PP2B by protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, Patrick J.; Scott, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Protein dephosphorylation is important for regulating cellular signaling in a variety of contexts. Protein phosphatase-2B (PP2B), or calcineurin, is a widely expressed serine/threonine phosphatase that acts on a large cross section of potential protein substrates when activated by increased levels of intracellular calcium in concert with calmodulin. PxIxIT and LxVP targeting motifs are important for maintaining specificity in response to elevated calcium. In the present study, we describe the mechanism of PP2B activation, discuss its targeting by conserved binding motifs and review recent advances in the understanding of an A-kinase anchoring protein 79/PP2B/protein kinase A complex’s role in synaptic long-term depression. Finally, we discuss potential for targeting PP2B anchoring motifs for therapeutic benefit. PMID:27911714

  3. DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP44L (VIEWING PORTAL), ALTITUDE CHAMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP44L (VIEWING PORTAL), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. B Production In p-p and A-A Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.; Singha, Bijit

    2017-09-01

    This is an extension of our recent work on D+(c\\bar {d}),Do(c\\bar {u}) production from p-p and d-Au collisions to B+(b\\bar {d}),Bo(b\\bar {u}) production from p-p and A-A collisions. The rapidity cross sections for B+(c\\bar {d}),Bo(b\\bar {u}) production from both p-p and A-A collisions are estimated. Our present work makes use of previous work on J/Ψ, Ψ'(2S), ϒ(n S) production in p-p and A-A collisions, with the main new aspect being the fragmentation probability, D_{b → b\\bar {q}}, which turns out to be similar to the fragmentation probability D_{c → c\\bar {q}} used in our recent work.

  7. Intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale in high multiplicity p+p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, Larry; Tribedy, Prithwish

    2015-11-02

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. Here, we show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. It is presumed that the origin of such intrinsic fluctuations is non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. Furthermore, we find that fluctuations as large as O(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to rare high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.

  8. All roads lead to PP2A: Exploiting the therapeutic potential of this phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Sangodkar, Jaya; Farrington, Caroline; McClinch, Kimberly; Galsky, Matthew D.; Kastrinsky, David B.; Narla, Goutham

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. A confirmed tumor suppressor protein, PP2A is genetically altered or functionally inactivated in many cancers highlighting a need for its therapeutic reactivation. In this review we will discuss recent literature on PP2A: the elucidation of its structure and the functions of its subunits, and the identification of molecular lesions and post-translational modifications leading to its dysregulation in cancer. A final section will discuss the proteins and small molecules that modulate PP2A and how these might be used to target dysregulated forms of PP2A to treat cancers and other diseases. PMID:26507691

  9. Positive regulation of TRAF6-dependent innate immune responses by protein phosphatase PP1-γ.

    PubMed

    Opaluch, Amanda M; Schneider, Monika; Chiang, Chih-yuan; Nguyen, Quy T; Maestre, Ana M; Mulder, Lubbertus C F; Secundino, Ismael; De Jesus, Paul D; König, Renate; Simon, Viviana; Nizet, Victor; MacLeod, Graham; Varmuza, Susannah; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Chanda, Sumit K

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune sensors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) differentially utilize adaptor proteins and additional molecular mediators to ensure robust and precise immune responses to pathogen challenge. Through a gain-of-function genetic screen, we identified the gamma catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1-γ) as a positive regulator of MyD88-dependent proinflammatory innate immune activation. PP1-γ physically interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, and enhances the activity of TRAF6 towards itself and substrates such as IKKγ, whereas enzymatically inactive PP1-γ represses these events. Importantly, these activities were found to be critical for cellular innate responses to pathogen challenge and microbial clearance in both mouse macrophages and human monocyte lines. These data indicate that PP1-γ phosphatase activity regulates overall TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase function and promotes NF-κB-mediated innate signaling responses.

  10. Structural relationship between a bacterial developmental protein and eukaryotic PP2C protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Adler, E; Donella-Deana, A; Arigoni, F; Pinna, L A; Stragler, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SpoIIE is a Ser protein phosphatase whose action on the phosphoprotein SpoIIAA triggers the cell type-specific activation of a sporulation transcription factor. Here we report that SpoIIE displays sequence similarity to the PP2C family of eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, and that residues common to these proteins are required for the function of both SpoIIE and TPD1, a yeast PP2C. These findings suggest that SpoIIE and the PP2C protein phosphatases are structurally related, and reveal a striking formal similarity between the SpoIIAA regulatory circuit and that of mammalian mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase. This similarity may reflect an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of biological regulation based on the interplay of His protein kinase-like Ser kinases and PP2C-like protein phosphatases.

  11. Recognition of a PP2C interaction motif in several plant protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ohta, Masaru; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) constitute a major class of phosphatases in plants. PP2Cs play important roles in many signaling pathways by countering the action of specific protein kinases. In addition to their role in several environmental stress-related signal transduction pathways, they are also involved in plant metabolism. Protein phosphatases often physically associate with their protein kinase counterparts. One approach to understanding PP2C function is to identify their interacting protein kinases. We describe a yeast two-hybrid assay system used in our lab to determine the interaction between members of the PP2C family and protein kinases in the SOS2 family. This chapter and the cited articles describing related work might be of help in discovering interactions between other protein phosphatases and kinases.

  12. Facile Method to Fabricate Highly Thermally Conductive Graphite/PP Composite with Network Structures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Changping; Ni, Haiying; Chen, Jun; Yang, Wei

    2016-08-03

    Thermally conductive polymer composites have aroused significant academic and industrial interest for several decades. Herein, we report a novel fabrication method of graphite/polypropylene (PP) composites with high thermal conductivity in which graphite flakes construct a continuous thermally conductive network. The thermal conductivity coefficient of the graphite/PP composites is markedly improved to be 5.4 W/mK at a graphite loading of 21.2 vol %. Such a great improvement of the thermal conductivity is ascribed to the occurrence of orientations of crystalline graphite flakes with large particles around PP resin particles and the formation of a perfect thermally conductive network. The model of Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) is adopted to interpret the outstanding thermally conductive property of the graphite/PP composites. This work provides a guideline for the easy fabrication of thermally conductive composites with network structures.

  13. Remarks on B-physics with interactions of pp and e sup + e sup minus

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, A. Paris-6 Univ., 75 Paris-7 Univ., 75 ); Snyder, A. )

    1990-08-01

    We compare the B-physics that could be studied with pp or e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. The pp colliders at cm energies of 16 TeV (LHC) and 40 TeV (SSC) as well as asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders at the {Upsilon}(4S) cm energy are considered. In the case of pp interactions, we discuss the B production using pp colliders and a p beam with an external fixed target. For this preliminary comparison we explore the possibility of searching CP violation in the B{sub d}{sup 0}, {bar B}{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} decays. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Spectroscopic observation of SN 2017pp by NUTS (NOT Un-biased Transient Survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Tronsgaard, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports the spectroscopic classification of SN 2017pp in PGC 1378162. The candidate was discovered by F. Ciabattari, E. Mazzoni, S. Donati (ISSP; http://italiansupernovae.org).

  15. Nonlinear response of polypropylene (PP)/Clay nanocomposites under dynamic oscillatory shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Kyu; Lim, Hyung Tag; Ahn, Kyung Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Dynamic oscillatory shear flow tests, i.e. small, medium, and large amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS, MAOS, and LAOS), are useful to study polymer composite systems. In this study, MAOS and LAOS tests were used to investigate the dynamic behavior of electrically activated polypropylene (PP)/Clay nanocomposites. The morphology of PP/Clay nanocomposites could be controlled by the applied time, type (AC and DC), and strength of the electric field. Various electrically activated PP/Clay nanocomposites were compared in terms of I 3/1, which was determined from FT-Rheology within the MAOS and LAOS region. Nonlinear-Linear viscoelastic Ratio (NLR), which developed by Lim et al. (2011), was calculated to measure the dispersion quality of the PP/Clay nanocomposites.

  16. PpRab1, a Rab GTPase from maritime pine is differentially expressed during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Cairney, John; Rodríguez, María Pérez; Cánovas, Francisco; Oliveira, Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2007-09-01

    Rab-related small GTP-binding proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of the vesicular transport system in eukaryotic cells. We report the characterization of a previously isolated full-length cDNA PpRab1 from Pinus pinaster. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of G1-G5 conserved domains of the GTPase Ras superfamily and a double cysteine motif in the C-terminal, characteristic of Rab proteins. The PpRab1 protein shows high sequence similarity to several Rab1 GTP-binding proteins in plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, within the Ras superfamily, PpRab1 is more closely related to the Rab family and within this, PpRab1 protein was found to cluster with Arabidopsis subfamily AtRABE, whose members are known to regulate ER-to-Golgi membrane trafficking steps. PpRab1 transcripts were expressed at constitutively high levels for the initial stages of zygotic embryo development, and then their relative abundance decreased as embryo matures. The PpRab1 transcript is not embryo-specific as it was found in roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. An increase in PpRab1 expression level was observed when seeds are germinated and collected at successive time points of development. In situ RT-PCR analysis revealed an expression signal in early zygotic embryos. In view of the proposed roles of Rab1 GTP-binding protein, the possible function of the protein encoded by PpRab1 in embryogenesis is discussed.

  17. Expression and mechanism of regulation of PP2A/Pr65 in ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiuqiu; Wang, Guannan; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhong, Ming

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of PP2A/PR65 protein in ameloblastoma and the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PP2A/PR65. The association between PP2A/PR65 and the clinicopathological characteristics of tumor specimens in ameloblastoma were to provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of ameloblastoma. Streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) immunohistochemical staining was used to detect PP2A/Pr65 expression changes in a total of 68 cases of ameloblastoma, six ameloblastic carcinomas, 21 squamous cell carcinomas and seven normal oral mucosas. Western blot was used to analyze PP2A/PR65 protein expression in 15 cases of ameloblastoma and three cases of normal oral mucosa. Of the 68 cases analyzed, four cases were negative, 25 cases were weakly positive, 20 cases were moderately positive and 19 cases were strongly positive. In six cases of ameloblastic carcinoma, three cases were weak positive, one case was positive, two cases were strongly positive and none were negative. In 21 cases of squamous cell carcinomas, three cases were negative, 17 cases were weakly positive, one case was moderately positive and none were strongly positive. Western blot analysis showed that, PP2A/Pr65 protein expression was lower in ameloblastoma tissue compared with normal oral mucosa. Reduced expression of PP2A/PR65 in ameloblastoma compared with normal oral mucosa indicates that PP2A/PR65 is involved in the occurrence and development of ameloblastoma. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Going low: measurement of Solar pp-neutrino flux with liquid scintillator detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. Yu; Borexino collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Recently Borexino collaboration announced the first direct measurement of the low-energy neutrino flux from the pp-reaction in the Sun. Together with previous measurements of solar neutrino fluxes from 7Be, 8B and pep reactions the measurement completes the study of the neutrino fluxes from the pp-chain of solar reactions. Technical details of the analysis are presented, and results and implications are discussed.

