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Sample records for pp65 antigenemia plasma

  1. In vitro generation of human cytomegalovirus pp65 antigenemia, viremia, and leukoDNAemia.

    PubMed Central

    Revello, M G; Percivalle, E; Arbustini, E; Pardi, R; Sozzani, S; Gerna, G

    1998-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients with disseminated human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection have circulating PMN carrying HCMV pp65 (antigenemia), infectious virus (viremia), and viral DNA (leukoDNAemia). Because HCMV does not fully replicate in PMN, it is generally hypothesized that virions and viral materials are taken up by phagocytosis from fully permissive HCMV-infected endothelial cells. However, no experimental evidence has ever been provided for these PMN-endothelium interactions. PMN from 11 donors were cocultured with endothelial cells infected with an endothelium-adapted HCMV strain and with human fibroblasts infected with low-passaged clinical and laboratory-adapted HCMV strains. pp65-positive PMN were detected after coculture with both HCMV-infected endothelial and fibroblast cells, provided that wild and not laboratory-adapted strains were used. In addition, cocultured PMN carried infectious virus as demonstrated by virus isolation and presence of complete virus particles by electron microscopy. Moreover, high levels of viral DNA were consistently detected by quantitative PCR in cocultured PMN. Thus, we have generated in vitro the three most important viral parameters detected in patients with disseminated HCMV infection (antigenemia, viremia, and leukoDNAemia). The failure of laboratory-adapted HCMV strain to induce this phenomenon demonstrates that important modifications have occurred in attenuated viral strains affecting basic biological functions. PMID:9637702

  2. Comparison of cytomegalovirus viral load measure by real-time PCR with pp65 antigenemia for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Hernando, S; Folgueira, L; Lumbreras, C; San Juan, R; Maldonado, S; Prieto, C; Babiano, M J; Delgado, J; Andres, A; Moreno, E; Aguado, J M; Otero, J R

    2005-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most frequent complication in solid organ transplant recipients. Currently, the antigenemia assay is widely used to detect this infection, although its success is being questioned to a great extent nowadays. The aim of our study is to compare a quantitative real time PCR to measure CMV DNA to the antigenemia assay, for the diagnosis to CMV disease. For our research, we prospectively processed 1198 samples (plasma and peripheral blood leukocytes [PBMC]), which belonged to 158 transplant recipients. In every sample the detection of the pp65 antigen in PBMC was carried out, as well as the quantification of CMV DNA by PCR (Light Cycler, LC-PCR). For this process, FRET probes, which detect a 254-bp fragment from the CMV gB gene, were used. The dynamic range of the LC-PCR was 500 to 5.10(7) copies/mL plasma and from 62 to 6.10(6) copies/10(6) PBMC. Twenty-three episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurred in 22 out of 158 patients and PCR displayed levels of sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 67%, respectively. The antigenemia assay obtained values of 91% and 57%. We established a cutoff value of 10(3) copies/mL plasma and 315 copies/10(6) cells. According to these cutoff values, PCR showed levels of sensitivity, specificity, VPN and VPP of 95.6%, 81.6%, 99%, and 53% respectively. Moreover, the LC-PCR assay anticipated the antigenemia assay in 10 patients out of 22 who developed CMV disease and the appearance of any clinical symptoms in 12 out of 22 patients. In conclusion, we believe that the quantification of CMV DNA by LC-PCR is a superior assay to pp65 antigenemia test regarding the early diagnosis of CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients.

  3. Comparison of pp65 antigenemia, quantitative PCR and DNA hybrid capture for detection of cytomegalovirus in transplant recipients and AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Mhiri, Leila; Kaabi, Belhassen; Houimel, Mehdi; Arrouji, Zakia; Slim, Amine

    2007-07-01

    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay has been used frequently for rapid diagnosis of CMV infection, and antigenemia threshold values are recommended for triggering preemptive therapy. Hybrid capture of CMV's DNA and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) are increasingly being adopted for early detection of CMV. The performance of the antigenemia assay, qPCR in plasma and hybrid capture in leukocytes were compared in 110 immunocompromised patients (38 bone-marrow transplants, 50 renal transplants and 22 AIDS patients). The most sensitive test was hybrid capture for transplants, while antigenemia and the qPCR showed similar performance for patients with AIDS. QPCR and hybrid capture thresholds requiring antiviral therapy were calculated using a receiver-operating-characteristic curve for antigenemia values corresponding to 2 positive cells for bone-marrow transplants and to 10 positive cells for renal transplants and AIDS patients. These threshold values varied with the group of patients considered, with corresponding sensitivities higher than 86% and specificities higher than 76% for hybrid capture, and sensitivities higher than 61% and specificities higher than 75% for qPCR in plasma. Hybrid capture in leukocytes can substitute for antigenemia in the case of transplants, and qPCR in plasma can substitute for it in the case of AIDS patients.

  4. Human cytomegalovirus detection by real-time PCR and pp65-antigen test in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a challenge in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Breda, Giovanni; Almeida, Bernado; Carstensen, Suzana; Bonfim, Carmem M; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Almeida, Sergio M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common complications in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Pre-emptive therapy has been indicated in patients with laboratory evidence of CMV replication. The aims of this study were to compare real-time PCR or pp65 antigen assay methodologies to detect CMV replication in HSCT patients, define a viral load threshold for initiation of pre-emptive therapy, and assess the feasibility of its implementation in hospitals of countries with low and middle income. Material and methods: Human CMV detection by real-time PCR and pp65 antigen assay was carried out in blood and plasma samples of HSCT patients collected weekly during 3 months. Pre-emptive therapy was based on CMV antigenemia results. Results: Twenty-one patients were monitored with a total of 227 samples collected; 13 (62%) patients were children. A poor correlation was observed between qualitative results, though quantitative results showed statistically significant difference, with higher viral loads detected in patients with positive antigenemia. Compared to a positive antigenemia, a cutoff value of 1067.5 copies/ml, 3.03 log10/ml, for viral load was obtained with 100% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Conclusion: CMV real-time PCR in whole blood was suitable for monitoring HSCT patients. However, its high cost is a limiting factor, and it could be used to monitor selected patients, those with prolonged leukopenia and underweight children, and subsequently switched to pp65 antigen test. Further studies involving larger numbers of patients should be performed to confirm this statement. PMID:24188241

  5. [Comparison of the CMV antigenemia test and CMV-DNA PCR results in solid organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Özkarata, Emre; Özkarataş, Emre; Özbek, Ö Alpay; Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is among the most common important viral infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Diagnostic tests for detecting CMV replication are widely used for this group of patients, however there is no clear agreement on the cut-off levels for interpretation of clinical decisions especially when the low level of viral load is detected. In this study, CMV pp65 antigenemia test results were compared with plasma CMV-DNA levels detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in samples of kidney and liver transplant recipients in the Central Laboratory of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between 2011 and 2013, and the correlation between these two tests and viral load equivalent to antigenemia positivity were determined. In the study, pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR results were evaluated retrospectively. The samples from the same patients were included if the time between antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR tests were less than 48 hours. SPSS v15.0 was used for correlation, regression and ROC curve analysis. The results of the 217 samples collected from 100 patients (59 male, 41 female; age range: 16-71, mean age: 46 ± 13 years), 36 liver and 64 kidney recipients were evaluated in the study. Of the patients 80% were CMV IgM negative, IgG positive; 1% was CMV IgG and IgM positive; 2% were CMV IgM and IgG negative, while for 17 patients serological results could not be reached. CMV pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA were both negative in 102 (47%) samples, while both were positive in 37 (17%) samples. The single sample from a case with CMV IgM and IgG positivity yielded negative results for both antigenemia and CMV-DNA tests. In 78 samples antigenemia were negative and CMV-DNA qPCR were positive, while there were no samples with antigenemia positive and qPCR negative. Mean values of antigenemia and qPCR tests were 23 positive cells/200.000 leukocytes (range: 1 to 230 positive cells) and 12.595 copies/ml (range: 180 to 106

  6. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV Δpp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged Δpp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ΔUS2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, Δpp65ab protected against ΔUS2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ΔUS2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  7. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    PubMed Central

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While deletion of pp65ab slightly reduced growth in vitro and increased defective particle formation, the protein composition of secreted virions was largely unchanged. Interestingly, pp65 was not required for primary and persistent infection in animals. Immune responses induced by RhCMVΔpp65ab did not prevent reinfection with rhesus CMV; however, reinfection with RhCMVΔUS2-11, which lacks viral-encoded MHC-I antigen presentation inhibitors, was prevented. Unexpectedly, induction of pp65b-specific T cells alone did not protect against RhCMVΔUS2-11 challenge, suggesting that T cells targeting multiple CMV antigens are required for protection. However, pp65-specific immunity was crucial for controlling viral dissemination during primary infection, as indicated by the marked increase of RhCMVΔpp65ab genome copies in CMV-naive, but not CMV-immune, animals. Our data provide rationale for inclusion of pp65 into CMV vaccines but also demonstrate that pp65-induced T cell responses alone do not recapitulate the protective effect of natural infection. PMID:24691437

  8. Optimization of Quantitative Detection of Cytomegalovirus DNA in Plasma by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Boeckh, Michael; Huang, MeeiLi; Ferrenberg, James; Stevens-Ayers, Terry; Stensland, Laurence; Garrett Nichols, W.; Corey, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in plasma is less sensitive than the antigenemia assay for CMV surveillance in blood. In 1,983 blood samples, plasma PCR assays with three different primer sets (UL125 alone, UL126 alone, and UL55/UL123-exon 4) were compared to the pp65 antigenemia assay and blood cultures. Plasma PCR detected CMV more frequently in blood specimens than either the antigenemia assay or cultures, but of the three PCR assays, the double-primer assay (UL55/UL123-exon 4) performed best with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values compared to antigenemia: 122 of 151 antigenemia-positive samples were detected (sensitivity, 80.1%), and there were 122 samples that were PCR positive-antigenemia negative (specificity, 93%). Samples with discrepant results had a low viral load (median, 0.5 cells per slide; 1,150 copies per ml) and were often obtained from patients receiving antiviral therapy. CMV could be detected by other methods in 15 of 29 antigenemia positive-PCR negative samples compared to 121 of 122 PCR positive-antigenemia negative samples (P < 0.001). On a per-subject basis, 21 of 25 patients (antigenemia positive-PCR negative) and all 57 (PCR positive-antigenemia negative) could be confirmed at different time points during follow-up. The higher sensitivity of the double-primer assay resulted in earlier detection compared to antigenemia in a time-to-event analysis of 42 CMV-seropositive stem cell transplant recipients, and two of three patients with CMV disease who were antigenemia negative were detected by plasma PCR prior to the onset of disease. Interassay variability was low, and the dynamic range was >5 log10. Automated DNA extraction resulted in high reproducibility, accurate CMV quantitation (R = 0.87, P < 0.001), improved sensitivity, and increased speed of sample processing. Thus, primer optimization and improved DNA extraction techniques resulted in a plasma-based PCR assay that is

  9. Seroprevalence and Seroconversion Rates of Cytomegalovirus pp65 Antigen and Cord Blood Screening of Pregnant Women in Malatya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Keziban; Kafkasli, Ayse; Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The rates of seropositivity, seroconversion and fetal infection with human cytomegalovirus were analyzed in pregnant women and newborn cord blood in this study. The relationships between maternal age, parity, cytomegalovirus serology and polymerase chain reaction results were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 217 pregnant women attended our pregnancy clinic between April 2004 and October 2005. During each trimester, 5 cc of maternal blood was obtained and 5 cc of cord blood was collected after birth. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess these samples for the presence of human cytomegalovirus protein pp65 antigen (in leukocytes) and cytomegalovirus DNA (in plasma). Results: The mean age of the pregnant women in our study was 28.1±5.3 years. No seroconversion was observed. Among the pregnant women, 212 (97.7%) were IgG positive, and 29 (13.4%) were IgM positive. Five of the pregnant women were positive for IgM alone (2.3%), whereas 24 (11.3%) were positive for both IgM and IgG. The 29 IgM-positive patients were reevaluated using the polymerase chain reaction, and no seropositivity was found. None of the cord blood samples were IgM positive, whereas 211 (97.3%) were IgG positive. There was no significant correlation between parity and seropositivity (p=0.487). The relationship between human cytomegalovirus seropositivity and maternal age was evaluated by dividing the pregnant women into two groups, with a cut-off age of 35 years. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between these two groups (p=0.045). Conclusion: Clearly, there is no need to screen pregnant women for Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Malatya region. Confirming serology results using the polymerase chain reaction and antigenemia testing to detect false positive results offers the advantage of avoiding unnecessary invasive interventions. PMID:25610259

  10. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Zongqiang; Zhang Ke; Zhang Zhiping; Liu Yalan; Zhou Yafeng; Wei Hongping; Zhang Xian-En

    2009-09-30

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  11. Antigenemia in paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-da-Silva, G; Roque-Barreira, M C

    1992-01-01

    Severe forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (Pcm) are accompanied by intense immunological involvement characterized by depression of the cell-mediated immune response and by high levels of antibodies in serum with no protective function. These changes can be reversed by antifungal treatment. It has been suggested that antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis released into the circulation during the active phase of the disease may be involved in the genesis of the changes in the immune response. In the present study, we evaluated the antigenemia of patients with Pcm using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-c) capable of detecting 6 ng of antigen per ml of serum. Twenty-seven of 88 serum samples tested gave positive results, with the highest frequency of positivity being detected in patients with the severe acute form of the disease; these patients had the highest antigen levels (0.03 to 3.4 micrograms/ml). Follow-up of one case showed a correlation between antigen levels in serum and evolution of the disease. False-positive reactions were observed in sera from patients with histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. The results indicate that the described method has potential for clinical application, especially with respect to the evaluation of disease activity. Quantification of fungal antigens in the serum of patients with active Pcm represents an objective parameter for the study of the physiopathology of the disease. PMID:1537906

  12. CMV pp65 and IE-1 T cell epitopes recognized by healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Stefanie L; Bettinotti, Maria; Selleri, Silvia; Adams, Sharon; Marincola, Francesco M; Stroncek, David F

    2007-03-28

    Adoptive immune and vaccine therapies have been used to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in recipients of hematopoietic progenitor cell transplants, but the nature of T cell responses to CMV have not been completely characterized. Peptide pools and individual peptides derived from the immune-dominant CMV proteins pp65 and IE-1 and antigen-specific, cytokine flow cytometry were used to characterize the prevalence and frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells in 20 healthy CMV-seropositive subjects. CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 were detected in 35% of subjects and to IE-1 in 40% of subjects. CD4+ T cell responses to pp65 were detected in 50% of subjects, but none were detected to IE-1. Several new IE-1 HLA class I epitopes were identified, including 4 restricted to HLA-C antigens. One region of IE-1 spanning amino acids 300 to 327 was rich in class I epitopes. The HLA class I restrictions of IE-1 peptides were more promiscuous than those of pp65 peptides. Since naturally occurring CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 were detectable in many subjects, but only CD8+ T cell responses to IE-1 were detected, pp65 may be better than IE-1 for use in vaccine and adoptive immune therapies.

  13. Magnitude of viremia, antigenemia and infection of circulating monocytes in children with mild and severe dengue.

    PubMed

    Perdomo-Celis, Federico; Salgado, Doris M; Narváez, Carlos F

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical regions around the world. Viral and immune host factors determine the clinical courses of the infection. We analyzed the dynamics of viremia (by real-time polymerase chain reactions), antigenemia (through detection of the viral non-structural protein [NS]-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and the frequency of virus-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (by multiparametric flow cytometry) in children with primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection in mild to severe cases. Additionally, we evaluated the association of these factors with clinical severity and laboratory parameters. The levels of viremia and antigenemia peaked during the early days of illness and these viral parameters were correlated (rho=0.37, P=0.003). Circulating monocytes were the most naturally infected subset within the PBMCs population, with kinetics similar to those of viremia and antigenemia. The levels of viremia and antigenemia were higher in children with primary infections than in those with secondary infections (P≤0.04). Although there were no associations between the three evaluated factors and clinical severity, the levels of plasma NS1 and the frequency of dengue virus-infected monocytes correlated with prolonged coagulation times. In short, the viremia, antigenemia and infected monocytes were detected early and were not related to clinical severity. The magnitude of antigenemia and infected circulating monocytes was associated with coagulation disorders.

  14. Detection of rotavirus antigenemia in routinely obtained serum specimens to augment surveillance and vaccine effectiveness evaluations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish; Rench, Marcia A; Boom, Julie A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Sahni, Leila C; Hull, Jennifer A; Gentsch, Jon R; Parashar, Umesh D; Baker, Carol J

    2010-09-01

    : Antigenemia is common among children with rotavirus disease. Because obtaining stool specimens is cumbersome, we evaluated whether detection of antigenemia in sera obtained during routine clinical practice could augment rotavirus surveillance to assess the effect of vaccination. : We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of serum/plasma rotavirus antigen detection using fecal antigen positivity as the gold standard. Fecal specimens obtained by active surveillance and residual serum/plasma specimens obtained during routine clinical testing from children 15 days to 23 months of age presenting with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to a children's hospital in Houston were tested for rotavirus using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Using case-control methods, we compared vaccine effectiveness (VE) using cases identified through serum/plasma testing versus stool testing. : Of the 205 AGE patients with fecal specimens, 71 (35%) had a serum/plasma sample available. Among these 71 children, antigenemia was detected in 22 of 29 with rotavirus-positive fecal specimens (sensitivity = 75%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 60%-91%) versus 2 of 42 children with rotavirus-negative fecal specimens (specificity = 95%; 95% CI = 89%-100%). The positive and negative predictive values of rotavirus antigenemia were 92% (95% CI = 81%-100%) and 85% (95% CI = 75%-95%), respectively. Thirty-four of 195 children with AGE without fecal specimens had serum/plasma available; 10 (29%) had rotavirus antigenemia. Three-dose VE using cases identified through serum/plasma testing was similar (VE = 84%; 95% CI = 25%-96%) to that using cases identified though fecal testing (VE = 85%; 95% CI = 55%-95%). : Detection of antigenemia in routinely collected serum/plasma could augment identification of rotavirus disease for postlicensure evaluation of impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination.

  15. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in systemic aspergillosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, M.H.

    1980-06-01

    Because of difficulties in antemortem diagnosis of systemic aspergillosis, a radioimmunoassay to an Aspergillus fumigatus carbohydrate was developed and evaluated in patients with mycotic or bacterial infections. Antigenemia was detected in sera obtained antemortem from four of seven patients with systemic aspergillosis and in pleural fluid from an Aspergillus empyema but not in control sera or pleural fluid from 43 patients or 27 normal donors. When characterized with reference to onset of disease, antigenemia was an early sign of infection. This study shows the usefulness of the Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay for early, specific immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis.

  16. Improvement of cytomegalovirus pp65 DNA vaccine efficacy by co-administration of siRNAs targeting BAK and BAX.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jixiao; Feng, Keke; Zhao, Lu; Luo, Haining; Zhu, Yingjun

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of DNA vaccines may be improved by small interfering (si)RNA adjuvants targeting pro-apoptotic genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of siRNAs targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK) and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (BAX) to improve the efficacy of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups (n=18 in each): unimmunized and immunized with pcDNA 3.1-pp65 expressing CMV 65 kDa matrix phosphoprotein and BAK + BAX siRNAs, pcDNA 3.1-pp65 and control siRNA, or control pcDNA 3.1 and BAK + BAX siRNAs. Immunizations were performed twice with an interval of 3 weeks. CMV-specific mouse splenocyte interferon (IFN)-γ secretion was assessed by ELISPOT; furthermore, an in vivo cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay was performed 2 weeks after the last immunization. After lethal CMV challenge of the mice, body weight, virus titers in the spleens and salivary glands as well as survival were recorded. The amount of splenocytes secreting IFN-γ in response to CMV pp65 peptides and specific lysis of peptide-pulsed target cells were significantly higher in mice administered pcDNA3.1-pp65 and BAK + BAX siRNAs than those in mice administered pcDNA3.1-pp65 and control siRNA (P<0.05 for each). After the virus challenge, the virus titers in the spleens and salivary glands of mice given pcDNA3.1-pp65 and BAK + BAX siRNAs were significantly lower than those in mice immunized with pcDNA3.1-pp65 and control siRNA (P<0.05 for each). Furthermore, mice immunized with pcDNA 3.1-pp65 and control siRNA or BAK + BAX siRNAs survived for longer, and at 21 days after lethal CMV challenge, 66 and 100% of these mice survived, respectively. These mice also experienced less weight loss compared with mice immunized with pcDNA3.1-pp65 and control siRNA (P<0.05). In conclusion, intradermal administration of siRNAs targeting BAK and BAX improved the efficacy of CMV pp65 DNA vaccine.

  17. Quantification of DNA in Plasma by an Automated Real-Time PCR Assay (Cytomegalovirus PCR Kit) for Surveillance of Active Cytomegalovirus Infection and Guidance of Preemptive Therapy for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients▿

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Concepción; Solano, Carlos; Latorre, José C.; Hernández-Boluda, Juan C.; Clari, María A.; Remigia, María J.; Furió, Santiago; Calabuig, Marisa; Tormo, Nuria; Navarro, David

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a plasma real-time PCR (cytomegalovirus [CMV] PCR kit; Abbott Diagnostics) was compared with that of the antigenemia assay for the surveillance of active CMV infection in 42 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) recipients. A total of 1,156 samples were analyzed by the two assays. Concordance between the two assays was 82.2%. Plasma DNA levels correlated with the number of pp65-positive cells, particularly prior to the initiation of preemptive therapy. Fifty-seven episodes of active CMV infection were detected in 37 patients: 18 were defined solely by the PCR assay and four were defined on the basis of the antigenemia assay. Either a cutoff of 288 CMV DNA copies/ml or a 2.42-log10 increase of DNAemia levels between two consecutive PCR positive samples was an optimal value to discriminate between patients requiring preemptive therapy and those not requiring therapy on the basis of the antigenemia results. The real-time PCR assay allowed an earlier diagnosis of active CMV infection and was a more reliable marker of successful clearance of CMV from the blood. Analysis of the kinetics of DNAemia levels at a median of 7 days posttreatment allowed the prediction of the response to CMV therapy. Two patients developed CMV colitis. The PCR assay tested positive both before the onset of symptoms and during the disease period. The plasma real-time PCR from Abbott is more suitable than the antigenemia assay for monitoring active CMV infection in Allo-SCT recipients and may be used for guiding preemptive therapy in this clinical setting. PMID:18753357

  18. High-grade cytomegalovirus antigenemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Asano-Mori, Y; Oshima, K; Sakata-Yanagimoto, M; Nakagawa, M; Kandabashi, K; Izutsu, K; Hangaishi, A; Motokura, T; Chiba, S; Kurokawa, M; Hirai, H; Kanda, Y

    2005-11-01

    Clinical impact of high-grade (HG) cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has not been clarified. Therefore, in order to investigate the risk factors and outcome for HG-CMV antigenemia, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 154 Japanese adult patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the first time from 1995 to 2002 at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Among 107 patients who developed positive CMV antigenemia at any level, 74 received risk-adapted preemptive therapy with ganciclovir (GCV), and 17 of these developed HG-antigenemia defined as > or = 50 positive cells per two slides. The use of systemic corticosteroids at > or = 0.5 mg/kg/day at the initiation of GCV was identified as an independent significant risk factor for HG-antigenemia. Seven of the 17 HG-antigenemia patients developed CMV disease, with a cumulative incidence of 49.5%, which was significantly higher than that in the low-grade antigenemia patients (4%, P<0.001). However, overall survival was almost equivalent in the two groups. In conclusion, the development of HG-antigenemia appeared to depend on the profound immune suppression of the recipient. Although CMV disease frequently developed in HG-antigenemia patients, antiviral therapy could prevent a fatal outcome.

  19. Regulatory Interaction between the Cellular Restriction Factor IFI16 and Viral pp65 (pUL83) Modulates Viral Gene Expression and IFI16 Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Sara; von Einem, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Plachter, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key player in the intrinsic resistance against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the interferon-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), which behaves as a viral DNA sensor in the first hours postinfection and as a repressor of viral gene transcription in the later stages. Previous studies on HCMV replication demonstrated that IFI16 binds to the viral protein kinase pUL97, undergoes phosphorylation, and relocalizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the tegument protein pp65 (pUL83) recruits IFI16 to the promoter of the UL54 gene and downregulates viral replication, as shown by use of the HCMV mutant v65Stop, which lacks pp65 expression. Interestingly, at late time points of HCMV infection, IFI16 is stabilized by its interaction with pp65, which stood in contrast to IFI16 degradation, observed in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected cells. Moreover, we found that its translocation to the cytoplasm, in addition to pUL97, strictly depends on pp65, as demonstrated with the HCMV mutant RV-VM1, which expresses a form of pp65 unable to translocate into the cytoplasm. Thus, these data reveal a dual role for pp65: during early infection, it modulates IFI16 activity at the promoter of immediate-early and early genes; subsequently, it delocalizes IFI16 from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, thereby stabilizing and protecting it from degradation. Overall, these data identify a novel activity of the pp65/IFI16 interactome involved in the regulation of UL54 gene expression and IFI16 stability during early and late phases of HCMV replication. IMPORTANCE The DNA sensor IFI16, a member of the PYHIN proteins, restricts HCMV replication by impairing viral DNA synthesis. Using a mutant virus lacking the tegument protein pp65 (v65Stop), we demonstrate that pp65 recruits IFI16 to the early UL54 gene promoter. As a putative counteraction to its restriction activity, pp65 supports the nucleocytoplasmic export of IFI16, which was demonstrated with the

  20. Inconsistent responses of cytomegalovirus-specific T cells to pp65 and IE-1 versus infected dendritic cells in organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lilleri, D; Zelini, P; Fornara, C; Comolli, G; Gerna, G

    2007-08-01

    CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells specific for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and two immunodominant HCMV antigens (pp65 and IE-1) were monitored in 20 solid organ transplant recipients undergoing primary (n = 4) or reactivated (n = 16) HCMV infection during the first year after transplantation by using as a stimulator either HCMV-infected autologous dendritic cells (DCs) or pp65- or IE-1 peptide mixtures. Turnaround times for test performance were 7 days for infected DCs and 24 h for peptides. Using infected DCs, HCMV-specific T-cell restoration occurred in all patients for CD8(+) and in 18/20 (90%) for CD4(+) T-cell subpopulations, resulting in virus clearance from blood. Using peptide mixtures, T-cell responses were less frequently detected. In detail, 14 (70%) patients showed pp65-specific CD8(+) T cells and 10 (50%) patients IE-1-specific CD8(+) T cells, whereas pp65-specific CD4(+) T cells were detected in 14 (70%) patients, and IE-1-specific CD4(+) T cells in three (15%) patients only. Protection from HCMV infection was associated with the presence of a HCMV-specific T-cell response directed against multiple viral proteins, but not against pp65 or IE-1 only. In conclusion, the use of pp65 and IE-1 peptide mixtures for rapid monitoring of HCMV-specific T-cell responses in solid organ transplant recipients underestimates the actual T-cell immune response against HCMV.

  1. Sensitivity of the Cytomegalovirus Antigenemia Assay to Diagnose Cytomegalovirus Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Yong; Chong, Yong Phil; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is one of the most important tissue-invasive CMV diseases in immunocompromised patients. Since 1980, non-invasive diagnostic methods, notably the CMV antigenemia assay, have been widely used as adjunct tests to diagnose tissue-invasive CMV diseases. However, there are limited data on the diagnostic value of the CMV antigenemia assay for diagnosing CMV retinitis. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of all cases of CMV retinitis at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea over a 9-year period. The diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made by experienced ophthalmologists according to medical history and an ophthalmoscopic appearance of typical retinopathy, together with absence of an alternative diagnosis. Results We analyzed 44 patients with CMV retinitis (affecting 57 eyes) for whom the CMV antigenemia assay was performed. Of the 44 patients, 31 (70%) were HIV-uninfected and 13 (30%) were HIV-infected. The overall sensitivity of the CMV antigenemia assay was 66% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50–80%). The test’s sensitivity showed a non-significant trend towards being higher in HIV-infected patients than in HIV-uninfected patients (sensitivity 85% vs 58%, respectively, P = 0.16). In a subgroup analysis of the 35 patients without other concurrent tissue-invasive CMV disease, the sensitivity of the CMV antigenemia assay was 57% (95% CI 40–74%). Conclusions The CMV antigenemia assay has limited value as a non-invasive diagnostic adjunct test for CMV retinitis. Therefore, the results of the assay need to be interpreted in the context of underlying disease, clinical presentation, and ophthalmoscopic findings. PMID:27883376

  2. Vaccine Properties of a Novel Marker Gene-Free Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Expressing Immunodominant CMV Antigens pp65 and IE1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongde; La Rosa, Corinna; Li, Zhongqi; Ly, Heang; Krishnan, Aparna; Martinez, Joy; Britt, William J.; Diamond, Don

    2007-01-01

    CMV tegument protein pp65 and CMV immediate early gene product IE1 are both considered immunodominant targets of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and potentially capable of controlling CMV infection. To better assess their role in host defense, we have constructed a novel MVA transfer vector named pZWIIA and generated a recombinant MVA (rMVA) expressing both full-length pp65 and exon4 of IE1 (pp65-IE1-MVA) at high levels, followed by the genetic removal of the bacterial marker gene used to distinguish recombinant forms. Immunogenicity evaluation indicates that pp65-IE1-MVA not only can induce robust primary CMI to both antigens in HLA A2.1 Tg mice, but also can stimulate vigorous expansion of memory T lymphocyte responses to pp65 and IE1 in PBMC of CMV-positive donors. These properties make the MVA-based vaccine ideal for the dual role of priming and boosting CMV-specific T cell immunity as a means to control CMV disease in recipients of hematopoietic cell or solid organ transplantation (HCT or SOT). pZWIIA alone or in combination with other MVA transfer vectors can be used to generate MVA based multiple-antigen vaccine which have application in vaccine development for a wide spectrum of infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:17049414

  3. A double-blinded, prospective study to define antigenemia and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction cutoffs to start preemptive therapy in low-risk, seropositive, renal transplanted recipients.

    PubMed

    David-Neto, Elias; Triboni, Ana H K; Paula, Flavio J; Vilas Boas, Lucy S; Machado, Clarisse M; Agena, Fabiana; Latif, Acram Z A; Alencar, Cecília S; Pierrotti, Ligia C; Nahas, William C; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2014-11-27

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs in 16% to 20% of low-risk, CMV-positive renal transplant recipients. The cutoffs for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or phosphoprotein (pp65) antigenemia (pp65emia) for starting preemptive therapy have not been well established. We measured qPCR and pp65emia weekly from day 7 to day 120 after transplantation, in anti-CMV immunoglobulin G–positive donor and recipient pairs. Patients and physicians were blinded to the test results. Suspicion of CMV disease led to the order of new tests. In asymptomatic viremic patients, the highest pp65emia and qPCR values were used, whereas we considered the last value before diagnosis in those with CMV disease. We collected a total of 1,481 blood samples from 102 adult patients. Seventeen patients developed CMV disease, 54 presented at least one episode of viremia that cleared spontaneously, and 31 never presented viremia. Five patients developed CMV disease after the end of the study period. The median (95% confidence interval) pp65emia and qPCR values were higher before CMV disease than during asymptomatic viremia (6 [9–82] vs. 3 [1–14] cells/10(6) cells; P<0.001 and 3,080 [1,263–15,605] vs. 258 [258–1,679] copies/mL; P=0.008, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that pp65emia 4 cells/10(6) cells or greater showed a sensitivity and specificity to predict CMV disease of 69% and 81%, respectively (area, 0.769; P=0.001), with a positive predictive value of 37% and a negative predictive value of 93%. For qPCR 2,000 copies/mL or higher, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 57% and 91%, respectively (receiver operating characteristic area, 0.782; P=0.000). With these cutoffs, both methods are appropriate for detecting CMV disease.

  4. Preparation and identification of HLA-A*1101 tetramer loading with human cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyao; Xu, Lihui; Zha, Qingbing; Chi, Xiaoyun; Jia, Qiantao; He, Xianhui

    2007-04-01

    MHC/peptide tetramer technology has been widely used to study antigen-specific T cells, especially for identifying virus-specific CD8+ T cells in humans. The tetramer molecule is composed of HLA heavy chain, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m), an antigenic peptide, and fluorescent-labeled streptavidin. To further investigate the HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), we established an approach to prepare HLA-A*1101 tetramer complexed with a peptide from HCMV. The cDNA encoding HLA-A*1101 heavy chain was cloned and the prokaryotic expression vector for the ectodomain of HLA-A*1101 fused with a BirA substrate peptide (HLA-A*1101-BSP) at its carboxyl terminus was constructed. The fusion protein was highly expressed as inclusion bodies under optimized conditions in Escherichia coli. Moreover, HLA-A*1101-BSP protein was refolded in the presence of beta2m and an HCMV peptide pp65(16-24) (GPISGHVLK, GPI). Soluble HLA-A*1101-GPI monomer was biotinylated and purified to a purity of 95%, which was subsequently combined with streptavidin to form tetramers at a yield of > 80%. The HLA-A*1101-GPI tetramers could bind to virus-specific CD8+ T cells, suggesting soluble HLA-A*1101-GPI tetramers were biologically functional. This study provides the basis for further evaluation of HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against HCMV infection.

  5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IE1- and pp65-specific CD8+ T cell responses broaden over time after primary CMV infection in infants.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Laura; Dooley, Sheryl; Trzmielina, Sonia; Somasundaran, Mohan; Fisher, Donna; Revello, Maria Grazia; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2007-06-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. We have previously shown that CD8+ T cell responses to CMV pp65 or IE1 protein were readily detectable in children with congenital or postnatal CMV infection. Here, we have further characterized the evolution of the peptide specificity of these responses in 7 infants<6 months of age at the start of the study. Thirteen pp65 and 15 IE1 peptides (median, 5 peptides/infant) were targeted, and most (61%) represented sequences not previously reported. Peptide specificity remained stable or broadened over time despite the clearance of CMV viremia. Loss of peptide recognition was not observed. Responses with the highest functional peptide avidity were not necessarily detected earliest. These data provide additional evidence that young infants can generate diverse CMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses but show that early responses may exhibit relatively focused peptide specificity and lower peptide avidity.

  6. Expansion of cytomegalovirus pp65 and IE-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for cytomegalovirus-specific immunotherapy following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Dunham, Kimberly; Stamer, Mindy; Mulieri, Kevin M; Lucas, Kenneth G

    2008-10-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has proven effective in restoring cellular immunity to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and preventing viral reactivation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). In an effort to develop a cost-effective, relatively rapid method of CMV CTL expansion, we investigated the use of a pool of overlapping CMV peptides. Because the possibility exists of vaccinating CMV-seronegative donors, and these individuals may have T cell responses predominantly against IE-1, commercially available peptide mixes for pp65 as well as IE-1 were used to stimulate CTLs from 10 seropositive donors. Of these 10 donors, 4 responded to pp65 only, 1 did not respond to either pp65 or IE-1, 4 responded to both pp65 and IE-1, and 1 responded to IE-1 only. These CMV- specific T cells included a mixture of CD4(+) and CD8(+) effectors, and specific cytotoxicity correlated with interferon-gamma production. The costs associated with a 28-day maintenance course of intravenous ganciclovir, cidofovir, foscarnet, and valganciclovir, as well as the preparation and shipping a single dose of CTLs, were determined. The price of generating CMV CTLs using this method was comparable to or less expensive than a 28-day maintenance course for these agents, not including the costs associated with drug administration, supportive care, and the treatment of drug-related complications. Considering the relative ease, low cost, and the fact that CTL administration can result in CMV-specific immune reconstitution, this option should be considered for patients with CMV reactivation or for prophylaxis in patients at high risk for infection.