  19. Reaction mechanisms in 12C(γ,pp) near 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, E. D.; McDonald, W. J.; Opper, A. K.; Quraan, M. A.; Rodning, N. L.; Rozon, F. M.; Feldman, G.; Kolb, N. R.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Tiller, D. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Korkmaz, E.; O'rielly, G. V.

    1996-03-01

    Inclusive 12C(γ,pp) cross sections have been measured with tagged photons in the range Eγ=187-227 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The large angular acceptance allowed the measurement of noncoplanar pp emission. The cross sections were compared to a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade calculation. Agreement was reasonable for the shapes of the cross sections but the calculated total cross section was 3.9 times larger than the data.

  20. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) – A Placental Immunoregulatory Galectin Protecting Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nándor Gábor; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Kárpáti, Éva; Erez, Offer; Szilágyi, András; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sammar, Marei; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Matkó, János; Závodszky, Péter; Papp, Zoltán; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13). It has a “jelly-roll” fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ, suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low concentrations in first trimester maternal sera are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing blood pressure

  1. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  2. CMV pp65 and IE-1 T cell epitopes recognized by healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Stefanie L; Bettinotti, Maria; Selleri, Silvia; Adams, Sharon; Marincola, Francesco M; Stroncek, David F

    2007-03-28

    Adoptive immune and vaccine therapies have been used to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in recipients of hematopoietic progenitor cell transplants, but the nature of T cell responses to CMV have not been completely characterized. Peptide pools and individual peptides derived from the immune-dominant CMV proteins pp65 and IE-1 and antigen-specific, cytokine flow cytometry were used to characterize the prevalence and frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells in 20 healthy CMV-seropositive subjects. CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 were detected in 35% of subjects and to IE-1 in 40% of subjects. CD4+ T cell responses to pp65 were detected in 50% of subjects, but none were detected to IE-1. Several new IE-1 HLA class I epitopes were identified, including 4 restricted to HLA-C antigens. One region of IE-1 spanning amino acids 300 to 327 was rich in class I epitopes. The HLA class I restrictions of IE-1 peptides were more promiscuous than those of pp65 peptides. Since naturally occurring CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 were detectable in many subjects, but only CD8+ T cell responses to IE-1 were detected, pp65 may be better than IE-1 for use in vaccine and adoptive immune therapies.

  3. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-02-24

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  4. ppGpp and cytotoxicity diversity in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates.

    PubMed

    Stella, A E; Luz Hessel DA Cunha, D; Piazza, R M F; Spira, B

    2017-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a known food pathogen, which main reservoir is the intestine of ruminants. The abundance of different STEC lineages in nature reflect a heterogeneity that is characterised by the differential expression of certain genotypic characteristics, which in turn are influenced by the environmental conditions to which the microorganism is exposed. Bacterial homeostasis and stress response are under the control of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), which intrinsic levels varies across the E. coli species. In the present study, 50 STEC isolates from healthy sheep were evaluated regarding their ppGpp content, cytotoxicity and other relevant genetic and phenotypic characteristics. We found that the level of ppGpp and cytotoxicity varied considerably among the examined strains. Isolates that harboured the stx2 gene were the least cytotoxic and presented the highest levels of ppGpp. All stx2 isolates belonged to phylogroup A, while strains that carried stx1 or both stx1 and stx2 genes pertained to phylogroup B1. All but two stx2 isolates belonged to the stx2b subtype. Strains that belonged to phylogroup B1 displayed on average low levels of ppGpp and high cytotoxicity. Overall, there was a negative correlation between cytotoxicity and ppGpp.

  5. Effect of Cold-Drawn Fibers on the Self-Reinforcement of PP/LDPE Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying-Guo; Su, Bei; Wu, Hai-Hong

    2017-08-01

    In our previous study, a method to fabricate super-ductile polypropylene/low-density polyethylene (PP/LDPE) blends was proposed, and a fiber-shape structure was shown to be formed, presenting necking propagation during tensile testing. In this study, the mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the necking region of tested super-ductile PP/LDPE samples were carefully investigated and further compared with the melt-stretched, untested, and thermo-mechanical-history-removed samples by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing. The results suggest that the tested samples have high mechanical properties and are more thermo-mechanically stable than the common PP/LDPE blends and melt-stretched samples. Additionally, to investigate their structure-property relationship, the necking region of the tested samples was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and hot-stage polarized light microscopy. It can be concluded that the variation of the microstructure can be attributed to the cold-drawn fibers (CDFs), which were more stable thermally, formed during the tensile test. Furthermore, the CDFs were used for the filler in PP/LDPE blends. The experimental results of the different PP/LDPE composites indicate that the CDFs are a good reinforcement candidate and have the ability to improve the mechanical properties of the PP/LDPE blends.

  6. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  7. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-Yi; Xu, Yun-Fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-Da; Wang, Hao-An; Wang, Wen-Bo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2015-02-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  8. A subset of RAB proteins modulates PP2A phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Mattioni, Anna; Boldt, Karsten; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Castagnoli, Luisa; Ueffing, Marius; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-09-09

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most abundant serine-threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells. PP2A is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme participating in a variety of physiological processes whose deregulation is often associated to cancer. The specificity and activity of this phosphatase is tightly modulated by a family of regulatory B subunits that dock the catalytic subunit to the substrates. Here we characterize a novel and unconventional molecular mechanism controlling the activity of the tumor suppressor PP2A. By applying a mass spectrometry-based interactomics approach, we identified novel PP2A interacting proteins. Unexpectedly we found that a significant number of RAB proteins associate with the PP2A scaffold subunit (PPP2R1A), but not with the catalytic subunit (PPP2CA). Such interactions occur in vitro and in vivo in specific subcellular compartments. Notably we demonstrated that one of these RAB proteins, RAB9, competes with the catalytic subunit PPP2CA in binding to PPP2R1A. This competitive association has an important role in controlling the PP2A catalytic activity, which is compromised in several solid tumors and leukemias.

  9. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-01-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members. PMID:25708299

  10. PP2C family members play key roles in regulation of cell survival and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shinri; Toriumi, Shinnosuke; Saito, Jun-Ichi; Awano, Kenjiro; Kudo, Tada-Aki; Kobayashi, Takayasu

    2006-07-01

    Although unlimited proliferation of cancer cells is supported by multiple signaling pathways involved in the regulation of proliferation, survival, and apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms coordinating these different pathways to promote the proliferation and survival of cancer cells have remained unclear. SAPK and integrin-ILK signaling pathways play key roles in the promotion of apoptosis and cell proliferation/survival, respectively. Studies of TNFalpha- and H2O2-induced apoptosis revealed that ASK1, a component of the SAPK system, mediates the TNFalpha and H2O2 signaling of apoptosis. ASK1 is activated by autophosphorylation of a specific threonine residue (T845) following TNFalpha stimulation. Our recent studies indicate that PP2Cepsilon, a member of the PP2C family, associates with and inactivates ASK1 by dephosphorylating T845. In contrast, PP2Cdelta/ILKAP, a second PP2C family member, activates ASK1 by enhancing cellular phosphorylation of T845. PP2Cdelta/ILKAP also forms a complex with ILK1 to inhibit the GSK3beta-mediated integrin-ILK1 signaling in vivo, inhibiting cell cycle progression. These observations raise the possibility that PP2Cdelta/ILKAP acts to control the cross-talk between integrin-induced and TNFalpha-induced signaling pathways, inhibiting the former and stimulating the latter, thereby inhibiting proliferation and survival and promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells.

  11. PP2A activation by beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists: novel regulatory mechanism of keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Chen, Jin; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2003-06-20

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell migration is important for devising novel therapies to control metastasis or enhance wound healing. Previously, we demonstrated that beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) activation in keratinocytes inhibited their migration by decreasing the phosphorylation of a critical promigratory signaling component, the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). Here we demonstrate that beta2-AR-induced inhibition of migration is mediated by the activation of the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A. Pretreating human keratinocytes with the PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, prevented the beta2-AR-induced inhibition of migration, either as isolated cells or as a confluent sheet of cells repairing an in vitro "wound" and also prevented the beta2-AR-induced reduction in ERK phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with human corneal epithelial cells. In keratinocytes, immunoprecipitation studies revealed that beta2-AR activation resulted in the rapid association of beta2-AR with PP2A as well as a 37% increase in association of PP2A with ERK2. Finally, beta2-AR activation resulted in a rapid and transient 2-fold increase in PP2A activity. Thus, we provide the first evidence that beta2-AR activation in keratinocytes modulates migration via a novel pathway utilizing PP2A to alter the promigratory signaling cascade. Exploiting this pathway may result in novel therapeutic approaches for control of epithelial cell migration.

  12. The role of SET/I2PP2A in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kake, Satoru; Tsuji, Shunya; Enjoji, Shuhei; Hanasaki, Sayaka; Hayase, Hiroshi; Yabe, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Yuiko; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Liu, Hao-Ping; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Usui, Tatsuya; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2017-06-27

    Canine mammary tumor is the most common neoplasm in female dogs, and it has generated considerable attention as a translational model for human breast cancer. Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor, and SET/I2PP2A, the endogenous inhibitory protein of PP2A, binds directly to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Here, we investigated the role of SET in the tumorigenic growth in canine mammary tumor as well as in the sensitivity of tumors to existing therapeutics. Elevated protein levels of SET were observed in advanced-stage of canine mammary tumor tissues of dogs compared with paired normal tissues. Knockdown of SET expression in a canine mammary tumor cell line CIP-m led to increased PP2A activity and decreased cell proliferation, colony formation, and in vivo tumor growth. We observed suppression of mTOR, β-catenin, and NFκB signaling by SET knockdown. The sensitivity of CIP-m cells to doxorubicin was decreased by SET knockdown, while SET knockdown in CIP-m cells did not affect sensitivity to 4-OH-tamoxifen, carboplatin, bortezomib, and X-ray radiation. These data suggest that SET plays important roles in the tumor progression of a subset of canine mammary tumor by suppressing PP2A activity and enhancing mTOR, β-catenin, and NFκB signaling.

  13. Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals that PP4 dephosphorylates KAP-1 impacting the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Goodarzi, Aaron A; Adelmant, Guillaume O; Pan, Yunfeng; Jeggo, Penelope A; Marto, Jarrod A; Chowdhury, Dipanjan

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphatase PP4C has been implicated in the DNA damage response (DDR), but its substrates in DDR remain largely unknown. We devised a novel proteomic strategy for systematic identification of proteins dephosphorylated by PP4C and identified KRAB-domain-associated protein 1 (KAP-1) as a substrate. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of KAP-1 at S824 (via ATM) and at S473 (via CHK2). A PP4C/R3β complex interacts with KAP-1 and silencing this complex leads to persistence of phospho-S824 and phospho-S473. We identify a new role for KAP-1 in DDR by showing that phosphorylation of S473 impacts the G2/M checkpoint. Depletion of PP4R3β or expression of the phosphomimetic KAP-1 S473 mutant (S473D) leads to a prolonged G2/M checkpoint. Phosphorylation of S824 is necessary for repair of heterochromatic DNA lesions and similar to cells expressing phosphomimetic KAP-1 S824 mutant (S824D), or PP4R3β-silenced cells, display prolonged relaxation of chromatin with release of chromatin remodelling protein CHD3. Our results define a new role for PP4-mediated dephosphorylation in the DDR, including the regulation of a previously undescribed function of KAP-1 in checkpoint response. PMID:22491012

  14. Secondary structure of RNA from bacteriophages f2 Qbeta, and PP7.

    PubMed Central

    Edlind, T D; Bassel, A R

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy of RNA-protein monolayers prepared under partial denaturing conditions has been used to compare the secondary structure of coliphage f2 and Qbeta and Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PP7 RNAs. The secondary structure map of f2 RNA contains a central open loop and four symmetrically placed hairpins, which is similar to the pattern reported by Jacobson (A. B. Jacobson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:307-311, 1976) for the closely related phage MS2. With the same denaturing conditions, Qbeta RNA, which is 20% larger than f2 or PP7 RNA, has a central open loop and a smaller terminal loop. PP7 RNA has two large, closed secondary structures, one of which is nearly central. The base composition of PP7 RNA was determined and is similar to that of the group I coliphage RNAs. Thus, the greater amount of large base-paired structure is not related to an increased guanine-plus-cytosine content of PP7 RNA. With increased denaturing conditions, the central, closed structure of PP7 RNA is converted into an open loop. The central structures of all three phages include about 700 nucleotides. The relevance of these findings to the genetic maps of the coliphage RNAs is discussed. Images PMID:409852

  15. Effect of Cold-Drawn Fibers on the Self-Reinforcement of PP/LDPE Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying-Guo; Su, Bei; Wu, Hai-Hong

    2017-07-01

    In our previous study, a method to fabricate super-ductile polypropylene/low-density polyethylene (PP/LDPE) blends was proposed, and a fiber-shape structure was shown to be formed, presenting necking propagation during tensile testing. In this study, the mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the necking region of tested super-ductile PP/LDPE samples were carefully investigated and further compared with the melt-stretched, untested, and thermo-mechanical-history-removed samples by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing. The results suggest that the tested samples have high mechanical properties and are more thermo-mechanically stable than the common PP/LDPE blends and melt-stretched samples. Additionally, to investigate their structure-property relationship, the necking region of the tested samples was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and hot-stage polarized light microscopy. It can be concluded that the variation of the microstructure can be attributed to the cold-drawn fibers (CDFs), which were more stable thermally, formed during the tensile test. Furthermore, the CDFs were used for the filler in PP/LDPE blends. The experimental results of the different PP/LDPE composites indicate that the CDFs are a good reinforcement candidate and have the ability to improve the mechanical properties of the PP/LDPE blends.

  16. Avian retrovirus pp32 DNA endonuclease is phosphorylated on Ser in the carboxyl-terminal region.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, R; Mumm, S; Grandgenett, D P

    1988-01-01

    The avian retrovirus pp32 DNA endonuclease and the beta polypeptide of the reverse transcriptase contain the same three phosphoserine (p-Ser) tryptic peptides. At least 95% of the Pi label is nearly equally distributed between two major p-Ser tryptic peptides derived from either beta or pp32. These polymerase gene-derived proteins were metabolically labeled with various radioactive amino acids or Pi, and the purified protein was subjected to cyanogen bromide or hydroxylamine cleavage. The results indicated that the two major p-Ser tryptic peptides map to the COOH-termini of both proteins. The two major p-Ser tryptic peptides isolated from Pi-labeled pp32 were subjected to proteolysis by three separate specific proteases. Analysis of the data suggested that these p-Ser are located on pp32 at amino acid positions 262 and 282 from the amino terminus of pp32 (286 amino acids in length). At present, we cannot exclude the possibility that one or both p-Ser peptides map between amino acid positions 124 to 150. The role of this site-specific phosphorylation of pp32 and beta is also discussed. Images PMID:2835511

  17. Regulation of σ factor competition by the alarmone ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Jishage, Miki; Kvint, Kristian; Shingler, Victoria; Nyström, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Many regulons controlled by alternative σ factors, including σS and σ32, are poorly induced in cells lacking the alarmone ppGpp. We show that ppGpp is not absolutely required for the activity of σS-dependent promoters because underproduction of σ70, specific mutations in rpoD (rpoD40 and rpoD35), or overproduction of Rsd (anti-σ70) restored expression from σS-dependent promoters in vivo in the absence of ppGpp accumulation. An in vitro transcription/competition assay with reconstituted RNA polymerase showed that addition of ppGpp reduces the ability of wild-type σ70 to compete with σ32 for core binding and the mutant σ70 proteins, encoded by rpoD40 and rpoD35, compete less efficiently than wild-type σ70. Similarly, an in vivo competition assay showed that the ability of both σ32 and σS to compete with σ70 is diminished in cells lacking ppGpp. Consistently, the fraction of σS and σ32 bound to core was drastically reduced in ppGpp-deficient cells. Thus, the stringent response encompasses a mechanism that alters the relative competitiveness of σ factors in accordance with cellular demands during physiological stress. PMID:12023304

  18. The "K-pp" System Investigated with a Coupled-Channel Complex Scaling Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doté, Akinobu

    Nuclear systems with anti-kaons (kaonic nuclei) are expected to have exotic nature such as formation of a dense state, due to the strong attraction between an anti-kaon and a nucleon. In this article, the current theoretical studies of the most essential kaonic nucleus "K-pp" are reviewed and our study of "K-pp" based on a coupled-channel Complex Scaling Method is reported. With a new version of our chiral SU(3)-based potential constrained by a precise measurement of kaonic hydrogen atom (SIDDHARTA experiment), the "K-pp" state is found to be rather shallowly bound: BK - pp = 15-22 MeV and Γ M = 20-50 MeV. The "K-pp" seems to have another pole, and it might possibly have so-called a double-pole structure, similarly to the Λ (1405). Recent results of the K-pp search experiments (J-PARC E15 and E27) are discussed in comparison with several new theoretical studies.

  19. Pp'DDT and pp'DDE accumulation in a food chain of Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy): testing steady-state condition.

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, Roberta; Croce, Valeria; Galassi, Silvana; Volta, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Although pp'DDT usage was strongly limited or banned in most parts of the world during the last three or four decades, the parent compound, its homologues and their metabolites still occur at levels which might pose a risk for many ecosystem components. A case of DDT pollution of industrial origin was discovered in 1996 in Lake Maggiore, the second largest (212 km2) and deepest (370 m) lake in Italy, causing concern for wildlife and human health. The extensive monitoring of many biotic and abiotic compartments which followed from 1998 in order to assess the pollution level and its trend in time, provided a great availability of data referring to DDT contamination of the different fish species of the lake. In this study, the recent contamination levels in selected fish species were compared to those measured in 1998 to evaluate the temporal pollution trend of the lake and its natural recovery, given that no remediation measures were carried out on the contaminated soils and sediments in this time span. Moreover, a modelling approach to test the equilibrium condition between water and pelagic fish species was used. Analytical results of pp'DDT and pp'DDE concentrations in lake water were used as input data in the bioenergetic model by Connolly & Pedersen (1988) to calculate concentrations in two fish species and to compare the predicted and the measured contamination. Sampling and analytical determination of DDT homologues in lake water: Five water sampling campaigns were carried out from May 2002 to February 2004 in three sampling sites of Lake Maggiore. Suspended and dissolved pollutants were determined separately. Quantitative DDT homologue analyses were performed by HRGC coupled with ECD detection by the external standard method. Single water extracts were put together in correspondence with the stratification zones of the water column inferred on the basis of the temperature profile to improve analytical sensitivity. Selection of fish data: Concentrations of DDT

  20. The melt-recrystallization behavior of highly oriented α-iPP fibers embedded in a HIPS matrix.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liwei; Li, Huihui; Qiu, Zhaobin; Yan, Shouke

    2015-03-21

    The melt-recrystallization behavior of α-iPP fibers embedded in an amorphous HIPS matrix has been studied by means of optical microscopy. The amorphous HIPS serving as a supporter of iPP fibers does not become involved in the nucleation and crystallization process of the molten highly oriented iPP fibers. It also does not provide any birefringence under the optical microscope with crossed polarizers. This enables the study of orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization through a control of the melting status of the fibers. Through melting the fibers at different temperatures above 175 °C and subsequent recrystallization, some β-iPP crystals were always produced. The content of the β-iPP crystal depends strongly on the melting temperature and melting time of the iPP fibers. It was confirmed that melting the iPP fibers at relatively lower temperature, e.g. 176 °C, less amount of β-iPP crystals were observed. The content of β-iPP crystal enhances first with increasing melting temperature and then decreases with further increase of the fiber melting temperature. The β-iPP crystallization is found to be most favorable upon melting the fibers at 178 °C for 2 min. This demonstrates the requirement of a certain chain or chain segment orientation for generating β-iPP crystallization on the one hand, while higher orientation of the iPP chains or chain segments encourages the growth of iPP crystals in the α-form on the other hand. This has been further confirmed by varying the melting time of the fiber at different temperatures, since relaxation of the iPP molecular chains at a fixed temperature is time dependent. Moreover, the complete transformation of α-iPP fibers in some local places into β-iPP crystals implies that the αβ-transition may not be required for the orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization.