  7. Regulated expression of the human cytomegalovirus pp65 gene: Octamer sequence in the promoter is required for activation by viral gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Depto, A.S.; Stenberg, R.M.

    1989-03-01

    To better understand the regulation of late gene expression in human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected cells, the authors examined expression of the gene that codes for the 65-kilodalton lower-matrix phosphoprotein (pp65). Analysis of RNA isolated at 72 h from cells infected with CMV Towne or ts66, a DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutant, supported the fact that pp65 is expressed at low levels prior to viral DNA replication but maximally expressed after the initiation of viral DNA replication. To investigate promoter activation in a transient expression assay, the pp65 promoter was cloned into the indicator plasmid containing the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). Transfection of the promoter-CAT construct and subsequent superinfection with CMV resulted in activation of the promoter at early times after infection. Cotransfection with plasmids capable of expressing immediate-early (IE) proteins demonstrated that the promoter was activated by IE proteins and that both IE regions 1 and 2 were necessary. These studies suggest that interactions between IE proteins and this octamer sequence may be important for the regulation and expression of this CMV gene.

  8. Antigenemia in young children living in Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic areas of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Bal, M S; Beuria, M K; Mandal, N N; Das, M K

    2009-03-01

    The prevalence of filarial antigenemia (an indicator of adult worm burden) among 610 children, aged 3-15 years, was determined in three endemic villages of Khurda District, Orissa, India, during 2005. Prevalence of antigenemia, detected using Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen ELISA, was 32.6% compared with 10% microfilaraemia. Although the prevalence of antigenemia increased marginally with increase in age, no significant difference was observed among the children of different age groups (28.3% in 3-5 years, 31.5% in 6-10 years and 35.2% in 11-15 years), indicating that the adult worm burdens did not vary much according to the age of the study children. Gender did not influence the prevalence of antigenemia. The study emphasizes the advantage of using the circulating filarial antigen assay for detecting true filarial infection and demonstrates a high prevalence of antigenemia among the 610 children studied.

  9. Antigenemia without antigenuria in a cat with histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jarchow, Anthony; Hanzlicek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Case summary Based on demonstration of the yeast phase of Histoplasma capsulatum on fine-needle aspirate cytology of the kidney, a 5-year-old cat was diagnosed with histoplasmosis. Urine and serum were tested for antigen via a Histoplasma antigen enzyme immunoassay. At the time of diagnosis, and on multiple occasions during antifungal treatment, antigenemia was detected without antigenuria. The cat was treated with standard therapy and achieved clinical remission. Relevance and novel information Diagnosis is most commonly made by finding the yeast phase of H capsulatum via cytology of fluid samples or cytology or histopathology of infected tissues. In certain cases this may require invasive tests. Recently, a non-invasive test, a Histoplasma antigen enzyme immunoassay, has been shown to be a sensitive test for supporting the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in cats. Urine has been considered the biologic specimen of choice for antigen testing and there is a paucity of information concerning the use of other specimens such as serum. The case herein reports a cat with antigenemia without antigenuria. These findings suggest that further research is necessary to better understand the ideal biologic sample or combination of samples as it pertains to antigen testing in cats. It also suggests that to maximize sensitivity both urine and serum may need to be tested in cats with suspected histoplasmosis. PMID:28491399

  10. Antigenemia without antigenuria in a cat with histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jarchow, Anthony; Hanzlicek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Based on demonstration of the yeast phase of Histoplasma capsulatum on fine-needle aspirate cytology of the kidney, a 5-year-old cat was diagnosed with histoplasmosis. Urine and serum were tested for antigen via a Histoplasma antigen enzyme immunoassay. At the time of diagnosis, and on multiple occasions during antifungal treatment, antigenemia was detected without antigenuria. The cat was treated with standard therapy and achieved clinical remission. Diagnosis is most commonly made by finding the yeast phase of H capsulatum via cytology of fluid samples or cytology or histopathology of infected tissues. In certain cases this may require invasive tests. Recently, a non-invasive test, a Histoplasma antigen enzyme immunoassay, has been shown to be a sensitive test for supporting the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in cats. Urine has been considered the biologic specimen of choice for antigen testing and there is a paucity of information concerning the use of other specimens such as serum. The case herein reports a cat with antigenemia without antigenuria. These findings suggest that further research is necessary to better understand the ideal biologic sample or combination of samples as it pertains to antigen testing in cats. It also suggests that to maximize sensitivity both urine and serum may need to be tested in cats with suspected histoplasmosis.

  11. Breast Milk HCMV viral load is associated with the establishment of breast milk CMV-pp65-specific CD8 T cells in Human CMV infected Mothers.

    PubMed

    Moylan, David C; Pati, Sunil K; Ross, Shannon A; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B; Sabbaj, Steffanie

    2017-08-29

    The role of HCMV-specific T-cell responses in breast milk of HCMV-seropositive mothers is not well defined. In these studies, we demonstrate that the frequency of CMV-pp65-specific T-cell responses in PBMC and breast milk cells (BMC) is increased for CD8+ T-cells in both sample sources when compared to CD4+ T-cells. The frequency of pp55-specific CD8 T-cells producing IFN- alone or dual IFN-/GrB producers is increased in breast milk compared to PBMC. Lastly, we observed a positive correlation between breast milk viral load and the CD8 pp65-specific response suggesting that local virus replication drives antigen-specific CD8 T-cells into the breast. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Adoptive transfer of pp65-specific T cells for the treatment of chemorefractory cytomegalovirus disease or reactivation after haploidentical and matched unrelated stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Feuchtinger, Tobias; Opherk, Kathrin; Bethge, Wolfgang A; Topp, Max S; Schuster, Friedhelm R; Weissinger, Eva M; Mohty, Mohamad; Or, Reuven; Maschan, Michael; Schumm, Michael; Hamprecht, Klaus; Handgretinger, Rupert; Lang, Peter; Einsele, Hermann

    2010-11-18

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and infection refractory to antiviral treatment after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is associated with a high mortality. Adoptive transfer of CMV-specific T cells could reconstitute viral immunity after SCT and could protect from CMV-related complications. However, logistics of producing virus-specific T-cell grafts limited the clinical application. We treated 18 patients after allo-SCT from human leukocyte antigen-mismatched/haploidentical or human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated donors with polyclonal CMV-specific T cells generated by ex vivo stimulation with pp65, followed by isolation of interferon-γ-producing cells. Patients with CMV disease or viremia refractory to antiviral chemotherapy or both were eligible for adoptive T-cell transfer and received a mean of 21 × 10³/kg pp65-specific T cells. In 83% of cases CMV infection was cleared or viral burden was significantly reduced, even in cases of CMV encephalitis (n = 2). Viral control was associated with in vivo expansion of CMV-specific T lymphocytes in 12 of 16 evaluable cases, resulting in reconstitution of antiviral T-cell responses, without graft-versus-host disease induction or acute side effects. Our findings indicate that the infusion of low numbers of CMV-specific T cells is safe, feasible, and effective as a treatment on demand for refractory CMV infection and CMV disease after allo-SCT.

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pp65 Is Detected in All Intra- and Extra-Axial Brain Tumours Independent of the Tumour Type or Grade

    PubMed Central

    Libard, Sylwia; Popova, Svetlana N.; Amini, Rose-Marie; Kärjä, Vesa; Pietiläinen, Timo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi M.; Sundström, Christer; Hesselager, Göran; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Zetterling, Maria; Smits, Anja; Nilsson, Pelle; Pfeifer, Susan; de Ståhl, Teresita Diaz; Enblad, Gunilla; Ponten, Fredrik; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated. PMID:25268364

  14. Diversified phenotype of antigen specific CD8+ T cells responding to the immunodominant epitopes of IE and pp65 antigens of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Rong; Xiang, Fenfen; Kong, Qianqian; Hong, Jian; Kang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-01

    To study the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T cells in individuals with HLA A*1101, A*0201 and A*2402, our findings showed that peptide SK-10-2, KI-10 and KV-10 of CMV IE and pp65 antigens were immunodominant in 198 individuals with HLA A*1101, A*0201 and A*2402, the most frequent genotypes in Chinese. Interestingly, SK-10-2 induced the strongest T cell response to produce IFN-γ whereas the others did not induce prominent IFN-γ production despite they all induced remarkable T cell proliferation. The peptides induced different phenotypes including IFN-γ(high)TNF-α(low) and TNF-α(low)Foxp3(low). It suggests that only some of CMV-reactive CD8+ T cells are real protective IFN-γ(high) cytotoxic T cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring cytomegalovirus IE-1 and pp65-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at risk for recurrent CMV reactivations.

    PubMed

    Gratama, Jan W; Brooimans, Rik A; van der Holt, Bronno; Sintnicolaas, Kees; van Doornum, Gerard; Niesters, Hubertus G; Löwenberg, Bob; Cornelissen, Jan J

    2008-07-01

    We studied the recovery of CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immunity in 52 recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The proportions of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon in vitro activation using peptide pools representing the CMV pp65 and IE-1 proteins were assessed at multiple time points post SCT, and correlated with the occurrence of CMV reactivation. In a retrospective analysis, recurrent CMV reactivations occurred in 9 patients and were associated with low pp65-specific CD4+ T-cell and low IE-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell reactivities, whereas patients without detectable CMV reactivation (n = 30) or a single reactivation (n = 13) showed a better recovery of these immune responses. CD4+ T-cell responses to IE-1 were infrequent in most patients, whereas CD8+ T-cell responses to pp65 occurred frequently, but did not correlate with protection against (recurrent) reactivation. Prospectively, CMV-specific T-cell responses could be studied prior to 14 reactivation episodes in 8 patients. CD4+ T-cell responses to IE-1 and pp65 were positive in only 1 and 2 episodes, respectively. CD8+ T-cell responses against IE-1 were positive in 4, but against pp65 in 12 episodes, again showing that CD8+ T-cell reactivity against pp65 did not prevent CMV reactivation. Thus, monitoring of particular CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses after allogeneic SCT may identify patients at risk for recurrent CMV reactivations. (c) 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Breastfeeding on Rotavirus Antigenemia and Disease Severity in Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushmita; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep; Singh, Utpal Kant; Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Singh, Prachi; Kumar, Ranjeet; Kumar, Rishikesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the contribution of breastfeeding to Rotavirus (RV)-induced antigenemia and/or RNAemia and disease severity in Indian children (<2 yrs age). Methods Paired stool and serum samples were collected from (a) hospitalized infants with diarrhea (n = 145) and (b) healthy control infants without diarrhea (n = 28). Stool RV-antigen was screened in both groups by commercial rapid-test and enzyme immunoassay. The disease severity was scored and real-time-PCR was used for viral-load estimation. Serum was evaluated for RV-antigenemia by EIA and RV-RNAemia by RT-PCR. Data was stratified by age-group and breastfeeding status and compared. Results Presence of RV-antigenemia and RV-RNAemia was positively related with presence of RV in stool. Disease severity and stool viral-load was significantly associated with RV-antigenemia[(r = 0.74; CI:0.66 to 0.84; P<0.0001,R2 = 0.59) and (r = -0.55; CI:-0.68 to -0.39; P<0.0001,R2 = 0.31) respectively], but not with RV-RNAemia. There was significant reduction in RV-antigenemiarate in the breast-fed group compared to non-breastfed infants, especially in 0–6 month age group (P<0.001). Non-breastfed infants were at risk for RV-antigenemia with severe disease manifestations in form of high Vesikari scores correlating with high fever, more vomiting episodes and dehydration. Conclusion RV-antigenemia was common in nonbreastfed children with severe RV-diarrhea and correlated with stool RV-load and disease severity. PMID:26828823

  17. Fatal empyema thoracis caused by Schizophyllum commune with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper F W; Teng, Jade L L; Li, Iris W S; Wong, Sally C Y; Leung, Sally S M; Ho, Po-On; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-02-01

    We report a fatal case of Schizophyllum commune empyema thoracis with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia. In vitro testing confirmed the ability of the fungus to cause a positive cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (CALAS) test result. Such a result may lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment, as most strains of S. commune are resistant to fluconazole.

  18. Fatal Empyema Thoracis Caused by Schizophyllum commune with Cross-Reactive Cryptococcal Antigenemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper F. W.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Li, Iris W. S.; Wong, Sally C. Y.; Leung, Sally S. M.; Ho, Po-On; To, Kelvin K. W.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal case of Schizophyllum commune empyema thoracis with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia. In vitro testing confirmed the ability of the fungus to cause a positive cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (CALAS) test result. Such a result may lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment, as most strains of S. commune are resistant to fluconazole. PMID:24478514

  19. Acyclovir Therapy Reduces the CD4+ T Cell Response against the Immunodominant pp65 Protein from Cytomegalovirus in Immune Competent Individuals.

    PubMed

    Pachnio, Annette; Begum, Jusnara; Fox, Ashini; Moss, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects the majority of the global population and leads to the development of a strong virus-specific immune response. The CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response can comprise between 10 and 50% of the T cell pool within peripheral blood and there is concern that this may impair immunity to other pathogens. Elderly individuals with the highest magnitude of CMV-specific immune response have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of mortality and there is increasing interest in interventions that may serve to moderate this. Acyclovir is an anti-viral drug with activity against a range of herpes viruses and is used as long term treatment to suppress reactivation of herpes simplex virus. We studied the immune response to CMV in patients who were taking acyclovir to assess if therapy could be used to suppress the CMV-specific immune response. The T cell reactivity against the immunodominant late viral protein pp65 was reduced by 53% in people who were taking acyclovir. This effect was seen within one year of therapy and was observed primarily within the CD4+ response. Acyclovir treatment only modestly influenced the immune response to the IE-1 target protein. These data show that low dose acyclovir treatment has the potential to modulate components of the T cell response to CMV antigen proteins and indicate that anti-viral drugs should be further investigated as a means to reduce the magnitude of CMV-specific immune response and potentially improve overall immune function.

  20. IFNγ−TNFα−IL2−MIP1α−CD107a+PRF1+ CD8 pp65-Specific T-Cell Response Is Independently Associated With Time to Death in Elderly Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel; Casazza, Joseph P.; de Pablo-Bernal, Rebeca S.; Dominguez-Molina, Beatriz; Muñoz-Fernández, M. Ángeles; Delgado, Juan; de la Rosa, Rafael; Solana, Rafael; Koup, Richard A.; Leal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been suggested to be a major driving force in the immune deterioration and an underlying source of age-related diseases in the elderly. CMV antibody titers are associated with lower responses to vaccination, cardiovascular diseases, frailty, and mortality. CMV infection is also associated with shorter T-cell telomeres and replicative senescence. Although an age-related deregulation of CMV-specific T-cell responses could be an underlying cause of the relationship between CMV and immune defects, strong and polyfunctional responses are observed in elderly individuals, casting uncertainty on their direct role in age-related immune frailty. In this study, we longitudinally followed a cohort of healthy donors aged over 50 years, assessing their mortality rates and time to death during a 2-year period. Specific T-cell responses to the immunodominant antigen pp65 (IFNγ, TNFα, IL2, MIP1α, CD107a, and perforin production) were analyzed at the beginning of the 2-year observation period. A cytotoxic CD8 pp65-specific T-cell response, without cytokine or chemokine coexpression, was independently associated with all-cause mortality in these elderly individuals. This pp65-specific CD8 T-cell response could be a useful tool to identify individuals with depressed immune function and a higher risk of death. PMID:25238774

  1. Immunodiagnosis of systemic candidiasis: mannan antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental and human infections.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M H; Coats-Stephen, M

    1979-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects candida mannan was developed so that immunodiagnosis of systemic candidiasis could be improved. The RIA was evaluated in an animal model of disseminated disease and in a panel of patient sera. Mannan antigenemia was detected with the RIA in 52% of 29 rabbits with systemic candidasis, but not in 60 normal rabbits or 31 rabbits with systemic aspergillosis. In an evaluation of human sera, mannan antigenemia was detected in five of 11 patients with systemic candidiasis, one of three patients with invasive gastrointestinal candidiasis, and one patient with a sustained candidemia associated with an infected intravenous catheter. Mannan was not detected in sera from 11 patients with superficial candida infections, seven patients colonized with Candida, three patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, eight patients with other systemic mycoses, or 22 normal donors. This study demonstrates the utility of this RIA for early, specific immunodiagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  2. Asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia is associated with mortality among HIV-positive patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ganiem, Ahmad Rizal; Indrati, Agnes Rengga; Wisaksana, Rudi; Meijerink, Hinta; van der Ven, Andre; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies, mostly from Africa, have shown that serum cryptococcal antigenemia may precede the development of cryptococcal meningitis and early death among patients with advanced HIV infection. We examined cryptococcal antigenemia as a risk factor for HIV-associated mortality in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic. Methods We included ART-naïve HIV patients with a CD4 cell count below 100 cells/μL and no signs of meningitis in an outpatient HIV clinic in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Baseline clinical data and follow-up were retrieved from a prospective database, and cryptococcal antigen was measured in stored serum samples using a semiquantitative lateral flow assay. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors related to mortality. Results Among 810 patients (median CD4 cell count 22), 58 (7.1%) had a positive cryptococcal antigen test with a median titre of 1:80 (range: 1:1 to 1:2560). Cryptococcal antigenemia at baseline was strongly associated with the development of cryptococcal meningitis and early death and loss to follow-up. After one year, both death (22.4% vs. 11.6%; p=0.016; adjusted HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.78–4.06) and the combined endpoint of death or loss to follow-up (67.2% vs. 40.4%; p<0.001; adjusted HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.12–2.20) were significantly higher among patients with a positive cryptococcal antigen test. Conclusions Cryptococcal antigenemia is common and clinically relevant among patients with advanced HIV in this setting. Routine screening for cryptococcal antigen followed by lumbar puncture and pre-emptive antifungal treatment for those who are positive may help in reducing early mortality. PMID:24476751

  3. Effect of delayed processing of blood samples on performance of cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay.

    PubMed Central

    Niubò, J; Pérez, J L; Carvajal, A; Ardanuy, C; Martín, R

    1994-01-01

    This prospective, parallel, and blind study of 120 blood samples from immunocompromised patients examined the influence of delayed sample processing on cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay. Cytomegalovirus was detected in 49 samples (40.8%): 41 were processed within 2 to 4 h, and 40 were reprocessed the following day. Results were discrepant in 17 of the samples with the lowest positive cell counts. Differences between the two days did not reach statistical significance. PMID:8027328

  4. Asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia is associated with mortality among HIV-positive patients in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ganiem, Ahmad Rizal; Indrati, Agnes Rengga; Wisaksana, Rudi; Meijerink, Hinta; van der Ven, Andre; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies, mostly from Africa, have shown that serum cryptococcal antigenemia may precede the development of cryptococcal meningitis and early death among patients with advanced HIV infection. We examined cryptococcal antigenemia as a risk factor for HIV-associated mortality in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic. We included ART-naïve HIV patients with a CD4 cell count below 100 cells/μL and no signs of meningitis in an outpatient HIV clinic in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Baseline clinical data and follow-up were retrieved from a prospective database, and cryptococcal antigen was measured in stored serum samples using a semiquantitative lateral flow assay. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors related to mortality. Among 810 patients (median CD4 cell count 22), 58 (7.1%) had a positive cryptococcal antigen test with a median titre of 1:80 (range: 1:1 to 1:2560). Cryptococcal antigenemia at baseline was strongly associated with the development of cryptococcal meningitis and early death and loss to follow-up. After one year, both death (22.4% vs. 11.6%; p=0.016; adjusted HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.78-4.06) and the combined endpoint of death or loss to follow-up (67.2% vs. 40.4%; p<0.001; adjusted HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.12-2.20) were significantly higher among patients with a positive cryptococcal antigen test. Cryptococcal antigenemia is common and clinically relevant among patients with advanced HIV in this setting. Routine screening for cryptococcal antigen followed by lumbar puncture and pre-emptive antifungal treatment for those who are positive may help in reducing early mortality.

  5. Pneumocystis carinii antigenemia in adults with malignancy, infection, or pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Pifer, L L; Niell, H B; Morrison, B J; Counce, J D; Freeman, J M; Woods, D R; Neely, C L

    1984-01-01

    A counterimmunoelectrophoresis test for Pneumocystis carinii antigenemia was employed to assess the extent of subclinical infection or colonization with this agent in adults with infection, pulmonary disease, or malignancy and in healthy homosexual men. Antigenemia was detected in 6 of 208 (3%) of normal controls, 3 of 28 (11%) of patients with pulmonary infection, 3 of 33 (9%) of those with chronic lung disease, 1 of 36 (3%) of patients with lung cancer, 7 of 271 (3%) of afebrile subjects with malignancy, 6 of 19 (32%) of febrile patients with malignancy, 2 of 22 (9%) of those with nonpulmonary infection, and 0 of 21 (0%) of healthy young homosexual men. These data suggest that P. carinii is a common commensal or saprophyte that becomes clinically significant only when host defenses are impaired. Antigenemia may occur intermittently during various disease states in the absence of positive clinical signs and should alert the physician to subacute infection or colonization. Treatment appears advisable when clinical data and counterimmunoelectrophoresis results concur. PMID:6334694

  6. Pre-emptive therapy against cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease guided by CMV antigenemia assay after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Y; Mineishi, S; Saito, T; Seo, S; Saito, A; Suenaga, K; Ohnishi, M; Niiya, H; Nakai, K; Takeuchi, T; Kawahigashi, N; Shoji, N; Ogasawara, T; Tanosaki, R; Kobayashi, Y; Tobinai, K; Kami, M; Mori, S; Suzuki, R; Kunitoh, H; Takaue, Y

    2001-02-01

    From April 1998 to March 2000, a cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia-guided pre-emptive approach for CMV disease was evaluated in 77 adult patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the National Cancer Center Hospital. A CMV antigenemia assay was performed at least once a week after engraftment. High-level antigenemia was defined as a positive result with 10 or more positive cells per 50 000 cells and low-level antigenemia was defined as less than 10 positive cells. Among the 74 patients with initial engraftment, 51 developed positive antigenemia. Transplantation from alternative donors and the development of grade II-IV GVHD were independent risk factors for positive antigenemia. Ganciclovir was administered as pre-emptive therapy in 39 patients in a risk-adapted manner. None of the nine low-risk patients with low-level antigenemia as their initial positive result developed high-level antigenemia even though ganciclovir was withheld. Only one patient developed early CMV disease (hepatitis) during the study period. CMV antigenemia resolved in all but two cases, in whom ganciclovir was replaced with foscarnet. In eight patients, however, the neutrophil count decreased to 0.5 x 10(9)/l or less after starting ganciclovir, including three with documented infections and two with subsequent secondary graft failure. The total amount of ganciclovir and possibly the duration of high-dose ganciclovir might affect the incidence of neutropenia. We concluded that antigenemia-guided pre-emptive therapy with a decreased dose of ganciclovir and response-oriented dose adjustment might be appropriate to decrease the toxicity of ganciclovir without increasing the risk of CMV disease.

  7. Comparison of Quantitation of Cytomegalovirus DNA by Real-Time PCR in Whole Blood with the Cytomegalovirus Antigenemia Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seonhee; Jung, Bo Kyeung; Ko, Sun-Young; Lee, Chang Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA using real-time PCR has been utilized for monitoring CMV infection. However, the CMV antigenemia assay is still the 'gold standard' assay. There are only a few studies in Korea that compared the efficacy of use of real-time PCR for quantitation of CMV DNA in whole blood with the antigenemia assay, and most of these studies have been limited to transplant recipients. Method 479 whole blood samples from 79 patients, falling under different disease groups, were tested by real-time CMV DNA PCR using the Q-CMV real-time complete kit (Nanogen Advanced Diagnostic S.r.L., Italy) and CMV antigenemia assay (CINA Kit, ArgeneBiosoft, France), and the results were compared. Repeatedly tested patients were selected and their charts were reviewed for ganciclovir therapy. Results The concordance rate of the two assays was 86.4% (Cohen's kappa coefficient value=0.659). Quantitative correlation between the two assays was a moderate (r=0.5504, P<0.0001). Among 20 patients tested repeatedly with the two assays, 13 patients were transplant recipients and treated with ganciclovir. Before treatment, CMV was detected earlier by real-time CMV DNA PCR than the antigenemia assay, with a median difference of 8 days. After treatment, the antigenemia assay achieved negative results earlier than real-time CMV DNA PCR with a median difference of 10.5 days. Conclusions Q-CMV real-time complete kit is a useful tool for early detection of CMV infection in whole blood samples in transplant recipients. PMID:25553288

  8. Preconceptual administration of an alphavirus replicon UL83 (pp65 homolog) vaccine induces humoral and cellular immunity and improves pregnancy outcome in the guinea pig model of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Schleiss, Mark R; Lacayo, Juan C; Belkaid, Yasmine; McGregor, Alistair; Stroup, Greg; Rayner, Jon; Alterson, Kimberly; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Smith, Jonathan F

    2007-03-15

    Development of a vaccine against congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health priority. We report the use of a propagation-defective, single-cycle, RNA replicon vector system, derived from an attenuated strain of the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, to produce virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing GP83, the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) homolog of the human CMV pp65 phosphoprotein. Vaccination with VRP-GP83 induced antibodies and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in GPCMV-seronegative female guinea pigs. Guinea pigs immunized with VRP-GP83 vaccine or with a VRP vaccine expressing influenza hemagglutinin (VRP-HA) were bred for pregnancy and subsequent GPCMV challenge during the early third trimester. Dams vaccinated with VRP-GP83 had improved pregnancy outcomes, compared with dams vaccinated with the VRP-HA control. For VRP-GP83-vaccinated dams, there were 28 live pups and 4 dead pups (13% mortality) among 10 evaluable litters, compared with 9 live pups and 12 dead pups (57% mortality) among 8 evaluable litters in the VRP-HA-vaccinated group (P<.001, Fisher's exact test). Improved pregnancy outcome was accompanied by reductions in maternal blood viral load, measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results indicate that cell-mediated immune responses directed against a CMV matrix protein can protect against congenital CMV infection and disease.

  9. Cryptococcal Antigenemia in Nigerian Patients With Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Influence of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Oladele, Rita O.; Akanmu, Alani S.; Nwosu, Augustina O.; Ogunsola, Folasade T.; Richardson, Malcolm D.; Denning, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcal meningitis has a high mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. This is preventable with early screening and preemptive therapy. We evaluated the prevalence of cryptococcal disease by antigen testing, possible associated factors, and outcomes in HIV-infected patients being managed in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods. Sera were collected from 214 consenting HIV-infected participants with CD4+ counts <250 cells/mm3, irrespective of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) status, between November 2014 and May 2015. A cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay was used for testing. Pertinent clinical data were obtained from patients and their case notes. Results. Of the 214 participants, females (124; 57.9%) outnumbered males. Mean age was 41.3 ± 9.4 (standard deviation) years. The majority (204; 95.3%) were ART experienced. The median CD4+ cell count was 160 cells/mm3 (interquartile range, 90–210). The overall seroprevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was 8.9% (19 of 214); 6 of 61 (9.8%) in those with CD4+ cell counts <100 cells/mm3, 4 of 80 (5.0%) in the 100–200 group, and 9 of 73 (12.3%) in 200–250 cells/mm3 group. Among ART-naive patients, 1 of 10 (10%) was CrAg positive. Twenty-seven of 214 (12.6%) had associated oral thrush. Potential baseline meningitis symptoms (3 of 214 [1.4%] experienced neck pain or stiffness and 21 of 214 [9.8%] experienced headache) were common in the study group, but the result was not statistically significant in relation to CrAg positivity. Two of 19 (10.5%) CrAg-positive patients died, 10 of 19 (52.6%) were lost to follow up, and 7 of 19 (36.8%) were alive. Empirical fluconazole was routinely given to those with low CD4 counts <100 cells/mm3, which was unrelated to CrAg positivity (P = .018). Conclusions. We report a prevalence of 8.9% cryptococcal antigenemia in a setting where first-line antifungals are not readily available. We recommend Cr

  10. Cryptococcal Antigenemia in Nigerian Patients With Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Influence of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence.

    PubMed

    Oladele, Rita O; Akanmu, Alani S; Nwosu, Augustina O; Ogunsola, Folasade T; Richardson, Malcolm D; Denning, David W

    2016-03-01

    Background.  Cryptococcal meningitis has a high mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. This is preventable with early screening and preemptive therapy. We evaluated the prevalence of cryptococcal disease by antigen testing, possible associated factors, and outcomes in HIV-infected patients being managed in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods.  Sera were collected from 214 consenting HIV-infected participants with CD4(+) counts <250 cells/mm(3), irrespective of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) status, between November 2014 and May 2015. A cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay was used for testing. Pertinent clinical data were obtained from patients and their case notes. Results.  Of the 214 participants, females (124; 57.9%) outnumbered males. Mean age was 41.3 ± 9.4 (standard deviation) years. The majority (204; 95.3%) were ART experienced. The median CD4(+) cell count was 160 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range, 90-210). The overall seroprevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was 8.9% (19 of 214); 6 of 61 (9.8%) in those with CD4(+) cell counts <100 cells/mm(3), 4 of 80 (5.0%) in the 100-200 group, and 9 of 73 (12.3%) in 200-250 cells/mm(3) group. Among ART-naive patients, 1 of 10 (10%) was CrAg positive. Twenty-seven of 214 (12.6%) had associated oral thrush. Potential baseline meningitis symptoms (3 of 214 [1.4%] experienced neck pain or stiffness and 21 of 214 [9.8%] experienced headache) were common in the study group, but the result was not statistically significant in relation to CrAg positivity. Two of 19 (10.5%) CrAg-positive patients died, 10 of 19 (52.6%) were lost to follow up, and 7 of 19 (36.8%) were alive. Empirical fluconazole was routinely given to those with low CD4 counts <100 cells/mm(3), which was unrelated to CrAg positivity (P = .018). Conclusions.  We report a prevalence of 8.9% cryptococcal antigenemia in a setting where first-line antifungals are not readily available. We

  11. Utility of Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Evolution of Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia among HIV-Infected Women Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Candice K; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Intalapaporn, Poj; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Raengsakulrach, Boonyos; Peters, Philip J; McNicholl, Janet M; Park, Benjamin J; McConnell, Michelle S; Weidle, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a significant HIV-associated opportunistic infection in Southeast Asia and Africa, with a high burden of disease and a high mortality rate despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We retrospectively examined the utility of cryptococcal antigen screening to identify risk for CM among 211 Thai women initiating ART. Antigenemia prevalence was 11% (n = 9) among 84 women with a CD4 count <100 cells/mm(3). Screening identified all women who later developed CM. Cryptococcal antigen titers decreased over time with ART. Our study confirmed findings from previous studies in Thailand and South Africa and provided novel observational data regarding the course of cryptococcal antigenemia in patients initiating ART and the poor efficacy of low-dose fluconazole prophylaxis in preventing CM among patients with antigenemia.

  12. Dynamics of antigenemia and coproantigens during a human Fasciola hepatica outbreak.

    PubMed

    Espino, A M; Díaz, A; Pérez, A; Finlay, C M

    1998-09-01

    In the present study the dynamics of antigenemia and coproantigens were studied in patients with Fasciola hepatica infection during an outbreak occurring in La Palma, Pinar del Río, in the West Province of Cuba. Stool and serum samples were collected from 67 patients and 40 healthy subjects. Stool samples were studied by a simple gravity sedimentation technique and an ES78 sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for observation of eggs and detection of parasite coproantigens, respectively. Serum samples were also studied by the ES78 sandwich ELISA and an indirect ELISA to detect circulating antigens and antibodies, respectively. At the beginning of the study, 8 of 67 patients had patent infections and 59 had prepatent infections, which was determined by the recent consumption of lettuce contaminated with metacercariae of F. hepatica, the presence of clinical symptoms, and the absence of Fasciola eggs in their stools. Patients with prepatent infections were monitored by all techniques until patency. Circulating antigens were not detected in patients with patent infections. However, coproantigens were clearly detected in all patients with patent infections. On the other hand, 28.8% of patients with prepatent infections tested positive for circulating antigens and 81.4% tested positive for coproantigens in the first stool sample studied. Only two other coproantigen determinations were necessary to diagnose 93.2% of the patients. While circulating antigen levels diminished in all patients during the infection, coproantigen levels increased. The present study demonstrates that the ES78 sandwich ELISA is a better tool than parasitological examination for diagnosis of active early infection, since by the combination of the circulating-antigen detection assay and the coproantigen detection assay 91% of patients were able to be diagnosed at the beginning of the study. In contrast, a coprologic analysis repeated over several weeks was necessary to diagnose 100

  13. Antigenemia in Patients with Paracoccidioidomycosis: Detection of the 87-Kilodalton Determinant during and after Antifungal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, B. L.; Figueroa, J. I.; Hamilton, A. J.; Diez, S.; Rojas, M.; Tobón, A. M.; Hay, R. J.; Restrepo, A.

    1998-01-01

    Serological diagnosis and follow-up of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients have relied mainly on the detection of antibody responses by using techniques such as complement fixation (CF) and immunodiffusion. We recently described a novel inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (inh-ELISA) which proved to be useful in the diagnosis of PCM via the detection of an 87-kDa determinant in patient sera (B. L. Gomez, J. I. Figueroa, A. J. Hamilton, B. Ortiz, M. A. Robledo, R. J. Hay, and A. Restrepo, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:3278–3283, 1997). This test has now been assessed as a means of following up PCM patients. A total of 24 PCM patients, classified according to their clinical presentation (6 with the acute form of the disease, of whom two had AIDS, 12 with the multifocal form of the disease, and 6 with the unifocal form of the disease), were studied. The four human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with acute PCM showed a statistically significant decrease in circulating antigen levels after the start of antifungal therapy. Antigen levels in this group became negative by our criteria (≤2.3 μg/ml) before week 20 and remained so in three of four of these patients. In contrast, the two AIDS patients who also presented with the acute form of PCM showed no statistically significant decrease in circulating antigen levels even after 68 weeks of therapy. Taken together as a group, the patients with the multifocal form showed a statistically significant decrease in antigenemia after 28 weeks of therapy. In addition, five of six patients with the unifocal form became antigen negative by week 40. Antigen level decrease mirrored clinical cure in the majority of patients in all clinical groups; in contrast, measurement of anti-PCM antibodies via the CF test showed wide fluctuations in titers during the follow-up period. The inh-ELISA for the detection of the 87-kDa Paracoccidioides brasiliensis determinant would appear to be a valuable additional tool in the follow

  14. A multi-center field study of two point-of-care tests for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Bolay, Fatoma K; Boussinesq, Michel; Fischer, Peter U; Gankpala, Lincoln; Meite, Aboulaye; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D; Weil, Gary J

    2017-09-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997) with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013) in 5 endemic study sites in Africa. The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire) and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia). Data were analyzed with regard to % positivity, % agreement, and heterogeneity. Models evaluated potential effects of age, gender, and blood microfilaria (Mf) counts in individuals and effects of endemicity and history of MDA at the village level as potential factors linked to higher sensitivity of the FTS. Lastly, we assessed relationships between CFA scores and Mf in pre- and post-MDA settings. Paired test results were available for 3,682 individuals. Antigenemia rates were 8% and 22% higher by FTS than by ICT in pre-MDA and in post-MDA sites, respectively. FTS/ICT ratios were higher in areas with low infection rates. The probability of having microfilaremia was much higher in persons with CFA scores >1 in untreated areas. However, this was not true in post-MDA settings. This study has provided extensive new information on the performance of the FTS compared to ICT in Africa and it has confirmed the increased sensitivity of FTS reported in prior studies. Variability in FTS/ICT was related in part to endemicity level, history of MDA, and perhaps to the medications used for MDA. These results suggest that FTS should be superior to ICT for mapping, for transmission assessment surveys, and for post-MDA surveillance.

  15. A comparison of two tests for filarial antigenemia in areas in Sri Lanka and Indonesia with low-level persistence of lymphatic filariasis following mass drug administration.