  1. Many Means to a Common End: the Intricacies of (p)ppGpp Metabolism and Its Control of Bacterial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Colomer-Winter, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In nearly all bacterial species examined so far, amino acid starvation triggers the rapid accumulation of the nucleotide second messenger (p)ppGpp, the effector of the stringent response. While for years the enzymes involved in (p)ppGpp metabolism and the significance of (p)ppGpp accumulation to stress survival were considered well defined, a recent surge of interest in the field has uncovered an unanticipated level of diversity in how bacteria metabolize and utilize (p)ppGpp to rapidly synchronize a variety of biological processes important for growth and stress survival. In addition to the classic activation of the stringent response, it has become evident that (p)ppGpp exerts differential effects on cell physiology in an incremental manner rather than simply acting as a biphasic switch that controls growth or stasis. Of particular interest is the intimate relationship of (p)ppGpp with persister cell formation and virulence, which has spurred the pursuit of (p)ppGpp inhibitors as a means to control recalcitrant infections. Here, we present an overview of the enzymes responsible for (p)ppGpp metabolism, elaborate on the intricacies that link basal production of (p)ppGpp to bacterial homeostasis, and discuss the implications of targeting (p)ppGpp synthesis as a means to disrupt long-term bacterial survival strategies. PMID:25605304

  2. Involvement of I2PP2A in the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and its reversal by Memantine.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Khatoon, Sabiha; Iqbal, Inge-Grundke; Iqbal, Khalid

    2006-07-10

    The activity of protein phosphatase (PP)-2A, which regulates tau phosphorylation, is compromised in Alzheimer disease brain. Here we show that the transient transfection of PC12 cells with inhibitor-2 (I2PP2A) of PP2A causes abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau at Ser396/Ser404 and Ser262/Ser356. This hyperphosphorylation of tau is observed only when a sub-cellular shift of I2PP2A takes place from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and is accompanied by cleavage of I2PP2A into a 20 kDa fragment. Memantine, an un-competitive inhibitor of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, inhibits this abnormal phosphorylation of tau and cell death and prevents the I2PP2A-induced inhibition of PP2A activity in vitro. These findings demonstrate novel mechanisms by which I2PP2A regulates the intracellular activity of PP2A and phosphorylation of tau, and by which Memantine modulates PP2A signaling and inhibits neurofibrillary degeneration.

  3. [Preparation and activity validation of PP7 bacteriophage-like particles displaying PAP114-128 peptide].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanli; Sun, Yanhua

    2016-10-01

    Objective To obtain the PP7 bacteriophage-like particles carrying the peptide of prostatic acid phosphatase PAP114-128, and prove that they retain the original biological activity. Methods First, the plasmid pETDuet-2PP7 was constructed as follows: the gene of PP7 coat protein dimer was amplified by gene mutation combined with overlapping PCR technology, and inserted into the vector pETDuet-1. Following that, the plasmid pETDuet-2PP7-PAP114-128 was constructed as follows: the PP7 coat protein gene carrying the coding gene of PAP114-128 peptide was amplified using PCR, and then inserted into the vector pETDuet-2PP7. Both pETDuet-2PP7 and pETDuet-2PP7-PAP114-128 were transformed into E.coli and expressed. The expression product was verified by SDS-PAGE, double immunodiffusion assay and ELISA. Results The gene fragment of PP7 coat protein dimer was obtained by overlapping PCR using Ex Taq DNA polymerase, and the antigenicity of its expression product was the same as that of the coat protein of wild-type PP7 bacteriophage. Moreover, the PAP114-128 peptide epitope that was displayed on the surface of PP7 bacteriophage was identical with the corresponding epitope of natural human PAP, and it was able to induce high levels of antibodies. Conclusion The gene of PP7 coat protein dimer with repeated sequences can be prepared by gene mutation combined with overlapping PCR. Based on this, PP7 bacteriophage-like particles carrying PAP peptide can be prepared, which not only solves the problem of the instability of the peptides, but also lays a foundation for the study on their delivery and function.

  4. Investigating hadronic resonances in pp interactions with HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przygoda, Witold

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we report on the investigation of baryonic resonance production in proton-proton collisions at the kinetic energies of 1.25 GeV and 3.5 GeV, based on data measured with HADES. Exclusive channels npπ+ and ppπ0 as well as ppe+e- were studied simultaneously in the framework of a one-boson exchange model. The resonance cross sections were determined from the one-pion channels for Δ(1232) and N(1440) (1.25 GeV) as well as further Δ and N* resonances up to 2 GeV/c2 for the 3.5 GeV data. The data at 1.25 GeV energy were also analysed within the framework of the partial wave analysis together with the set of several other measurements at lower energies. The obtained solutions provided the evolution of resonance production with the beam energy, showing a sizeable non-resonant contribution but with still dominating contribution of Δ(1232)P33. In the case of 3.5 GeV data, the study of the ppe+e- channel gave the insight on the Dalitz decays of the baryon resonances and, in particular, on the electromagnetic transition form-factors in the time-like region. We show that the assumption of a constant electromagnetic transition form-factors leads to underestimation of the yield in the dielectron invariant mass spectrum below the vector mesons pole. On the other hand, a comparison with various transport models shows the important role of intermediate ρ production, though with a large model dependency. The exclusive channels analysis done by the HADES collaboration provides new stringent restrictions on the parameterizations used in the models.

  5. Dynamics of {sup 1}S{sub 0} diproton formation in the pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n and pN{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}{pi} reactions in the GeV region

    SciTech Connect

    Uzikov, Yu. N.; Haidenbauer, J.; Wilkin, C.

    2007-01-15

    Mechanisms for the production of {sup 1}S{sub 0} diproton pairs, {l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}, in the pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n reaction are studied at proton beam energies 0.5-2 GeV in kinematics similar to those of backward elastic pd scattering. This reaction provides valuable information on the short-range NN and pd interactions that is complementary to that investigated in the well-known pd{yields}dp and dp{yields}p(0{sup degree})X processes. The pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n reaction is related to the subprocesses {pi}{sup 0}d{yields}pn and pN{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}{pi} using two different one-pion-exchange (OPE) diagrams. Within both these models a reasonable agreement could be obtained with the data below 1 GeV. The similar energy dependence of the pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n and pd{yields}dp cross sections and the small ratio of about 1.5% in the production of {l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s} to deuteron final states follow naturally within the OPE models.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Yan; Fu, Mingjun; Yang, Keng; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a cellular serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating most cellular functions. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A (PmPP2A-A, PP2A-B and PP2A-C) were cloned from Penaeus monodon, which are the first available for shrimps. Sequence analysis showed that PmPP2A-A, PmPP2A-B and PmPP2A-C encoded polypeptides of 591, 443, and 324 amino acids, respectively. The mRNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A were expressed constitutively in all tissues examined, and predominantly in the ovaries. In ovarian maturation stages, the three subunits of PmPP2A were continuously but differentially expressed. Dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of three subunits of PmPP2A, and the results indicated that PmPP2A played a negative regulatory role in the process of ovarian maturation. In addition, the recombinant proteins of three subunits of PmPP2A were successfully obtained, and the phosphatase activity of PmPP2A was tested in vitro. The results of this study will advance our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of PmPP2A in Penaeus monodon.

  7. Overexpression of the PP2A-C5 gene confers increased salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongbin; Zhu, Yinfeng; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways in plants. PP2A is made of 3 subunits: a scaffolding subunit A, a regulatory subunit B, and a catalytic subunit C. It is believed that the B subunit recognizes specific substrates and the C subunit directly acts on the selected substrates, whereas the A subunit brings a B subunit and a C subunit together to form a specific PP2A holoenzyme. Because there are multiple isoforms for each PP2A subunit, there could be hundreds of novel PP2A holoenzymes in plants. For an example, there are 3 A subunits, 17 B subunits, and 5 C subunits in Arabidopsis, which could form 255 different PP2A holoenzymes. Understanding the roles of these PP2A holoenzymes in various signaling pathways is a challenging task. In a recent study,1 we discovered that PP2A-C5, the catalytic subunit 5 of PP2A, plays an important role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. We found that a knockout mutant of PP2A-C5 (i.e. pp2a-c5–1) was very sensitive to salt treatments, whereas PP2A-C5-overexpressing plants were more tolerant to salt stresses. Genetic analyses between pp2a-c5–1 and Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) mutants indicated that PP2A-C5 does not function in the same pathway as SOS genes. Using yeast 2-hybrid analysis, we found that PP2A-C5 interacts with several vacuolar membrane bound chloride channel proteins. We hypothesize that these vacuolar chloride channel proteins might be PP2A-C5's substrates in vivo, and the action of PP2A-C5 on these channel proteins could increase or activate their activities, thereby result in accumulation of the chloride and sodium contents in vacuoles, leading to increased salt tolerance in plants. PMID:28045581

  8. Sphingosine analogue drug FTY720 targets I2PP2A/SET and mediates lung tumour suppression via activation of PP2A-RIPK1-dependent necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Saddoughi, Sahar A; Gencer, Salih; Peterson, Yuri K; Ward, Katherine E; Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Oaks, Joshua; Bielawski, Jacek; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Thomas, Raquela J; Selvam, Shanmugam P; Senkal, Can E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; De Palma, Ryan M; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Liu, Angen; Habib, Amyn A; Stahelin, Robert V; Perrotti, Danilo; Ogretmen, Besim

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms that alter protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent lung tumour suppression via the I2PP2A/SET oncoprotein are unknown. We show here that the tumour suppressor ceramide binds I2PP2A/SET selectively in the nucleus and including its K209 and Y122 residues as determined by molecular modelling/simulations and site-directed mutagenesis. Because I2PP2A/SET was found overexpressed, whereas ceramide was downregulated in lung tumours, a sphingolipid analogue drug, FTY720, was identified to mimick ceramide for binding and targeting I2PP2A/SET, leading to PP2A reactivation, lung cancer cell death, and tumour suppression in vivo. Accordingly, while molecular targeting of I2PP2A/SET by stable knockdown prevented further tumour suppression by FTY720, reconstitution of WT-I2PP2A/SET expression restored this process. Mechanistically, targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 mediated PP2A/RIPK1-dependent programmed necrosis (necroptosis), but not by apoptosis. The RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin and knockdown or genetic loss of RIPK1 prevented growth inhibition by FTY720. Expression of WT- or death-domain-deleted (DDD)-RIPK1, but not the kinase-domain-deleted (KDD)-RIPK1, restored FTY720-mediated necroptosis in RIPK1(-/-) MEFs. Thus, these data suggest that targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 suppresses lung tumour growth, at least in part, via PP2A activation and necroptosis mediated by the kinase domain of RIPK1. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  9. Sphingosine analogue drug FTY720 targets I2PP2A/SET and mediates lung tumour suppression via activation of PP2A-RIPK1-dependent necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Saddoughi, Sahar A; Gencer, Salih; Peterson, Yuri K; Ward, Katherine E; Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Oaks, Joshua; Bielawski, Jacek; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Thomas, Raquela J; Selvam, Shanmugam P; Senkal, Can E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; De Palma, Ryan M; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Liu, Angen; Habib, Amyn A; Stahelin, Robert V; Perrotti, Danilo; Ogretmen, Besim

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms that alter protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent lung tumour suppression via the I2PP2A/SET oncoprotein are unknown. We show here that the tumour suppressor ceramide binds I2PP2A/SET selectively in the nucleus and including its K209 and Y122 residues as determined by molecular modelling/simulations and site-directed mutagenesis. Because I2PP2A/SET was found overexpressed, whereas ceramide was downregulated in lung tumours, a sphingolipid analogue drug, FTY720, was identified to mimick ceramide for binding and targeting I2PP2A/SET, leading to PP2A reactivation, lung cancer cell death, and tumour suppression in vivo. Accordingly, while molecular targeting of I2PP2A/SET by stable knockdown prevented further tumour suppression by FTY720, reconstitution of WT-I2PP2A/SET expression restored this process. Mechanistically, targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 mediated PP2A/RIPK1-dependent programmed necrosis (necroptosis), but not by apoptosis. The RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin and knockdown or genetic loss of RIPK1 prevented growth inhibition by FTY720. Expression of WT- or death-domain-deleted (DDD)-RIPK1, but not the kinase-domain-deleted (KDD)-RIPK1, restored FTY720-mediated necroptosis in RIPK1−/− MEFs. Thus, these data suggest that targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 suppresses lung tumour growth, at least in part, via PP2A activation and necroptosis mediated by the kinase domain of RIPK1. PMID:23180565