    PubMed

    Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Supali, Taniawati; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Djuardi, Yenny; Stefani, Difa; Pical, Femmy; Fischer, Peter U; Lloyd, Melanie M; Premaratne, Prasad H; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Weil, Gary J

    2015-07-15

    Filarial antigen tests are key tools for mapping the distribution of bancroftian filariasis and for detecting areas with persistent infections following mass drug administration (MDA). A recent study showed that the new Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) has better analytical sensitivity than the BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (Card Test) for detecting circulating filarial antigen, and the FTS detected more positive results than the Card Test in a field study performed in a highly endemic area in Liberia. The present study compared the performance of the FTS and the Card Test in community surveys that were conducted in southern Sri Lanka and in Indonesia (Central Java) in areas with low-level persistence of LF following multiple rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole. The studies were performed in densely populated semi-urban areas where Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus. Antigenemia rates by FTS were 138% higher in the Sri Lanka study (43/852 vs. 18/852) and 21% higher in the Indonesia study (50/778 vs. 41/778) than antigenemia rates by Card Test. Antigenemia rates were significantly higher in males than in females and higher in adults than in children in both study sites. Although overall antigenemia rates and test scores were significantly higher by FTS than by Card Test in both study areas, rates in young children were similar with both tests in both areas. These results extend the previously reported superior sensitivity of the FTS to areas with low residual infection rates following MDA, and this could affect mapping and post-MDA survey results in adults. However, our findings suggest that results of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) performed in school-aged children are likely to be similar with both tests.

  16. Filarial Antigenemia and Loa loa Night Blood Microfilaremia in an Area Without Bancroftian Filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Bakajika, Didier K.; Nigo, Maurice M.; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A.; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M.; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0–14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. PMID:25223938

  17. Filarial antigenemia and Loa loa night blood microfilaremia in an area without bancroftian filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bakajika, Didier K; Nigo, Maurice M; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0-14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Detection of specific antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and antigenemia by counterimmunoelectrophoresis in humans infected with Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed

    Maddison, S E; Hayes, G V; Slemenda, S B; Norman, L G; Ivey, M H

    1982-06-01

    A urea-soluble extract of cyst-rich material from rat lung heavily infected with Pneumocystis carinii was evaluated in an enzyme-linked immunosorption assay for antibody in 461 human sera. The highest level of reactivity occurred in sera submitted for serodiagnosis from proved or highly suspect cases. However, the range of reactivities in these groups, many of whom were on immunosuppressive therapy, was very wide. A more restricted lower range of reactivity was observed in both hospital-family contacts and healthy Serum Bank donors. Because of the overlap in levels of reactivity between the pneumocystosis and control groups, no concise cutoff value to separate infected from noninfected individuals could be made. Specificity of the reactions was shown by absorption of patients' and control sera with uninfected and P. carinii-infected human and rat lung tissue. The data support the concept that P. carinii is highly prevalent as a latent agent in the general population and is provoked to cause clinically manifest disease in the compromised host. Detection of circulating antigen appeared to be specific and possibly a useful adjunct to diagnosis, as 10 of the 14 proved or highly suspect patients with antigenemia did not have measurable antibody to P. carinii.

  19. Neurocognitive function in HIV-infected persons with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia: a comparison of three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Martha P; Nakasujja, Noeline; Morawski, Bozena M; Rajasingham, Radha; Rhein, Joshua; Nalintya, Elizabeth; Williams, Darlisha A; Huppler Hullsiek, Kathy; Kiragga, Agnes; Rolfes, Melissa A; Donahue Carlson, Renee; Bahr, Nathan C; Birkenkamp, Kate E; Manabe, Yukari C; Bohjanen, Paul R; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Kambugu, Andrew; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2017-06-12

    HIV-infected persons with detectable cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) in blood have increased morbidity and mortality compared with HIV-infected persons who are CrAg-negative. This study examined neurocognitive function among persons with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia. Participants from three prospective HIV cohorts underwent neurocognitive testing at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Cohorts included persons with cryptococcal meningitis (N = 90), asymptomatic CrAg + (N = 87), and HIV-infected persons without central nervous system infection (N = 125). Z-scores for each neurocognitive test were calculated relative to an HIV-negative Ugandan population with a composite quantitative neurocognitive performance Z-score (QNPZ-8) created from eight tested domains. Neurocognitive function was measured pre-ART for all three cohorts and additionally after 4 weeks of ART (and 6 weeks of pre-emptive fluconazole) treatment among asymptomatic CrAg + participants. Cryptococcal meningitis and asymptomatic CrAg + participants had lower median CD4 counts (17 and 26 cells/μL, respectively) than the HIV-infected control cohort (233 cells/μL) as well as lower Karnofsky performance status (60 and 70 vs. 90, respectively). The composite QNPZ-8 for asymptomatic CrAg + (-1.80 Z-score) fell between the cryptococcal meningitis cohort (-2.22 Z-score, P = 0.02) and HIV-infected controls (-1.36, P = 0.003). After four weeks of ART and six weeks of fluconazole, the asymptomatic CrAg + cohort neurocognitive performance improved (-1.0 Z-score, P < 0.001). Significant deficits in neurocognitive function were identified in asymptomatic CrAg + persons with advanced HIV/AIDS even without signs or sequelae of meningitis. Neurocognitive function in this group improves over time after initiation of pre-emptive fluconazole treatment and ART, but short term adherence support may be necessary.

  20. Brief Report: Geographical Variation in Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia Among HIV-Infected, Treatment-Naive Patients in Nigeria: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Nwizu, Chidi; Greene, Gregory S; Amusu, Olatilewa; Chukwuka, Chinwe; Ndembi, Nicaise; Smith, Rachel M; Chiller, Tom; Pharr, Jennifer; Kozel, Thomas R

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide, HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis affects approximately 1 million persons and causes 600,000 deaths each year mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited data exist on cryptococcal meningitis and antigenemia in Nigeria, and most studies are geographically restricted. We determined the prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) among HIV-infected, treatment-naive individuals in Nigeria. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study across 4 geographic regions in Nigeria. We performed CrAg testing using a lateral flow immunoassay on archived whole-blood samples collected from HIV-infected participants at US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)-supported sites selected to represent the major geographical and ethnic diversity in Nigeria. Eligible samples were collected from consenting patients (>15 years) naive to antiretroviral therapy with CD4 count less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter and were stored in an -80°C freezer. A total of 2752 stored blood samples were retrospectively screened for CrAg. Most of the samples were from participants aged 30-44 years (57.6%), and 1570 (57.1%) were from women. The prevalence of CrAg positivity in specimens with CD4 <200 cells per cubic millimeter was 2.3% (95% confidence interval: 1.8% to 3.0%) and varied significantly across the 4 regions (P < 0.001). At 4.4% (3.2% to 5.9%), the South East contained the highest prevalence. The significant regional variation in CrAg prevalence found in Nigeria should be taken into consideration as plans are made to integrate routine screening into clinical care for HIV-infected patients.

  1. Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia clearance among Myanmar migrants after biannual mass treatments with diethylcarbamazine, 300 mg oral-dose FILADEC tablet, in Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Koyadun, Surachart; Bhumiratana, Adisak; Prikchu, Pathomporn

    2003-12-01

    Using qualitative ICT Filariasis and quantitative Og4C3 ELISA, we assessed a long-term macrofilaricidal effect of two-year biannual mass treatments with a 300 mg oral-dose FILADEC tablet, a reformulation of 6 mg/kg diethylcarbamazine (DEC), on clearance of the Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm circulating filarial antigens (CFA) in Myanmar migrants, at risk of emergence of imported bancroftian filariasis in Southern Thailand. Of the 34 antigenemic Myanmar index cases of varying initial CFA levels, who were initially screened out with the ICT Filariasis, 13 index cases were follow-up treated and monitored at the DEC post treatments, 6, 12, and 18 months. At the 18-month post treatment, residual antigenemias (%) in 4 of 5 index cases (group 1) with high antigen titers (99.7-181.6 x 10(3) AU/ml) were 54.44%, 33.58%, 27.43%, and 9.97%. Significant decreases of the CFA levels in only 3 out of 5 index cases were affected by the response to DEC treatments (p < 0.007). The treatment effects on clearance of the CFA in 8 index cases (group II) with low antigen titers (15.4-37.2 x 10(3) AU/ml) were shown for at least 6 months post DEC treatment and hence had 100% efficacy in the first 6 months of the first year of year round treatment. Group I, was more likely to show an increase of the DEC efficacy after the first 6 months of the second year round treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.063). We reemphasized that, for use in the national program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (PELF) in Thailand, such a DEC regimen had a macrofilaricidal effect on antigenemia clearance, and confirmed its value in evaluating response to the treatment and monitoring the long-term efficacy of the DEC regimen in W. bancrofti adult worm burden reductions in Myanmar migrants on a wide scale.

  2. Short-term effects of treatment with 300 mg oral-dose diethylcarbamazine on nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia and antigenemia.

    PubMed

    Siriaut, Chumsin; Bhumiratana, Adisak; Koyadun, Surachart; Anurat, Kowit; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2005-07-01

    Seven microfilaremic Myanmar patients were treated with a single 300 mg dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) orally, as part of a case-finding survey in Ranong Province, Southern Thailand. This was conducted in order to evaluate the short-term effects of single-dose DEC on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia and antigenemia during a 12-week course of treatment. Analysis of microfilarial periodicity on initial treatment revealed the microfilarial peak density (k) was at 52 minutes after midnight (0052). The periodicity index was then 103.26%. Single-dose DEC treatment did not affect the k values. A linear model of W. bancrofti microfilarial density reduction predicts a sharp decrease in the mean microfilarial density 2 weeks after DEC intake (Z = -2.197, p = 0.028). Over a longer period, a non-linear model predicts an increase in the mean microfilarial density to pre-treatment levels, having little or no macrofilaricidal effects. We reconfirmed the existence of nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti infection in Myanmar migrants in Ranong Province, and the short-term microfilaricidal activity of 300 mg single-dose DEC treatment used for biannual mass treatment and the DEC provocative test. Without an adequate DEC treatment dose, recrudescence can occur. A rational approach to the management of introduced nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti in Myanmar migrants, who came for short periods of stay in transmission-prone areas, is needed.

  3. Screening HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4 Counts for Cryptococcal Antigenemia prior to Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Screening Strategies in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rockers, Peter C.; Bonawitz, Rachael; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Glencross, Deborah K.; Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Greene, Gregory S.; Chiller, Tom M.; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Long, Lawrence; van Rensburg, Craig; Govender, Nelesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015 South Africa established a national cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) screening policy targeted at HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts <100 cells/ μl who are not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Two screening strategies are included in national guidelines: reflex screening, where a CrAg test is performed on remnant blood samples from CD4 testing; and provider-initiated screening, where providers order a CrAg test after a patient returns for CD4 test results. The objective of this study was to compare costs and effectiveness of these two screening strategies. Methods We developed a decision analytic model to compare reflex and provider-initiated screening in terms of programmatic and health outcomes (number screened, number identified for preemptive treatment, lives saved, and discounted years of life saved) and screening and treatment costs (2015 USD). We estimated a base case with prevalence and other parameters based on data collected during CrAg screening pilot projects integrated into routine HIV care in Gauteng, Free State, and Western Cape Provinces. We conducted sensitivity analyses to explore how results change with underlying parameter assumptions. Results In the base case, for each 100,000 CD4 tests, the reflex strategy compared to the provider-initiated strategy has higher screening costs ($37,536 higher) but lower treatment costs ($55,165 lower), so overall costs of screening and treatment are $17,629 less with the reflex strategy. The reflex strategy saves more lives (30 lives, 647 additional years of life saved). Sensitivity analyses suggest that reflex screening dominates provider-initiated screening (lower total costs and more lives saved) or saves additional lives for small additional costs (< $125 per life year) across a wide range of conditions (CrAg prevalence, patient and provider behavior, patient survival without treatment, and effectiveness of preemptive fluconazole treatment). Conclusions In

  4. Screening HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4 Counts for Cryptococcal Antigenemia prior to Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Screening Strategies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Larson, Bruce A; Rockers, Peter C; Bonawitz, Rachael; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Glencross, Deborah K; Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M; Greene, Gregory S; Chiller, Tom M; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Long, Lawrence; van Rensburg, Craig; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 South Africa established a national cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) screening policy targeted at HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts <100 cells/ μl who are not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Two screening strategies are included in national guidelines: reflex screening, where a CrAg test is performed on remnant blood samples from CD4 testing; and provider-initiated screening, where providers order a CrAg test after a patient returns for CD4 test results. The objective of this study was to compare costs and effectiveness of these two screening strategies. We developed a decision analytic model to compare reflex and provider-initiated screening in terms of programmatic and health outcomes (number screened, number identified for preemptive treatment, lives saved, and discounted years of life saved) and screening and treatment costs (2015 USD). We estimated a base case with prevalence and other parameters based on data collected during CrAg screening pilot projects integrated into routine HIV care in Gauteng, Free State, and Western Cape Provinces. We conducted sensitivity analyses to explore how results change with underlying parameter assumptions. In the base case, for each 100,000 CD4 tests, the reflex strategy compared to the provider-initiated strategy has higher screening costs ($37,536 higher) but lower treatment costs ($55,165 lower), so overall costs of screening and treatment are $17,629 less with the reflex strategy. The reflex strategy saves more lives (30 lives, 647 additional years of life saved). Sensitivity analyses suggest that reflex screening dominates provider-initiated screening (lower total costs and more lives saved) or saves additional lives for small additional costs (< $125 per life year) across a wide range of conditions (CrAg prevalence, patient and provider behavior, patient survival without treatment, and effectiveness of preemptive fluconazole treatment). In countries with substantial numbers of

  5. Galactomannan antigenemia in invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, E; Lehmann, P F

    1979-01-01

    Galactomannan (GM) extracted from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus with cold dilute alkali reacted with antiserum specific for an antigen that circulated in invasive aspergillosis in rabbits and humans. The GM was purified by its affinity for concanavalin A and was separated from a nonantigenic glucan by gel permeation on Sephacryl S-200. The GM molecular weight of between 25,000 to 75,000 was smaller than the antigen present in infected rabbit serum which was retained by an ultrafiltration membrane that had a nominal molecular weight limit of 125,000. The ratio of galactose to mannose present in GM was 1:1.17. The serological activity of GM was stable to boiling but labile to 0.01 N HCl, implicating galactofuranose as an antigenic determinant. Analysis of purified GM by methylation-gas chromatography suggested a structure consisting of a 1 leads to 6-linked mannan backbone with oligogalactoside side chains 3 units long, terminating in galactofuranose. The presence of mannose as a side chain component was also inferred. Another antigen of A. fumigatus, which did not bind to concanavalin A, was isolated after tandem chromatography on diethylaminoethyl- and carboxymethyl-Sephadex and was identified as a galactan. The galactan inhibited the immune precipitation of GM was specific antiserum. Images PMID:383620

  6. Relationship between Nonstructural Protein 1 Detection and Plasma Virus Load in Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Laurent; Najioullah, Fatiha; Verlaeten, Olivier; Martial, Jenny; Brichler, Ségolène; Kaidomar, Stéphane; Moravie, Victor; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    We report data from a prospective observational study performed in Martinique during a co-epidemic of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and serotype 4 (DENV-4). Among 70 serum samples from patients with DENV-2 (n = 21) or DENV-4 (n = 49) infections, 47 (67.1%) were positive for dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). Antigenemia correlated with plasma virus load and was independent of immune status and the time of sampling. Increased viremia 4–6 days after onset of illness was associated with NS1 positivity, secondary infection, and severe disease. Testing for NS1 could help identify the potentially most severely ill patients during the critical phase of dengue. PMID:20810841

  7. Estimated Prevalence of Cryptococcus Antigenemia (CrAg) among HIV-Infected Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression in Namibia Justifies Routine Screening and Preemptive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Makumbi, Boniface; Purfield, Anne; Ndjavera, Christophine; Mutandi, Gram; Maher, Andrew; Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Kaplan, Jonathan E.; Park, Benjamin J.; Lowrance, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies. Methods The study design was cross-sectional. De-identified plasma specimens collected for routine CD4+ testing from HIV-infected adults enrolled in HIV care at 181 public health facilities from November 2013 to January 2014 were identified at the national reference laboratory. Remnant plasma from specimens with CD4+ counts <200 cells/μL were sampled and tested for CrAg using the IMMY® Lateral Flow Assay. CrAg prevalence was estimated and assessed for associations with age, sex, and CD4+ count. Results A total of 825 specimens were tested for CrAg. The median (IQR) age of patients from whom specimens were collected was 38 (32–46) years, 45.9% were female and 62.9% of the specimens had CD4 <100 cells/μL. CrAg prevalence was 3.3% overall and 3.9% and 2.3% among samples with CD4+ counts of CD4+<100 cells/μL and 100–200 cells/μL, respectively. CrAg positivity was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ cells/μL < 50 (7.2%, P = 0.001) relative to those with CD4 cells/μL 50–200 (2.2%). Conclusion This is the first study to estimate CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Namibia. CrAg prevalence of ≥3.0% among patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL justifies routine CrAg screening and preemptive treatment among HIV-infected in Namibia in line with WHO recommendations. Patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL have a significantly greater risk for CrAg positivity. Revised guidelines for ART in

  8. Estimated Prevalence of Cryptococcus Antigenemia (CrAg) among HIV-Infected Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression in Namibia Justifies Routine Screening and Preemptive Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, Souleymane; Makumbi, Boniface; Purfield, Anne; Ndjavera, Christophine; Mutandi, Gram; Maher, Andrew; Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Park, Benjamin J; Lowrance, David W

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies. The study design was cross-sectional. De-identified plasma specimens collected for routine CD4+ testing from HIV-infected adults enrolled in HIV care at 181 public health facilities from November 2013 to January 2014 were identified at the national reference laboratory. Remnant plasma from specimens with CD4+ counts <200 cells/μL were sampled and tested for CrAg using the IMMY® Lateral Flow Assay. CrAg prevalence was estimated and assessed for associations with age, sex, and CD4+ count. A total of 825 specimens were tested for CrAg. The median (IQR) age of patients from whom specimens were collected was 38 (32-46) years, 45.9% were female and 62.9% of the specimens had CD4 <100 cells/μL. CrAg prevalence was 3.3% overall and 3.9% and 2.3% among samples with CD4+ counts of CD4+<100 cells/μL and 100-200 cells/μL, respectively. CrAg positivity was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ cells/μL < 50 (7.2%, P = 0.001) relative to those with CD4 cells/μL 50-200 (2.2%). This is the first study to estimate CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Namibia. CrAg prevalence of ≥3.0% among patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL justifies routine CrAg screening and preemptive treatment among HIV-infected in Namibia in line with WHO recommendations. Patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL have a significantly greater risk for CrAg positivity. Revised guidelines for ART in Namibia now recommend routine screening for CrAg.

  9. Diagnostic significance and clinical impact of quantitative assays for diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus infection/disease in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Gerna, G; Percivalle, E; Baldanti, F; Sarasini, A; Zavattoni, M; Furione, M; Torsellini, M; Revello, M G

    1998-07-01

    In recent years several assays have been developed for quantitation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in blood of immunocompromised (transplanted and AIDS) patients. It is currently agreed that the only reliable indication of the degree of dissemination of HCMV infection/disease is the measurement of HCMV in blood. Diagnosis of HCMV end-organ disease (organ localizations) often does not benefit from quantitation of virus in blood, but requires detection and quantification of virus in samples taken locally. The most important and clinically useful diagnostic assays for HCMV quantitation in blood are: i) viremia, quantifying infectious HCMV carried by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL); ii) pp65-antigenemia, quantifying the number of PBL positive for HCMV pp65 in the nucleus; iii) circulating cytomegalic endothelial cell (CEC) viremia (CEC-viremia) measuring the number of circulating CEC carrying infectious HCMV (during the antigenemia assay); iv) leuko- and plasma-DNAemia, quantifying the number of HCMV genome equivalents present in PBL or plasma, respectively, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Other less widely used assays are: i) determination of immediate early and late gene transcripts (mRNA) to detect active viral infection; ii) in situ hybridization to detect viral nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) in tissue sections or cell smears; iii) in situ PCR to detect a low DNA copy number in single cells. Monitoring of HCMV infection/disease in transplant recipients and AIDS patients has established threshold values for different assays above which HCMV-related clinical symptoms are likely to appear. These values are approximately 10 for viremia, 100 for antigenemia and 1,000 GE for leukoDNAemia, and are valid for both solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients as well as AIDS patients, whereas presence of even a single circulating CEC is sufficient to suggest the presence of a disseminated HCMV infection with potential organ involvement. Monitoring of

  10. Doxycycline Reduces Plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and Improves Pathology in Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Sabine; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Batsa, Linda; Pfarr, Kenneth; Larbi, John; Lawson, Bernard; Taylor, Mark; Adjei, Ohene; Hoerauf, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a disease of considerable socioeconomic burden in the tropics. Presently used antifilarial drugs are able to strongly reduce transmission and will thus ultimately lower the burden of morbidity associated with the infection, however, a chemotherapeutic principle that directly induces a halt or improvement in the progression of the morbidity in already infected individuals would constitute a major lead. In search of such a more-effective drug to complement the existing ones, in an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis in Ghana, 33 microfilaremic and 18 lymphedema patients took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a 6-wk regimen of 200 mg/day doxycycline. Four months after doxycycline treatment, all patients received 150–200 μg/kg ivermectin and 400 mg albendazole. Patients were monitored for Wolbachia and microfilaria loads, antigenemia, filarial dance sign (FDS), dilation of supratesticular lymphatic vessels, and plasma levels of lymphangiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-C [VEGF-C] and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 [(s)VEGFR-3]). Lymphedema patients were additionally monitored for stage (grade) of lymphedema and the circumferences of affected legs. Wolbachia load, microfilaremia, antigenemia, and frequency of FDS were significantly reduced in microfilaremic patients up to 24 mo in the doxycycline group compared to the placebo group. The mean dilation of supratesticular lymphatic vessels in doxycycline-treated patients was reduced significantly at 24 mo, whereas there was no improvement in the placebo group. Preceding clinical improvement, at 12 mo, the mean plasma levels of VEGF-C and sVEGFR-3 decreased significantly in the doxycycline-treated patients to a level close to that of endemic normal values, whereas there was no significant reduction in the placebo patients. The extent of disease in lymphedema patients significantly improved following doxycycline, with the mean stage of

  11. A case of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in a patient with AIDS: longitudinal molecular analysis of the CMV viral load and viral mutations in blood compartments.

    PubMed

    Boivin, G; Gilbert, C; Morissette, M; Handfield, J; Goyette, N; Bergeron, M G

    1997-06-01

    To study the temporal relationships between cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load and specific UL97 mutations in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and plasma samples from a patient with AIDS who developed ganciclovir-resistant CMV retinitis. Sequential PMNL and plasma samples were analysed for determination of the CMV viral load using non-molecular methods and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Screening of the same samples for the most common mutations conferring ganciclovir resistance was performed using nested PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. At the time of progression of CMV retinitis (after 6 months of ganciclovir), a rapid increase in the CMV DNA load was found in both PMNL and plasma samples. This increase paralleled the emergence of a specific mutation (V594) in the same samples and recovery of ganciclovir-resistant blood isolates. In this patient, however, the only tests that substantially predicted the progression of CMV disease were the quantitative PCR assay using PMNL and to a lesser extent the pp65 antigenemia assay. Quantitative evaluation of the CMV viral load in PMNL using sensitive assays such as PCR appears to be a promising approach for monitoring antiviral therapy in subjects with AIDS. In addition, common mutations conferring ganciclovir resistance can be detected directly in PMNL and plasma samples.

  12. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  13. Diagnostic Value of Monitoring Human Cytomegalovirus Late pp67 mRNA Expression in Renal-Allograft Recipients by Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Blok, Marinus J.; Goossens, Valere J.; Vanherle, Sabina J. V.; Top, Bert; Tacken, Nicole; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Christiaans, Maarten H. L.; van Hooff, Johannes P.; Bruggeman, Cathrien A.

    1998-01-01

    The diagnostic value of monitoring human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) late pp67 mRNA expression by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) after renal-allograft transplantation was evaluated. RNAs were isolated from 489 whole-blood specimens of 42 patients for the specific amplification of the late pp67 (UL65) mRNA. NASBA results were compared to results from the pp65 antigenemia assay, virus isolation by cell culture, and serology. The sensitivity value for NASBA proved to be higher than that for the antigenemia assay (50 versus 35%) for the detection of HCMV infection, while the sensitivity values of cell culture and NASBA were comparable (54 and 50%, respectively). NASBA detected the onset of HCMV infection simultaneously with cell culture and the antigenemia assay. Both the antigenemia assay and NASBA are very specific (100%) and highly predictive (100%) for the onset of HCMV infection. Antiviral therapy with ganciclovir resulted in negative results for cell culture, the antigenemia assay, and NASBA. In conclusion, monitoring HCMV pp67 mRNA expression by NASBA is a highly specific method for the detection of HCMV infection in renal-allograft recipients and is more sensitive than the antigenemia assay. Furthermore, NASBA can be used to monitor the progression of HCMV infections and the effect of antiviral therapy on viral activity. PMID:9574702

  14. Cosmic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to experimental and theoretical approaches to plasma physics, plasma phenomena in laboratory and space, field and particle aspects of plasmas, the present state of the classical theory, boundary conditions and circuit dependence, and cosmology. Electric currents in space plasmas are considered, taking into account dualism in physics, particle-related phenomena in plasma physics, magnetic field lines, filaments, local plasma properties and the circuit, electric double layers, field-aligned currents as 'cables', an expanding circuit, different types of plasma regions, the cellular structure of space, and the fine structure of active plasma regions. Other topics discussed are related to circuits, the theory of cosmic plasmas, the origin of the solar system, the coexistence of matter and antimatter, annihilation as a source of energy, the Hubble expansion in a Euclidean space, and a model for the evolution of the Metagalaxy.

  15. Dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-05-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.

  16. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  17. Effect of a 14-day course of foscarnet on cytomegalovirus (CMV) blood markers in a randomized study of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with persistent CMV viremia. Agence National de Recherche du SIDA 023 Study Group.

    PubMed

    Salmon-Céron, D; Fillet, A M; Aboulker, J P; Gérard, L; Houhou, N; Carrière, I; Ostinelli, J; Vildé, J L; Brun-Vézinet, F; Leport, C

    1999-04-01

    A randomized open-label phase 2 trial compared the virological and clinical effects on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of a 14-day course of intravenous foscarnet (100 mg/[kg x 12 h]) or no treatment in 42 HIV-infected patients with < 100 CD4 cells/mm3 and persistent asymptomatic CMV viremia. All CMV markers (blood culture, pp65 antigenemia, plasma and leukocyte DNA) either became negative or decreased significantly at day 14 in the foscarnet group. CMV blood culture results at day 14 were positive in 14% of those receiving foscarnet versus 60% of control patients (P = .004). However, after the end of treatment, all markers reappeared or the virus load rapidly increased. The probability of CMV disease at 6 months was 43% in both groups. Patients who had or who achieved a negative blood culture at any time had a reduced risk of CMV disease (RR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.24-5.62; P = .02). This study suggests that sequential courses of intravenous foscarnet might not be a good strategy for preemptive therapy in this population and that in patients with a positive blood marker, treatment able to induce and maintain negative CMV blood cultures could constitute an effective intervention.

  18. Preliminary exploration of HLA-A 1101-restricted human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B-specific CD8⁺ T cells in allogeneic stem-cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anbing; Hu, Jianhua; Wu, Wei; Huang, Yaping; Liang, Hanying; Wang, Huiqi; Yang, Rong; Fan, Jun

    2014-08-08

    T-cell responses directed against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoprotein B (gB) contribute to protective immunity against HCMV infection in both animal models and humans. However, the gB-specific human CD8(+) T cell responses remain poorly understood. gB antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells were stained with seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide pentamers in 16 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A 1101-positive, HCMV-seropositive patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of these seven pentamers, the most frequent CD8(+) T-cell responses were directed against the gB332-340 peptide. These gB332-340-specific CD8(+) T cells were strongly associated with the presence of plasma HCMV immunoglobulin M in all HSCT recipients and exhibited a probable causal relationship with the level of pp65 antigenemia. Together, these data suggest a role for gB332-340-specific CD8(+) T cells in HCMV reactivation after HSCT. Furthermore, the pentamer assay may be valuable in detecting antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells.

  19. Construction and Evaluation of Cytomegalovirus DNA Quantification System with Real-Time Detection Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hatayama, Yuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Hara, Ayako; Motokura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background For patients with reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a highly sensitive and accurate CMV quantification system is essential to monitor viral load. Methods We constructed a real-time detection PCR (RTD-PCR) system for CMV DNA and evaluated its linearity, lower detection limit, dynamic range and accuracy using two CMV standards. We used 219 clinical samples derived from 101 patients to compare the system with the pp65 antigen test. Results The 95% detection limit was determined to be 556 IU/mL (95% CI, 440–797 IU/mL), and the quantification range was between 102 and 106 copies or IU/mL (r = 0.996, 0.999, respectively). The coefficients of variation of inter-assay reproducibility assessed in each three different runs were 2.5% at 1,000 IU/mL and 1.6% at 10,000 IU/mL. The coefficients of variation of intra-assay variability by testing the same samples three times in a single run were 1.8–3.6% and 0.4–1.9%, respectively. The concordance between antigenemia and plasma or serum CMV DNA levels was a good correlation (r = 0.695, P < 0.01). Conclusion We constructed the RTD-PCR system which enables accurate evaluation of CMV reactivation by monitoring of viral load in immunosuppressed or immunocompromised patients. PMID:27708537

  20. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  1. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  2. PLASMA ENERGIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Furth, H.P.; Chambers, E.S.

    1962-03-01

    BS>A method is given for ion cyclotron resonance heatthg of a magnetically confined plasma by an applied radio-frequency field. In accordance with the invention, the radiofrequency energy is transferred to the plasma without the usual attendent self-shielding effect of plasma polarlzatlon, whereby the energy transfer is accomplished with superior efficiency. More explicitly, the invention includes means for applying a radio-frequency electric field radially to an end of a plasma column confined in a magnetic mirror field configuration. The radio-frequency field propagates hydromagnetic waves axially through the column with the waves diminishing in an intermediate region of the column at ion cyclotron resonance with the fleld frequency. In such region the wave energy is converted by viscous damping to rotational energy of the plasma ions. (AEC)

  3. Unmatter Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2015-11-01

    ``Unmatter Plasma'' is a novel form of plasma, exclusively made of matter and its antimatter counterpart. An experiment (2015) on matter-antimatter plasma [or unmatter plasma] was recently successful at the Astra Gemini laser facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford, United Kingdom. The experiment that was made has produced electron-positron plasma. The positron is the antimatter of the electron, having an opposite charge of the electron, but the other properties are the same. Unmatter is considered as a combination of matter and antimatter. For example electron-positron is a type of unmatter. We coined the word ``unmatter'' (2004) that means neither matter nor antimatter, but something in between. Besides matter and antimatter there may exist unmatter (as a new form of matter) in accordance with the neutrosophy theory that between an entity and its opposite there exist intermediate entities.

  4. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  5. Smoky Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2006-10-01

    The mesosphere contains nanometer-sized smoke particles that have formed in the vapor trails of meteors and that are thought to be the condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds. Laboratory dusty plasmas often have the dust particles in a layer at the lower sheath boundary. We examine the possibility of creating in a double-plasma device a smoky plasma in which the particles would be sufficiently small to fill the plasma nearly uniformly while being sufficiently large to exhibit multiple charge states that would distinguish the smoky plasma from one containing heavy negative ions. For example, nanometer sized atomic clusters of Ag (4 nm radius, 10,000 atoms) can be generated in an oven with an inert gas that carries the particles into the plasma chamber. These particles will become charged negatively with about 8 electrons and will then be electrostatically contained by the presheath electric field The confining electric force will also be greater than the ion drag force that could otherwise create a void in the smoke particle density distribution. This plasma would make possible, for example, experiments on the coupling of electrostatic waves to fluid turbulence by the neutral drag force. An acoustic wave propagating in smoky plasma will exert different drag forces on electrons, ions, and smoke particles thus creating a charge-separation electric field that can be measured by potential probes. This coupling may be the origin of electrostatic fluctuations seen by rocket-borne electric field probes in the mesosphere. Supported by the NSF/DOE Plasma Science Initiative.

  6. Twisting Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-08

    A close-up of twisting plasma above the Sun's surface produced a nice display of turbulence by caused combative magnetic forces (June 7-8, 2016) over a day and a half. The plasma does not break away, but just spins and twists the entire period. Images were taken in extreme ultraviolet light. The mass we observed is part of a longer, darkish filament angling down from the upper left of the frame. Filaments are unstable clouds of plasma suspended above the Sun by magnetic forces. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20739

  7. Plasma Rain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On April 19, 2010 AIA observed one of the largest prominence eruptions in years. The huge structure erupts, but a great deal of the plasma (hundreds of millions of tons) is unable to escape the gra...

  8. Plasma Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  9. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Brathenahl, A.; Furth, H.P.

    1962-04-10

    A device for producing a confined high temperature plasma is described. In the device the concave inner surface of an outer annular electrode is disposed concentrically about and facing the convex outer face of an inner annular electrode across which electrodes a high potential is applied to produce an electric field there between. Means is provided to create a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field and a gas is supplied at reduced pressure in the area therebetween. Upon application of the high potential, the gas between the electrodes is ionized, heated, and under the influence of the electric and magnetic fields there is produced a rotating annular plasma disk. The ionized plasma has high dielectric constant properties. The device is useful as a fast discharge rate capacitor, in controlled thermonuclear research, and other high temperature gas applications. (AEC)

  10. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  11. Plasma Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma displays use the physical phenomena of the gas discharge and are frequently called gas discharge displays. This is a rather mature display technology that has seen commercial success over a wide size range, from small single digits to one meter diagonal graphics displays having 2 million pixels. Plasma displays currently enjoy the dominant position in large flat panel display technologies. They are likely to maintain that position in at least the next five years because of the many properties of the gas discharge ideally suited for flat panel matrix displays.

  12. Plasma separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    This process employs a thermal plasma for the separation and production of oxygen and metals. It is a continuous process that requires no consumables and relies entirely on space resources. The almost complete absence of waste renders it relatively clean. It can be turned on or off without any undesirable side effects or residues. The prime disadvantage is its high power consumption.

  13. Plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Herlitz, H.G.

    1986-11-01

    This paper describes the uses of plasma technology for the thermal destruction of hazardous wastes such as PCBs, dioxins, hydrocarbons, military chemicals and biological materials; for metals recovery from steel making dusts. One advantage of the process is that destruction of wastes can be carried out on site. Systems in several countries use the excess thermal energy for district heating.

  14. Burning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  15. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  16. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, J.M.; Baker, W.R.

    1963-09-17

    This invention is a magnetohydrodynamic device for generating a highly ionized ion-electron plasma at a region remote from electrodes and structural members, thus avoiding contamination of the plasma. The apparatus utilizes a closed, gas-filled, cylindrical housing in which an axially directed magnetic field is provided. At one end of the housing, a short cylindrical electrode is disposed coaxially around a short axial inner electrode. A radial electrical discharge is caused to occur between the inner and outer electrodes, creating a rotating hydromagnetic ionization wave that propagates aiong the magnetic field lines toward the opposite end of the housing. A shorting switch connected between the electrodes prevents the wave from striking the opposite end of the housing. (AEC)

  17. Plasma displays

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.