  10. Site Specificity of Cleavage of DSP-PP by BMP1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Robert T.; Lim, Glendale L.; Yee, Colin T.; Fuller, Robert S.; Ritchie, Helena H.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4′ (i.e., the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1′P2′P3′P4′) sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e., xMQx | DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP,. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their affects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4′ sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4′ cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site. PMID:25158199

  11. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  12. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  13. Joint Use of PP and PS AVOA Data to Estimate Fluid Indicator in Vertically Fractured Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, B.; Sen, M. K.; Gu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of fractures induces anisotropy in medium. This anisotropy might be a comprehensive result of fractures' properties, such as the direction, spacing, apertures, intensity, microstructure, fluid infill, and so on. Among these properties, the preferential orientation of fracture networks makes the medium azimuthally anisotropic with respect to seismic wave propagation. To the medium containing a set of vertical fractures, the tangential weakness does not vary with the fluid content, however on which the normal weakness shows great dependence. Based on the theory of linear slip model and the sensitivity to fracture weakness of PP- and PS-reflection coefficients which can be derived by a Born formula, we did both the PP-AVOA and PS-AVOA numerical experiment and also the joint inversion of fluid indicator. Results show that when the fractures have low saturation of gas, the fluid indicator estimated from PP-AVOA data is precise enough; when gas saturation goes up to 70%, joint inversion can help to improve the poor quality of PP-AVOA data inversion. Under high gas-saturated case, both PP inversion and joint inversion are sensitive to the errors in g, where g is the square of the ratio of S- and P- wave velocity in the unfractured medium. This dependency can be reduced by adding a different weight to PP and PS data during the inversion.Based on the result of numerical experiment, we processed field data in Sichuan Basin in China. The inversion result is consistent with the well interpretation. The first column in figure represents the PP- and PS-reflectivity computed by matrix method(Fryer and Frazer,1984). The second column is the result of Born linearized method. In the last column, upper one shows the estimated fluid indicator in different gas saturation case and the below one consider the effect of error in g on the inversion results.

  14. The effect of deleting residue C269 in the β12-β13 loop of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)catalytic subunit on the interaction between PP2A and metal ions, especially Mn(2+).

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hao; Wei, Qun

    2011-12-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most important Ser/Thr phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. The enzymatic core of PP2A (PP2A(D)) consists of a scaffold subunit (A subunit) and a catalytic subunit (C subunit). When residue Cys269 in the β12-β13 loop of the PP2A C subunit was deleted (ΔC269), the activity and the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of PP2A(D) decreased. Specify the effects of some metal ions on PP2A(D) were also changed. Mn(2+) in particular was an efficient activator of ΔC269 and altered the intrinsic fluorescence spectrum of ΔC269. Remarkably, after pre-treatment of ΔC269 with Mn(2+), the effects of other metal ions showed the same trends as they had on the WT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that deletion of Cys269 decreased the polarity of the β12-β13 loop of PP2A Cα. We conclude that deletion of residue Cys269 alters the conformation and activity of PP2A(D) and influences the interaction between PP2A and various metal ions, notably Mn(2+). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  16. A PP6-Type Phosphatase Holoenzyme Directly Regulates PIN Phosphorylation and Auxin Efflux in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhang, Chen; Kania, Urszula; Chen, Fang; Xue, Qin; Mccray, Tyra; Li, Gang; Qin, Genji; Wakeley, Michelle; Terzaghi, William; Wan, Jianmin; Zhao, Yunde; Xu, Jian; Friml, Jiří; Deng, Xing Wang; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin depends on the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins. While PINIOD (PID) kinase is directly involved in the phosphorylation of PIN proteins, the phosphatase holoenzyme complexes that dephosphorylate PIN proteins remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mutations simultaneously disrupting the function of Arabidopsis thaliana FyPP1 (for Phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase1) and FyPP3, two homologous genes encoding the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase6 (PP6), cause elevated accumulation of phosphorylated PIN proteins, correlating with a basal-to-apical shift in subcellular PIN localization. The changes in PIN polarity result in increased root basipetal auxin transport and severe defects, including shorter roots, fewer lateral roots, defective columella cells, root meristem collapse, abnormal cotyledons (small, cup-shaped, or fused cotyledons), and altered leaf venation. Our molecular, biochemical, and genetic data support the notion that FyPP1/3, SAL (for SAPS DOMAIN-LIKE), and PP2AA proteins (RCN1 [for ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1] or PP2AA1, PP2AA2, and PP2AA3) physically interact to form a novel PP6-type heterotrimeric holoenzyme complex. We also show that FyPP1/3, SAL, and PP2AA interact with a subset of PIN proteins and that for SAL the strength of the interaction depends on the PIN phosphorylation status. Thus, an Arabidopsis PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme acts antagonistically with PID to direct auxin transport polarity and plant development by directly regulating PIN phosphorylation. PMID:22715043

  17. Mechanism of PP2A-mediated IKKβ dephosphorylation: a systems biological approach

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Johannes; Barisic, Sandra; Schumann, Eva; Allgöwer, Frank; Sawodny, Oliver; Sauter, Thomas; Kulms, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Biological effects of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) can differ tremendously depending on the cellular context. For example, NFκB induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) is converted from an inhibitor of death receptor induced apoptosis into a promoter of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB)-induced apoptosis. This conversion requires prolonged NFκB activation and is facilitated by IL-1 + UVB-induced abrogation of the negative feedback loop for NFκB, involving a lack of inhibitor of κB (IκBα) protein reappearance. Permanent activation of the upstream kinase IKKβ results from UVB-induced inhibition of the catalytic subunit of Ser-Thr phosphatase PP2A (PP2Ac), leading to immediate phosphorylation and degradation of newly synthesized IκBα. Results To investigate the mechanism underlying the general PP2A-mediated tuning of IKKβ phosphorylation upon IL-1 stimulation, we have developed a strictly reduced mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations which includes the essential processes concerning the IL-1 receptor, IKKβ and PP2A. Combining experimental and modelling approaches we demonstrate that constitutively active, but not post-stimulation activated PP2A, tunes out IKKβ phosphorylation thus allowing for IκBα resynthesis in response to IL-1. Identifiability analysis and determination of confidence intervals reveal that the model allows reliable predictions regarding the dynamics of PP2A deactivation and IKKβ phosphorylation. Additionally, scenario analysis is used to scrutinize several hypotheses regarding the mode of UVB-induced PP2Ac inhibition. The model suggests that down regulation of PP2Ac activity, which results in prevention of IκBα reappearance, is not a direct UVB action but requires instrumentality. Conclusion The model developed here can be used as a reliable building block of larger NFκB models and offers comprehensive simplification potential for future modeling of NFκB signaling. It gives more insight into the newly discovered

  18. Preparation of EPR/silica filler by a co-irradiation method forming PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Dang, Shuaiying; Huang, Zhijuan; Xu, Yongshen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to prepare ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR)/silica filler by co-irradiation method forming polypropylene (PP)/EPR/silica nanocomposites. The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on EPR was first studied by co-irradiation in the micro-suspension without any chemical initiator, and the effects of MAH concentration and the total co-irradiation dose on the graft degree of MAH were investigated. Then PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites were successfully prepared by blending of PP matrix and EPR/silica filler, which was obtained by co-irradiation using a mixture of EPR/MAH microsuspension in xylene and tetraethoxysilane/KH560 sol in formic acid. FTIR and SEM results showed that the reactions between MAH on EPR chains and KH560 surrounding silica particles were adopted to form the EPR/silica filler with strong bonding and well silica dispersion. Mechanical properties of PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with different silica contents and the comparisons with PP, PP/EPR and PP/silica films were studied. The rigid silica particles were trapped in EPR shell and well dispersed in PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with good compatibility and strong interfacial adhesion, achieving overall improvements in stiffness, strength and toughness compared with pure PP.

  19. Fabrication of PP-g-PEGMA-g-heparin and its hemocompatibility: From protein adsorption to anticoagulant tendency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; shi, Qiang; Zhao, Jie; Yin, Jinghua; Stagnaro, Paola

    2012-05-01

    We described a two-step process to fabricate the heparinized polypropylene (PP) film using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a trifunctional reagent and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as a spacer. The modified PP films were characterized by attenuated total reflectance FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; the content of PEGMA and heparin were determined by gravimetric method and a toluidine blue assay, respectively. For the PP-g-PEGMA films, it was found that small size protein BSA tended to adsorb on the surface of low molecular weight monomer grafted PP, whereas big spindle-shaped fibrinogen tended to adsorb on the surface of high molecular weight monomer grafted PP. We gave a definition of anti-protein adsorptive factor r with two model proteins, albumin and fibrinogen. The results by platelet adhesion and plasma recalcification time (PRT) experiments indicated that the factor r could be used to quantitatively evaluate the anticoagulant tendency of PP-g-PEGMA modified films. For the PP-g-PEGMA-g-heparin modified films, the surface was proved to have a high bioactivity by the adsorption of AT III assay and very low platelet adhesion. It indicated that immobilization of heparin on the PP film with PEGMA as a spacer was an effective way to improve the hemocompatibility of PP.

  20. Identified particle production in pp collisions at = 7 and 13 TeV measured with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Proton-proton (pp) collisions have been used extensively as a reference for the study of interactions of larger colliding systems at the LHC. Recent measurements performed in high-multiplicity pp and proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions have shown features that are reminiscent of those observed in lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions. In this context, the study of identified particle spectra and yields as a function of multiplicity is a key tool for the understanding of similarities and differences between small and large systems. We report on the production of pions, kaons, protons, , Λ, Ξ, Ω and K *0 as a function of multiplicity in pp collisions at = 7 TeV measured with the ALICE experiment. The work presented here represents the most comprehensive set of results on identified particle production in pp collisions at the LHC. Spectral shapes, studied both for individual particles and via particle ratios as a function of p T, exhibit an evolution with charged particle multiplicity that is similar to the one observed in larger systems. In addition, results on the production of light flavour hadrons in pp collisions at = 13 TeV, the highest centre-of-mass energy ever reached in the laboratory, are also presented and compared with previous, lower energy results.