    1991-12-01

    Plasma displays make use of lightly ionized glow discharges to produce light, perform switching and selection functions, or both. Both the negative glow and the positive column are used. Color can be attained by using UV from the discharge to stimulate phosphors. The adroit use of priming can reduce the number of drive circuits required - an advantage unique in the display art to plasma devices. Short voltage pulses can improve the efficacy of positive-column devices. Short voltage pulses can improve the efficacy of positive-column devices. The gas discharge can be used as a source of electrons, which can then excite cathodoluminescent phosphors in a variety of colors. It can also be used as a selection means for liquid-crystal displays. In this paper a wide variety of device configurations, using both unidirectional and bidirectional pulse excitations, is described.

  18. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  19. Shifting Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Strands of plasma at the sun edge shifted and twisted back and forth over a 22-hour period, May 2-3, 2017. In this close-up from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory, the strands are being manipulated by strong magnetic forces associated with active region. This kind of activity is not at all uncommon, but best viewed in profile. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. To give a sense of scale, the strands hover above the sun more than several times the size of Earth. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21632

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Complex plasma: dusts in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2007-04-01

    Dust particles in a plasma are charged negatively and are subject to various types of forces, including a drag force by plasma particles and a force due to the collective nature of a plasma. Dust particles are found in a sheath in laboratories balanced by the gravitational force and the electric force, while dust particles in space are ubiquitous, including planetary magnetospheres and interstellar space. Because of the novel nature of a complex system involving plasma particles and dust particles in a collective way, the dusty plasma is often called a complex plasma. The complex plasma is characterized by two distinctly different scales in time and in space. The plasma with electrons, ions and neutrals is characterized by the collective motion with a fast time scale and a short wavelength, while the dust particles move in a slow time scale and a long spatial scale. Some fundamental aspects of a complex plasma are reviewed and possible applications are discussed.

  1. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  2. Plasma Dictionary Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Don; Heeter, Robert; Alvarez, Mitch

    2000-10-01

    In response to many inquiries for a list of plasma terms, a database driven Plasma Dictionary website (plasmadictionary.llnl.gov) was created that allows users to submit new terms, search for specific terms or browse alphabetic listings. The Plasma Dictionary website contents began with the Fusion & Plasma Glossary terms available at the Fusion Energy Educational website (fusedweb.llnl.gov). Plasma researchers are encouraged to add terms and definitions. By clarifying the meanings of specific plasma terms, it is envisioned that the primary use of the Plasma Dictionary website will be by students, teachers, researchers, and writers for (1) Enhancing literacy in plasma science, (2) Serving as an educational aid, (3) Providing practical information, and (4) Helping clarify plasma writings. The Plasma Dictionary website has already proved useful in responding to a request from the CRC Press (www.crcpress.com) to add plasma terms to its CRC physics dictionary project (members.aol.com/physdict/).

  3. Applications of atmospheric plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Christopher John

    Surface modification techniques using plasmas have historically been completed in a low pressure environment due to Pd (pressure x gap distance) considerations influencing the behavior of plasma generation. Generally, plasmas produced in a low pressure environment are of a non-thermal or cold nature. The basic feature of non-thermal plasmas is the majority of electrical energy used to generate the plasma is primarily used to produce energetic electrons for generating chemical species. Low pressure plasmas serve many purposes for materials processing. Since the plasma environment is contained within a closed vessel, the plasma can be controlled very easily. Low pressure plasmas have been used in many industries but the complexity associated with the large pumping stations and limitation to batch processing has motivated new work in the area of atmospheric plasmas. Atmospheric plasmas offer both economic and technical justification for use over low pressure plasmas. Since atmospheric plasmas can be operated at ambient conditions, lower costs associated with continuous processing and a decrease in the complexity of equipment validate atmospheric plasma processing as a next generation plasma-aided manufacturing process. In an effort to advance acceptance of atmospheric plasma processing into industry, a process was developed, the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), in order to generate a homogeneous and non-thermal plasma discharge at ambient conditions. The discharge was applied to the reduction of known food borne pathogens, deposition of thin film materials, and modification of lignocellulosic biomass.

  4. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  5. Communication through plasma sheaths

    SciTech Connect

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2007-10-15

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  6. Plasma sweeper. [Patents

    DOEpatents

    Motley, R.W.; Glanz, J.

    1982-10-25

    A device is described for coupling RF power (a plasma sweeper) from RF power introducing means to a plasma having a magnetic field associated therewith comprises at least one electrode positioned near the plasma and near the RF power introducing means. Means are described for generating a static electric field at the electrode directed into the plasma and having a component substantially perpendicular to the plasma magnetic field such that a non-zero vector cross-product of the electric and magnetic fields exerts a force on the plasma causing the plasma to drift.

  7. Industrial plasmas in academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenstein, Ch; Howling, AA; Guittienne, Ph; Furno, I.

    2015-01-01

    The present review, written at the occasion of the 2014 EPS Innovation award, will give a short overview of the research and development of industrial plasmas within the last 30 years and will also provide a first glimpse into future developments of this important topic of plasma physics and plasma chemistry. In the present contribution, some of the industrial plasmas studied at the CRPP/EPFL at Lausanne are highlighted and their influence on modern plasma physics and also discharge physics is discussed. One of the most important problems is the treatment of large surfaces, such as that used in solar cells, but also in more daily applications, such as the packaging industry. In this contribution, the advantages and disadvantages of some of the most prominent plasmas such as capacitively- and inductively-coupled plasmas are discussed. Electromagnetic problems due to the related radio frequency and its consequences on the plasma reactor performance, and also dust formation due to chemical reactions in plasma, are highlighted. Arcing and parasitic discharges occurring in plasma reactors can lead to plasma reactor damages. Some specific problems, such as the gas supply of a large area reactor, are discussed in more detail. Other topics of interest have been dc discharges such as those used in plasma spraying where thermal plasmas are applied for advanced material processing. Modern plasma diagnostics make it possible to investigate sparks in electrical discharge machining, which surprisingly show properties of weakly-coupled plasmas. Nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasmas have been applied to more speculative topics such as applications in aerodynamics and will surely be important in the future for ignition and combustion. Most of the commonly-used plasma sources have been shown to be limited in their performance. Therefore new, more effective plasma sources are urgently required. With the recent development of novel resonant network antennas for new

  8. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  9. Plasma surface cleaning using microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Nelson, W.D.; Schechter, D.E.; Thompson, L.M.; Campbell, V.B.; Glover, A.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1993-11-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixture with argon are used for plasma-cleaning experiments. Aluminum test samples (0.95 {times} 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films ({le} 20 {mu}m in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned by using such reactive plasmas. The plasma cleaning was done in various discharge conditions with fixed microwave power, rf power, biased potential, gas pressures (0.5 and 5 mtorr), and operating time up to 35 min. The status of plasma cleaning has been monitored by using mass spectroscopy. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured clean rates of low pressure (0.5 mtorr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 {mu}/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces and confirm the effectiveness of plasma cleaning in achieving atomic levels of surface cleanliness. In this paper, significant results are reported and discussed.

  10. Experiments with nonneutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    O’Neil, T. M.

    2016-03-25

    Selected experiments with nonneutral plasmas are discussed. These include the laser cooling of a pure ion plasma to a crystalline state, a measurement of the Salpeter enhancement factor for fusion in a strongly correlated plasma and the measurement of thermally excited plasma waves. Also, discussed are experiments that demonstrate Landau damping, trapping and plasma wave echoes in the 2D ExB drift flow of a pure electron plasma, which is isomorphic to the 2D ideal flow (incompressible and inviscid flow) of a neutral fluid.

  11. Direct Quantification of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early and Late mRNA Levels in Blood of Lung Transplant Recipients by Competitive Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Greijer, Astrid E.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Dekkers, Chantal A. J.; Adriaanse, Henriëtte M. A.; The, T. Hauw; Middeldorp, Jaap M.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored by competitive nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assays for quantification of IE1 (UL123) and pp67 (UL65) mRNA expression levels in the blood of patients after lung transplantation. RNA was isolated from 339 samples of 13 lung transplant recipients and analyzed by the quantitative IE1 and pp67 NASBA in parallel with pp65 antigenemia and serology. Rapid increases in IE1 RNA exceeding 104 copies per 100 μl of blood were associated with active infection, whereas lower levels were suggestive for abortive, subclinical viral activity. Any positive value for pp67 RNA was indicative for active infection, and quantification of pp67 mRNA did not give additional diagnostic information. The onset of IE1-positive NASBA preceded pp67 NASBA and was earlier than the pp65 antigenemia assay, confirming previous studies with qualitative NASBA. Effective antiviral treatment was reflected by a rapid disappearance of pp67 mRNA, whereas IE1 mRNA remained detectable for longer periods. Quantification of IE1 might be relevant to monitor progression of HCMV infection but should be validated in prospective studies. PMID:11136779

  12. Plasma processes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    Elementary microscopic interactions in plasmas are described. The importance of plasma physics in space studies is illustrated by examining several phenomena which cannot be explained satisfactorily by MHD theory. These include kinetic instabilities, plasma turbulence in the bow shock, magnetic turbulence near the moon, VLF emissions in the magnetosphere, planetary and solar radio emissions, and interaction of planetary and cometary plasmas with the solar wind. Evidence for the existence of anomalous transport processes in terrestrial and planetary magnetospheres is presented.

  13. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  14. A reconfigurable plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Bora, Dhiraj

    2010-03-15

    An experiment aimed at investigating the antenna properties of different plasma structures of a plasma column as a reconfigurable plasma antenna, is reported. A 30 cm long plasma column is excited by surface wave, which acts as a plasma antenna. By changing the operating parameters, e.g., working pressure, drive frequency, input power, radius of glass tube, length of plasma column, and argon gas, single plasma antenna (plasma column) can be transformed to multiple small antenna elements (plasma blobs). It is also reported that number, length, and separation between two antenna elements can be controlled by operating parameters. Moreover, experiments are also carried out to study current profile, potential profile, conductivity profile, phase relations, radiation power patterns, etc. of the antenna elements. The effect on directivity with the number of antenna elements is also studied. Findings of the study indicate that entire structure of antenna elements can be treated as a phased array broadside vertical plasma antenna, which produces more directive radiation pattern than the single plasma antenna as well as physical properties and directivity of such antenna can be controlled by operating parameters. The study reveals the advantages of a plasma antenna over the conventional antenna in the sense that different antennas can be formed by tuning the operating parameters.

  15. Fresh Frozen Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    therapeutic means). FFP can be prepared either by separation from whole blood or collection via plasmapheresis . Fresh frozen plasma contains the...FFP can be further separated into cryoprecipitate and what is known as “cryo-poor plasma,” a product rarely used for therapeutic means. Plasma is the

  16. Plasma and plasma derivatives in therapeutic plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Bruce C

    2012-05-01

    In therapeutic plasmapheresis, patient plasma is withdrawn and a colloid replacement solution is infused in its place. A 4% to 5% human serum albumin solution in saline is the preferred replacement solution in most instances, even though this practice causes transient mild deficiencies of most plasma proteins. Albumin solutions are pasteurized for viral inactivation, are very unlikely to cause a febrile or allergic reaction, and are convenient to store and administer. Single-donor plasma must be type specific, which requires advance knowledge of patient blood type, and must be ordered and usually thawed before use. It also carries a higher risk of reactions. On the plus side, it replaces all plasma constituents and is appropriate for patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or an existing coagulopathy. Neither cryosupernatant plasma, which is relatively deficient in the proteins in cryoprecipitate, nor plasma derived from pools that have been virally inactivated with detergents and organic solvents has been shown to produce better outcomes than fresh frozen plasma for any indication.

  17. Report from space plasma science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. E.; Drobot, A.; Banks, Peter M.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Anderson, H. R.

    1989-01-01

    Space plasma science, especially plasma experiments in space, is discussed. Computational simulations, wave generation and propagation, wave-particle interactions, charged particle acceleration, particle-particle interactions, radiation transport in dense plasmas, macroscopic plasma flow, plasma-magnetic field interactions, plasma-surface interactions, prospects for near-term plasma science experiments in space and three-dimensional plasma experiments are among the topics discussed.

  18. Mirror plasma apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

  19. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  20. Multipolar ECR plasma characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ciubotariu, C.I.; Golovanivsky, K.S.; Bacal, M.

    1995-12-31

    There has been considerable interest in the development of intense negative ion sources for use in high-energy neutral beam heating and diagnostics systems for nuclear fusion plasmas. As it was shown by one of the authors overdense ECR plasmas seem to be an appropriate medium to produce H-ions at high rate. Overdense plasmas are a result of the microwave({mu}wave) power absorption in ECR plasma heating and magnetic field confinement. Our aim is to characterize the hydrogen plasma produced in a 2.45 GHz multipolar negative ion ECR source (ECRIN).

  1. Model of detached plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.

    1986-07-01

    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model.

  2. Plasma modification of starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasmas for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  4. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi

    2012-10-01

    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  5. Plasma detachment in linear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, N.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  6. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  7. Plasma Physics: An Introductory Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, R. O.

    1995-03-01

    Preface; Introduction R. O. Dendy; 1. Plasma particle dynamics R. J. Hastie; 2. Plasma kinetic theory J. A. Elliott; 3. Waves in plasmas J. P. Doughtery; 4. Magnetohydrodynamics K. I. Hopcraft; 5. Turbulence in fluids and fusion plasmas F. A. Haas; 6. Finite-dimensional dynamics and chaos T. J. Mullin; 7. Computational plasma physics J. W. Eastwood; 8. Tokomak experiments D. C. Robinson and M. R. O'Brien; 9. Magnetospheric plasmas: Part I Basic processes in the solar system D. A. Bryant; Part II Microprocesses R. L. Bingham; 10. Solar plasmas R. A. Hood; 11. Gravitational plasmas J. J. Binney; 12. Laser plasmas A. R. Bell; 13. Industrial plasmas P. C. Johnson; 14. Transport in magnetically confined plasmas T. E. Stringer; 15. Radio-frequency plasma heating R. A. Cairns; 16. Boundary plasmas G. McCracken; 17. How to build a tokomak T. N. Todd; 18. Survey of fusion plasma physics R. S. Pease; Index.

  8. Plasma in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, decontamination, root canal disinfection and tooth bleaching were reviewed as direct applications with other miscellaneous ones. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma was of particular focus since it is gaining considerable attention due to the possibility for its use in living tissues. Future perspectives have also been discussed briefly. Although it is still not popular among dentists, plasma has shown promises in several areas of dentistry and is now opening a new era of plasma dentistry. PMID:27030818

  9. Divertor plasma detachment

    SciTech Connect

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Pshenov, A. A.

    2016-05-15

    Regime with the plasma detached from the divertor targets (detached divertor regime) is a natural continuation of the high recycling conditions to higher density and stronger impurity radiation loss. Both the theoretical considerations and experimental data show clearly that the increase of the impurity radiation loss and volumetric plasma recombination causes the rollover of the plasma flux to the target when the density increases, which is the manifestation of detachment. Plasma-neutral friction (neutral viscosity effects), although important for the sustainment of high density/pressure plasma upstream and providing the conditions for efficient recombination and power loss, is not directly involved in the reduction of the plasma flux to the targets. The stability of detachment is also discussed.

  10. Pulsed plasma electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-15

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E{<=}10{sup 5} V/cm and duration {<=}10{sup -5} s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  11. Divertor plasma detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Pshenov, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Regime with the plasma detached from the divertor targets (detached divertor regime) is a natural continuation of the high recycling conditions to higher density and stronger impurity radiation loss. Both the theoretical considerations and experimental data show clearly that the increase of the impurity radiation loss and volumetric plasma recombination causes the rollover of the plasma flux to the target when the density increases, which is the manifestation of detachment. Plasma-neutral friction (neutral viscosity effects), although important for the sustainment of high density/pressure plasma upstream and providing the conditions for efficient recombination and power loss, is not directly involved in the reduction of the plasma flux to the targets. The stability of detachment is also discussed.

  12. Voltage Amplification using Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, E. E.; Cavalcanti, G. H.; Santiago, M. A. M.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to present experimental results about voltage amplification using plasma produced by a simple neon lamp, series connected with a signal generator and discrete circuit elements. The main advantage of employing plasma as an amplifier is due to its ability to drive larger power and potentially to operate in a larger frequency range compared with traditional amplifiers. Our results show that both, the voltage gain and the frequency range where the gain is bigger than one, are related to the plasma density which may be adjusted by a proper control of electrical discharge conditions. The plasma produced into the neon lamp exhibits a diode characteristic that is the principal responsible by the nonlinear plasma response. The amplification occurs when the plasma shows a negative conductance. In this regime the lamp works as an active amplifier and voltage gain higher than 18 was obtained.

  13. What is a plasma?

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, Thomas P.

    2012-08-30

    This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

  14. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  15. Space plasma physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  16. Atmospheric Plasma Depainting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-19

    Penny Road ??? Suite D,Cary,NC,27518 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR...disposal) – High environmental cost (solid / liquid waste disposal) – Potentially damaging to some substrate materials ( composites ) Problem Statement 5...Atmospheric Plasma Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 • Plasma occurring at Atmospheric Pressure • Plasma with Atmospheric Composition

  17. Cytomegalovirus infections following umbilical cord blood transplantation using reduced intensity conditioning regimens for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tomoko; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kami, Masahiro; Yuji, Koichiro; Kusumi, Eiji; Hori, Akiko; Murashige, Naoko; Tanaka, Yuji; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2007-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT); however, we have little information on the clinical features of CMV reactivation after cord blood transplantation using reduced-intensity regimens (RI-CBT) for adults. We reviewed medical records of 140 patients who underwent RI-CBT at Toranomon Hospital between January 2002 and March 2005. All the patients were monitored for CMV-antigenemia weekly, and, if turned positive, received preemptive foscarnet or ganciclovir. Seventy-seven patients developed positive antigenemia at a median onset of day 35 (range, 4-92) after transplant. Median of the maximal number of CMV pp65-positive cells per 50,000 cells was 22 (range, 1-1806). CMV disease developed in 22 patients on a median of day 35 (range, 15-106); 21 had enterocolitis and 1 had adrenalitis. CMV antigenemia had not been detected in 2 patients, when CMV disease was diagnosed. CMV disease was successfully treated using ganciclovir or foscarnet in 14 patients. The other 8 patients died without improvement of CMV disease. In multivariate analysis, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was a risk factor of CMV disease (relative risk 3.48, 95% confidential interval 1.47-8.23). CMV reactivation and disease develop early after RI-CBT. CMV enterocolitis may be a common complication after RI-CBT.

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  19. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  20. Planetary plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary types of plasma waves observed in the vicinity of the planets Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are described. The observations are organized according to the various types of plasma waves observed, ordered according to decreasing distance from the planet, starting from the sunward side of the planet, and ending in the region near the closest approach. The plasma waves observed include: electron plasma oscillations and ion acoustic waves; trapped continuum radiation; electron cyclotron and upper hybrid waves; whistler-mode emissions; electrostatic ion cyclotron waves; and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  1. Plasma and particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špatenka, Petr; Vacková, Tat'ana; Nováček, Vojtěch; Jeníková, Zdenka

    2016-12-01

    Plasma has been proved as a standard industrial method for surface treatment of solid bulk materials. Recently plasma has also been used in connection with production, treatment and functionalization of powder and granulate materials. Functionalization was originally developed for hydrophylization of hydrophobic surfaces of particles made from various materials. An industrial scale device with a capacity of several hundreds of tons per year based on plasma treatment will be presented. As examples of the applications are given plasma treated polyethylene powder dispersed in the water; and very good adhesion of polymer powders to metals or glass, which is promising for development of new generation of thermoplastic composites.

  2. COUNTERROTATING PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, K.; Baker, W.R.; Veron, D.

    1963-07-01

    An ion-electron plasma device having a conductive, cylindrical casing provided with an axially directed magneticmirror-type field is described. An axially aligned tubular electrode is disposed at each end of the casing with oppositely directed radial electric fields provided between each electrode and the casing. Simultaneous pulses of gas, injected from the inner end of each of the electrodes, become ionized and oppositely rotating plasma bodies are formed. The magnetic mirrors repel the plasma bodies and cause them to collide in the region between the mirrors. The opposite directions of rotation of the plasma bodies cause very high currents to flow therebetween and consequent heating occurs. (AEC)

  3. Solid expellant plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  4. Laser plasma diagnostics of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Glendinning, S.G.; Amendt, P.; Budil, K.S.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Key, M.H.; Landen, O.L.; Remington, B.A.; Desenne, D.E.

    1995-07-12

    The authors describe several experiments on Nova that use laser-produced plasmas to generate x-rays capable of backlighting dense, cold plasmas (p {approximately} 1--3 gm/cm{sup 3}, kT {approximately} 5--10 eV, and areal density {rho}{ell}{approximately} 0.01--0.05 g/cm{sup 2}). The x-rays used vary over a wide range of h{nu}, from 80 eV (X-ray laser) to 9 keV. This allows probing of plasmas relevant to many hydrodynamic experiments. Typical diagnostics are 100 ps pinhole framing cameras for a long pulse backlighter and a time-integrated CCD camera for a short pulse backlighter.

  5. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  6. Laboratory Dipole Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Jay

    2011-10-01

    Modern laboratory studies of plasma confined by a strong dipole magnet originated twenty years ago when it was learned that planetary magnetospheres have centrally-peaked plasma pressure profiles that form naturally when solar wind drives plasma circulation and heating. Unlike other internal rings devices, like spherators and octupoles, the magnetic flux tubes of the dipole field expand rapidly with radius. Unlike plasma confinement devices that obtain stability from magnetic shear and average good curvature, like tokamaks and levitrons, the dipole-confined plasma obtains stability from plasma compressibility. These two geometric characteristics of the dipole field have profound consequences: (i) plasma can be stable with local beta exceeding unity, (ii) fluctuations can drive either heat or particles inward to create stationary profiles that are strongly peaked, and (iii) the confinement of particles and energy can decouple. During the past decade, several laboratory dipole experiments and modeling efforts have lead to new understanding of interchange, centrifugal and entropy modes, nonlinear gyrokinetics, and plasma transport. Two devices, the LDX experiment at MIT and RT-1 at the University of Tokyo, operate with levitated superconducting dipole magnets. With a levitated dipole, not only is very high-beta plasma confined in steady state but, also, levitation produces high-temperature at low input power and demonstrates that toroidal magnetic confinement of plasma does not require a toroidal field. Modeling has explained many of the processes operative in these experiments, including the observation of a strong inward particle pinch. Turbulent low-frequency fluctuations in dipole confined plasma cause adiabatic transport and form a fundamental linkage between the radial variation of flux-tube volume and the centrally peaked density and pressure profiles. In collaboration with M.E. Mauel and D.T. Garnier; supported by DoE FG02-98ER54458.

  7. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up

  8. Atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  9. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  10. Hybrid plume plasma rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A technique for producing thrust by generating a hybrid plume plasma exhaust is disclosed. A plasma flow is generated and introduced into a nozzle which features one or more inlets positioned to direct a flow of neutral gas about the interior of the nozzle. When such a neutral gas flow is combined with the plasma flow within the nozzle, a hybrid plume is constructed including a flow of hot plasma along the center of the nozzle surrounded by a generally annular flow of neutral gas, with an annular transition region between the pure plasma and the neutral gas. The temperature of the outer gas layer is below that of the pure plasma and generally separates the pure plasma from the interior surfaces of the nozzle. The neutral gas flow both insulates the nozzle wall from the high temperatures of the plasma flow and adds to the mass flow rate of the hybrid exhaust. The rate of flow of neutral gas into the interior of the nozzle may be selectively adjusted to control the thrust and specific impulse of the device.

  11. Plasma technology directory

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-03-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling.

  12. Diamagnetism of rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. C.; Hassam, A. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Ellis, R. F.; Teodorescu, C.

    2011-11-15

    Diamagnetism and magnetic measurements of a supersonically rotating plasma in a shaped magnetic field demonstrate confinement of plasma pressure along the magnetic field resulting from centrifugal force. The Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic force balance, including supersonic rotation, is solved to confirm that the predicted angular velocity is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler shifts.

  13. Introduction to Quantum Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Filinov, Alexei; Böning, Jens; Dufty, James W.

    Plasmas are generally associated with a hot gas of charged particles which behave classically. However, when the temperature is lowered and/or the density is increased sufficiently, the plasma particles (most importantly, electrons) become quantum degenerate, that is, the extension of their wave functions becomes comparable to the distance between neighboring particles. This is the case in many astrophysical plasmas, such as those occurring in the interior of giant planets or dwarf and neutron stars, but also in various modern laboratory setups where charged particles are compressed by very intense ion or laser beams to multi-megabar pressures. Furthermore, quantum plasmas exist in solids - examples are the electron gas in metals and the electron-hole plasma in semiconductors. Finally, the exotic state of the Universe immediately after the Big Bang is believed to have been a quantum plasma consisting of electrons, quarks, photons, and gluons. In all these situations, a description in terms of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, or classical kinetic theory fails. In this chapter, an overview of quantum plasma features and their occurrence is given. The conditions for the relevance of quantum effects are formulated and discussed. The key concepts for a theoretical description of quantum plasmas are developed and illustrated by simple examples.

  14. Plasma treatment of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  15. Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Tom Markusic, a propulsion research engineer at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), adjusts a diagnostic laser while a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) fires in a vacuum chamber in the background. NASA/MSFC's Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is presently investigating plasma propulsion for potential use on future nuclear-powered spacecraft missions, such as human exploration of Mars.

  16. The origins of 'plasma'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    I agree with Raoul Franklin (November p22) that although the quest for controlled thermonuclear fusion opened up a new branch of plasma physics, the field itself is considerably older, dating back at least as far as 1928 when Irving Langmuir coined the term "plasma" to describe a neutral, ionized gas.

  17. Plasma-Based Sterilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014940 TITLE: Plasma-Based Sterilization DISTRIBUTION: Approved for...compilation report: ADP014936 thru ADP015049 UNCLASSIFIED Plasma-Based Sterilization Mounir Laroussi Electrical & Computer Engineering Department Old...Dominion University Norfolk, VA 23529 Rapid, safe, and effective sterilization is of the utmost importance when it comes to protecting the public in

  18. Coaxial microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Gushchin, P. A.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kotelev, M. S.

    2011-11-15

    Physical principles underlying the operation of a pulsed coaxial microwave plasma source (micro-wave plasmatron) are considered. The design and parameters of the device are described, and results of experimental studies of the characteristics of the generated plasma are presented. The possibility of application of this type of plasmatron in gas-discharge physics is discussed.

  19. Plasma engineering for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Baldwin, D.E.; Barr, W.L.

    1983-03-24

    The two-year Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in the conceptual design of a commercial, electricity-producing fusion reactor based on tandem mirror confinement. The physics basis for the MARS reactor was developed through work in two highly coupled areas of plasma engineering: magnetics and plasma performance.

  20. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  1. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  2. Helical plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  3. Innovations in plasma sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gershman, Daniel J.

    2016-04-01

    During the history of space exploration, ever improving instruments have continued to enable new measurements and discoveries. Focusing on plasma sensors, we examine the processes by which such new instrument innovations have occurred over the past decades. Due to risk intolerance prevalent in many NASA space missions, innovations in plasma instrumentation occur primarily when heritage systems fail to meet science requirements, functional requirements as part of its space platform, or design constraints. We will review such innovation triggers in the context of the design literature and with the help of two case studies, the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer on MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and the Fast Plasma Investigation on Magnetosphere Multiscale. We will then discuss the anticipated needs for new plasma instrument innovations to enable the science program of the next decade.

  4. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  5. SHEET PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, O.A.

    1962-07-17

    An ion-electron plasma heating apparatus of the pinch tube class was developed wherein a plasma is formed by an intense arc discharge through a gas and is radially constricted by the magnetic field of the discharge. To avoid kink and interchange instabilities which can disrupt a conventional arc shortiy after it is formed, the apparatus is a pinch tube with a flat configuration for forming a sheet of plasma between two conductive plates disposed parallel and adjacent to the plasma sheet. Kink instabilities are suppressed by image currents induced in the conductive plates while the interchange instabilities are neutrally stable because of the flat plasma configuration wherein such instabilities may occur but do not dynamically increase in amplitude. (AEC)

  6. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  7. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  8. Solar system plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  9. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  10. Helical plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR® rocket engine.

  11. Plasma Spectroscopy in ISTTOK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, J.; Gomes, R. B.; Pereira, T.; Fernandes, H.; Sharakovski, A.

    2008-04-01

    Plasma spectroscopy is a well established technique for impurities study in fusion plasmas. A brief description of the several spectroscopic systems which have been in operation at ISTTOK is given. In ISTTOK a passive spectroscopy diagnostic system is being used to perform spectral and spatial characterization in the 300-850 nm wavelength range. The system used to perform that work consist essentially of a cooled CCD camera coupled to a half a meter imaging spectrograph with collection optics based on a multi-fiber set to allow for enhanced spatial resolution. Experimental data is shown underlining typical plasma fusion spectral lines and specific ISTTOK characteristics. A web based data access tool is presented that allows the spectral plasma survey in specific wavelength ranges. The information provided by this survey has been used to select suitable transmission filters for a diagnostic, currently under development, to measure Zeff parameter for ISTTOK plasmas. A description of this diagnostic is also presented.

  12. Plasma-materials interactions and edge-plasma physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the: Pisces Program; Pisces Facilities; Pisces Experiments: Materials and Surface Physics; Pisces Experiments: Edge Plasma Physics; and, Theoretical Analysis: Edge Plasma Behavior.

  13. Partially ionized plasmas, including the Third Symposium on Uranium Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of both electrically and fission generated plasmas are discussed. Research in gaseous fuel reactors using uranium hexafluoride is described and other partially ionized plasma applications are discussed.

  14. Electronegative Plasma Instabilities in Industrial Pulsed Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Patrick; Hansen, Anders; Gekelman, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Electronegative gases that are important for industrial etch processes have a series of instabilities that occur at process relevant conditions. These have been studied since the 1990s, but are becoming a much more important today as plasma reactors are being pushed to produce ever finer features, and tight control of the etch process is becoming crucial. The experiments are being done in a plasma etch tool that closely simulates a working industrial device. ICP coils in different configurations are driven by a pulsed RF generators operating at 2-5 MHz. A computer controlled automated probe drive can access a volume above the substrate. The probe can be a Langmuir probe, a ``Bdot'' probe, or an emissive probe the latter used for more accurate determination of plasma potential. A microwave interferometer is available to measure line-averaged electron density. The negative ion instability is triggered depending upon the gas mix (Ar,SF6) , pressure and RF power. The instability can be ``burned through'' by rapidly pulsing the RF power. In this study we present measurements of plasma current and density distribution over the wafer before, after and during the rapid onset of the instability. Work suported by NSF-GOALI Award and done at the BAPSF.

  15. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today.

  16. Origins of magnetospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of recent (1987-1990) progress in understanding of the origins of plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere. In counterpoint to the early supposition that geomagnetic phenomena are produced by energetic plasmas of solar origin, 1987 saw the publication of a provocative argument that accelerated ionospheric plasma could supply all magnetospheric auroral and ring current particles. Significant new developments of existing data sets, as well as the establishment of entirely new data sets, have improved the ability to identify plasma source regions and to track plasma through the magnetospheric system of boundary layers and reservoirs. These developments suggest that the boundary between ionospheric and solar plasmas, once taken to lie at the plasmapause, actually lies much nearer to the magnetopause. Defining this boundary as the surface where solar wind and ionosphere contribute equally to the plasma, it is referred to herein as the 'geopause'. It is now well established that the infusion of ionospheric O(+) plays a major role in the storm-time distention of the magnetotail and inflation of the inner magnetosphere. After more than two decades of observation and debate, the question remains whether magnetosheric are protons of solar or terrestrial origin. 161 refs.

  17. Plasma-sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.

    1988-09-01

    Plasma spraying is one way to apply protective coatings. The hot, high-speed flame of a plasma gun can melt a powder of almost any ceramic or metal and spray it to form a coating for protection against corrosion, wear or high temperature. The technique carries much less risk of degrading the coating and substrate than many other high-temperature processes do, because the gas in the plasma flame is chemically inert and the target can be kept fairly cool. And yet a plasma gun can be only a little more cumbersome than a paint sprayer. Investigators are applying this technique to new materials. The General Electric Company is using vacuum plasma spraying to make freestanding components: intricate aircraft engine parts formed by plasma-spraying a superalloy on a removable substrate. Other workers spray ceramic particles or fibers and metal powder simulatious wrong, stiff composite materials: the ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix of metal. The author and colleagues at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have fabricated a thick film of high-temperature superconductor by plasma-spraying the compound in the form of a powder. 7 figs.

  18. Urine and plasma propranolol.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, F; Jakobsen, P; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, E B; Pedersen, O L

    1983-01-01

    Eight hypertensive patients who had been followed in an outpatient clinic during long-term therapy with propranolol (40 to 160 mg twice daily) were studied during a 24-hr stay in the ward. The usual oral dose was given and the total and free plasma concentrations were determined during the 24 hr and the urinary excretion of unchanged drug was measured. Average free plasma concentration of propranolol (y free) was calculated from: y free = Excreted propranolol (ng/24 hr)/Creatinine clearance (ml/24 hr). There was a significant relationship between log y free and average free plasma concentration (means free) determined from the directly measured plasma concentration curve: log y free = 0.0743 means free - 0.0466 (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001). In another group of propranolol-treated hypertensive patients there was a significant positive relationship between orosomucoid concentration and reciprocal of the free propranolol fraction in plasma. From this relationship the average total drug concentration (y total) was calculated from y free; there was a significant correlation with directly measured total plasma level: log y total = 0.0038 . means total + 1.0895 (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001). It is suggested that individually determined values of y free below 30 ng/ml and y total below 400 ng/ml (the concentration range studied) can be used to calculate the average mean 24-hr free and total plasma concentrations.

  19. Isoxyl assays in plasma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Muttil, Pavan; Hickey, Anthony J

    2012-02-23

    Isoxyl is an effective drug to treat multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis but was abandoned due to failure in some clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for determination of isoxyl concentrations in plasma, a prerequisite for understanding poor in vivo behavior of the drug. In the method, isoxyl was extracted from guinea pig plasma with acetonitrile and quantified by a Hewlett Packard 1100 series HPLC coupled with a Spherisorb 5 μm ODS2 (2 × 100 mm) column and UV detection at 270 nm. The mobile phase was 70% ACN in 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer. The isoxyl peak was eluted at 4.8 min with no interference with the peaks of impurities from plasma and internal standard. Recovery of isoxyl from guinea pig plasma was >68%, and LOQ (Limit of Quantification) was 0.25 μg/ml which was 8 times lower than the reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, 2 μg/ml). The HPLC method was sensitive, reproducible, and accurate for quantification of isoxyl in guinea pig plasma according to FDA guidance for bioanalytical method validation. The method was utilized to quantify isoxyl plasma concentrations following oral administration of the drug to guinea pigs. The results suggest that the poor clinical outcomes of the drug may have been caused by the extremely low isoxyl plasma concentrations which were far below the MIC for action on Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  20. Origins of magnetospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of recent (1987-1990) progress in understanding of the origins of plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere. In counterpoint to the early supposition that geomagnetic phenomena are produced by energetic plasmas of solar origin, 1987 saw the publication of a provocative argument that accelerated ionospheric plasma could supply all magnetospheric auroral and ring current particles. Significant new developments of existing data sets, as well as the establishment of entirely new data sets, have improved the ability to identify plasma source regions and to track plasma through the magnetospheric system of boundary layers and reservoirs. These developments suggest that the boundary between ionospheric and solar plasmas, once taken to lie at the plasmapause, actually lies much nearer to the magnetopause. Defining this boundary as the surface where solar wind and ionosphere contribute equally to the plasma, it is referred to herein as the 'geopause'. It is now well established that the infusion of ionospheric O(+) plays a major role in the storm-time distention of the magnetotail and inflation of the inner magnetosphere. After more than two decades of observation and debate, the question remains whether magnetosheric are protons of solar or terrestrial origin.