  1. Dual Regulation of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) by PP2A-Cdc55 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Baro, Barbara; Hernáez, María Luisa; Gil, Concha; Queralt, Ethel

    2013-01-01

    Exit from mitosis in budding yeast is triggered by activation of the key mitotic phosphatase Cdc14. At anaphase onset, the protease separase and Zds1 promote the downregulation of PP2ACdc55 phosphatase, which facilitates Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Net1 and provides the first wave of Cdc14 activity. Once Cdk1 activity starts to decline, the mitotic exit network (MEN) is activated to achieve full Cdc14 activation. Here we describe how the PP2ACdc55 phosphatase could act as a functional link between FEAR and MEN due to its action on Bfa1 and Mob1. We demonstrate that PP2ACdc55 regulates MEN activation by facilitating Cdc5- and Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Bfa1 and Mob1, respectively. Downregulation of PP2ACdc55 initiates MEN activity up to Cdc15 by Bfa1 inactivation. Surprisingly, the premature Bfa1 inactivation observed does not entail premature MEN activation, since an additional Cdk1-Clb2 inhibitory signal acting towards Dbf2-Mob1 activity restrains MEN activity until anaphase. In conclusion, we propose a clear picture of how PP2ACdc55 functions affect the regulation of various MEN components, contributing to mitotic exit. PMID:24339788

  2. Cationic bactericidal peptide 1018 does not specifically target the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Liis; Tenson, Tanel; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial stringent response is a key regulator of bacterial virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance, and is a promising target for the development of new antibacterial compounds. The intracellular nucleotide (p)ppGpp acts as a messenger orchestrating the stringent response. A synthetic peptide 1018 was recently proposed to specifically disrupt biofilms by inhibiting the stringent response via direct interaction with (p)ppGpp (de la Fuente-Núñez et al. (2014) PLoS Pathogens). We have interrogated the specificity of the proposed molecular mechanism. When inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic and biofilm growth is tested simultaneously in the same assay, peptides 1018 and the control peptide 8101 generated by an inversion of the amino acid sequence of 1018 are equally potent, and, importantly, do not display a preferential activity against biofilm. 1018 inhibits planktonic growth of Escherichia coli equally efficiently either when the alleged target, (p)ppGpp, is essential (MOPS media lacking amino acid L-valine), or dispensable for growth (MOPS media supplemented with L-valine). Genetic disruption of the genes relA and spoT responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis moderately sensitizes – rather than protects – E. coli to 1018. We suggest that the antimicrobial activity of 1018 does not rely on specific recognition of the stringent response messenger (p)ppGpp. PMID:27819280

  3. {lambda}{sup 0} Polarization in Exclusive pp Reactions From the FNAL e690 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, J.; Berisso, M. C.; Christian, D. C.; Gottschalk, E. E.; Gutierrez, G.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wehmann, A.; Gara, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knapp, B. C.; Kreisler, M. N.; Lee, S.; Markianos, K.; Moreno, G.; Reyes, M. A.; Wesson, D.

    2009-04-20

    It is an experimental evidence that all baryons are created polarized from unpolarized p-nucleus collisions. So far, the origin of this polarization remains unexplained in spite of the experimental evidences accumulated in the past thirty years. Up to these days, {lambda}{sup 0} is the most studied baryon for polarization, for it is copiously produced in p--nucleus collisions at the energies of the principal high energy physics accelerators of the world. This paper is an overview of the experimental evidences accumulated on the polarization of {lambda}{sup 0} from unpolarized exclusive pp collisions as function of x{sub F}, P{sub T}, and M({lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +}) in the past fifteen years inside Fermilab e690 experiment, in the particular reactions pp{yields}p{lambda}{sup 0}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}, pp{yields}pp{lambda}{sup 0}{lambda}{sup -0}, pp{yields}p{lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +}, produced at 800 GeV.

  4. PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Samuel; Fey, Dirk; McCloy, Rachael A; Parker, Benjamin L; Mitchell, Nicholas J; Payne, Richard J; Daly, Roger J; James, David E; Caldon, C Elizabeth; Watkins, D Neil; Croucher, David R; Burgess, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Entry into mitosis is driven by the phosphorylation of thousands of substrates, under the master control of Cdk1. During entry into mitosis, Cdk1, in collaboration with MASTL kinase, represses the activity of the major mitotic protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thereby ensuring mitotic substrates remain phosphorylated. For cells to complete and exit mitosis, these phosphorylation events must be removed, and hence, phosphatase activity must be reactivated. This reactivation of phosphatase activity presumably requires the inhibition of MASTL; however, it is not currently understood what deactivates MASTL and how this is achieved. In this study, we identified that PP1 is associated with, and capable of partially dephosphorylating and deactivating, MASTL during mitotic exit. Using mathematical modelling, we were able to confirm that deactivation of MASTL is essential for mitotic exit. Furthermore, small decreases in Cdk1 activity during metaphase are sufficient to initiate the reactivation of PP1, which in turn partially deactivates MASTL to release inhibition of PP2A and, hence, create a feedback loop. This feedback loop drives complete deactivation of MASTL, ensuring a strong switch-like activation of phosphatase activity during mitotic exit. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Samuel; Fey, Dirk; McCloy, Rachael A.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Payne, Richard J.; Daly, Roger J.; James, David E.; Caldon, C. Elizabeth; Watkins, D. Neil; Croucher, David R.; Burgess, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entry into mitosis is driven by the phosphorylation of thousands of substrates, under the master control of Cdk1. During entry into mitosis, Cdk1, in collaboration with MASTL kinase, represses the activity of the major mitotic protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thereby ensuring mitotic substrates remain phosphorylated. For cells to complete and exit mitosis, these phosphorylation events must be removed, and hence, phosphatase activity must be reactivated. This reactivation of phosphatase activity presumably requires the inhibition of MASTL; however, it is not currently understood what deactivates MASTL and how this is achieved. In this study, we identified that PP1 is associated with, and capable of partially dephosphorylating and deactivating, MASTL during mitotic exit. Using mathematical modelling, we were able to confirm that deactivation of MASTL is essential for mitotic exit. Furthermore, small decreases in Cdk1 activity during metaphase are sufficient to initiate the reactivation of PP1, which in turn partially deactivates MASTL to release inhibition of PP2A and, hence, create a feedback loop. This feedback loop drives complete deactivation of MASTL, ensuring a strong switch-like activation of phosphatase activity during mitotic exit. PMID:26872783

  6. Near-threshold ω and φ meson productions in pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, K.; Nakayama, K.

    2003-09-01

    Using a relativistic effective Lagrangian at the hadronic level, near-threshold ω- and φ-meson productions in proton-proton (pp) collisions, pp→ppω/φ, are studied within the distorted wave Born approximation. Both initial and final state pp interactions are included. In addition to total cross section data, both ω and φ angular distribution data are used to constrain further the model parameters. For the pp→ppω reaction, we consider two different possibilities: with and without the inclusion of nucleon resonances. The nucleon resonances are included in a way to be consistent with the π-p→ωn reaction. It is shown that the inclusion of nucleon resonances can describe the data better overall than without their inclusion. However, the SATURNE data in the range of excess energies Q<31 MeV are still underestimated by about a factor of 2. As for the pp→ppφ reaction, it is found that the presently limited available data from DISTO can be reproduced by four sets of values for the vector and tensor φNN coupling constants. Further measurements of the energy dependence of the total cross section near threshold energies should help to constrain better the φNN coupling constant.

  7. PP2A phosphatase acts upon SAS-5 to ensure centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Flückiger, Isabelle; Polanowska, Jolanta; Keller, Debora; Reboul, Jérôme; Gönczy, Pierre

    2011-04-19

    Centrosome duplication occurs once per cell cycle and ensures that the two resulting centrosomes assemble a bipolar mitotic spindle. Centriole formation is fundamental for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the evolutionarily conserved proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but how they function is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is also critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos. We find that PP2A subunits genetically and physically interact with the SAS-5/SAS-6 complex. Furthermore, we show that PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation promotes centriolar targeting of SAS-5 and ensures SAS-6 delivery to the site of centriole assembly. We find that PP2A is similarly needed for the presence of HsSAS-6 at centrioles and for centriole formation in human cells. These findings lead us to propose that PP2A-mediated loading of SAS-6 proteins is critical at the onset of centriole formation.

  8. Sperm development and motility are regulated by PP1 phosphatases in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-ching; Go, Aiza C; Samson, Mark; Cintra, Thais; Mirsoian, Susan; Wu, Tammy F; Jow, Margaret M; Routman, Eric J; Chu, Diana S

    2012-01-01

    Sperm from different species have evolved distinctive motility structures, including tubulin-based flagella in mammals and major sperm protein (MSP)-based pseudopods in nematodes. Despite such divergence, we show that sperm-specific PP1 phosphatases, which are required for male fertility in mouse, function in multiple processes in the development and motility of Caenorhabditis elegans amoeboid sperm. We used live-imaging analysis to show the PP1 phosphatases GSP-3 and GSP-4 (GSP-3/4) are required to partition chromosomes during sperm meiosis. Postmeiosis, tracking fluorescently labeled sperm revealed that both male and hermaphrodite sperm lacking GSP-3/4 are immotile. Genetic and in vitro activation assays show lack of GSP-3/4 causes defects in pseudopod development and the rate of pseudopodial treadmilling. Further, GSP-3/4 are required for the localization dynamics of MSP. GSP-3/4 shift localization in concert with MSP from fibrous bodies that sequester MSP at the base of the pseudopod, where directed MSP disassembly facilitates pseudopod contraction. Consistent with a role for GSP-3/4 as a spatial regulator of MSP disassembly, MSP is mislocalized in sperm lacking GSP-3/4. Although a requirement for PP1 phosphatases in nematode and mammalian sperm suggests evolutionary conservation, we show PP1s have independently evolved sperm-specific paralogs in separate lineages. Thus PP1 phosphatases are highly adaptable and employed across a broad range of sexually reproducing species to regulate male fertility.

  9. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Attenuates Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of PP2A Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui-Cui; Kuai, Xue-Xian; Li, Ya-Li; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on tau hyperphosphorylation induced by wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were preincubated with CIG (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml, resp.) for 24 h and then exposed to 10 µM WT and 10 µM GFX for 3 h after washing out CIG. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cultured cells. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation level of tau protein, glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3 β ), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The activity of PP2A was detected by a biochemical assay. Results. Preincubation of CIG significantly attenuated the WT/GFX-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Thr217, Ser396, and PHF-1 and improved the damage of morphology and microtubular cytoskeleton of the cells. CIG did not prevent the decrease in p-AKT-ser473 and p-GSK-3 β -ser9 induced by WT/GFX. However, CIG significantly elevated the activity of PP2A by reducing the demethylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) at Leu309 and the ratio of PME-1/LCMT in the WT/GFX-treated cells. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to the treatment of AD.