  1. Origins of magnetospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    A review is given of recent (1987-1990) progress in understanding of the origins of plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere. In counterpoint to the early supposition that geomagnetic phenomena are produced by energetic plasmas of solar origin, 1987 saw the publication of a provocative argument that accelerated ionospheric plasma could supply all magnetospheric auroral and ring current particles. Significant new developments of existing data sets, as well as the establishment of entirely new data sets, have improved the ability to identify plasma source regions and to track plasma through the magnetospheric system of boundary layers and reservoirs. These developments suggest that the boundary between ionospheric and solar plasmas, once taken to lie at the plasmapause, actually lies much nearer to the magnetopause. Defining this boundary as the surface where solar wind and ionosphere contribute equally to the plasma, it is referred to herein as the 'geopause'. It is now well established that the infusion of ionospheric O(+) plays a major role in the storm-time distention of the magnetotail and inflation of the inner magnetosphere. After more than two decades of observation and debate, the question remains whether magnetosheric are protons of solar or terrestrial origin.

  2. Plasma for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that grew from research in application of low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasmas in bioengineering. One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is cancer therapy. Convincing evidence of CAP selectivity towards the cancer cells has been accumulated. This review summarizes the state of the art of this emerging field, presenting various aspects of CAP application in cancer such as the role of reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen), cell cycle modification, in vivo application, CAP interaction with cancer cells in conjunction with nanoparticles, and computational oncology applied to CAP.

  3. Plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial and compositional distribution of the thermal plasma in the magnetosphere of Saturn is described in the light of the Voyager encounters. Theoretical considerations are applied to the elucidation of the structure, including two external and two internal boundaries. The outer boundary is a magnetohydrodynamic entity, while the inner boundary of locally created thermal plasma is a result of the dissociative recombination of corotating molecular ions. The internal boundaries, which separate plasmas of different composition, are explained as a charge exchange quasi-resonance phenomenon.

  4. Plasma control and utilization

    DOEpatents

    Ensley, Donald L.

    1976-12-28

    A plasma is confined and heated by a microwave field resonant in a cavity excited in a combination of the TE and TM modes while responding to the resonant frequency of the cavity as the plasma dimensions change to maintain operation at resonance. The microwave field is elliptically or circularly polarized as to prevent the electromagnetic confining field from going to zero. A high Q chamber having superconductive walls is employed to minimize wall losses while providing for extraction of thermonuclear energy produced by fusion of nuclei in the plasma.

  5. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, Thomas C.; Rolston, Steven L.

    2010-03-15

    Plasmas are collections of charged particles that can exhibit an impressively diverse set of collective phenomena. They exist in an extraordinary variety of environments and span a great range of densities and temperatures, from 15 million kelvin in the core of the Sun to 200 K in the ionosphere and from 10{sup 30} particles per cubic centimeter in a white dwarf to 1 particle per cm{sup 3} in interstellar space. They can find application in lighting sources, manufacturing of computer chips, and fusion energy research. Plasmas created in the laboratory are used to replicate and study those that occur naturally and to probe the fundamental and complex behavior of plasmas.

  6. Global Core Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) provides, empirically derived, core plasma density as a function of geomagnetic and solar conditions throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is continuous in value and gradient and is composed of separate models for the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, the plasmapause, the trough, and the polar cap. The relative composition of plasmaspheric H+, He+, and O+ is included in the GCPM. A blunt plasmaspheric bulge and rotation of the bulge with changing geomagnetic conditions is included. The GCPM is an amalgam of density models, intended to serve as a framework for continued improvement as new measurements become available and are used to characterize core plasma density, composition, and temperature.

  7. Plasma-Aided Sterilization*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Rader, Mark; Dyer, Fred; Dever, Maureen; Alexeff, Igor

    1996-11-01

    The use of plasma as a sterilization agent was known for some time.In this paper we present recent work using atmospheric pressure plasmas to sterilize liquid and solid matter: The plasma can be a glow discharge or a corona discharge. The results show that sterilization occurs with treatment times which vary from a few seconds to a few minutes. The forseen applications of this method are in the medical, pharmaceutical, and food packaging industry. *Work supported in part by The Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  8. Global Core Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) provides, empirically derived, core plasma density as a function of geomagnetic and solar conditions throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is continuous in value and gradient and is composed of separate models for the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, the plasmapause, the trough, and the polar cap. The relative composition of plasmaspheric H+, He+, and O+ is included in the GCPM. A blunt plasmaspheric bulge and rotation of the bulge with changing geomagnetic conditions is included. The GCPM is an amalgam of density models, intended to serve as a framework for continued improvement as new measurements become available and are used to characterize core plasma density, composition, and temperature.

  9. Plasma Chemical Aspects Of Dust Formation In Hydrocarbon Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, J.; Kovacevic, E.; Stepanovic, O.; Stefanovic, I.; Winter, J.

    2008-09-07

    This contribution deals with some plasma chemical aspects of dust formation in hydrocarbon plasmas. The interplay between dust formation and plasma chemistry will be discussed by means of different experimental results. One specific example concerns the formation of benzene and the role of atomic hydrogen for plasma chemical processes and dust formation in hydrocarbon discharges.

  10. Plasma oscillations in spherical Gaussian shaped ultracold neutral plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tianxing; Lu, Ronghua Guo, Li; Han, Shensheng

    2016-04-15

    The collective plasma oscillations are investigated in ultracold neutral plasma with a non-uniform density profile. Instead of the plane configuration widely used, we derive the plasma oscillation equations with spherically symmetric distribution and Gaussian density profile. The damping of radial oscillation is found. The Tonks–Dattner resonances of the ultracold neutral plasma with an applied RF field are also calculated.

  11. Plasma electron analysis: Voyager plasma science experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Plasma Science Experiment (PLS) on the Voyager spacecraft provide data on the plasma ions and electrons in the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. A description of the analysis used to obtain electron parameters (density, temperature, etc.) from the plasma science experiment PLS electron measurements which cover the energy range from 10 eV to 5950 eV is presented. The electron sensor (D cup) and its transmission characteristics are described. A derivation of the fundamental analytical expression of the reduced distribution function F(e) is given. The electron distribution function F(e), used in the moment integrations, can be derived from F(e). Positive ions produce a correction current (ion feedthrough) to the measured electron current, which can be important to the measurements of the suprathermal electron component. In the case of Saturn, this correction current, which can either add to or subtract from the measured electron current, is less than 20% of the measured signal at all times. Comments about the corrections introduced by spacecraft charging to the Saturn encounter data, which can be important in regions of high density and shadow when the spacecraft can become negatively charged are introduced.

  12. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  13. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  14. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  15. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.

    1982-07-02

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  16. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  17. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  18. Saturn Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-14

    This frame from an animation based on data obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows how the explosions of hot plasma on the night side orange and white periodically inflate Saturn magnetic field white lines.

  19. Fizeau plasma interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a technique by which the sensitivity of plasma interferometers can be increased. Stabilization and fractional fringe measurement techniques have improved to the point where additional optical sensitivity could be useful. (MOW)

  20. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  1. Plasmas in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Burek, B. G.; Ackerson, K. L.; Wolfe, J. H.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The solar wind plasma analyzer on board Pioneer 2 provides first observations of low-energy positive ions in the magnetosphere of Saturn. Measurable intensities of ions within the energy-per-unit charge (E/Q) range 100 eV to 8 keV are present over the planetocentric radial distance range about 4 to 16 R sub S in the dayside magnetosphere. The plasmas are found to be rigidly corotating with the planet out to distances of at least 10 R sub S. At radial distances beyond 10 R sub S, the bulk flows appear to be in the corotation direction but with lesser speeds than those expected from rigid corotation. At radial distances beyond the orbit of Rhea at 8.8 R sub S, the dominant ions are most likely protons and the corresponding typical densities and temperatures are 0.5/cu cm and 1,000,000 K, respectively, with substantial fluctuations. It is concluded that the most likely source of these plasmas in the photodissociation of water frost on the surface of the ring material with subsequent ionization of the products and radially outward diffusion. The presence of this plasma torus is expected to have a large influence on the dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere since the pressure ratio beta of these plasmas approaches unity at radial distances as close to the planet as 6.5 R sub S. On the basis of these observational evidences it is anticipated that quasi-periodic outward flows of plasma, accompanied with a reconfiguration of the magnetosphere beyond about 6.5 R sub S, will occur in the local night sector in order to relieve the plasma pressure from accretion of plasma from the rings.

  2. The plasma scalpel.

    PubMed

    Link, W J; Incropera, F P; Glover, J L

    1976-01-01

    The plasma scalpel simultaneously cuts tissue and cauterizes blood vessels measuring 3 mm in diameter with a small, hot (3000 C) gas jet. In animal studies, the amount of hemorrhage has been shown to be less with the plasma scalpel than with steel or electrosurgical scalpels, and incisions have healed without complications. Amount of damaged tissue is limited. Human trials are under way, and the device shows promise as a clinical tool.

  3. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    to perform the indirect fluorescent antibody test. He is also able to conduct surveys, and to supervise plasmapheresis . Recently a Clinical...Miscellaneous 44 Total 3,902 2. Plasmapheresis The primary objective of the program was the collection of units of plasma from convalescents from...Lassa fever. Details regarding the criteria means and results of plasmapheresis are given in Chapter 2. One hundred twenty two plasma units were collected

  4. Carbon plasma gun

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Zagar, D.M.; Mills, G.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1980-12-01

    A family of plasma guns supplying highly ionized carbon plasma is described. The guns are simple and inexpensive to construct and are pulsed by small capacitor banks of a few hundred joules. The output consists of 10/sup 17/--10/sup 18/ multiply ionized carbon ions traveling at about 10/sup 7/ cm/s. Neutral output is very low and arrives well after the ionized carbon. The guns and pulsers are very reliable.

  5. Plasma Sterilization Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-14

    similarity of structure of the top layer ( stratum corneum ) of the artificial skin to that of human skin, because the bacteria were deposited on the...surface prior to treatment in the plasma reactor. The stratum corneum is composed of keratin-rich dead cells surrounded by lipids. This outer layer is...electrical resistance of the stratum corneum relies on the layer being intact. Research using intact skin (Fridman, G. et al. Plasma Chemistry and

  6. Electrostatics of moving plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2013-07-15

    The stability of charge distribution over the surface of a conducting body in moving plasma is analyzed. Using a finite-width plate streamlined by a cold neutralized electron flow as an example, it is shown that an electrically neutral body can be unstable against the development of spontaneous polarization. The plasma parameters at which such instability takes place, as well as the frequency and growth rate of the fundamental mode of instability, are determined.

  7. Plasma contactor research - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholtz, Brett; Williams, John D.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    A report describing the operating principles of hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors emitting or collecting electrons from an ambient plasma is summarized. Preliminary experiments conducted to determine the noise generated by these plasma contactors in the emission-current return line and in the plasma near it are described. These noise data are measured as current fluctuations in the return line and to the Langmuir probe and then analyzed using a fast Fourier transform technique. The spectral compositions of the data are characterized using power spectral density plots which are examined to identify possible noise source(s) and production mechanism(s). The precautions taken in the construction and calibration of the instrumentation to assure adequate frequency response are described. Experimental results show that line-current noise levels are typically 2 percent of the electron current being emitted or collected. However, noise levels increase to as much as 20 percent of the electron current at a few electron-collection operating conditions. The frequencies associated with most of the noise were harmonics of the 60 Hz input to system power supplies. Plasma noise had characteristics similar in magnitude and frequency to those for the return-line noise, but they contained additional features at frequencies considered to be related to ion-acoustic instabilities. Also discussed is a new probe positioning system built to facilitate future plasma-contractor research.

  8. Magnetospheric space plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1995-01-01

    Topics and investigations covering this period of this semiannual report period (August 1994 - January 1995) are as follows: (1) Generalized SemiKinetic (GSK) modeling of the synergistic interaction of transverse heating of ionospheric ions and magnetospheric plasma-driven electric potentials on the auroral plasma transport. Also, presentations of GSK modeling of auroral electron precipitation effects on ionospheric plasma outflows, of ExB effects on such outflow, and on warm plasma thermalization and other effects during refilling with pre-existing warm plasmas; (2) Referees' reports received on the statistical study of the latitudinal distributions of core plasmas along the L = 4.6 field line using DE-1/RIMS data. Other work is concerned in the same field, field-aligned flows and trapped ion distributions; and (3) A short study has been carried out on heating processes in low density flux tubes in the outer plasmasphere. The purpose was to determine whether the high ion temperatures observed in these flux tubes were due to heat sources operating through the thermal electrons or directly to the ions. Other investigations center along the same area of plasmasphere-ionosphere coupling. The empirical techniques and model, the listing of hardware calibrated, and/or tested, and a description of notable meetings attended is included in this report, along with a list of all present publication in submission or accepted and those reference papers that have resulted from this work thus far.

  9. Measuring the Plasma Density of a Ferroelectric Plasma Source in an Expanding Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    A. Dunaevsky; N.J. Fisch

    2003-10-02

    The initial density and electron temperature at the surface of a ferroelectric plasma source were deduced from floating probe measurements in an expanding plasma. The method exploits negative charging of the floating probe capacitance by fast flows before the expanding plasma reaches the probe. The temporal profiles of the plasma density can be obtained from the voltage traces of the discharge of the charged probe capacitance by the ion current from the expanding plasma. The temporal profiles of the plasma density, at two different distances from the surface of the ferroelectric plasma source, could be further fitted by using the density profiles for the expanding plasma. This gives the initial values of the plasma density and electron temperature at the surface. The method could be useful for any pulsed discharge, which is accompanied by considerable electromagnetic noise, if the initial plasma parameters might be deduced from measurements in expanding plasma.

  10. Inductively coupled helium plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Montaser, Akbar; Chan, Shi-Kit; Van Hoven, Raymond L.

    1989-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma torch including a base member, a plasma tube and a threaded insert member within the plasma tube for directing the plasma gas in a tangential flow pattern. The design of the torch eliminates the need for a separate coolant gas tube. The torch can be readily assembled and disassembled with a high degree of alignment accuracy.

  11. Plasma surface modification of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirotsu, T.

    1980-01-01

    Thin plasma polymerization films are discussed from the viewpoint of simplicity in production stages. The application of selective, absorbent films and films used in selective permeability was tested. The types of surface modification of polymers discussed are: (1) plasma etching, (2) surface coating by plasma polymerized thin films, and (3) plasma activation surface graft polymerization.

  12. Parametric bleaching of dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Ramazashvili, R. R.

    1981-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the nonlinear bleaching of a dense plasma slab. In this new mechanism, the electromagnetic wave incident on the plasma decays into plasma waves and then reappears as a result of the coalescence of the plasma waves at the second boundary of the slab.

  13. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  14. Computer simulation of astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Claire E.

    1991-01-01

    The role of sophisticated numerical models and simulations in the field of plasma astrophysics is discussed. The need for an iteration between microphysics and macrophysics in order for astrophysical plasma physics to produce quantitative results that can be related to astronomical data is stressed. A discussion on computational requirements for simulations of astrophysical plasmas contrasts microscopic plasma simulations with macroscopic system models. An overview of particle-in-cell simulations (PICS) is given and two examples of PICS of astrophysical plasma are discussed including particle acceleration by collisionless shocks in relativistic plasmas and magnetic field reconnection in astrophysical plasmas.

  15. Plasma accelerator experiments in Yugoslavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purić, J.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuraica, M. M.; Dojčinovié, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    An overview is given of the results obtained in the Plasma Accelerator Experiments in Belgrade, using quasi-stationary high current plasma accelerators constructed within the framework of the Yugoslavia-Belarus Joint Project. So far, the following plasma accelerators have been realized: Magnetoplasma Compressor type (MPC); MPC Yu type; one stage Erosive Plasma Dynamic System (EPDS) and, in final stage of construction two stage Quasi-Stationary High Current Plasma Accelerator (QHPA).

  16. Understanding helicon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tarey, R. D.; Sahu, B. B.; Ganguli, A.

    2012-07-15

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of work on the helicon plasmas and also discusses various aspects of RF power deposition in such plasmas. Some of the work presented here is a review of earlier work on theoretical [A. Ganguli et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 113503 (2007)] and experimental [A. Ganguli et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015021 (2011)] investigations on helicon plasmas in a conducting cylindrical waveguide for m = -1 mode. This work also presents an approach to investigate the mechanisms by which the helicon and associated Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) waves are responsible for RF power deposition in Helicon discharges. Experiment design adopts the recent theory of damping and absorption of Helicon modes in conducting waveguides [A. Ganguli et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 113503 (2007)]. The effort has also been made to detect the warm electrons, which are necessary for ionization, because Helicon discharges are of high density, low T{sub e} discharges and the tail of the bulk electron population may not have sufficient high-energy electrons. Experimental set up also comprises of the mirror magnetic field. Measurements using RF compensated Langmuir probes [A. Ganguli et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 17, 015003 (2008)], B-dot probe and computations based on the theory shows that the warm electrons at low pressure (0.2-0.3 mTorr) Helicon discharges, are because of the Landau damping of TG waves. In collisional environment, at a pressure Almost-Equal-To 10 mTorr, these high-energy electrons are due to the acceleration of bulk electrons from the neighboring regions across steep potential gradients possibly by the formation of double layers.

  17. Plasma confinement at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, I.; JET Contributors

    2016-01-01

    Operation with a Be/W wall at JET (JET-ILW) has an impact on scenario development and energy confinement with respect to the carbon wall (JET-C). The main differences observed were (1) strong accumulation of W in the plasma core and (2) the need to mitigate the divertor target temperature to avoid W sputtering by Be and other low Z impurities and (3) a decrease of plasma energy confinement. A major difference is observed on the pedestal pressure, namely a reduction of the pedestal temperature which, due to profile stiffness the plasma core temperature is also reduced leading to a degradation of the global confinement. This effect is more pronounced in low β N scenarios. At high β N, the impact of the wall on the plasma energy confinement is mitigated by the weaker plasma energy degradation with power relative to the IPB98(y, 2) scaling calculated empirically for a CFC first wall. The smaller tolerable impurity concentration for tungsten (<10-5) compared to that of carbon requires the use of electron heating methods to prevent W accumulation in the plasma core region as well as gas puffing to avoid W entering the plasma core by ELM flushing and reduction of the W source by decreasing the target temperature. W source and the target temperature can also be controlled by impurity seeding. Nitrogen and Neon have been used and with both gases the reduction of the W source and the target temperature is observed. Whilst more experiments with Neon are necessary to assess its impact on energy confinement, a partial increase of plasma energy confinement is observed with Nitrogen, through the increase of edge temperature. The challenge for scenario development at JET is to extend the pulse length curtailed by its transient behavior (W accumulation or MHD), but more importantly by the divertor target temperature limits. Re-optimisation of the scenarios to mitigate the effect of the change of wall materials maintaining high global energy confinement similar to JET-C is

  18. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  19. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOEpatents

    McIlwain, Michael E.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Golenko, Zsolt; Wittstein, Alan D.

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  20. Turbulent complex (dusty) plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Sergey; Schwabe, Mierk

    2017-04-01

    As a paradigm of complex system dynamics, solid particles immersed into a weakly ionized plasma, so called complex (dusty) plasmas, were (and continue to be) a subject of many detailed studies. Special types of dynamical activity have been registered, in particular, spontaneous pairing, entanglement and cooperative action of a great number of particles resulting in formation of vortices, self-propelling, tunneling, and turbulent movements. In the size domain of 1-10 mkm normally used in experiments with complex plasmas, the characteristic dynamic time-scale is of the order of 0.01-0.1 s, and these particles can be visualized individually in real time, providing an atomistic (kinetic) level of investigations. The low-R turbulent flow induced either by the instability in a complex plasma cloud or formed behind a projectile passing through the cloud is a typical scenario. Our simulations showed formation of a fully developed system of vortices and demonstrated that the velocity structure functions scale very close to the theoretical predictions. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative and turbulent particle motions are present in many physical, astrophysical, and biological systems. Therefore, experiments with turbulent wakes and turbulent complex plasma oscillations are a promising mean to observe and study in detail the anomalous transport on the level of individual particles.

  1. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  2. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  3. Low Temperature Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2013-10-01

    Ionized gas plasmas near room temperature are used in a remarkable number of technological applications mainly because they are extraordinarily efficient at exploiting electrical power for useful chemical and material transformations near room temperature. In this tutorial address, I will focus on the newest area of low temperature ionized gas plasmas (LTP), in this case operating under atmospheric pressure conditions, in which the temperature-sensitive material is living tissue. LTP research directed towards biomedical applications such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that LTP readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. I will review the evidence suggesting that RONS generated by plasmas are responsible for their observed therapeutic effects. Other possible bio-active mechanisms include electric fields, charges and photons. It is common in LTP applications that synergies between different mechanisms can play a role and I will review the evidence for synergies in plasma biomedicine. Finally, I will address the challenges and opportunities for plasma physicists to enter this novel, multidisciplinary field.

  4. Plasma coal reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

  5. Plasmas in High-Density Medium - Supercritical fluid plasma and Cryogenic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of attention to plasmas in high-density medium as novel plasmas from the views points of not only pure sciences but also various technologies. In this talk, two topics, supercritical fluid plasma and cryogenic plasma, will be discussed. First, plasmas generated in supercritical fluids (supercritical fluid plasma) provide a new reaction field that combines the high reactivity of plasmas with the unique characteristics of supercritical fluids, i.e. molecular clustering and density fluctuations near the critical point. An overview of the earliest studies on plasmas generated in supercritical fluids to recent advances in the field, including synthesis of novel nanomaterials such as highly-order diamondoid (diamond molecules), will be given. Second, continuing to thermal plasma (gas temperature Tg higher than a few thousands to millions of K) and low temperature plasma (Tg ranging from a few hundreds to thousands of K), plasma in a third range of gas temperatures (Tg lower than 300 K) is called cryogenic plasma (or cryoplasma) to distinguish it from thermal and low-temperature plasmas. In our group, the gas temperature of the plasma can be continuously controlled below room temperature (RT) down to a cryogenic temperature such as the boiling point of helium (4 K). In addition to the diagnostics, the application of cryogenic plasma to nanoporous material processing (low damage ashing of low-k materials) will be discussed. This work was supported financially in part by Grants-in-Aid.

  6. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  7. Relaxation of magnetotail plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.

    1987-01-01

    A quasi-thermodynamic model is presented for the relaxation of magnetotail plasmas during substorms, followed by quiet times. It is proposed that the plasma relaxes to a state of low-potential energy subject to a small number of global constraints. The constraints are exactly preserved by all ideal motions and, approximately, by a wide class of motions of the plasma undergoing magnetic reconnection. A variational principle which minimizes the free energy predicts the relaxed state. Exact, two-dimensional solutions of the relaxed state are obtained. A universal feature of the exact solutions is a chain of magnetic islands along the tail axis. Sufficient conditions for the stability of relaxed states are obtained from the second variation of the free-energy functional.

  8. Large area plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

  9. Pulsed Plasma Accelerator Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, M.; Kazeminezhad, F.; Owens, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the main results of the modeling task of the PPA project. The objective of this task is to make major progress towards developing a new computational tool with new capabilities for simulating cylindrically symmetric 2.5 dimensional (2.5 D) PPA's. This tool may be used for designing, optimizing, and understanding the operation of PPA s and other pulsed power devices. The foundation for this task is the 2-D, cylindrically symmetric, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PCAPPS (Princeton Code for Advanced Plasma Propulsion Simulation). PCAPPS was originally developed by Sankaran (2001, 2005) to model Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators (LLFA's), which are electrode based devices, and are typically operated in continuous magnetic field to the model, and implementing a first principles, self-consistent algorithm to couple the plasma and power circuit that drives the plasma dynamics.

  10. Deflagration plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.; Chang, C. N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of the magnetized plasma deflagration process to space propulsion. The deflagration process has the unique capability of efficiently converting input energy into kinetic energy in the accelerating direction. To illustrate the totally divergent characters of 'snowplow' detonation and deflagration discharges, examples of the differences between deflagration and detonation 'snowplow' discharges are expressed in terms of current densities, temperature, and particle velocities. Magnetic field profiles of the deflagration mode of discharges are measured. Typical attainable plasma characteristics are described in terms of velocity, electron temperature, and density, as well as measurement techniques. Specific impulses measured by piezo-electric probe and pendulum methods are presented. The influence of the transmission line in the discharge circuits on plasma velocity is measured by means of a microwave time-of-flight method. The results for the deflagration thruster are compared with other space thrusters. Further research areas are identified.

  11. Cooking strongly coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clérouin, Jean

    2015-09-01

    We present the orbital-free method for dense plasmas which allows for efficient variable ionisation molecular dynamics. This approach is a literal application of density functional theory where the use of orbitals is bypassed by a semi-classical estimation of the electron kinetic energy through the Thomas-Fermi theory. Thanks to a coherent definition of ionisation, we evidence a particular regime in which the static structure no longer depends on the temperature: the Γ-plateau. With the help of the well-known Thomas-Fermi scaling laws, we derive the conditions required to obtain a plasma at a given value of the coupling parameter and deduce useful fits. Static and dynamical properties are predicted as well as a a simple equation of state valid on the Γ-plateau. We show that the one component plasma model can be helpful to describe the correlations in real systems.

  12. Plasma Push and Pull

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Dark strands of plasma hovering above the sun's surface began to interact with each other in a form of tug of war over two and a half days on June 28-30, 2015. At times, strands of plasma extended a tenuous connection between one area and the other. Twice the small tower of plasma to the lower left shot a burst of energy over to the quivering filament higher up. We are seeing the push and pull of magnetic forces revealed in a 193 wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, typically colorized in brown. Credit: NASA/SDO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Equilibrium of KSTAR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, K.-I.; Lee, D.-K.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Hahn, S. H.; Lao, L.; Kstar Team

    2011-10-01

    We have installed the EFIT code on our computing system and made some modification to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research). KSTAR PF and TF coil systems use a CICC (Cable-In-Conduit Conductor) type superconductor. The CICC jacket material for most PF and all TF coils is Incoloy 908, which is a magnetic material with relative magnetic permeability greater than 10 in low external field. We newly introduced Diamagnetic Loop and variational Motion Stark Effect signals to equilibrium reconstruction. In this paper, we present some results of equilibrium reconstruction with the EFIT code, assess the effects of newly introduced diagnsotics signal on the equilibrium reconstruction and compare the EFIT results with the various diagnostics data in various plasma conditions including H- and L- modes. In addition, we will show the Incoloy908 effects on the plasma equilibrium.

  14. Processes in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

  15. Plasma contactor research, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Emissive and Langmuir probes were used to measure plasma potential profiles, plasma densities, electron energy distributions, and plasma noise levels near a hollow cathode-based plasma contactor emitting electrons. The effects of electron emission current (100 to 1500 mA) and contactor flowrate (2 to 10 sccm (Xenon)) on these data are examined. Retarding potential analyzer (RPA) measurements showing that high energy ions generally stream from a contactor along with the electrons being emitted are also presented, and a mechanism by which this occurs is postulated. This mechanism, which involves a high rate of ionization induced between electrons and atoms flowing together from the hollow cathode orifice, results in a region of high positive space charge and high positive potential. Langmuir and RPA probe data suggests that both electrons and ions expand spherically from this potential hill region. In addition to experimental observations, a simple one-dimensional model which describes the electron emission process and predicts the phenomena just mentioned is presented and is shown to agree qualitatively with these observations. Experimental results of the first stage of bilateral cooperation with the Italian Institute of Interplanetary Space Physics (IFSI CNR) are presented. Sharp, well-defined double layers were observed downstream of a contactor collecting electrons from an ambient plasma created in the IFSI Facility. The voltage drop across these double layers was observed to increase with the current drawn from the ambient plasma. This observation, which was not as clear in previous IFSI tests conducted at higher neutral pressures, is in agreement with previous experimental observations made at both Colorado State University and NASA Lewis Research Center. Greater double layer voltage drops, multiple double layers, and higher noise levels in the region near the double layers were also observed when a magnetic field was imposed and oriented perpendicular to the

  16. Plasma Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-10-04

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  17. PINCHED PLASMA REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.A.; Suydam, R.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-07-01

    BS>A plasma confining and heating reactor is described which has the form of a torus with a B/sub 2/ producing winding on the outside of the torus and a helical winding of insulated overlapping tunns on the inside of the torus. The inner helical winding performs the double function of shielding the plasma from the vitreous container and generating a second B/sub z/ field in the opposite direction to the first B/sub z/ field after the pinch is established.

  18. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    1974. 5. Frame, J. D. Surveillance of Lassa Fever amohg missionaries stationed in West Africa . Bull. WVHO 52: 593-59a, 1975 6. Monath, T.- P. Lassa ...A883 049 COLUMBIA UNIV NEW YORK DIV OF TROPIAL MEDIC.NE F/S 6/5 LASSA FEVER IMMUNE PLASMA U) AUG 79 J D FRAME DAMD17-79-C-9024 UNCLASSIFIED...NL’mmmEmmEmmEE.inuuuuwi LLVIL j~~AD’ LEVEL REPORT NO. 1I 0) LASSA FEVER IMMUNE PLASMA Annual Summary Report John 0. Frame, M.D. i Division of Tropical

  19. Plasma Cell Disorders.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-12-01

    Plasma cell disorders are benign, premalignant, and malignant conditions characterized by the presence of a monoclonal paraprotein detected in serum or urine. These conditions are biologically, pathologically, and clinically heterogeneous. There have been major advances in the understanding of the biology of these diseases, which are promoting the development of therapies with novel mechanisms of action. Novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies have gained approval in the United States and Europe for the treatment of plasma cell disorders. Such therapies are translating into higher rates of response and survival and better toxicity profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Why plasma harmonics?

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R A

    2015-09-30

    We discuss the emergence of interest in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulses propagated through laser-produced plasmas. It is shown that, during the last few years, substantial amendments of plasma HHG allowed in some cases the characteristics of gas HHG to be surpassed. The attractiveness of a new approach in coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation generation is demonstrated, which can also be used as a tool for laser-ablation-induced HHG spectroscopy of a giant class of solids. We present general ideas and prospects for this relatively new field of nonlinear optics. (review)

  1. Plasma Interactions with Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-16

    Ultraviolet Limb Imager on DMSP, IEEE Trans Plasma Science, 34, No. 5, p 2062, 2006. V.A. Davis , M.J. Mandell, D.L. Cooke, D.C. Ferguson , Nascap...AFRL-VS-HA-TR-2007-1062 Plasma Interactions with Spacecraft V.A. Davis M.J. Mandell S.L. Huston R.A. Kuharski B.M. Gardner...using MSM output generated using three different MSM input parameter sets. The results were included in the presentation prepared by Dr. Hilmer of

  2. DUST-PLASMA INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M. Rosenberg

    2010-01-05

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  3. Electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, A.; Jenet, F. A.; Robinson, P. A.

    2007-02-15

    The first large-scale simulations of continuously driven, two-dimensional electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence are performed, for electron thermal speeds 0.01c{<=}v{<=}0.57c, by integrating the Zakharov equations for coupled Langmuir and transverse (T) waves near the plasma frequency. Turbulence scalings and wave number spectra are calculated, a transition is found from a mix of trapped and free T eigenstates for v{>=}0.1c to just free eigenstates for v{<=}0.1c, and wave energy densities are observed to undergo slow quasiperiodic oscillations.

  4. Condensed Plasmas under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.; Ivlev, A.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experiments under microgravity conditions were carried out to study 'condensed' (liquid and crystalline) states of a colloidal plasma (ions, electrons, and charged microspheres). Systems with approximately 10(exp 6) microspheres were produced. The observed systems represent new forms of matter--quasineutral, self-organized plasmas--the properties of which are largely unexplored. In contrast to laboratory measurements, the systems under microgravity are clearly three dimensional (as expected); they exhibit stable vortex flows, sometimes adjacent to crystalline regions, and a central 'void,' free of microspheres.

  5. Features of terrestrial plasma transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Chappell, C. R.; Pollock, C. J.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Research concerning the transport and distribution of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere are reviewed, stressing the dichotomy in explanations given for the low plasma densities outside the plasmasphere. The convection/hot solar plasma model and the convection/loss model are considered. Observations of global ionospheric outflows are compared with theoretical studies. It is suggested that there is a need for a hybrid model of magnetospheric plasma in which terrestrial plasma is both lost into the solar wind and energized and trapped within the magnetosphere, inflating the geomagnetic field and excluding cold plasma from conjugate regions.

  6. Plasma effects on subcellular structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Daeyeon; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2010-03-08

    Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

  7. Partial pressure analysis of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1984-11-01

    The application of partial pressure analysis for plasma diagnostic measurements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the techniques of plasma flux analysis and partial pressure analysis for mass spectrometry of plasmas. Emphasis is given to the application of quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS). The interface problems associated with the coupling of a QMS to a plasma device are discussed including: differential-pumping requirements, electromagnetic interferences from the plasma environment, the detection of surface-active species, ion source interactions, and calibration procedures. Example measurements are presented from process monitoring of glow discharge plasmas which are useful for cleaning and conditioning vacuum vessels.

  8. Design of a Plasma Injector for a Pulsed Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, J. T.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Markusic, T. E.; Sommers, J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a pulsed plasma accelerator has been proposed as a candidate stand-off driver for the formation of an imploding liner in magnetized target fusion. For a near-term physics exploratory experiment to study the feasibility of this standoff approach, a plasma accelerator has been proposed that requires the controlled introduction and preparation of the initial plasma for acceleration. This includes uniform injection of the propellant downstream of the breech with a high degree of ionization. The design of a plasma feed is presented, which injects a high conductivity, highly collisional propellant transverse to the conductor. The plasma injector is designed to establish an initial plasma with a moderate Hall parameter at the trailing edge of the plasma slug, high Hall parameter behind the slug for magnetic insulation, and a short diffusion length in comparison with characteristic dimensions of the plasma slug to avoid propellant loss at the trailing edge.

  9. Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources.

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma -- basic data for plasma modeling.

  10. Microwave Probing of Air-Plasma and Plasma Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Katherine; Rock, Ben; Helle, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Plasma metamaterials are of recent interest due to their unique ability to be engineered with specific electromagnetic responses. One potential metamaterial architecture is based on a `forest' of plasma rods that can be produced using intense laser plasma filaments. In our work, we use a continuous microwave source at 26.5 GHz to measure a single air plasma filament characteristics generated from a 5 mJ laser pulse within a cylindrical hole in a Ka-band waveguide. Preliminary results show the air plasma produces a strong shock and acts to reflect microwave radiation. A computational comparison using 3D EM modeling is performed to examine the reflection and transmission properties of a single plasma rod, and further, to investigate an array of plasma rods as a potential plasma based metamaterial.

  11. Plasma flow in peripheral region of detached plasma in linear plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y. Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Tanaka, H.

    2016-01-15

    A plasma flow structure is investigated using a Mach probe under detached plasma condition in a linear plasma device NAGDIS-II. A reverse flow along the magnetic field is observed in a steady-state at far-peripheral region of the plasma column in the upstream side from the recombination front. These experimental results indicate that plasma near the recombination front should strongly diffuse across the magnetic field, and it should be transported along the magnetic field in the reverse flow direction. Furthermore, bursty plasma density fluctuations associated with intermittent convective plasma transport are observed in the far-peripheral region of the plasma column in both upstream and downstream sides from the recombination front. Such a nondiffusive transport can contribute to the intermittent reverse plasma flow, and the experimental results indicate that intermittent transports are frequently produced near the recombination front.

  12. Plasma heating power dissipation in low temperature hydrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Komppula, J. Tarvainen, O.

    2015-10-15

    A theoretical framework for power dissipation in low temperature plasmas in corona equilibrium is developed. The framework is based on fundamental conservation laws and reaction cross sections and is only weakly sensitive to plasma parameters, e.g., electron temperature and density. The theory is applied to low temperature atomic and molecular hydrogen laboratory plasmas for which the plasma heating power dissipation to photon emission, ionization, and chemical potential is calculated. The calculated photon emission is compared to recent experimental results.

  13. Laser-plasma-based linear collider using hollow plasma channels

    DOE PAGES

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; ...

    2016-03-03

    A linear electron–positron collider based on laser-plasma accelerators using hollow plasma channels is considered. Laser propagation and energy depletion in the hollow channel is discussed, as well as the overall efficiency of the laser-plasma accelerator. Example parameters are presented for a 1-TeV and 3-TeV center-of-mass collider based on laser-plasma accelerators.

  14. Thermal plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1992-02-01

    Emphasis has been on plasma synthesis of fine powders, plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), on related diagnostics, and on modeling work. Since plasma synthesis as well as plasma CVD make frequent use of plasma jets, the beginning has been devoted of plasma jets and behavior of particulates injected into such plasma jets. Although most of the construction of the Triple-Torch Plasma Reactor (TTPR) has already been done, modifications have been made in particular modifications required for plasma CVD of diamond. A new reactor designed for Counter-Flow Liquid Injection Plasma Synthesis (CFLIPS) proved to be an excellent tool for synthesis of fine powders as well as for plasma CVD. An attempt was made to model flow and temperature fields in this reactor. Substantial efforts were made to single out those parameters which govern particle size, size distribution, and powder quality in our plasma synthesis experiments. This knowledge is crucial for controlling the process and for meaningful diagnostics and modeling work. Plasma CVD of diamond films using both reactors has been very successful and we have been approached by a number of companies interested in using this technology for coating of tools.

  15. Geospace Plasma Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-22

    magnetosphere -ionosphere coupling processes, and 2) Investigate the physics of the low-latitude ionosphere. 15. SUBJECT TERMS geospace, plasma...dynamics, magnetosphere , ionosphere, coupling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...the space environment. This research effort included 2 basic research efforts. They were 1) Investigate solar wind- magnetosphere -ionosphere

  16. Computations in Plasma Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bruce I.; Killeen, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses contributions of computers to research in magnetic and inertial-confinement fusion, charged-particle-beam propogation, and space sciences. Considers use in design/control of laboratory and spacecraft experiments and in data acquisition; and reviews major plasma computational methods and some of the important physics problems they…

  17. Implicit plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, A.B.

    1985-03-03

    Implicit time integration methods have been used extensively in numerical modelling of slowly varying phenomena in systems that also support rapid variation. Examples include diffusion, hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. This article discussed implementation of implicit time integration in plasma codes of the ''particle-in-cell'' family, and the benefits to be gained.

  18. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  19. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  20. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  1. A Plasma Display Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    A graphics terminal designed for use as a remote computer input/output terminal is described. Although the terminal is intended for use in teaching applications, it has several features which make it useful in many other computer terminal applications. These features include: a 10-inch square plasma display panel, permanent storage of information…

  2. Plasma jets merging simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, J. S.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.; Hughes, T. P.; Welch, D. R.; Golovkin, I.; Macfarlane, J.

    2007-11-01

    The progress on numerical 3D simulations of high density high Mach number plasma jets merging is presented. The modeling was conducted with the particle-in-cell LSP code [1]. A few hypersonic plasma jets (Mach number between 5 and 50) with high density (within the range of 10^15-10^17 cm-3) were injected for merging in a low density low temperature neutral background gas ( 10^13 cm-3). The dynamics of the merging was studied. Onset of a strong instability, which was observed in the modeling of two, three and five plasma merging jets [2], can essentially affect the front formation and finally can lead to a high turbulent flow. The nature of the instability is discussed. The progress on HyperV plasma accelerator experiment simulation and comparison with a recent experimental data is also reported. [1] T. P. Hughes, S. S. Yu, and R. E. Clark, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 110401, 1999. [2] S. A. Galkin, I. N. Bogatu, J. S. Kim, to be published in PPPS/ICOP 2007 Conference Proceedings. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant and by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.

  3. Magnetospheric space plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) generalized semikinetic models; (2) collision-collisionless transition model; (3) observation of O+ outflows; (4) equatorial transitions; (5) inner plasmasphere-ionosphere coupling; (6) plasma wave physical processes; (7) ULF wave ray-tracing; and (8) nighttime anomalous electron heating events.

  4. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass. The goal of the present program is to demonstrate feasibility of the EPA thruster concept through experimental and theoretical investigations of the EPA acceleration mechanism and discharge chamber performance. Experimental investigations will include operating the test bed ion (TBI) engine as an EPA thruster and parametrically varying the thruster geometry and operating conditions to quantify the electrostatic plasma acceleration effect. The theoretical investigations will include the development of a discharge chamber model which describes the relationships between the engine size, plasma properties, and overall performance. For the EPA thruster to be a viable propulsion concept, overall thruster efficiencies approaching 30% with specific impulses approaching 1000 s must be achieved.

  5. Plasma Push and Pull

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-30

    This still image from an animation from NASA GSFC Solar Dynamics Observatory shows dark strands of plasma hovering above the Sun surface beginning to interact with each other in a form of tug of war over two and a half days June 28-30, 2015.

  6. Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; Petviashvili, N.; McWilliams, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics, based on the Elsasser variables was developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to ones based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected. the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. For a system with many such vortices we present a statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories. but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is outlined as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected.

  7. Plasma Theory and Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-31

    expan- sion of a warm plasma; launching and propagation and decay of very large amplitude waves (8GK, solitons, etc.); thermal barriers (really...25.373.1981. ION-10N TWO-STREAM IN THERMAL BARRIERS : Vincent-lhonal,U.C.Berkeley. We present stu- dies or the eleclroTatic ion-ion two-stream instability as

  8. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic upd...

  9. Modelling the Plasma Jet in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Schein, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Möhwald, K.; Lummer, C.

    2016-08-01

    Particle in-flight characteristics in atmospheric plasma spraying process are determined by impulse and heat energy transferred between the plasma jet and injected powder particles. One of the important factors for the quality of the plasma-sprayed coatings is thus the distribution of plasma gas temperatures and velocities in plasma jet. Plasma jets generated by conventional single-arc plasma spraying systems and their interaction with powder particles were subject matter of intensive research. However, this does not apply to plasma jets generated by means of multi-arc plasma spraying systems yet. In this study, a numerical model has been developed which is designated to dealing with the flow characteristics of the plasma jet generated by means of a three-cathode spraying system. The upstream flow conditions, which were calculated using a priori conducted plasma generator simulations, have been coupled to the plasma jet simulations. The significances of the relevant numerical assumptions and aspects of the models are analyzed. The focus is placed on to the turbulence and diffusion/demixing modelling. A critical evaluation of the prediction power of the models is conducted by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results determined by means of emission spectroscopic computed tomography. It is evident that the numerical models exhibit a good accuracy for their intended use.

  10. Human Plasma Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which exists in bovine plasma as a precursor of a serine protease. In this study, protein C was isolated to homogeneity from human plasma by barium citrate adsorption and elution, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, dextran sulfate agarose chromatography, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human protein C (Mr = 62,000) contains 23% carbohydrate and is composed of a light chain (Mr = 21,000) and a heavy chain (Mr = 41,000) held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain has an amino-terminal sequence of Ala-Asn-Ser-Phe-Leu- and the heavy chain has an aminoterminal sequence of Asp-Pro-Glu-Asp-Gln. The residues that are identical to bovine protein C are underlined. Incubation of human protein C with human α-thrombin at an enzyme to substrate weight ratio of 1:50 resulted in the formation of activated protein C, an enzyme with serine amidase activity. In the activation reaction, the apparent molecular weight of the heavy chain decreased from 41,000 to 40,000 as determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. No apparent change in the molecular weight of the light chain was observed in the activation process. The heavy chain of human activated protein C also contains the active-site serine residue as evidenced by its ability to react with radiolabeled diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Human activated protein C markedly prolongs the kaolin-cephalin clotting time of human plasma, but not that of bovine plasma. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of human activated protein C were completely obviated by prior incubation of the enzyme with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. These results indicate that human protein C, like its bovine counterpart, exists in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease by limited proteolysis with attendant anticoagulant activity. Images PMID:468991

  11. The plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Peterson, W. K.; Lennartsson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A spatially distinct, temporally variable, transition region between the magnetotail lobes and the central plasma sheet designated the plasma sheet boundary layer has been identified from a survey of particle spectra and three-dimensional distributions as sampled by the ISEE 1 LEPEDEA. The instrumentation and data presentation are described, and the signatures of the magnetotail plasma regimes are presented and discussed for the central plasma sheet and lobe and the plasma sheet boundary layer. Comparisons of plasma parameters and distribution fucntions are made and the evolution of ion velocity distributions within the plasma sheet boundary layer is discussed. The spatial distribution of the plasma sheet boundary layer is considered and ion composition measurements are presented.

  12. Plasma contactors for electrodynamic tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    The role plasma contactors play in effective electrodynamic tether operation is discussed. Hollow cathodes and hollow cathode-based plasma sources have been identified as leading candidates for the electrodynamic tether plasma contactor. Present experimental efforts to evaluate the suitability of these devices as plasma contactors, conducted concurrently at NASA Lewis Research Center and Colorado State University, are reviewed. These research programs include the definition of preliminary plasma contactor designs, and the characterization of their operation both as electron emitters and electron collectors to and from a simulated space plasma. Results indicate that ampere-level electron currents, sufficient for electrodynamic tether operation, can be exchanged between hollow cathode-based plasma contactors and a dilute plasma.

  13. Process Sprays Uniforms Plasma Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.; Walther, G. C.; Nakamura, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Composite-powder processing procedure developed along with plasma-spray parameters to achieve homogeneous, well-bonded, low-porosity, self-lubricating coatings. Multicomponent plasma coatings are applied without segretation of components.

  14. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  15. Recent results for plasma antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeff, Igor; Anderson, Ted; Farshi, Esmaeil; Karnam, Naresh; Pulasani, Nanditha Reddy

    2008-05-15

    Plasma antennas are just as effective as metal antennas. They can transmit, receive, and reflect radio waves just as well as metal antennas. In addition, plasma generated noise does not appear to be a problem.

  16. High dengue NS1 antigenemia in febrile patients in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Ayukekbong, James A

    2014-10-13

    We conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among febrile patients positive or negative for malaria in Ibadan, Nigeria. Dengue IgG and NS1 seroprevalence of 73% and 35%, respectively, was observed, and 43% of those with malaria had acute dengue infection (NS1 determination). On the other hand, all participants with malaria were IgG dengue seropositive consistent with the endemicity of both arthropod-borne infections in the region. These data indicate that dengue is emerging as a major and neglected cause of fever in Nigeria.

  17. Millimeter Wave Communication through Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Millimeter wave communication through plasma at frequencies of 35 GHz or higher shows promise in maintaining communications connectivity during rocket launch and re-entry, critical events which are typically plagued with communication dropouts. Extensive prior research into plasmas has characterized the plasma frequency at these events, and research at the Kennedy Space Center is investigating the feasibility of millimeter communication through these plasma frequencies.

  18. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  19. Magnetoacoustic solitons in quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-08-15

    Nonlinear magnetoacoustic waves in collisionless homogenous, magnetized quantum plasma is studied. Two fluid quantum magneto-hydrodynamic model (QMHD) is employed and reductive perturbation method is used to derive Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation for magnetoacoustic waves. The effects of plasma density and magnetic field intensity are investigated on magnetoacoustic solitary structures in quantum plasma. The numerical results are also presented, which are applicable to explain some aspects of the propagation of nonlinear magnetoacosutic wave in dense astrophysical plasma situations.

  20. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus test with specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Boivin, G; Handfield, J; Toma, E; Murray, G; Lalonde, R; Tevere, V J; Sun, R; Bergeron, M G

    1998-09-01

    The AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus (CMV) test, a new qualitative assay for the detection of CMV DNA in plasma, was compared to conventional methods and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assays by using leukocytes and plasma from 179 blood samples from subjects with AIDS. For the diagnosis of CMV disease, cell-based assays such as a Q-PCR with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Q-PCR-PMNL) and a pp65 antigenemia assay had the highest sensitivities but suffered from a lack of specificity. The best agreement between the results of the Q-PCR-PMNL assay and those of the AMPLICOR test was found when a threshold diagnostic value of 690 copies per 10(5) cells was selected for the Q-PCR-PMNL assay. In that context, the AMPLICOR CMV test had a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 95.3% when results were compared to results of the cell-based PCR assay. This threshold was close to the one described as associated with the best sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CMV disease in a recently published study (4). Blood samples that tested positive by the Q-PCR-PMNL assay but negative by the AMPLICOR CMV test were associated with viral loads (mean, 785 copies, median, 96 copies per 10(5) leukocytes) lower than the viral loads of blood samples that tested positive by both assays (mean, 21,452 copies; median, 9,784 copies per 10(5) leukocytes) (P = 0.003). The AMPLICOR CMV test gave positive results at least 48 days before the development of symptomatic CMV disease in a longitudinal analysis of a limited subset of patients (n = 6) from whom sequential specimens were available for testing. In conclusion, the AMPLICOR CMV test is a very convenient assay combining rapidity, simplicity, and the possibility of batch testing. A positive result by this test seems particularly important since this implies, in most instances, the presence or the imminence of CMV disease, although a negative test result does not rule out disease.

  1. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR Cytomegalovirus Test with Specimens from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Guy; Handfield, Julie; Toma, Emil; Murray, Gilles; Lalonde, Richard; Tevere, Vincent J.; Sun, Rita; Bergeron, Michel G.

    1998-01-01

    The AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus (CMV) test, a new qualitative assay for the detection of CMV DNA in plasma, was compared to conventional methods and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assays by using leukocytes and plasma from 179 blood samples from subjects with AIDS. For the diagnosis of CMV disease, cell-based assays such as a Q-PCR with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Q-PCR-PMNL) and a pp65 antigenemia assay had the highest sensitivities but suffered from a lack of specificity. The best agreement between the results of the Q-PCR-PMNL assay and those of the AMPLICOR test was found when a threshold diagnostic value of 690 copies per 105 cells was selected for the Q-PCR-PMNL assay. In that context, the AMPLICOR CMV test had a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 95.3% when results were compared to results of the cell-based PCR assay. This threshold was close to the one described as associated with the best sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CMV disease in a recently published study (4). Blood samples that tested positive by the Q-PCR-PMNL assay but negative by the AMPLICOR CMV test were associated with viral loads (mean, 785 copies, median, 96 copies per 105 leukocytes) lower than the viral loads of blood samples that tested positive by both assays (mean, 21,452 copies; median, 9,784 copies per 105 leukocytes) (P = 0.003). The AMPLICOR CMV test gave positive results at least 48 days before the development of symptomatic CMV disease in a longitudinal analysis of a limited subset of patients (n = 6) from whom sequential specimens were available for testing. In conclusion, the AMPLICOR CMV test is a very convenient assay combining rapidity, simplicity, and the possibility of batch testing. A positive result by this test seems particularly important since this implies, in most instances, the presence or the imminence of CMV disease, although a negative test result does not rule out disease. PMID:9705384

  2. Gas-discharge plasma sources for nonlocal plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. I.; DeJoseph, C. A. Jr.; Simonov, V. Ya.

    2007-11-12

    Nonlocal plasma technology is based on the effect of self-trapping of fast electrons in the plasma volume [V. I. Demidov, C. A. DeJoseph, Jr., and A. A. Kudryavtsev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 215002 (2006)]. This effect can be achieved by changing the ratio of fast electron flux to ion flux incident on the plasma boundaries. This in turn leads to a significant change in plasma properties and therefore can be useful for technological applications. A gas-discharge device which demonstrates control of the plasma properties by this method is described.

  3. Tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Natalia

    2009-10-01

    In the previous work [1], we discussed a ``technology'' of tomographic method and relations between the tomographic diagnostics in thermal (equilibrium) and nonthermal (nonequilibrium) plasma sources. The conclusion has been made that tomographic reconstruction in thermal plasma sources is the standard procedure at present, which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time, while the tomographic reconstruction of nonthermal plasma has a great potential at making a contribution to understanding the fundamental problem of substance behavior in strongly nonequilibrium conditions. Using medical terminology, one could say, that tomographic diagnostics of the equilibrium plasma sources studies their ``anatomic'' structure, while reconstruction of the nonequilibrium plasma is similar to the ``physiological'' examination: it is directed to study the physical mechanisms and processes. The present work is focused on nonthermal plasma research. The tomographic diagnostics is directed to study spatial structures formed in the gas discharge plasmas under the influence of electrical and gravitational fields. The ways of plasma ``self-organization'' in changing and extreme conditions are analyzed. The analysis has been made using some examples from our practical tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasma sources, such as low-pressure capacitive and inductive discharges. [0pt] [1] Denisova N. Plasma diagnostics using computed tomography method // IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2009 37 4 502.

  4. Plasma chemistry and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between discharge phenomena and plasma chemistry, as well as the equipment and mechanisms of plasma chemical reactions are described. Various areas in which plasma chemistry is applied are surveyed, such as: manufacturing of semiconductor integrated circuits; synthetic fibers; high polymer materials for medical uses; optical lenses; and membrane filters (reverse penetration films).

  5. Controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-20

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  6. High-power radiating plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    The physical principles underlying the use of radiating plasmas for the optical pumping of lasers are described. Particular consideration is given to the properties of radiating plasmas; radiation selectivity; the dynamics, equilibrium, and stability of radiating plasmas; the radiative Reynolds number; and experimental results on radiating discharges.

  7. Magnetic Lens For Plasma Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1992-01-01

    Low-field electromagnet coils placed downstream of plasma engine, polarized oppositely to higher-field but smaller radius coil in nozzle of engine, reduces divergence of plasma jet, thereby increasing efficiency of engine. Concept tested by computer simulation based on simplified mathematical model of plasma, engine, and coils.

  8. Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.

    1995-09-01

    The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.

  9. High-temperature plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics.

  10. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results.

  11. The Plasma Archipelago: Plasma Physics in the 1960s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisel, Gary J.

    2017-07-01

    With the foundation of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society in April 1959, plasma physics was presented as the general study of ionized gases. This paper investigates the degree to which plasma physics, during its first decade, established a community of interrelated specialties, one that brought together work in gaseous electronics, astrophysics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, space science, and aerospace engineering. It finds that, in some regards, the plasma community was indeed greater than the sum of its parts and that its larger identity was sometimes glimpsed in inter-specialty work and studies of fundamental plasma behaviors. Nevertheless, the plasma specialties usually worked separately for two inter-related reasons: prejudices about what constituted "basic physics," both in the general physics community and within the plasma community itself; and a compartmentalized funding structure, in which each funding agency served different missions.

  12. The Plasma Archipelago: Plasma Physics in the 1960s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisel, Gary J.

    2017-09-01

    With the foundation of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society in April 1959, plasma physics was presented as the general study of ionized gases. This paper investigates the degree to which plasma physics, during its first decade, established a community of interrelated specialties, one that brought together work in gaseous electronics, astrophysics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, space science, and aerospace engineering. It finds that, in some regards, the plasma community was indeed greater than the sum of its parts and that its larger identity was sometimes glimpsed in inter-specialty work and studies of fundamental plasma behaviors. Nevertheless, the plasma specialties usually worked separately for two inter-related reasons: prejudices about what constituted "basic physics," both in the general physics community and within the plasma community itself; and a compartmentalized funding structure, in which each funding agency served different missions.

  13. Plasma rotation in the Peking University Plasma Test device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chijie; Chen, Yihang; Yang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Tianchao; Wang, Long; Xu, Min; Guo, Dong; Yu, Yi; Lin, Chen

    2016-11-01

    Some preliminary results of plasma rotations in a linear plasma experiment device, Peking University Plasma Test (PPT) device, are reported in this paper. PPT has a cylindrical vacuum chamber with 500 mm diameter and 1000 mm length, and a pair of Helmholtz coils which can generate cylindrical or cusp magnetic geometry with magnitude from 0 to 2000 G. Plasma was generated by a helicon source and the typical density is about 1013 cm-3 for the argon plasma. Some Langmuir probes, magnetic probes, and one high-speed camera are set up to diagnose the rotational plasmas. The preliminary results show that magnetic fluctuations exist during some plasma rotation processes with both cylindrical and cusp magnetic geometries, which might be related to some electromagnetic processes and need further studies.

  14. Plasma dynamics in microsecond megaampere plasma opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, S. V.

    2011-10-15

    The paper considers the transport of a magnetic field in highly ionized plasma of microsecond megaampere plasma opening switches. Self-similar solutions for plasma aggregation by a linearly increasing magnetic field are derived. For these solutions, the magnetic field energy in the current channel is much lower than the energy of the accelerated plasma flow. The effect of Joule heating of the plasma becomes profound only with a uniform current density. It is shown that the evolution of the magnetic field in the accelerated flow is reduced to diffusion with an effective electrical conductivity proportional to the harmonic average of the Spitzer conductivity and conductivity dependent on the magnetic field in the current channel. Thus, during about the first 100 ns of the current pulse the conductivity of the current channel increases due to the plasma heating and, as the plasma is accelerated, its conductivity decreases.

  15. Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Markusic, Tom E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major shift in paradigm in driving pulsed plasma thruster is necessary if the original goal of accelerating a plasma sheet efficiently to high velocities as a plasma "slug" is to be realized. Firstly, the plasma interior needs to be highly collisional so that it can be dammed by the plasma edge layer not (upstream) adjacent to the driving 'vacuum' magnetic field. Secondly, the plasma edge layer needs to be strongly magnetized so that its Hall parameter is of the order of unity in this region to ensure excellent coupling of the Lorentz force to the plasma. Thirdly, to prevent and/or suppress the occurrence of secondary arcs or restrike behind the plasma, the region behind the plasma needs to be collisionless and extremely magnetized with sufficiently large Hall parameter. This places a vacuum requirement on the bore conditions prior to the shot. These requirements are quantified in the paper and lead to the introduction of three new design parameters corresponding to these three plasma requirements. The first parameter, labeled in the paper as gamma (sub 1), pertains to the permissible ratio of the diffusive excursion of the plasma during the course of the acceleration to the plasma longitudinal dimension. The second parameter is the required Hall parameter of the edge plasma region, and the third parameter the required Hall parameter of the region behind the plasma. Experimental research is required to quantify the values of these design parameters. Based upon fundamental theory of the transport processes in plasma, some theoretical guidance on the choice of these parameters are provided to help designing the necessary experiments to acquire these data.

  16. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  17. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, T.J.; Palmer, B.A.; Hof, D.E.

    1990-11-06

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies is disclosed. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy. 1 fig.

  18. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Thomas J.; Palmer, Byron A.; Hof, Douglas E.

    1990-01-01

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy.

  19. Investigation of nonideal plasma properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1981-05-01

    The electrical conductivity of nonideal classical and quantum plasmas is calculated by means of dimensional analysis, kinetic theory, and quantum field theoretical methods. The new conductivity formulas are compared with recent experimental conductivity data for nonideal alkali plasmas. A theory of the electric microfield distribution in thermal plasmas and the anomalous microfield driven diffusion of charged particles across magnetic fields is presented, which is applicable only to ideal and weakly nonideal plasmas. By means of Bose statistics, the free energy of the random, thermally excited (longitudinal) electron and ion waves (collective many-body interactions) are calculated, and their quantitative relation to the free energy of nonideal plasmas is discussed.

  20. Strongly magnetized classical plasma models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The class of plasma processes for which the so-called Vlasov approximation is inadequate is investigated. Results from the equilibrium statistical mechanics of two-dimensional plasmas are derived. These results are independent of the presence of an external dc magnetic field. The nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the electrostatic guiding-center plasma, a two-dimensional plasma model, is discussed. This model is then generalized to three dimensions. The guiding-center model is relaxed to include finite Larmor radius effects for a two-dimensional plasma.

  1. Plasma spraying with wire feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, M.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma spraying has been limited to using powder feedstocks for a number of reasons. One limitation has been the low energy output of conventional plasma guns. The advent of high energy plasma spraying (HEPS) devices and the associated technology has effectively removed this functional limitation. With HEPS, the combination of high gas velocities and high thermal plasma temperatures coupled with a large exit gas volume enables wire and rod feedstocks to be effectively utilized. Rather than a bulk melting mechanism, a model based on ablation phenomena is considered. The paper examines an analysis of melting phenomena and presents a simple model for molten droplet formation for plasma spraying using wire feedstocks.

  2. Plasma beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1983-06-01

    We perform an analytic study of some quantities relevant to the plasma beat-wave accelerator (PBWA) concept. We obtain analytic expressions for the plasma frequency, longitudinal electron velocity, plasma density and longitudinal plasma electric field of a nonlinear longitudinal electron plasma oscillation with amplitude less than the wave-breaking limit and phase velocity approaching the speed of light. We also estimate the luminosity of a single-pass e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear PBWA collider assuming the energy and collision beamstrahlung are fixed parameters.

  3. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  4. Cosmic Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P

    2004-04-26

    Recently we proposed a new cosmic acceleration mechanism which was based on the wakefields excited by the Alfven shocks in a relativistically owing plasma. In this paper we include some omitted details, and show that there exists a threshold condition for transparency below which the accelerating particle is collision-free and suffers little energy loss in the plasma medium. The stochastic encounters of the random accelerating-decelerating phases results in a power-law energy spectrum: f({epsilon}) {proportional_to} 1/{epsilon}{sup 2}. As an example, we discuss the possible production of super-GZK ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the atmosphere of gamma ray bursts. The estimated event rate in our model agrees with that from UHECR observations.

  5. Plasma Generated Spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    Z-pinch plasma simulations have been performed that indicate the production of spherules under certain experimental parameters. (A. L. Peratt, private communication) While performing experiments dealing with the impact of plasma discharges on various materials, we observed that spherules were created at the surface of some of the materials. For specific materials and conditions, spherules were always produced. Both individual spherules and joined spherules were created. The size and shapes were nearly identical to items found by the Mars rover, Opportunity, and called ``blueberries.'' Sky & Telescope, June 2004, p. 20, among other sources indicated the blueberries were gray spherules composed of hematite. The experiments produced hematite spherules identical in appearance to those found on Mars. These experiments suggest how the newly discovered blueberries were formed on Mars while providing an explanation that does not depend on the presence of water.

  6. Axially Modulated Plasma Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Layer, B. D.; York, A. G.; Varma, S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2009-01-22

    We demonstrate two techniques for making periodically modulated plasma waveguides-one with sharp, stable voids as short as 50 {mu}m with a period as small as 200 {mu}m, and another which modulates the waveguide diameter with a corrugation period as short as 35 {mu}m[1]. These features persist as the plasma expands for the full lifetime of the waveguide (>6 ns). The waveguides were made using the hydrodynamic shock method in a cluster jet using hydrogen, nitrogen, and argon. We demonstrate guided propagation at intensities up to 2x10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, limited by our laser energy currently available. This technique is useful for quasi-phase matching to allow efficient coupling of laser energy to acceleration of relativistic electrons or generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation at selected frequencies.

  7. The cathode plasma simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suksila, Thada

    Since its invention at the University of Stuttgart, Germany in the mid-1960, scientists have been trying to understand and explain the mechanism of the plasma interaction inside the magnetoplasmadynamics (MPD) thruster. Because this thruster creates a larger level of efficiency than combustion thrusters, this MPD thruster is the primary cadidate thruster for a long duration (planetary) spacecraft. However, the complexity of this thruster make it difficult to fully understand the plasma interaction in an MPD thruster while operating the device. That is, there is a great deal of physics involved: the fluid dynamics, the electromagnetics, the plasma dynamics, and the thermodynamics. All of these physics must be included when an MPD thruster operates. In recent years, a computer simulation helped scientists to simulate the experiments by programing the physics theories and comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. Many MPD thruster simulations have been conducted: E. Niewood et al.[5], C. K. J. Hulston et al.[6], K. D. Goodfellow[3], J Rossignol et al.[7]. All of these MPD computer simulations helped the scientists to see how quickly the system responds to the new design parameters. For this work, a 1D MPD thruster simulation was developed to find the voltage drop between the cathode and the plasma regions. Also, the properties such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and heat capacity are temperature and pressure dependent. These two conductivity and heat capacity are usually definded as constant values in many other models. However, this 1D and 2D cylindrical symmetry MPD thruster simulations include both temperature and pressure effects to the electrical, thermal conductivities and heat capacity values interpolated from W. F. Ahtye [4]. Eventhough, the pressure effect is also significant; however, in this study the pressure at 66 Pa was set as a baseline. The 1D MPD thruster simulation includes the sheath region, which is the

  8. Plasma and magnetospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comfort, R. H.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1985-10-01

    Several programs and variations have been developed to determine statistical means of different plasma parameters when binned in different variables. These parameters include temperature, densities and spacecraft potentials for any of the ion species, as well as ratios of these variables for any other ion species to the corresponding variable for H(+). The variables for binning include L, radial distance, and geomagnetic latitude; and separate statistics are automatically run for local morning and local evening data. These programs all run from output files from the plasma parameter thin sheath analysis program. A variant program also bins for magnetic activity, using either Kp or Dst, which requires an additional magnetic activity input file. These programs can be run either interactively or in batch mode, using file listings generated by a DIRECTORY command. In addition to printed output, these programs generate output files which can be used to plot the results. Programs to plot these averaged data are under development.

  9. Plasma jet takes off.

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, L

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to a series of joint research projects by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Beta Squared of Allen, Texas, and the University of California at Los Angeles, there is now a more environmentally sound method for cleaning semiconductor chips that may also be effective in cleaning up chemical, bacterial, and nuclear contaminants. The Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet uses a type of ionized gas called plasma to clean up contaminants by binding to them and lifting them away. In contrast to the corrosive acids and chemical solvents traditionally used to clean semiconductor chips, the jet oxidizes contaminants, producing only benign gaseous by-products such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. The new technology is also easy to transport, cleans thoroughly and quickly, and presents no hazards to its operators. PMID:10417375

  10. Plasma deposition of tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, K.E.

    1986-12-01

    Tungsten films were plasma-deposited using an abnormal glow discharge through a mixture of tungsten hexafluoride, hydrogen, and argon. The films adhered well to silicon, silicon dioxide, gallium arsenide, and aluminum substrates placed directly on the discharge cathode. Typical deposition rates were on the order of 160 Angstroms/minute with as-deposited film resistivities of 40 to 70 microohm-cm. The tungsten was analyzed using a number of techniques including x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. Low-resistivity (<10 microohm-cm) films that adhered well to silicon dioxide were obtained with a two-step process utilizing plasma deposition and conventional chemical vapor deposition.

  11. Plasma Temperatures at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayyasi-Matta, Majd; Mendillo, M.; Galand, M.; Moore, L.; Withers, P.

    2013-10-01

    Ion and electron temperatures in the ionosphere of Mars affect plasma densities. These quantities vary with altitude and time of day. Modeling results are used to interpret existing measurements and to support anticipated MAVEN measurements. A 1D fluid model of the Martian ionosphere has been coupled to a kinetic supra-thermal electron transport model in order to self-consistently calculate ion and electron densities and temperatures. The models include diurnal variations, revealing hundreds of Kelvin changes in dayside electron and ion temperatures at fixed altitude. The models treat each ion species separately, revealing hundreds of Kelvin differences between H+ and O2+ temperatures. Consistent with previous studies using single-ion plasma, solar EUV heating alone is insufficient to heat the thermal electrons and ion species to observed temperatures, indicating the presence of additional heating sources.

  12. Instabilities in uranium plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidman, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of unstable sound waves in a uranium plasma has been calculated using a multiple time-scale asymptotic expansion scheme. The fluid equations used include the fission power density, radiation diffusion, and the effects of the changing degree of ionization of the uranium atoms. The nonlinear growth of unstable waves is shown to be limited by mode coupling to shorter wavelength waves which are damped by radiation diffusion. This mechanism limits the wave pressure fluctuations to values of order delta P/P equal to about .00001 in the plasma of a typical gas-core nuclear rocket engine. The instability is thus not expected to present a control problem for this engine.

  13. Plasma Trytophan and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C. N.; Kalucy, R. S.; Hartmann, M. K.; Lacey, J. H.; Crisp, A. H.; Bailey, J. E.; Eccleston, E. G.; Coppen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Free, bound, and total plasma tryptophan (F.P.T., B.P.T., and T.P.T.) levels have been measured throughout the night in six young female volunteers. All-night polygraphic sleep recordings were also made. No direct temporal relationship was found between plasma tryptophan levels and specific sleep stages. The mean F.P.T. levels, however, were found to have a positive correlation with rapid-eye-movement (R.E.M.) sleep and a negative correlation with non-R.E.M. sleep. An inverse relationship existed between the F.P.T. and B.P.T. levels. There appeared to be a diurnal variation in F.P.T. levels, with high readings in the first half of the night. PMID:4373116

  14. Instabilities in uranium plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidman, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of unstable sound waves in a uranium plasma has been calculated using a multiple time-scale asymptotic expansion scheme. The fluid equations used include the fission power density, radiation diffusion, and the effects of the changing degree of ionization of the uranium atoms. The nonlinear growth of unstable waves is shown to be limited by mode coupling to shorter wavelength waves which are damped by radiation diffusion. This mechanism limits the wave pressure fluctuations to values of order delta P/P equal to about .00001 in the plasma of a typical gas-core nuclear rocket engine. The instability is thus not expected to present a control problem for this engine.

  15. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  16. Plasma dust crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, John; Thomas, H.; Morfill, G.

    1994-01-01

    In a ground-based definition study, a concept for a new type of microgravity experiment is developed. We formed a new state of matter: a crystalline lattice structure of charged micron-size spheres, suspended in a charge-neutral plasma. The plasma is formed by a low-pressure radio-frequency argon discharge. Solid microspheres are introduced, and they gain a negative electric charge. They are cooled by molecular drag on the ambient neutral gas. They are detected by laser light scattering and video photography. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that a two-dimensional nonquantum lattice forms through the Coulomb interaction of these spheres. Microgravity is thought to be required to observe a three-dimensional structure.

  17. Spectroscopy of divertor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Isler, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The requirements for divertor spectroscopy are treated with respect to instrumentation and observations on present machines. Emphasis is placed on quantitative measurements.of impurity concentrations from the interpretation of spectral line intensities. The possible influence of non-Maxwellian electron distributions on spectral line excitation in the divertor is discussed. Finally the use of spectroscopy for determining plasma temperature, density, and flows is examined.

  18. Argon plasma coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Zenker, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) is an application of gas discharges in argon in electrosurgery, which is increasingly used especially in endoscopy. The major application fields are haemostasis, tissue devitalization and tissue reduction. This review describes the physics and technology of electrosurgery and APC. Some characteristics of the argon discharge are shown and discussed, and thermal effects in biological tissue are described. Subsequently, examples of medical applications are given. PMID:20204117

  19. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    enough formyl radical is accumulated. Inasmuch as formyl oxidizes more intensively than CO, it accumulates on the later stage. At that, processes...plasma has a high mean energy of electrons and will provide a source of reactive atoms, radicals , and excited molecules which has been shown to enhance...3.4.2 Positive ions kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 3.4.3 Production of radicals by electron impact

  20. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jungman, Gerard; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  1. Dusty spin plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brodin, G.; Marklund, M.; Zamanian, J.

    2008-09-07

    A fluid model is derived, taking into account the effect of spin magnetization of electrons as well as of magnetized dust grains. The model is analyzed, and it is found that both the acoustic velocity and the Alfven velocity is decreased due to the magnetization effects. Furthermore, for low-temperature high density plasmas, it is found that the linear wave modes can be unstable, due to the magnetic attraction of individual fluid elements. The significance of our results are discussed.