  10. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Attenuates Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of PP2A Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui-cui; Kuai, Xue-xian; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jian-chun; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on tau hyperphosphorylation induced by wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were preincubated with CIG (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml, resp.) for 24 h and then exposed to 10 µM WT and 10 µM GFX for 3 h after washing out CIG. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cultured cells. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation level of tau protein, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The activity of PP2A was detected by a biochemical assay. Results. Preincubation of CIG significantly attenuated the WT/GFX-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Thr217, Ser396, and PHF-1 and improved the damage of morphology and microtubular cytoskeleton of the cells. CIG did not prevent the decrease in p-AKT-ser473 and p-GSK-3β-ser9 induced by WT/GFX. However, CIG significantly elevated the activity of PP2A by reducing the demethylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) at Leu309 and the ratio of PME-1/LCMT in the WT/GFX-treated cells. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to the treatment of AD. PMID:24454482

  11. The therapeutic effects of SET/I2PP2A inhibitors on canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Enjoji, Shuhei; Yabe, Ryotaro; Fujiwara, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Shunya; Vitek, Michael P; Mizuno, Takuya; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Usui, Tatsuya; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Canine melanoma is one of the most important diseases in small animal medicine. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well conserved serine/threonine phosphatase, plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor. SET/I2PP2A is an endogenous inhibitor for PP2A, which directly binds to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Elevated SET protein levels have been reported to exacerbate human tumor progression. The role of SET in canine melanoma, however, has not been understood. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic role for SET inhibitors in canine melanoma. The expression of SET protein was observed in 6 canine melanoma cell lines. We used CMeC-1 cells (primary origin) and CMeC-2 cells (metastatic origin) to generate cell lines stably expressing SET-targeting shRNAs. Knockdown of SET expression in CMeC-2, but not in CMeC-1, leads to decreased cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Phosphorylation level of p70 S6 kinase was decreased by SET knockdown in CMeC-2, suggesting the involvement of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70 S6 kinase signaling. The SET inhibitors, OP449 and FTY720, more effectively killed CMeC-2 than CMeC-1. We observed PP2A activation in CMeC-2 treated with OP449 and FTY720. These results demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET inhibitors for canine melanoma.

  12. The therapeutic effects of SET/I2PP2A inhibitors on canine melanoma

    PubMed Central

    ENJOJI, Shuhei; YABE, Ryotaro; FUJIWARA, Nobuyuki; TSUJI, Shunya; VITEK, Michael P.; MIZUNO, Takuya; NAKAGAWA, Takayuki; USUI, Tatsuya; OHAMA, Takashi; SATO, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Canine melanoma is one of the most important diseases in small animal medicine. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well conserved serine/threonine phosphatase, plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor. SET/I2PP2A is an endogenous inhibitor for PP2A, which directly binds to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Elevated SET protein levels have been reported to exacerbate human tumor progression. The role of SET in canine melanoma, however, has not been understood. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic role for SET inhibitors in canine melanoma. The expression of SET protein was observed in 6 canine melanoma cell lines. We used CMeC-1 cells (primary origin) and CMeC-2 cells (metastatic origin) to generate cell lines stably expressing SET-targeting shRNAs. Knockdown of SET expression in CMeC-2, but not in CMeC-1, leads to decreased cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Phosphorylation level of p70 S6 kinase was decreased by SET knockdown in CMeC-2, suggesting the involvement of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70 S6 kinase signaling. The SET inhibitors, OP449 and FTY720, more effectively killed CMeC-2 than CMeC-1. We observed PP2A activation in CMeC-2 treated with OP449 and FTY720. These results demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET inhibitors for canine melanoma. PMID:26062569

  13. Phosphorylation of PP1 Regulator Sds22 by PLK1 Ensures Accurate Chromosome Segregation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hequan; Wang, Chunli; Wang, Ming; Gao, Xinjiao; Yan, Maomao; Akram, Saima; Peng, Wei; Zou, Hanfa; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Jiajia; Chu, Youjun; Dou, Zhen; Barrett, Gregory; Green, Hadiyah-Nichole; Wang, Fangjun; Tian, Ruijun; He, Ping; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2016-09-30

    During cell division, accurate chromosome segregation is tightly regulated by Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and opposing activities of Aurora B kinase and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the aforementioned hierarchical signaling cascade during mitotic chromosome segregation have remained elusive. Sds22 is a conserved regulator of PP1 activity, but how it regulates PP1 activity in space and time during mitosis remains elusive. Here we show that Sds22 is a novel and cognate substrate of PLK1 in mitosis, and the phosphorylation of Sds22 by PLK1 elicited an inhibition of PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of Aurora B at threonine 232 (Thr(232)) in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of a phosphomimetic mutant of Sds22 causes a dramatic increase in mitotic delay, whereas overexpression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant of Sds22 results in mitotic arrest. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation of Sds22 by PLK1 strengthens the binding of Sds22 to PP1 and inhibits the dephosphorylation of Thr(232) of Aurora B to ensure a robust, error-free metaphase-anaphase transition. These findings delineate a conserved signaling hierarchy that orchestrates dynamic protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of critical mitotic regulators during chromosome segregation to guard chromosome stability.

  14. PP6 controls T cell development and homeostasis by negatively regulating distal TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Shi, Hao; Shen, Ye; Peng, Chao; Liu, Yan; Li, Chenyu; Deng, Kejing; Geng, Jianguo; Xu, Tian; Zhuang, Yuan; Zheng, Biao; Tao, Wufan

    2015-02-15

    T cell development and homeostasis are both regulated by TCR signals. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, serve as important switches controlling multiple downstream pathways triggered by TCR recognition of Ags. It has been well documented that protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in negative regulation of proximal TCR signaling. However, how TCR signals are terminated or attenuated in the distal TCR signaling pathways is largely unknown. We investigated the function of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP) 6 in TCR signaling. T cell lineage-specific ablation of PP6 in mice resulted in enhanced thymic positive and negative selection, and preferential expansion of fetal-derived, IL-17-producing Vγ6Vδ1(+) T cells. Both PP6-deficient peripheral CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytolytic cells could not maintain a naive state and became fast-proliferating and short-lived effector cells. PP6 deficiency led to profound hyperactivation of multiple distal TCR signaling molecules, including MAPKs, AKT, and NF-κB. Our studies demonstrate that PP6 acts as a critical negative regulator, not only controlling both αβ and γδ lineage development, but also maintaining naive T cell homeostasis by preventing their premature activation before Ag stimulation.

  15. Release property and antioxidant effectiveness of tocopherol-incorporated LDPE/PP blend films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Lee, D S; Yam, K L

    2012-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polypropylene (PP) blend films in various blending ratios containing 3000 mg  kg⁻¹ of tocopherol were manufactured by an extrusion process. Tocopherol release properties were characterised and correlated with antioxidant effectiveness in retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid contacting the films at 40°C. The conditions without tocopherol (control) and with instant tocopherol addition corresponding to the amount included in the films were also prepared and compared with the film-contacting solutions. The effect of tocopherol inclusion and the blending ratio on their physical properties was also examined. A wide range of tocopherol diffusivity in 6.6 × 10⁻¹⁶-4.6 × 10⁻¹⁴m² s⁻¹ were obtained by blend films. As PP content increases, the diffusivity decreased sharply at the beginning and levelled off later. The slower release of tocopherol in LDPE/PP blend films corresponding to lower tocopherol diffusivity retained the higher tocopherol concentration in the linoleic acid system providing better antioxidant effectiveness of the extended induction period in oxidation. The tocopherol inclusion reduced tensile strength and transparency significantly in an affordable range with higher tensile strength given by a higher PP ratio. LDPE/PP blending can be a useful tool to modulate the release profile of tocopherol and thus the antioxidant effectiveness of the tocopherol-incorporated antioxidant packaging film.

  16. PpAtg30 Tags Peroxisomes for Turnover by Selective Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Manjithaya, Ravi; Mathewson, Richard D.; Subramani, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Summary Autophagy, an intrinsically nonselective process, can also target selective cargo for degradation. The mechanism of selective peroxisome turnover by autophagy-related processes (pexophagy), termed micropexophagy and macropexophagy,is unknown. We show how a Pichia pastoris protein, PpAtg30, mediates peroxisome selection during pexophagy. It is necessary for pexophagy, but not for other selective and nonselective autophagy-related processes. It localizes at the peroxisome membrane via interaction with peroxins, and during pexophagy it colocalizes transiently at the preautophagosomal structure (PAS) and interacts with the autophagy machinery. PpAtg30 is required for formation of pexophagy intermediates, such as the micropexophagy apparatus (MIPA) and the pexophagosome (Ppg). During pexophagy, PpAtg30 undergoes multiple phosphorylations, at least one of which is required for pexophagy. PpAtg30 overexpression stimulates pexophagy even under peroxisome-induction conditions, impairing peroxisome biogenesis. Therefore, PpAtg30 is a key player in the selection of peroxisomes as cargo and in their delivery to the autophagy machinery for pexophagy. PMID:18331717

  17. Effects of mixing protocol and mixing time on viscoelasticity of compatibilized PP/PS blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehiyan, Reza; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Jun Hyup; Hyun, Kyu

    2014-08-01

    Linear and non-linear viscoelastic properties of Polypropylene (PP)/Polystyrene (PS) blends with organoclay (C20A) as a compatibilizer were investigated using dynamic oscillatory measurement, i.e., small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) tests. Four different mixing protocols were applied to probe the effect of mixing sequence on rheological properties. Moreover, each protocol was conducted at three mixing times, i.e., 1, 3, and 8 min, to investigate the effect of mixing time on final rheological properties. Final results revealed that mixing time had no significant effect on either the viscoelastic response of the simultaneously mixed blends or the PP+C20A/PS (PP and C20A mixed for 30 seconds and then PS added) blend. On the other hand, rheological properties of the PS+C20A/PP (PS and C20A mixed for 30 seconds and then PP added) blend significantly increased upon 1 min of total mixing time, whereas 3 and 8 min of mixing demonstrated almost the same results as their other blended counterparts. TEM pictures revealed migration of C20A particles from PS phase towards the interface with increasing mixing time.

  18. Possible Implication of a Single Nonextensive p_T Distribution for Hadron Production in High-Energy pp Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-01-01

    Multiparticle production processes in $pp$ collisions at the central rapidity region are usually considered to be divided into independent "soft" and "hard" components. The first is described by exponential (thermal-like) transverse momentum spectra in the low-$p_T$ region with a scale parameter $T$ associated with the temperature of the hadronizing system. The second is governed by a power-like distributions of transverse momenta with power index $n$ at high-$p_T$ associated with the hard scattering between partons. We show that the hard-scattering integral can be approximated as a nonextensive distribution of a quasi-power-law containing a scale parameter $T$ and a power index $n=1/(q -1)$, where $q$ is the nonextensivity parameter. We demonstrate that the whole region of transverse momenta presently measurable at LHC experiments at central rapidity (in which the observed cross sections varies by $14$ orders of magnitude down to the low $p_T$ region) can be adequately described by a single nonextensive distribution. These results suggest the dominance of the hard-scattering hadron-production process and the approximate validity of a ``no-hair" statistical-mechanical description of the $p_T$ spectra for the whole $p_T$ region at central rapidity for $pp$ collisions at high-energies.