  2. Beam Plasma Turbulence Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Ney, and J . F. Karczewski, Spae Sci. Instrum ., 4, 143 (1978). -- ’.. ...... .. " ’- -’ ... -,,, ,i, ,, - . --. : s v.-’ Z XW , - .. . Ř ’ - ’ " p...interactions with the able plasma theorists, Dr. J . R. Jasperse at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Drs. B. Basu and J . Retterer of the Space Data Analysis...Drs. J . D. Winningham and J . Burch at the Southwest Research Institute, Dr. D. Klumpar of the University of Texas at Dallas, Dr. P. Kintner of the

  3. Topics in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Vahala, Linda

    2015-05-31

    During the period 1998-2013, research under the auspices of the Department of Energy was performed on RF waves in plasmas. This research was performed in close collaboration with Josef Preinhaelter, Jakub Urban, Vladimir Fuchs, Pavol Pavlo and Frantisek Zacek (Czech Academy of Sciences), Martin Valovic and Vladimir Shevchenko (Culham). This research is detailed and all 38 papers which were published by this team are cited.

  4. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    the period 246 Lassa Fever Immune Plasma (LFIP) units were obtained by plasmapheresis , 106 were forwarded to USAMRIID. During the whole life of the...Fever in Plasmapheresis #20 - the inception of the Contract LV has been isolated from 139 of 213 LF patients and another 71 presumptive LF cases have...During the year plasmapheresis at Curran Lutheran Hospital (CLH) and Phebe Hospital (PH) resulted in the collection of 246 units of Lassa Fever

  5. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-31

    E. Yalley-Ogunro, was engaged in visits to the field stations at CLH and PH for plasmapheresis , in testing patients for indirect fluorescent... Plasmapheresis yielded 358 plasma units, of which 180 were forwarded to USAMRIID. They are to be tested there for the concentratrion of neutralizing...Activities 5 Plasmapheresis 6 Lassa fever cases 6 Passive immunotherapy 7 Conclusion 8 References 9 Map - Northern Liberia 10 Appendix - Tables 1. Lassa

  6. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    both plasmapheresis and serodiagnosis were limited. 153Plasmapheresis at the Curran Lutheran Hospital (CLH) and Phebe Hospital (PH) yielded 153 plasma...Page Summary 1 Foreward 2 Narrative 4 Introduction 4 Activities 5 Plasmapheresis 6 Lassa fever cases 6 Passive immunotherapy 7 Conclusion 8 References 8...education of the Field Investigator, Mr. J.E. Yalley- Ogunro, in diagnostic techniques which will be used in therapeutic investigations, continued

  7. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  8. Theoretical plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, A. H.; Vahala, G. M.

    1992-05-01

    Work during the past year in the areas of classical and anomalous transport, three-dimensional equilibria, divertor physics, and diagnostic techniques using waves is reported. Although much work was done on classical transport, the validity of the guiding-center drift equations, which are the basis of much of the theory, has received little attention. The limitations of the drift approximation are being studied. Work on three-dimensional equilibria, which shows that quasi-helical symmetry is broken in third order in the inverse aspect ratio, on the modification of the current profile due to tearing modes was completed. This work is relevant to the maintenance of a steady-state tokamak by the bootstrap current. Divertor physics is a primary area that required development for ITER. One of the few methods by which the physics of the divertor can be modified or controlled is magnetic perturbations. The effect of magnetic perturbations on the divertor scrapeoff layer in collaboration with Hampton University is being studied. The evolution of magnetic field embedded in a moving plasma is a dynamics problem of potential importance. Renormalization techniques gave important insights first in the theory of phase transitions. The applications of these techniques has extended to many areas of physics, including turbulence in fluids and plasmas. Essentially no diagnostics for magnetic fluctuations inside a fusion-grade plasma exist. A collaborative program with Old Dominion University and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to develop such a diagnostic based on the conversion of electromagnetic waves from the ordinary to the extraordinary mode is underway.

  9. Sheet of Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-01

    A sheet of plasma blasted out into space from just behind the edge of the sun (July 28, 2017). While some material escaped into space, a portion of it was unable to break the pull of gravity and the magnetic forces nearby and can be seen falling back to the sun. The 3.5 hours of action was captured in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21866

  10. Comparison of QIAGEN automated nucleic acid extraction methods for CMV quantitative PCR testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steve; Seet, Henrietta; Khan, Yasmeen; Wright, Carolyn; Nadarajah, Rohan

    2010-04-01

    We examined the effect of nucleic acid extraction methods on the analytic characteristics of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Human serum samples were extracted with 2 automated instruments (BioRobot EZ1 and QIAsymphony SP, QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) and CMV PCR results compared with those of pp65 antigenemia testing. Both extraction methods yielded results that were comparably linear and precise, whereas the QIAsymphony SP had a slightly lower limit of detection (1.92 log(10) copies/mL vs 2.26 log(10) copies/mL). In both cases, PCR was more sensitive than CMV antigen detection, detecting CMV viremia in 12% (EZ1) and 21% (QIAsymphony) of antigen-negative specimens. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using 2 different extraction techniques to yield results within 0.5 log(10) copies/mL of the mean value, a level that would allow for clinical comparison between different laboratory assays.

  11. Management of cytomegalovirus infection in a patient with malignant glioma treated with temozolomide and steroids.

    PubMed

    Okita, Yoshiko; Narita, Yoshitaka; Miyakita, Yasuji; Ohno, Makoto; Nagai, Shoichi; Shibui, Soichiro

    2012-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapy treatment for glioblastoma. Lymphocytopenia is reported to be the most frequent and severe adverse effect of TMZ and leads to opportunistic infections. Few cases of TMZ-induced cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation have so far been reported, and there are no guidelines regarding the use of chemotherapy after recovery from CMV reactivation. We herein report the case of a 45-year-old man with glioblastoma who developed CMV hepatitis following surgery and chemoradiotherapy with concomitant TMZ and steroids. After successful treatment of the CMV infection with an antiviral agent and recovery from the lymphocytopenia were achieved, the patient resumed maintenance therapy with TMZ under careful monitoring of his lymphocyte count and CMV pp65 antigenemia level.

  12. Plasma is a strategic resource.

    PubMed

    Strengers, Paul F W; Klein, Harvey G

    2016-12-01

    Plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) such as immunoglobulins and clotting factors are listed by the World Health Organization as essential medicines. These and other PDMPs are crucial for the prophylaxis and treatment of patients with bleeding disorders, immune deficiencies, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a variety of congenital deficiency disorders. While changes in clinical practice in developed countries have reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions thereby significantly reducing the collection volumes of whole blood and recovered plasma suitable for fractionation, the need for PDMPs worldwide continues to increase. The majority of plasma supplies for the manufacture of PDMPs is met by the US commercial plasma industry. However, geographic imbalance in the collection of plasma raises concerns that local disruptions of plasma supplies could result in regional and global shortages of essential PDMPs. Plasma, which fits the definition of a strategic resource, that is, "an economically important raw material which is subject to a higher risk of supply interruption," should be considered a strategic resource comparable to energy and drinking water. Plasma collections should be increased outside the United States, including in low- and middle-income countries. The need for capacity building in these countries is an essential part to strengthen quality plasma collection. This will require changes in national and regional policies. We advocate the need for the restoration of an equitable balance of the international plasma supply to reduce the risk of supply shortages worldwide. Strategic independence of plasma should be endorsed on a global level. © 2016 AABB.

  13. Transport processes in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth`s magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth`s magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth`s magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior.

  14. Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel-Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.

  15. Dynamics of Igniting Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airoldi, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Coppi, Bruno

    2004-11-01

    A unique feature of the Ignitor experiment is that is designed to reach for the first time the conditions where the thermonuclear instability due to -particle heating can develop. We have investigated the means by which the instability can be controlled, including the injected plasma heating power, the deuterium/tritium concentrations, and the effects of the expected sawtooth oscillations driven by the plasma pressure gradient. An ad hoc version of the JETTO transport code [1] has been used with the deuterium and tritium densities evolving separately under independent inflows. The boundary conditions for the main ion diffusion equation include recycling that assures density conservation in the absence of external inflows. Different combinations of the inflows of the main ions and of the duration and values of the injected RF power are shown lead to a large range of possibilities, from the onset of ignition and of the thermonuclear instability to quasi-stationary burning plasmas with a fusion gain exceeding 10. [1] A. Airoldi and G. Cenacchi, Nuclear Fusion 41, 687 (1997)

  16. Plasma Sensor Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlis, Eric; Bowles, Patrick; Corke, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Progress has been made towards the development of a new class of sensors which have the potential to overcome the temperature limitations found in conventional sensors, thus addressing an important measurement challenge faced in the measurement of high speed flows. The new approach is based on the a.c.-driven mass-flow laboratory plasma anemometer developed by Matlis et al. and uses a weakly ionized glow discharge encapsulated between two electrodes as the sensing element. These sensors will feature proven elements of the technology used in the plasma anemometer, but will be extended for high-temperature, multiparameter operation. The sensitivity to different parameters can be provided by the design and orientation of the electrodes. The objective is to replace conventional sensors which provide diagnostics in the laboratory but are known to fail in real-world applications with a suite of rugged sensors optimized to measure wall shear-stress, pressure, temperature, heat flux, mass-flow, strain, and gas species. The advantages of the plasma sensor are that it has no mechanical parts (like a pressure transducer diaphragm) to fatigue or break, its operation is insensitive to temperature, it has a very high frequency response (2MHz +), and its output can be received wirelessly. These advantages over other sensors makes it ideal for use in high speed flows.

  17. Plasma Modeling of Electrosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Scott; Friedrichs, Daniel; Gilbert, James; Park, Wounjhang; Maksimovic, Dragan

    2014-10-01

    Electrosurgery is the use of high frequency alternating current (AC) to illicit a clinical response in tissue, such as cutting or cauterization. Power electronics converters have been demonstrated to generate the necessary output voltage and current for electrosurgery. The design goal of the converter is to regulate output power while supplying high frequency AC. The design is complicated by fast current and voltage transients that occur when the current travels through air in the form of an arc. To assist in designing a converter that maintains the desired output power during these transients, we have used the COMSOL Plasma Module to determine the output voltage and current characteristics during an arc. This plasma model, used in conjunction with linear circuit elements, allows the full electrosurgical system to be validated. Two models have been tested with the COMSOL Plasma Module. One is a four-species, four-reaction model based on the local field approximation technique. The second simulates the underlying air chemistry using 30 species, 151 chemical reactions, and a coupled electron energy distribution function. Experimental output voltage and current samples have been collected and compared to both models.

  18. PLASMA CELL LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    de Larrea, Carlos Fernandez; Kyle, Robert A.; Durie, Brian GM; Ludwig, Heinz; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David H.; Hajek, Roman; Miguel, Jésus San; Sezer, Orhan; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kumar, Shaji K.; Mahindra, Anuj; Comenzo, Ray; Palumbo, Antonio; Mazumber, Amitabha; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Caers, Jo; Cavo, Michele; LeLeu, Xavier; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Chim, CS; Schots, Rik; Noeul, Amara; Fantl, Dorotea; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Moreau, Philippe; Fonseca, Rafael; Merlini, Giampaolo; Lahuerta, JJ; Bladé, Joan; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Shah, Jatin J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic-pathologic entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10 9/L) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds for diagnosis be reexamined and consensus recommendations are made for diagnosis, as well as, response and progression criteria. Induction therapy needs to begin promptly and have high clinical activity leading to rapid disease control in an effort to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding of the pathogenesis of PCL. PMID:23288300

  19. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Adir José; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Zambon, Luis da Silva; da Silva, Mônica Valero; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-01

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  1. Space plasma contractor research, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted on hollow cathode-based plasma contractors are reported. Specific tests in which attempts were made to vary plasma conditions in the simulated ionospheric plasma are described. Experimental results showing the effects of contractor flowrate and ion collecting surface size on contactor performance and contactor plasma plume geometry are presented. In addition to this work, one-dimensional solutions to spherical and cylindircal space-charge limited double-sheath problems are developed. A technique is proposed that can be used to apply these solutions to the problem of current flow through elongated double-sheaths that separate two cold plasmas. Two conference papers which describe the essential features of the plasma contacting process and present data that should facilitate calibration of comprehensive numerical models of the plasma contacting process are also included.

  2. Radio Frequency Plasma in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Iwamae, Atsushi; Tadokoro, Atsushi; Mukasa, Shinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ayato; Nomura, Shinfuku

    2006-11-01

    We generate a radio frequency (RF) plasma in water at an atmospheric pressure by applying an RF power of 13.56 MHz from an electrode. The plasma is in a bubble formed in water. On the basis of hydrogen spectral lines under the assumption of thermal equilibrium, the temperature of the plasma is estimated to be 4000-4500 K. Spectroscopic measurements show that hydrogen and oxygen are excited in the plasma. The plasma is also obtained in tap water or NaCl solution with a high conductivity. In the solution, sodium spectral lines are observed. Colored water containing methylene blue is exposed to the plasma. The absorbence spectra of the colored water before and after exposure to the plasma suggest the decomposition of organic matter due to chemical reactions involving active species, such as OH-radicals.

  3. Plasma Properties of Microwave Produced Plasma in a Toroidal Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay; Edwards, W. F.; Held, Eric

    2011-10-01

    We have modified a small tokamak, STOR-1M, on loan from University of Saskatchewan, to operate as a low-temperature (~5 eV) toroidal plasma machine with externally induced toroidal magnetic fields ranging from zero to ~50 G. The plasma is produced using microwave discharges at relatively high pressures. Microwaves are produced by a kitchen microwave-oven magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz in continuous operating mode, resulting in pulses ~0.5 s in duration. Initial measurements of plasma formation in this device with and without applied magnetic fields are presented. Plasma density and temperature profiles have been measured using Langmuir probes and the magnetic field profile inside the plasma has been obtained using Hall probes. When the discharge is created with no applied toroidal magnetic field, the plasma does not fill the entire torus due to high background pressure. However, when a toroidal magnetic field is applied, the plasma flows along the applied field, filling the torus. Increasing the applied magnetic field seems to aid plasma formation - the peak density increases and the density gradient becomes steeper. Above a threshold magnetic field, the plasma develops low-frequency density oscillations due to probable excitation of flute modes in the plasma.

  4. Plasma Torch for Plasma Ignition and Combustion of Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustimenko, Alexandr; Messerle, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-fuel systems (PFS) have been developed to improve coal combustion efficiency. PFS is a pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch producing high temperature air stream of 4000 - 6000 K. Plasma activation of coal at the PFS increases the coal reactivity and provides more effective ignition and ecologically friendly incineration of low-rank coal. The main and crucial element of PFS is plasma torch. Simplicity and reliability of the industrial arc plasma torches using cylindrical copper cathode and air as plasma forming gas predestined their application at heat and power engineering for plasma aided coal combustion. Life time of these plasma torches electrodes is critical and usually limited to 200 hours. Considered in this report direct current arc plasma torch has the cathode life significantly exceeded 1000 hours. To ensure the electrodes long life the process of hydrocarbon gas dissociation in the electric arc discharge is used. In accordance to this method atoms and ions of carbon from near-electrode plasma deposit on the active surface of the electrodes and form electrode carbon condensate which operates as ``actual'' electrode. Complex physicochemical investigation showed that deposit consists of nanocarbon material.

  5. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-11-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1-87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented.

  6. Linking plasma kinetics to plasma-bio interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Cold non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas have received a lot of attention in the last decade due to their huge potential for biomedical applications. In my group, we have characterized an RF driven APPJ in great detail. The characterization includes electrical measurements, imaging, optical emission spectroscopy, (two photon enhanced) laser induced fluorescence, Thomson scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering and mass spectrometry. This led to a detailed knowledge of the electron density, electron temperature, gas temperature, NO, O, OH, O3 densities, ionic species and air concentrations in the plasma effluent. Living organisms for in vitro studies are typically kept in complex solutions or culture media. Plasma-bio interactions involves not only the production of reactive species in the plasma gas phase but also transport to the liquid phase and plasma induced liquid phase chemistry and its impact on the living organisms. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species have been identified as the key reactive species. Recent results of my group show that controlling the gas phase plasma chemistry can lead to significant different biological responses of the living organisms corresponding to different chemical pathways. The effect of plasma jet interaction with liquids containing mammalian cells, bacteria and virus will be discussed. The outcomes of these studies allow unraveling chemical pathways responsible for plasma-bio interactions and linking plasma kinetics to plasma-bio interactions.

  7. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-11-15

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented.

  8. Proton driven plasma wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golian, Y.; Dorranian, D.

    2016-11-01

    An analytical model for the interaction of charged particle beams and plasma for a wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. In the suggested model, the plasma density profile has a minimum value on the propagation axis. A Gaussian proton beam is employed to excite the plasma wakefield in the channel. While previous works investigated on the simulation results and on the perturbation techniques in case of laser wakefield accelerations for a parabolic channel, we have carried out an analytical model and solved the accelerating field equation for proton beam in a parabolic plasma channel. The solution is expressed by Whittaker (hypergeometric) functions. Effects of plasma channel radius, proton bunch parameters and plasma parameters on the accelerating processes of proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration are studied. Results show that the higher accelerating fields could be generated in the PWFA scheme with modest reductions in the bunch size. Also, the modest increment in plasma channel radius is needed to obtain maximum accelerating gradient. In addition, the simulations of longitudinal and total radial wakefield in parabolic plasma channel are presented using LCODE. It is observed that the longitudinal wakefield generated by the bunch decreases with the distance behind the bunch while total radial wakefield increases with the distance behind the bunch.

  9. Plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper are associated in elite female and male judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; de Oliveira-Junior, Astrogildo Vianna; Portella, Emilson Souza; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Koury, Josely Correa

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper levels and their relationship in trained female and male judo athletes (n = 10 women; n = 8 men). Blood samples were obtained 24 h after training to measure plasma zinc, copper, and leptin levels. Subjects presented similar values to age (22 +/- 2 years old), body mass index (24 +/- 1 kg/m(2)), plasma zinc (17.2 +/- 2 micromol/L), copper (12.5 +/- 2 micromol/L), and leptin (5.6 +/- 1.3 microg/L). However, height, total body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and sum of ten-skinfold thickness were higher in male than female. Plasma leptin was associated with sum of ten skinfolds in male (r = 0.91; p < 0.001) and female athletes (r = 0.84; p < 0.003). Plasma zinc was associated with leptin in males (r = 0.82; p < 0.05) while copper was associated with plasma leptin in females (r = 0.66; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that young judo athletes lost sex-related differences in leptin levels. Plasma zinc, plasma copper, and energy homeostasis may be involved in regulation of plasma leptin.

  10. Preemptive therapy in adult liver transplant recipients in CMV-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Kim, S J; Joh, J-W; Shin, M; Kim, E Y; Moon, J I; Jung, G O; Choi, G-S; Kwon, C H D; Lee, S-K

    2010-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is not only a common complication after liver transplantation but also a significant contributing factor to morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether preemptive therapy can prevent CMV syndrome or tissue-invasive CMV disease in an endemic area. Preemptive therapy was initiated when more than 10 positive CMV pp65 antigen-positive cells per 400,000 white blood cells were detected, regardless of clinical manifestations. Intravenous ganciclovir as preemptive therapy was administered daily for 10 to 14 days until negative results were achieved. The incidence of initial CMV antigenemia and CMV syndrome during the posttransplantation period was 49.7% (353/710) and 5.2% (37/710), respectively. One hundred eight-two patients (51.6%) received ganciclovir as preemptive therapy. Patients with CMV antigenemia who received preemptive therapy had high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, repeat operation, renal dysfunction, infection, low hemoglobin concentration, low platelet count, low albumin concentration, high international normalized ratio, high total bilirubin value, high aspartate transaminase concentration, and high CMV peak titer. Cytomegalovirus syndrome and tissue-invasive CMV disease were more common in these patients. The survival curve in patients without CMV syndrome was better than that in those with CMV syndrome (P=.000). Patients with more than 10 pp65 antigen-positive cells per 400,000 white blood cells should be treated aggressively with an antiviral agent as preemptive therapy because CMV infection is common in CMV-endemic areas and patients with CMV syndrome demonstrate poor survival rates. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lithium plasma emitter for collisionless magnetized plasma experiment.

    PubMed

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Lee, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Yi-Jue; Syugu, Wun-Jheng; Song, Sung-Xuang; Hsieh, Tung-Yuan; Cheng, C Z

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a newly developed lithium plasma emitter, which can provide quiescent and low-temperature collisionless conditions for magnetized plasma experiments. This plasma emitter generates thermal emissions of lithium ions and electrons to produce a lithium plasma. Lithium type beta-eucryptite and lanthanum-hexaboride (LaB(6)) powders were mixed and directly heated with a tungsten heater to synthesize ion and electron emissions. As a result, a plasma with a diameter of ~15 cm was obtained in a magnetic mirror configuration. The typical range of electron density was 10(12)-10(13) m(-3) and that of electron temperature was 0.1-0.8 eV with the emitter operation temperature of about 1500 K. The amplitude fluctuations for the plasma density were lower than 1%. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.

    1991-07-16

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm[sup 2]. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity. 3 figures.

  13. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Gorbatkin, Steven M.; Berry, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm.sup.2. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity.

  14. Online plasma diagnostics of a laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Gao; Nasr, A. M. Hafz; Song, Li; Mohammad, Mirzaie; Guangyu, Li; Quratul, Ain

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report a laser interferometry experiment for the online-diagnosing of a laser-produced plasma. The laser pulses generating the plasma are ultra-fast (30 femtoseconds), ultra-intense (tens of Terawatt) and are focused on a helium gas jet to generate relativistic electron beams via the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism. A probe laser beam (λ = 800 nm) which is split-off the main beam is used to cross the plasma at the time of arrival of the main pulse, allowing online plasma density diagnostics. The interferometer setup is based on the NoMarski method in which we used a Fresnel bi-prism where the probe beam interferes with itself after crossing the plasma medium. A high-dynamic range CCD camera is used to record the interference patterns. Based upon the Abel inversion technique, we obtained a 3D density distribution of the plasma density.

  15. The diverse applications of plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  16. The diverse applications of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mukul Darwhekar, Gajanan; Dubey, Shivani; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  17. Plasma viscosity: a forgotten variable.

    PubMed

    Késmárky, Gábor; Kenyeres, Péter; Rábai, Miklós; Tóth, Kálmán

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of plasma viscosity has been underutilized in the clinical practice. Plasma viscosity is determined by water-content and macromolecular components. Plasma is a highly concentrated protein solution, therefore weak protein-protein interactions can play a role that is not characterized by electrophoresis. The effect of a protein on plasma viscosity depends on its molecular weight and structure. The less spheroid shape, the higher molecular weight, the higher aggregating capacity, and the higher temperature or pH sensitivity a protein has, the higher plasma viscosity results. Plasma is a Newtonian fluid, its viscosity does not depend on flow characteristics, therefore it is simple to measure, especially in capillary viscosimeters. Its normal value is 1.10-1.30 mPa s at 37 degrees C and independent of age and gender. The measurement has high stability and accuracy, thus little alterations may be pathologically important. Inflammations, tissue injuries resulting in plasma protein changes can increase its value with high sensitivity, though low specificity. It can increase in parallel with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but it is not influenced by hematocrit (anemia, polycytemia), or time to analysis. Based on these favorable features, in 1942 plasma viscosity was recommended to substitute ESR. In hyperviscosity syndromes plasma viscosity is better in follow-up than ESR. In rheumatoid arthritis, its sensitivity and specificity are better than that of ESR or C-reactive protein. Plasma fibrinogen concentration and plasma viscosity are elevated in unstable angina pectoris and stroke and their higher values are associated with higher rate of major adverse clinical events. Elevation of plasma viscosity correlates to the progression of coronary and peripheral artery diseases. In conclusion, plasma viscosity should be measured routinely in medical practice.

  18. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    over a range of power levels has been used for industrial and materials processing applications ,[1-4] and increasingly applied in biomedical...from already resistant bacteria. To identify the usefulness of the plasma pencil for biomedical applications , we assessed plasma pencil treatment on...Characterization of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet and its Applications for Disinfection and Cancer Treatment . (San Diego, CA: Annual MMVR20

  19. Hydrogen ionic plasma generated using Al plasma grid

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Anegawa, N.; Egawa, M.; Kawata, K.; Kamikawa, T.

    2016-08-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced in the apertures of a plasma grid made of aluminum under the irradiation of positive ions, generating an ionic plasma consisting of positive and negative ions. The saturation current ratio obtained using a Langmuir probe reflects the existence ratio of electrons and is found to increase in connection with the diffusion of the ionic plasma. The local increment of the current ratio suggests the collapse of negative ions and the replacement of detached electrons.

  20. Hydrogen ionic plasma generated using Al plasma grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oohara, W.; Anegawa, N.; Egawa, M.; Kawata, K.; Kamikawa, T.

    2016-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced in the apertures of a plasma grid made of aluminum under the irradiation of positive ions, generating an ionic plasma consisting of positive and negative ions. The saturation current ratio obtained using a Langmuir probe reflects the existence ratio of electrons and is found to increase in connection with the diffusion of the ionic plasma. The local increment of the current ratio suggests the collapse of negative ions and the replacement of detached electrons.

  1. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  2. MHD description of plasma: handbook of plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1980-10-01

    The basic sets of MHD equations for the description of a plasma in various limits are derived and their usefulness and limits of validity are discussed. These limits are: the one fluid collisional plasma, the two fluid collisional plasma, the Chew-Goldberger Low formulation of the guiding center limit of a collisionless plasma and the double-adiabatic limit. Conservation relations are derived from these sets and the mathematics of the concept of flux freezing is given. An example is given illustrating the differences between guiding center theory and double adiabatic theory.

  3. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiechula, J. Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J.

    2016-07-15

    We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.

  4. Plasma dragged microparticles as a method to measure plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, Catalin M.; Wang Zhehui; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2006-10-15

    The physics of microparticle motion in flowing plasmas is studied in detail for plasmas with electron and ion densities n{sub e,i}{approx}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, electron and ion temperatures of no more than 15 eV, and plasma flows on the order of the ion thermal speed, v{sub f}{approx}v{sub ti}. The equations of motion due to Coulomb interactions and direct impact with ions and electrons, of charge variation, as well as of heat exchange with the plasma, are solved numerically for isolated particles (or dust grains) of micron sizes. It is predicted that microparticles can survive in plasma long enough, and can be dragged in the direction of the local ion flow. Based on the theoretical analysis, we describe a new plasma flow measurement technique called microparticle tracer velocimetry (mPTV), which tracks microparticle motion in a plasma with a high-speed camera. The mPTV can reveal the directions of the plasma flow vectors at multiple locations simultaneously and at submillimeter scales, which is hard to achieve by most other techniques. Thus, mPTV can be used to study plasma flows produced in the laboratory.

  5. Revisiting the plasma sheath—dust in plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, G. C.; Deka, R.; Bora, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of plasma sheath formed around surfaces of various solid bodies in space, though the results obtained in this work can be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. It is important to note that our calculations are valid only when the amount of dust particles is not sufficient so as to affect the plasma dynamics in the dust-acoustic time scale, but enough to affect the plasma sheath. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisson equation.

  6. Plasma Hole -- a Singular Vortex in a Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M. Y.

    2008-12-01

    A vortex with a density cavity in its core has been observed in a magnetized cylindrical plasma. It is called "plasma hole" from the visual impression when viewed along the axis of the vortex. The flow velocity measurements revealed that the plasma hole accompanies with supersonic azimuthal flow and radial flow toward the center, on a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The vorticity distribution evaluated from the flow velocity field is localized near the vortex center axis. This vorticity localization is identified as a Burgers vortex, which is the first observation of Burgers vortex in a plasma. The plasma hole is divided into two regions; in the peripheral regions the Lorentz force is balanced with the electric force (ExB drift), and in the core regions the Lorentz force is balanced with the centrifugal force. Rotation driven by centrifugal force is called fast rotation, and is realized only in non-neutral plasmas so far. It is found that charge neutrality condition in the core region breaks down by three order of magnitude compared with the case without plasma hole (10-6). The effective viscosity in the core region exhibits an anomaly as well. The detailed experimental results on the plasma hole and the implication from the viewpoint of basic plasma physics will be presented. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  7. Plasma Diagnostics of a Capillary Plasma Channel for Laser Guiding

    SciTech Connect

    Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Bobrova, Nadezhda A.

    2010-11-04

    We demonstrated the production of an optical waveguide in a capillary discharge-produced plasma using a cylindrical capillary. Plasma parameters of its waveguide were characterized by use of both a Normarski laser interferometer and a hydrogen plasma line spectrum. A space-averaged maximum temperature of 3.3 eV with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed at a discharge time of 150 ns and a maximum discharge current of 200 A. An ultrashort, intense laser pulse was guided by use of this plasma channel.

  8. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-15

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 {mu}g of plasma with density above 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 {mu}g has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  9. Revisiting the plasma sheath—dust in plasma sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Das, G. C.; Deka, R.; Bora, M. P.

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of plasma sheath formed around surfaces of various solid bodies in space, though the results obtained in this work can be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. It is important to note that our calculations are valid only when the amount of dust particles is not sufficient so as to affect the plasma dynamics in the dust-acoustic time scale, but enough to affect the plasma sheath. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisson equation.

  10. Plasma Sail Concept Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Delamere, P.; Kabin, K.; Linde, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    The mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion (M2P2) device, originally proposed by Winglee et al., predicts that a 15-km standoff distance (or 20-km cross-sectional dimension) of the magnetic bubble will provide for sufficient momentum transfer from the solar wind to accelerate a spacecraft to unprecedented speeds of 50 C80 km/s after an acceleration period of 3 mo. Such velocities will enable travel out of the solar system in period of 7 yr almost an order of magnitude improvement over present chemical-based propulsion systems. However, for the parameters of the simulation of Winglee et al., a fluid model for the interaction of M2P2 with the solar wind is not valid. It is assumed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid model, normally applied to planetary magnetospheres, that the characteristic scale size is much greater than the Larmor radius and ion skin depth of the solar wind. In the case of M2P2, the size of the magnetic bubble is actually less than or comparable to the scale of these characteristic parameters. Therefore, a kinetic approach, which addresses the small-scale physical mechanisms, must be used. A two-component approach to determining a preliminary estimate of the momentum transfer to the plasma sail has been adopted. The first component is a self-consistent MHD simulation of the small-scale expansion phase of the magnetic bubble. The fluid treatment is valid to roughly 5 km from the source and the steady-state MHD solution at the 5 km boundary was then used as initial conditions for the hybrid simulation. The hybrid simulations showed that the forces delivered to the innermost regions of the plasma sail are considerably ( 10 times) smaller than the MHD counterpart, are dominated by the magnetic field pressure gradient, and are directed primarily in the transverse direction.

  11. Ion dynamics in the plasma mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinrimisi, J.; Orsini, S.; Candidi, M.; Balsiger, H.

    1990-11-01

    A comprehensive statistical analysis has been performed on plasma mantle data from the positive ion experiment (EGD) on ISEE-2 and the Ion Composition Experiment (ICE) on ISEE-1; the data were collected during the first six months of 1978 and 1979 in the earth's magnetotail. Particular emphasis has been placed on plasma mantle-plasma sheet crossings so as to elucidate the role of mantle plasma in the refilling of the plasma sheet. It is shown that mantle plasma contiguous to the plasma sheet is convected primarily away from the magnetopause toward the center of the tail equatorial region. Evidence is found in the data that, when the mantle plasma reaches a region close to the plasma sheet, it undergoes processes of energization and thermalization. The mantle plasma characteristics gradually change to those of the plasma sheet as observed immediately after, suggesting that the same plasma has changed properties in such a way as to become plasma sheet plasma.

  12. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. T.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blanc, M.; Burch, J. L.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Grande, M.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Kelha, V.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Svenes, K. R.; Szegö, K.; Tanskanen, P.; Ahola, K.; Anderson, D.; Bakshi, S.; Baragiola, R. A.; Barraclough, B. L.; Black, R. K.; Bolton, S.; Booker, T.; Bowman, R.; Casey, P.; Crary, F. J.; Delapp, D.; Dirks, G.; Eaker, N.; Funsten, H.; Furman, J. D.; Gosling, J. T.; Hannula, H.; Holmlund, C.; Huomo, H.; Illiano, J. M.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, M. A.; Linder, D. R.; Luntama, T.; Maurice, S.; McCabe, K. P.; Mursula, K.; Narheim, B. T.; Nordholt, J. E.; Preece, A.; Rudzki, J.; Ruitberg, A.; Smith, K.; Szalai, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Viherkanto, K.; Vilppola, J.; Vollmer, T.; Wahl, T. E.; Wüest, M.; Ylikorpi, T.; Zinsmeyer, C.

    2004-09-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS investigation will contribute to understanding Saturn’s magnetosphere and its complex interactions with Titan, the icy satellites and rings, Saturn’s ionosphere and aurora, and the solar wind. Our design approach meets these goals by emphasizing two complementary types of measurements: high-time resolution velocity distributions of electrons and all major ion species; and lower-time resolution, high-mass resolution spectra of all ion species. The CAPS instrument is made up of three sensors: the Electron Spectrometer (ELS), the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS), and the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). The ELS measures the velocity distribution of electrons from 0.6 eV to 28,250 keV, a range that permits coverage of thermal electrons found at Titan and near the ring plane as well as more energetic trapped electrons and auroral particles. The IBS measures ion velocity distributions with very high angular and energy resolution from 1 eV to 49,800 keV. It is specially designed to measure sharply defined ion beams expected in the solar wind at 9.5 AU, highly directional rammed ion fluxes encountered in Titan’s ionosphere, and anticipated field-aligned auroral fluxes. The IMS is designed to measure the composition of hot, diffuse magnetospheric plasmas and low-concentration ion species 1 eV to 50,280 eV with an atomic resolution M/ΔM ˜70 and, for certain molecules, (such asN 2 + and CO+), effective resolution as high as ˜2500. The three sensors are mounted on a motor-driven actuator that rotates the entire instrument over approximately one-half of the sky every 3 min.

  13. Quark Gluon Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  14. Auroral plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of auroral plasma wave phenomena, starting with the earliest ground-based observations and ending with the most recent satellite observations. Two types of waves are considered, electromagnetic and electrostatic. Electromagnetic waves include auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, ELF noise bands, and low-frequency electric and magnetic noise. Electrostatic waves include upper hybrid resonance emissions, electron cyclotron waves, lower hybrid waves, ion cyclotron waves and broadband electrostatic noise. In each case, a brief overview is given describing the observations, the origin of the instability, and the role of the waves in the physics of the auroral acceleration region.

  15. ROTATING PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Hammel, J.E.; Longmire, C.L.; Nagle, D.E.; Ribe, F.L.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-10-24

    ABS>A method and device are described for obtaining fusion reactions. The basic concept is that of using crossed electric and magnetic fields to induce a plasma rotation in which the ionized particles follow a circumferential drift orbit on wldch a cyclotron mode of motion is superimposed, the net result being a cycloidal motion about the axis of symmetry. The discharge tube has a radial electric field and a longitudinal magnetic field. Mirror machine geometry is utilized. The device avoids reliance on the pinch effect and its associated instability problems. (AEC)

  16. Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-05-07

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  17. Plasma Beam Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    GUN PLASMA BEAM / ,I 21 cm diameter = 0 GLASS DRIFT TUBE 50 cm diameter MCP CAMERA CLASS CROSSES (a) Gun muzzle /"- PLASA BEAM / TAROT z = 10 m MCP...discusses some of the hydrodynamic issues related to the calcula- tions. The reader may well wonder why hydrodynamics should be an issue in a 116 WL-TR-90...answer is yes for the slow beam cases and no for the fast beam cases. This is explained further. 118 WL-TR-90-83 The reader will recall the

  18. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-31

    10606 Lassa fever nfi 1 6 1 1 Lassa virus I9.AU TRACT (C *ont~u 0’mYO er~~~n of aeguM*# 4wvv &I muinw) Plasmapheresis was conducted at Curran Lutheran...Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRTID), and ultimately, therapeutic trials of the plasma and comparison of its...effectiveness with ribavirin, an antiviral agent. Plasmapheresis was conducted at Curran Lutheran Hospital (CLH), and increasingly at Phebe Hospital (PH) with 255

  19. Modeling of Photoionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I review the motivation and current status of modeling of plasmas exposed to strong radiation fields, as it applies to the study of cosmic X-ray sources. This includes some of the astrophysical issues which can be addressed, the ingredients for the models, the current computational tools, the limitations imposed by currently available atomic data, and the validity of some of the standard assumptions. I will also discuss ideas for the future: challenges associated with future missions, opportunities presented by improved computers, and goals for atomic data collection.