  19. Possible Implication of a Single Nonextensive p(T) Distribution for Hadron Production in High-Energy pp Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-01-01

    Multiparticle production processes in pp collisions at the central rapidity region are usually considered to be divided into independent "soft" and "hard" components. The first is described by exponential (thermal-like) transverse momentum spectra in the low-p(T) region with a scale parameter T associated with the temperature of the hadronizing system. The second is governed by a power-like distributions of transverse momenta with power index n at high-p(T) associated with the hard scattering between partons. We show that the hard-scattering integral can be approximated as a nonextensive distribution of a quasi-power-law containing a scale parameter T and a power index n =1/(q-1), where q is the nonextensivity parameter. We demonstrate that the whole region of transverse momenta presently measurable at LHC experiments at central rapidity (in which the observed cross sections varies by 14 orders of magnitude down to the low p(T) region) can be adequately described by a single nonextensive distribution. These results suggest the dominance of the hard-scattering hadron-production process and the approximate validity of a "no-hair" statistical-mechanical description of the p(T) spectra for the whole p(T) region at central rapidity for pp collisions at high-energies.

  20. Quantitative comparison of measurement methods for the evaluation of micro- and nanostructures written with 2PP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnisch, Emely Marie; König, Niels; Schmitt, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) has become an established process for fabricating individual micro-and nanostructures nearly in the last two decades. Its high degree of freedom opened up novel possibilities for a large range of applications like functional structures for cell growth, photonic crystals, nanoantennas, diffractive optical elements and lab-on-a-chip structures (just to name a few). Since the measurement of structures written with 2PP is always very time consuming, we present a comparison between white light interferometry (WLI) and confocal microscopy (CM) which were used for measuring structures written with 2PP. By performing a GageRR analysis with both metrology devices, we calculated the process tolerance one has to accept when measuring these structures with WLI or CM.

  1. Completeness of general pp-wave spacetimes and their impulsive limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland; Švarc, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We investigate geodesic completeness in the full family of pp-wave (or Brinkmann) spacetimes in their extended and impulsive forms. This class of geometries contains the recently studied gyratonic pp-waves, modelling the exterior field of a spinning beam of null particles, as well as N-fronted waves with parallel rays, which generalize classical pp-waves by allowing for a general wave surface. The problem of geodesic completeness reduces to the question of completeness of trajectories on a Riemannian manifold under an external force field. Building upon respective recent results, we derive completeness criteria in terms of the spatial asymptotics of the profile function in the extended case. In the impulsive case, we use a fixed-point argument to show that, irrespective of the behaviour of the profile function, all geometries in the class are complete.

  2. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors. Based on biochemical data and our previously determined crystal structures of ABI2 and the SnRK2.6-HAB1 complex, we present the catalytic mechanism of PP2C and provide new insight into PP2C-SnRK2 interactions and possible roles of other SnRK2 kinases in ABA signaling.

  3. GridPP - Preparing for LHC Run 2 and the Wider Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    This paper elaborates upon the operational status and directions within the UK Computing for Particle Physics (GridPP) project as it approaches LHC Run 2. It details the pressures that have been gradually reshaping the deployed hardware and middleware environments at GridPP sites - from the increasing adoption of larger multicore nodes to the move towards alternative batch systems and cloud alternatives - as well as changes being driven by funding considerations. The paper highlights work being done with non-LHC communities and describes some of the early outcomes of adopting a generic DIRAC based job submission and management framework. The paper presents results from an analysis of how GridPP effort is distributed across various deployment and operations tasks and how this may be used to target further improvements in efficiency.

  4. C-terminal truncation of GSK-3β enhances its dephosphorylation by PP2A.

    PubMed

    Jin, Nana; Wu, Yue; Xu, Wen; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2017-03-07

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is the major tau kinase. Its phosphorylation at Ser9 suppresses the activity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, GSK-3β is truncated at the C-terminus by over-activated calpain I, leading to an increase in its activity. However, the effect of truncation on its phosphorylation is unknown. We found here that in AD brain and in cultured cells, C-terminally truncated GSK-3β is less phosphorylated at Ser9 than the full-length enzyme. The truncation promotes GSK-3β nuclear translocation and enhances its interaction with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to dephosphorylation. Thus, the truncation of GSK-3β may enhance its activity through Ser9 dephosphorylation by PP2A. Our findings shed new light onto the role of calpain - GSK-3β - PP2A in tau pathogenesis of AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Double-Pole Structure on a Prototype of Kaonic Nuclei "K-pp"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doté, Akinobu; Inoue, Takashi; Myo, Takayuki

    We have investigated a prototype system of kaonic nuclei, "K-pp", with a coupled-channel Complex Scaling Method combined with Feshbach projection, using an energy-dependent \\bar{K}N potential based on chiral SU(3) theory. A deeply bound state with huge decay width is obtained as a candidate of self-consistent solutions (a quasi self-consistent solution), in addition to the shallowly bound state with 20-30 MeV binding energy. As a result, we consider that the "K-pp" has a double-pole structure as well as the excited hyperon Λ(1405). Furthermore, we expect that the signal observed in DISTO and J-PARC E27 experiments might be related to the lower-pole state of the "K-pp".

  6. Observation of χcJ decaying into the pp¯K+K- final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, L.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, R. R.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Grishin, S.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, G. C.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Z. Q.; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sonoda, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tang, X. F.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wan, X.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, M.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, L.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.; Zweber, P.

    2011-06-01

    First measurements of the decays of the three χcJ states to pp¯K+K- final states are presented. Intermediate ϕ→K+K- and Λ(1520)→pK- resonance states are observed, and branching fractions for χcJ→p¯K+Λ(1520), Λ(1520)Λ¯(1520), and ϕpp¯ are reported. We also measure branching fractions for direct χcJ→pp¯K+K- decays. These are first observations of χcJ decays to unstable baryon resonances and provide useful information about the χcJ states. The experiment uses samples of χcJ mesons produced via radiative transitions from 106×106 ψ' mesons collected in the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e+e- collider.

  7. Tensor Correlations Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdasaryan, H; Weinstein, L B; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, K P; Amarian, M; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Boltmann, S; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hyde, C E; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nepali, C; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tedeschi, D J; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-11-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at an incident energy of 4.7 GeV over a wide kinematic range. We identified spectator correlated pp and pn nucleon pairs by using kinematic cuts and measured their relative and total momentum distributions. This is the first measurement of the ratio of pp to pn pairs as a function of pair total momentum ptot. For pair relative momenta between 0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c, the ratio is very small at low ptot and rises to approximately 0.5 at large ptot. This shows the dominance of tensor over central correlations at this relative momentum.

  8. The prospective pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (ppCRRT) registry: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Scott M; Goldstein, Stuart L; Alexander, Steven R

    2014-11-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), which provides gradual, predictable clearance and fluid removal, is commonly used to manage acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload in critically ill children. The Prospective Pediatric CRRT (ppCRRT) Registry, founded in 2001 and comprising 13 pediatric centers in the United States, represents the largest cohort of children receiving CRRT to date. Data from the ppCRRT has been used to describe pediatric CRRT demographics and epidemiology, improve technical aspects of CRRT provision for children, and identify novel or underappreciated risk factors affecting survival. Whereas the registry has successfully answered many questions, a number of questions remain unanswered and new ones have arisen. This article describes the ppCRRT Registry, including its major findings, the lessons learned, and the limitations inherent in its design. Additionally, using the registry as a framework, areas of future study are identified and potential methodologies examined.

  9. Effects of layer-multiplying and interface on the content of β-transcrystallization in PP

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fan; Li, Jiang E-mail: nic7702@scu.edu.cn; Guo, Shaoyun E-mail: nic7702@scu.edu.cn

    2015-05-22

    The alternating multilayered polypropylene (PP layer)/β-nucleating agent filled-polypropylene (β-PP layer) were prepared through layer-multiplying extrusion combined with an assembly of layer-multiplying elements (LM Es). The content of β-crystal was firstly evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which indicated that the relative amount of the β-crystal increased from 38.67% to 81.22% with the increase of layer numbers from 2-layer to 128-layer. It was well consistent with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology observation of β-crystal by polarizing microscope (POM) revealed that the closely packed nuclei in the interface could induce numerous β-transcrystallization in pure PP layer due to the confinement effect. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetic analysis via Mozhishen’s methods manifested that the crystallization rate was greatly enhanced by the augment of the layered interface.

  10. DSP-PP Precursor Protein Cleavage by Tolloid-Related-1 Protein and by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Helena H.; Yee, Colin T.; Tang, Xu-na; Dong, Zhihong; Fuller, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP), acidic proteins critical to dentin mineralization, are translated from a single transcript as a DSP-PP precursor that undergoes specific proteolytic processing to generate DSP and PP. The cleavage mechanism continues to be controversial, in part because of the difficulty of obtaining DSP-PP from mammalian cells and dentin matrix. We have infected Sf9 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to produce large amounts of secreted DSP-PP240, a variant form of rat DSP-PP. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that DSP-PP240 secreted by Sf9 cells undergoes specific cleavage at the site predicted from the N-terminal sequence of PP extracted from dentin matrix: SMQG447↓D448DPN. DSP-PP240 is cleaved after secretion by a zinc-dependent activity secreted by Sf9 cells, generating DSP430 and PP240 products that are stable in the medium. DSP-PP processing activity is constitutively secreted by Sf9 cells, but secretion is diminished 3 days after infection. Using primers corresponding to the highly conserved catalytic domain of Drosophila melanogaster tolloid (a mammalian BMP1 homolog), we isolated a partial cDNA for a Spodopotera frugiperda tolloid-related-1 protein (TLR1) that is 78% identical to Drosophila TLR1 but only 65% identical to Drosophila tolloid. Tlr1 mRNA decreased rapidly in Sf9 cells after baculovirus infection and was undetectable 4d after infection, paralleling the observed decrease in secretion of the DSP-PP240 processing activity after infection. Human BMP1 is more similar to Sf9 and Drosophila TLR1 than to tolloid, and Sf9 TLR1 is more similar to BMP1 than to other mammalian homologs. Recombinant human BMP1 correctly processed baculovirus-expressed DSP-PP240 in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that the physiologically accurate cleavage of mammalian DSP-PP240 in the Sf9 cell system represents the action of a conserved processing enzyme and support the proposed role of BMP1 in processing DSP-PP in

  11. DSP-PP precursor protein cleavage by tolloid-related-1 protein and by bon