  20. Compact Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma accelerator has been conceived for both material-processing and spacecraft-propulsion applications. This accelerator generates and accelerates ions within a very small volume. Because of its compactness, this accelerator could be nearly ideal for primary or station-keeping propulsion for spacecraft having masses between 1 and 20 kg. Because this accelerator is designed to generate beams of ions having energies between 50 and 200 eV, it could also be used for surface modification or activation of thin films.

  1. Microwave Argon Plasma Torch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    surface wave. The Argon ground state and seven excited states (4s, 4p , 3d, 5s, 5p, 4d, 6s) considered as blocks of levels are taken into account. The...and corresponding elementary processes. In our model for atmospheric pressure plasma the Argon ground state and seven excited states (4s, 4p , 3d, 5s...for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave. The Argon ground state and seven excited states (4s, 4p , 3d, 5s, 5p, 4d, 6s) considered as blocks of

  2. Fluorescence in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Henrik

    Following the initial detection by Bowen in 1934 of the strong O III lines being due to accidental resonance with strong He II radiation, many strong spectral emission lines are explained as produced by fluorescence. Many of these are Fe II lines pumped by H Lyα, as a consequence of strong radiation from hydrogen and a favorable energy level structure for Fe II. The lines are observed in many types of objects with low density plasma components. The Weigelt condensations in the vicinity of the massive star Eta Carinae is one location where these lines are observed and can be studied in detail, as well as been used for diagnostics.

  3. Pulsed Plasma Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The continuing emphasis on reducing costs and downsizing spacecraft is forcing increased emphasis on reducing the subsystem mass and integration costs. For many commercial, scientific, and Department of Defense space missions, onboard propulsion is either the predominant spacecraft mass or it limits the spacecraft lifetime. Electromagnetic-pulsed-plasma thrusters (PPT's) offer the combined benefits of extremely low average electric power requirements (1 to 150 W), high specific impulse (approx. 1000 sec), and system simplicity derived from the use of an inert solid propellant. Potential applications range from orbit insertion and maintenance of small satellites to attitude control for large geostationary communications satellites.

  4. Nonequilibrium Plasma Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Unfiltered Image Sequences of the Plasma Jet and CDBD Emission Acquired with a 5 ns Gated ICCD Camera. (b) Normalized Intensity from Displacement Current...measurements. A 15-ns-rise-time high-voltage stacked MOSFET switch was used to apply 6 kV to the electrodes for pulse durations of 250 ns at a 100- Hz...streamers were recorded using an intensified CCD camera. The camera gate was set to 20 ns and delayed with respect to the overvoltage peak by 20-ns

  5. Flexible plasma linear antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiansen; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Chang, Yongmeng; Chen, Xinqiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we introduce a type of plasma antenna that was fabricated using flexible materials and excited using a 5-20 kHz alternating current (ac) power supply. The results showed that the antenna characteristics, including the impedance, the reflection coefficient (S11), the radiation pattern, and the gain, can be controlled rapidly and easily by varying both the discharge parameters and the antenna shapes. The scope for reconfiguration is greatly enhanced when the antenna shape is changed from a monopole to a helix configuration. Additionally, the antenna polarization can also be adjusted by varying the antenna shapes.

  6. Twisting Plasma Interactions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-19

    Several short stalks of cooler, darker plasma spun and twisted as they interacted with each other at the sun's edge (June 14-15, 2017). The row of strands, which together form a prominence, were being pulled back and forth by magnetic forces. The dynamic action was observed for just over one day. Also noteworthy is the rapid development of a bright active region in the upper right about halfway through the clip. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21761

  7. Adverse Effects of Plasma Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the last two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions following infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: (1) transfusion related acute lung injury; (2) transfusion associated circulatory overload, and (3) allergic/anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include (1) transmission of infections, (2) febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, (3) RBC allo-immunization, and (4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The affect of pathogen inactivation/reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

  8. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J.

    2010-02-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos.

    PubMed

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J

    2010-02-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  10. Plasma ignition for laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    For a specific optical system a pulsed carbon dioxide laser having an energy output of up to 15 joules was used to initiate a plasma in air at one atmosphere pressure. The spatial and temporal development of the plasma were measured using a multiframe image converter camera. In addition the time dependent velocity of the laser supported plasma front which moves opposite to the direction of the laser pulse was measured in order to characterize the type of wavefront developed. Reliable and reproducible spark initiation was achieved. The lifetime of the highly dense plasma at the initial focal spot was determined to be less than 100 nanoseconds. The plasma front propagates toward the laser at a variable speed ranging from zero to 1.6 x 1,000,000 m/sec. The plasma front propagates for a total distance of approximately five centimeters for the energy and laser pulse shape employed.

  11. Characterizing plasma mirrors near breakdown.

    PubMed

    Geissel, Matthias; Schollmeier, Marius S; Kimmel, Mark W; Rambo, Patrick K; Schwarz, Jens; Atherton, Briggs W; Brambrink, Erik

    2011-05-01

    Experiments dedicated to the characterization of plasma mirrors with a high energy, single shot short-pulse laser were performed at the 100 TW target area of the Z-Backlighter Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. A suite of beam diagnostics was used to characterize a high energy laser pulse with a large aperture through focus imaging setup. By varying the fluence on the plasma mirror around the plasma ignition threshold, critical performance parameters were determined and a more detailed understanding of the way in which a plasma mirror works could be deduced. It was found, that very subtle variations in the laser near field profile will have strong effects on the reflected pulse if the maximum fluence on the plasma mirror approaches the plasma ignition threshold.

  12. Slotted antenna waveguide plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A high density plasma generated by microwave injection using a windowless electrodeless rectangular slotted antenna waveguide plasma source has been demonstrated. Plasma probe measurements indicate that the source could be applicable for low power ion thruster applications, ion implantation, and related applications. This slotted antenna plasma source invention operates on the principle of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). It employs no window and it is completely electrodeless and therefore its operation lifetime is long, being limited only by either the microwave generator itself or charged particle extraction grids if used. The high density plasma source can also be used to extract an electron beam that can be used as a plasma cathode neutralizer for ion source beam neutralization applications.

  13. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  14. Plasma Detachment Study in VASIMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilin, A. V.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Squire, J. P.; Breizman, B. N.; Novakovski, S. V.; Sagdeev, R. Z.

    2000-10-01

    We present kinetic and MHD simulations of plasma detachment in the exhaust of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). The detachment is associated with a transition from subalfvenic to superalfvenic plasma flow in the magnetic nozzle. As a result, the kinetic energy of the outgoing plasma flow is greater than the magnetic field energy in the exhaust area, so that the plasma is no longer confined by the magnetic field. We model the outgoing plasma flow under the assumptions that the plasma is collisionless and has a constant electron temperature. Particle simulations show that the ion motion may become nonadiabatic in the exhaust area as the magnetic field decreases downstream. This effect should facilitate the detachment.

  15. Plasma volume in isosmotic hypervolaemia.

    PubMed

    Kishegyi, J; Horváth, G; Kövér, G

    1978-01-01

    The Evans-blue distribution volume, haematocrit, and plasma protein concentration were investigated in non-hydrated (control), hydrated, and acutely nephrectomized hydrated, anaesthetized dogs. In control anaesthetized dogs a decrease of the plasma protein level was observed as part of the plasma proteins was lost into the extravascular space and did not return into the circulating plasma during the experimental period. Under the effect of hydration, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased significantly, while the haematocrit and plasma volume did not change. The phenomenon was ascribed to an increase in capillary permeability. During hydration following acute nephrectomy, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased but the haematocrit disecreased and the circulating plasma volume increased. It is concluded that a material (or materials) orginating from the kidney may influence capillary permeability.

  16. Resonance microwave volume plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.; Lee, Young Dong

    2007-07-15

    A conceptual design of a microwave gas-discharge plasma source is described. The possibility is considered of creating conditions under which microwave energy in the plasma resonance region would be efficiently converted into the energy of thermal and accelerated (fast) electrons. Results are presented from interferometric and probe measurements of the plasma density in a coaxial microwave plasmatron, as well as the data from probe measurements of the plasma potential and electron temperature. The dynamics of plasma radiation was recorded using a streak camera and a collimated photomultiplier. The experimental results indicate that, at relatively low pressures of the working gas, the nonlinear interaction between the microwave field and the inhomogeneous plasma in the resonance region of the plasmatron substantially affects the parameters of the ionized gas in the reactor volume.

  17. Dense Plasma Heating and Radiation Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The investigations under this grant consist of three parts: CO2 laser heating of dense preformed plasmas, interaction of a dense hot plasma with a...small solid pellet, and pulsed power systems and technology. The laser plasma heating experiment has demonstrated both beam guiding by the plasma and...plasma heating by the beam. These results will be useful in heating plasmas for radiation generation. Experiments have shown that the pellet-plasma

  18. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  19. Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use

  20. Magnetic insulation for plasma propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Dora E.

    1990-01-01

    The design parameters of effective magnetic insulation for plasma engines are discussed. An experimental model used to demonstrate the process of plasma acceleration and magnetic insulation is considered which consists of a copper strap that is wound around a glass tube and connected to a capacitor. In order to adequately model the magnetic insulation mechanisms, a computer algorithm is developed. Plasma engines, with their efficient utilization of the propellant mass, are expected to provide the next-generation advanced propulsion systems.

  1. Plasma Interactions With Spacecraft (I)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    various plasma engineering concerns including surface discharges due to meteoroid impact and spacecraft contamination due to electric propulsion plasma...discharges due to meteoroid impact and spacecraft contamination due to electric propulsion plasma plume effects. The goal of this effort is to...Enhanced Radiation Belts in Lake Arrowhead, California on March 3-6, 2008. Dr. Mandell also attended the DSX System CDR, Breckenridge, Colorado, May 6-8

  2. Bumper wall for plasma device

    DOEpatents

    Coultas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a plasma device such as a reactor for controlled thermonuclear fusion is facilitated by an improved bumper wall enclosing the plasma to smooth the flow of energy from the plasma as the energy impinges upon the bumper wall. The bumper wall is flexible to withstand unequal and severe thermal shocks and it is readily replaced at less expense than the cost of replacing structural material in the first wall and blanket that surround it.

  3. The plasma environment of comets

    SciTech Connect

    Gombosi, T.I. )

    1991-01-01

    U.S. research activities in the area of cometary plasma physics during 1987-1990 are reviewed. Consideration is given to mass loading and its consequences in the upstream region, the cometary shock, the cometosheath, the diamagnetic cavity boundary and the inner shock, and the plasma tail. Special attention is given to models and observations that have modified the pre-encounter understanding of cometary plasma environments. 211 refs.

  4. Strongly magnetized classical plasma models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.; Peyraud, J.; Dewitt, C.

    1974-01-01

    Discrete particle processes in the presence of a strong external magnetic field were investigated. These processes include equations of state and other equilibrium thermodynamic relations, thermal relaxation phenomena, transport properties, and microscopic statistical fluctuations in such quantities as the electric field and the charge density. Results from the equilibrium statistical mechanics of two-dimensional plasmas are discussed, along with nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the electrostatic guiding-center plasma (a two-dimensional plasma model).

  5. Analysis of nuclear induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic model is developed for a plasma generated by fission fragments, and the results are employed to study He plasma generated in a tube coated with fissionable material. Because both the heavy particles and electrons play important roles in creating the plasma, their effects are considered simultaneously. The calculations are carried out for a range of neutron fluxes and pressures. In general, the predictions of the theory are in good agreement with available intensity measurements. Moreover, the theory predicts the experimentally measured inversions. However, the calculated gain coefficients are such that lasing is not expected to take place in a helium plasma generated by fission fragments.

  6. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  7. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  8. Electrical characterization of rf plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) electrical sources are commonly used to generate plasmas for processing of industrial materials and for related experimental work. Published descriptions of such plasmas usually include generator-power measurements, and occasionally include plasma dc-bias measurements. One or both of these quantitites are also used in industrial feedback ccontrol systems for setpoint regulation. Recent work at Sandia an elsewhere with an experimental rf discharge device (the GEC RF Reference Cell'') has shown that power and dc-bias levels are often insufficient information for specifying the state of the plasma. The plasma can have nonlinear electrical characteristics that cause harmonic generation, and the harmonic levels can depend sensitively on the impedance of the external circuitry at harmonic frequencies. Even though the harmonics may be low in amplitude, they can be directly related to large changes in plasma power and to changes in optical emission from the plasma. Consequently, in order for a worker to truly master the plasma-generation process, it is necessary to understand, measure, and control electrical characteristics of the plamsa. In this paper we describe technique that have been developed from work with the Reference Cell for making electrical measurements on rf plasmas, and we describe surprising observations of harmonic behavior. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example there are ultra strong magnetic fields in neutron stars) relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynold`s numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. I will describe one of the more exciting examples. I will attempt to convey the excitement I felt when I was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics, which have not been so easily resolved. In fact a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. I will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma-astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynold`s-number MHD dynamos.

  10. Plasma motor generator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hite, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations of this system are presented. The theoretical work involved the equilibrium configurations of the wire and the nature of small oscillation about these equilibrium positions. A particularly interesting result was that two different configurations are allowed when the current is above a critical value. Experimental investigations were made of the optimal starting and running conditions for the proposed, low current hollow cathodes. Although optimal ranges of temperature, argon pressure and discharge voltage were identified, start up became progressively more difficult. This supposed depletion or contamination of the emissive surface could be countered by the addition of new emissive material.

  11. Atmospheric Ball Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurden, C. J. V.; Wurden, G. A.

    2008-11-01

    Free-floating atmospheric pressure copper hydroxyl ball plasmas have been studied in air and helium atmospheres, using still and high speed photography (up to 20,000 fps), collimated photodiodes, and spectroscopy. A fine boundary layer between the greenish Cu-OH cloud, and the air, is orange in color. However, when the discharge is initiated into a helium atmosphere, the boundary layer is no longer visible, suggesting that the visible boundary was caused by interactions with oxygen. We have studied scaling of the 10-cm diameter ball plasmas with both the size of the water bucket, and the applied discharge voltage, over the range of 500-5000 volts. When looking at the initial spider-leg breakdown above the water surface, the ratio of H-alpha to H-beta lines suggests a temperature of ˜0.3 eV. This is also consistent with the presence of molecular lines of OH, and perhaps CuOH2 in the rising cloud. The cloud is affected by, but can penetrate through an aluminum window screen mesh.

  12. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  13. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to 1000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  14. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  15. Simulation of Plasma Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul; Moroz, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Plasma is an indispensable tool in materials processing. It provides chemically and physically active species and directional flows of energetic species enabling deep etching with good straight profiles required by the industry. At present time, the only feasible methods of simulating the resulting feature profiles are those which fall within the scope of feature-scale (FS) simulation methods, utilizing engineering-type of reactions of incoming species with solid materials. At the same time, the molecule dynamics (MD) methods are emerging as an important alternative approach to simulating extremely small features with sizes below of a few nanometers. In our presentation, we discuss both FS methods implemented into the FPS3D code and MD methods implemented into the MDSS code. We also discuss the ways of extracting information about the reactions and interactions used in FS codes from the MD simulations utilizing the approach of interatomic potentials. For this presentation, we selected two types of simulation cases for etching. The first type considers simulation of mostly etching and implantation, such as during Si etching by chlorine-argon plasma. The second type considers ALE (atomic layer etch) when etching is done by a cyclic process of surface passivation/activation with the following process of etching/removal of a single atomic layer per cycle or per a few cycles, allowing ultimate processing accuracy. The simulations are carried out with both FS and MD codes to provide the data for relation and comparison between those two very different approaches.

  16. Pulsed Plasma Thruster Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Pencil, Eric J.; Carter, Justin; Heminger, Jason; Gatsonis, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) are currently baselined for the Air Force Mightysat II.1 flight in 1999 and are under consideration for a number of other missions for primary propulsion, precision positioning, and attitude control functions. In this work, PPT plumes were characterized to assess their contamination characteristics. Diagnostics included planar and cylindrical Langmuir probes and a large number of collimated quartz contamination sensors. Measurements were made using a LES 8/9 flight PPT at 0.24, 0.39, 0.55, and 1.2 m from the thruster, as well as in the backflow region behind the thruster. Plasma measurements revealed a peak centerline ion density and velocity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3) and 42,000 m/s, respectively. Optical transmittance measurements of the quartz sensors after 2 x 10(exp 5) pulses showed a rapid decrease in plume contamination with increasing angle from the plume axis, with a barely measurable transmittance decrease in the ultraviolet at 90 deg. No change in optical properties was detected for sensors in the backflow region.

  17. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  18. Laser Plasma Material Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Schaaf, Peter; Carpene, Ettore

    2004-12-01

    Surface treatment by means of pulsed laser beams in reactive atmospheres is an attractive technique to enhance the surface features, such as corrosion and wear resistance or the hardness. Many carbides and nitrides play an important role for technological applications, requiring the mentioned property improvements. Here we present a new promising fast, flexible and clean technique for a direct laser synthesis of carbide and nitride surface films by short pulsed laser irradiation in reactive atmospheres (e.g. methane, nitrogen). The corresponding material is treated by short intense laser pulses involving plasma formation just above the irradiated surface. Gas-Plasma-Surface reactions lead to a fast incorporation of the gas species into the material and subsequently the desired coating formation if the treatment parameters are chosen properly. A number of laser types have been used for that (Excimer Laser, Nd:YAG, Ti:sapphire, Free Electron Laser) and a number of different nitride and carbide films have been successfully produced. The mechanisms and some examples will be presented for Fe treated in nitrogen and Si irradiated in methane.

  19. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Plasma Redshift Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2011-04-01

    The newly discovered plasma redshift cross section explains a long range of phenomena; including the cosmological redshift, and the intrinsic redshift of Sun, stars, galaxies and quasars. It explains the beautiful black body spectrum of the CMB, and it predicts correctly: a) the observed XRB, b) the magnitude redshift relation for supernovae, and c) the surface- brightness-redshift relation for galaxies. There is no need for Big Bang, Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Accelerated Expansion, and Black Holes. The universe is quasi-static and can renew itself forever (for details, see: http://www.plasmaredshift.org). There is no cosmic time dilation. In intergalactic space, the average electron temperature is T = 2.7 million K, and the average electron density is N = 0.0002 per cubic cm. Plasma redshift is derived theoretically from conventional axioms of physics by using more accurate methods than those conventionally used. The main difference is: 1) the proper inclusion of the dielectric constant, 2) more exact calculations of imaginary part of the dielectric constant, and as required 3) a quantum mechanical treatment of the interactions.

  1. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  2. Theoretical Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Vahala, George M.

    2013-12-31

    Lattice Boltzmann algorithms are a mesoscopic method to solve problems in nonlinear physics which are highly parallelized – unlike the direction solution of the original problem. These methods are applied to both fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. By introducing entropic constraints one can enforce the positive definiteness of the distribution functions and so be able to simulate fluids at high Reynolds numbers without numerical instabilities. By introducing a vector distribution function for the magnetic field one can enforce the divergence free condition on the magnetic field automatically, without the need of divergence cleaning as needed in most direct numerical solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. The principal reason for the high parallelization of lattice Boltzmann codes is that they consist of a kinetic collisional relaxation step (which is purely local) followed by a simple shift of the relaxed data to neighboring lattice sites. In large eddy simulations, the closure schemes are highly nonlocal – the most famous of these schemes is that due to Smagorinsky. Under a lattice Boltzmann representation the Smagorinsky closure is purely local – being simply a particular moment on the perturbed distribution fucntions. After nonlocal fluid moment models were discovered to represent Landau damping, it was found possible to model these fluid models using an appropriate lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The close to ideal parallelization of the lattice Boltzmann codes permitted us to be Gordon Bell finalists on using the Earth Simulation in Japan. We have also been involved in the radio frequency propagation of waves into a tokamak and into a spherical overdense tokamak plasma. Initially we investigated the use of a quasi-optical grill for the launching of lower hybrid waves into a tokamak. It was found that the conducting walls do not prevent the rods from being properly irradiated, the overloading of the quasi-optical grill is not severe

  3. Plasma networking in magnetically confined plasmas and diagnostics of nonlocal heat transport in tokamak filamentary plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    1999-02-01

    The method of multilevel dynamical contrasting is applied to analyzing available data from tokamak plasmas. The results illustrate a possibility of extending the concept of the plasma percolating networks in dense Z pinches (and other inertially confined plasmas) to the case of magnetically confined plasmas. This extension suggests a necessity to append the conventional picture of the nonfilamentary plasma (which is nearly a fluid described by conventional magnetohydrodynamics) with a "network" component which is formed by the strongest long-living filaments of electric current and penetrate the "fluid" component. Signs of networking are found in visible light and soft x-ray images, and magnetic probing data. A diagnostic algorithm is formulated for identifying the role of plasma networking in observed phenomena of nonlocal (non-diffusive) heat transport in a tokamak.

  4. Plasma formation and expansion in an electrothermal plasma injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.D.; Bourham, M.A.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    The experimental device SIRENS has been used to conduct studies on plasma formation and expansion in electrothermal launchers. The 1-D, time-dependent fluid dynamics code, ODIN, models the energy transport, particle transport, plasma resistivity, plasma viscosity, and the equation-of-state of the source and barrel of the SIRENS experiment. Because electrothermal plasmas are highly collisional (high-density, low-temperature), the plasma is modeled as a viscous fluid, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium for each cell. The viscous drag forces were varied according to the Reynolds number of each cell. As the Reynolds number increases the modeled drag forces change accordingly, going from laminar to smooth turbulent to rough turbulent. The measured mass loss of the ablating liner (Lexan) in the source section is in good agreement with that predicted by the code. Comparisons between the measured and predicted pressures inside the barrel are in good agreement. The pressure reaches its maximum inside the source at approximately 45 {mu}s, then decreases steadily due to the drop in temperature and density. The plasma flows into the barrel and the pressure profile begins to flatten out and drop as the plasma exits the barrel. The variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the energy input to the source have also been calculated and will be discussed.

  5. Plasma volume nomograms for use in therapeutic plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, G W; Heineken, F G

    1983-01-01

    Nomograms have been developed for the convenient estimation of the plasma volumes of patients undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), based on equations employing height, body weight, and hematocrit. These nomograms are offered as an aid to prescribing continuous-flow TPE procedure exchange volumes.

  6. Cold plasma: overview of plasma technologies and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology. It is based on energetic, reactive gases which inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization pro...

  7. Plasma-wall transition in weakly collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Manfredi, G.; Devaux, S.

    2008-10-15

    This paper reviews some theoretical and computational aspects of plasma-wall interactions, in particular the formation of sheaths. Some fundamental results are derived analytically using a simple fluid model, and are subsequently tested with kinetic simulations. The various regions composing the plasma-wall transition (Debye sheath, collisional and magnetic presheaths) are discussed in details.

  8. Effect of plasma motion on tearing modes in cylindrical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. Q.; Peng, X. D.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of equilibrium plasma motion on the resistive m/n = 2/1 tearing mode (TM) in low β plasmas is investigated in cylindrical geometry (with m and n being poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). Without equilibrium plasma motion but with viscosity, the TM stability is mainly determined by the Reynolds number S and reaches maximum near S = 104, which is consistent with previous findings. The poloidal plasma rotation has stabilizing effect on TM; however, the rotation shear has destabilization effect in the low viscosity regime. The axial plasma motion has strong stabilizing effect on TM in the low viscosity regime for Prandtl number Pr < 1, while its shear has slight stabilizing effect with the decrease of growth rate less than 15%. When the axial velocity becomes large enough, the mode frequency tends to be independent of the Prandtl number. In the presence of parallel plasma motion, the growth rate is determined by the axial component at low parallel velocity, while determined by poloidal component at large parallel velocity. The parallel plasma motion drives the TM rotating in the opposite direction. It is shown that the equilibrium motion reduces the growth rate of TM by changing the phase difference and coupling coefficient between potential perturbation and magnetic flux perturbation (deviating from π/2 ), which results in a lower mode frequency. Compared to the role of velocity shear, the magnitude of plasma velocity itself at the m/n = 2/1 rational surface is dominant in determining the TM characteristics.

  9. Ion plasma wave and its instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2014-04-15

    Some essential features of the ion plasma wave in both kinetic and fluid descriptions are presented. The wave develops at wavelengths shorter than the electron Debye radius. Thermal motion of electrons at this scale is such that they overshoot the electrostatic potential perturbation caused by ion bunching, which consequently propagates as an unshielded wave, completely unaffected by electron dynamics. So in the simplest fluid description, the electrons can be taken as a fixed background. However, in the presence of magnetic field and for the electron gyro-radius shorter than the Debye radius, electrons can participate in the wave and can increase its damping rate. This is determined by the ratio of the electron gyro-radius and the Debye radius. In interpenetrating plasmas (when one plasma drifts through another), the ion plasma wave can easily become growing and this growth rate is quantitatively presented for the case of an argon plasma.

  10. Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Korzekwa, Deniece R.

    1999-01-01

    Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting. The level of oxygen and carbon impurities in tantalum was reduced by plasma arc melting the tantalum using a flowing plasma gas generated from a gas mixture of helium and hydrogen. The flowing plasma gases of the present invention were found to be superior to other known flowing plasma gases used for this purpose.

  11. Cold plasma processing technology makes advances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold plasma (AKA nonthermal plasma, cool plasma, gas plasma, etc.) is a rapidly maturing antimicrobial process being developed for applications in the food industry. A wide array of devices can be used to create cold plasma, but the defining characteristic is that they operate at or near room temper...

  12. Plasma, The Fourth State of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandy, Hassan F.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses plasma as a source of energy through nuclear fission processes, as well as the difficulties encountered in such a process. States that 99 percent of the matter in the universe is plasma, and only 1 percent is the common three states of matter. Describes the fundamental properties of plasma, plasma "pinch, and plasma oscillations. (RR)

  13. Plasma, The Fourth State of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandy, Hassan F.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses plasma as a source of energy through nuclear fission processes, as well as the difficulties encountered in such a process. States that 99 percent of the matter in the universe is plasma, and only 1 percent is the common three states of matter. Describes the fundamental properties of plasma, plasma "pinch, and plasma oscillations. (RR)

  14. Experimental results from detached plasmas in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Boody, F.P.; Bush, C.E.; Cohen, S.A.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; Medley, S.S.

    1986-10-01

    Detached plasmas are formed in TFTR which have the principal property of the boundary to the high temperature plasma core being defined by a radiating layer. This paper documents the properties of TFTR ohmic-detached plasmas with a range of plasma densities at two different plasma currents.

  15. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  16. Optimization of plasma amplifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Sadler, James D.; Trines, Raoul M. G. M.; Tabak, Max; ...

    2017-05-24

    Here, plasma amplifiers offer a route to side-step limitations on chirped pulse amplification and generate laser pulses at the power frontier. They compress long pulses by transferring energy to a shorter pulse via the Raman or Brillouin instabilities. We present an extensive kinetic numerical study of the three-dimensional parameter space for the Raman case. Further particle-in-cell simulations find the optimal seed pulse parameters for experimentally relevant constraints. The high-efficiency self-similar behavior is observed only for seeds shorter than the linear Raman growth time. A test case similar to an upcoming experiment at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is found tomore » maintain good transverse coherence and high-energy efficiency. Effective compression of a 10kJ, nanosecond-long driver pulse is also demonstrated in a 15-cm-long amplifier.« less

  17. Self-organizing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Complexity Simulation Group

    1999-03-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to extract a grand view of self-organization through an extensive computer simulation of plasmas. The assertion is made that self-organization is governed by three key processes, i.e. the existence of an open complex system, the existence of information (energy) sources and the existence of entropy generation and expulsion processes. We find that self-organization takes place in an intermittent fashion when energy is supplied continuously from outside. In contrast, when the system state is suddenly changed into a non-equilibrium state externally, the system evolves stepwise and reaches a minimum energy state. We also find that the entropy production rate is maximized whenever a new ordered structure is created and that if the entropy generated during the self-organizing process is expelled from the system, then the self-organized structure becomes more prominent and clear.

  18. Plasma Theory and Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    Hall (642-3477)(P04 t Vocto/Lg e4 J Yu Jiuan Chen, Douglas Harned ,Jae Koo Lee , AU Pei rav i 11 9 MD Cory Ha ll (642- 1297)(Re4ea ~th A L ~tant...Conference (1973). - 2 - L ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ •~~~~~~~~~~ _ -~~ i ~ j-iw -. — —-- .~. ~— — ~~~~~~~— — — • - B. PL.ASMAS WITH FIELD REVERSAL .* Douglas Harned...We have i nitia ted efforts to obtain an LBL extension phone so that we may use their tie-line to ILL. When the UC

  19. Research in plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Three aspects of barium ion cloud dynamics are discussed. First, the effect of the ratio of ion cloud conductivity to background ionospheric conductivity on the motion of barium ion clouds is investigated and compared with observations of barium ion clouds. This study led to the suggestion that the conjugate ionosphere participates in the dynamics of barium ion clouds. Second, analytic work on the deformation of ion clouds is presented. Third, a linearized stability theory was extended to include the effect of the finite extent of an ion cloud, as well as the effect of the ratio of ion cloud to ionospheric conductivities. The stability properties of a plasma with contra-streaming ion beams parallel to a magnetic field are investigated. The results are interpreted in terms of parameters appropriate for collisionless shock waves. It is found that this particular instability can be operative only if the up-stream Alfven Mach number exceeds 5.5.

  20. Magnetospheric space plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1994-01-01

    A time dependent semi-kinetic model that includes self collisions and ion-neutral collisions and chemistry was developed. Light ion outflow in the polar cap transition region was modeled and compared with data results. A model study of wave heating of O+ ions in the topside transition region was carried out using a code which does local calculations that include ion-neutral and Coulomb self collisions as well as production and loss of O+. Another project is a statistical study of hydrogen spin curve characteristics in the polar cap. A statistical study of the latitudinal distribution of core plasmas along the L=4.6 field line using DE-1/RIMS data was completed. A short paper on dual spacecraft estimates of ion temperature profiles and heat flows in the plasmasphere ionosphere system was prepared. An automated processing code was used to process RIMS data from 1981 to 1984.

  1. Optimization of plasma amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, James D.; Trines, Raoul M. Â. G. Â. M.; Tabak, Max; Haberberger, Dan; Froula, Dustin H.; Davies, Andrew S.; Bucht, Sara; Silva, Luís O.; Alves, E. Paulo; Fiúza, Frederico; Ceurvorst, Luke; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F.; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma amplifiers offer a route to side-step limitations on chirped pulse amplification and generate laser pulses at the power frontier. They compress long pulses by transferring energy to a shorter pulse via the Raman or Brillouin instabilities. We present an extensive kinetic numerical study of the three-dimensional parameter space for the Raman case. Further particle-in-cell simulations find the optimal seed pulse parameters for experimentally relevant constraints. The high-efficiency self-similar behavior is observed only for seeds shorter than the linear Raman growth time. A test case similar to an upcoming experiment at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is found to maintain good transverse coherence and high-energy efficiency. Effective compression of a 10 kJ , nanosecond-long driver pulse is also demonstrated in a 15-cm-long amplifier.

  2. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-31

    Discharged P-1414 Ad F DaMu 4/15/88 6/16/88 6/16 - Improved P-1426 Ad F KoKo 6/15/88 7/12/88 7/12 - Imp. p. in- JaDa 6/15/88 7/12/88 fusion.Died 7...1/90 Fever 2 d. HaFa 1/11/90 2/1/90 p. plasma. P-1814 Ad N JaDa 2/7/90 2/10/90 Afebrile in ZiHo 1/18/90 2/10/90 24 hours. P-1815 AD M JaGa 2/7/90 2

  3. Space plasma contactor research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Paul J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple model describing the process of electron collection from a low pressure ambient plasma in the absence of magnetic field and contactor velocity effects is presented. Experimental measurments of the plasma surrounding the contactor are used to demonstrate that a double-sheath generally develops and separates the ambient plasma from a higher density, anode plasma located adjacent to the contactor. Agreement between the predictions of the model and experimental measurements obtained at the electron collection current levels ranging to 1 A suggests the surface area at the ambient plasma boundary of the double-sheath is equal to the electron current being collected divided by the ambient plasma random electron current density; the surface area of the higher density anode plasma boundary of the double-sheath is equal to the ion current being emitted across this boundary divided by the ion current density required to sustain a stable sheath; and the voltage drop across the sheath is determined by the requirement that the ion and electron currents counterflowing across the boundaries be at space-charge limited levels. The efficiency of contactor operation is shown to improve when significant ionization and excitation is induced by electrons that stream from the ambient plasma through the double-sheath and collide with neutral atoms being supplied through the hollow cathode.

  4. Plasma tau in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Janelidze, Shorena; Insel, Philip S; Andreasson, Ulf; Stomrud, Erik; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Baker, David; Tan Hehir, Cristina A; Jeromin, Andreas; Hanlon, David; Song, Linan; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj

    2016-10-25

    To test whether plasma tau is altered in Alzheimer disease (AD) and whether it is related to changes in cognition, CSF biomarkers of AD pathology (including β-amyloid [Aβ] and tau), brain atrophy, and brain metabolism. This was a study of plasma tau in prospectively followed patients with AD (n = 179), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 195), and cognitive healthy controls (n = 189) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and cross-sectionally studied patients with AD (n = 61), mild cognitive impairment (n = 212), and subjective cognitive decline (n = 174) and controls (n = 274) from the Biomarkers for Identifying Neurodegenerative Disorders Early and Reliably (BioFINDER) study at Lund University, Sweden. A total of 1284 participants were studied. Associations were tested between plasma tau and diagnosis, CSF biomarkers, MRI measures, (18)fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and cognition. Higher plasma tau was associated with AD dementia, higher CSF tau, and lower CSF Aβ42, but the correlations were weak and differed between ADNI and BioFINDER. Longitudinal analysis in ADNI showed significant associations between plasma tau and worse cognition, more atrophy, and more hypometabolism during follow-up. Plasma tau partly reflects AD pathology, but the overlap between normal aging and AD is large, especially in patients without dementia. Despite group-level differences, these results do not support plasma tau as an AD biomarker in individual people. Future studies may test longitudinal plasma tau measurements in AD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  6. Hollow Plasma in a Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-11-30

    A ring cathode for a pulsed, high-current, multi-spot cathodic arc discharge was placed inside a pulsed magnetic solenoid. Photography is used to evaluate the plasma distribution. The plasma appears hollow for cathode positions close the center of the solenoid, and it is guided closer to the axis when the cathode is away from the center.

  7. Features of spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    The spherical torus is a very small aspect ratio (A < 2) confinement concept obtained by retaining only the indispensable components inboard to the plasma torus. MHD equilibrium calculations show that spherical torus plasmas with safety factor q > 2 are characterized by high toroidal beta (..beta../sub t/ > 0.2), low poloidal beta (..beta../sub p/ < 0.3), naturally large elongation (kappa greater than or equal to 2), large plasma current with I/sub p//(aB/sub t0/) up to about 7 MA/mT, strong paramagnetism (B/sub t//B/sub t0/ > 1.5), and strong plasma helicity (F comparable to THETA). A large near-omnigeneous region is seen at the large-major-radius, bad-curvature region of the plasma in comparison with the conventional tokamaks. These features combine to engender the spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost. Because of its strong paramagnetism and helicity, the spherical torus plasma shares some of the desirable features of spheromak and reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas, but with tokamak-like confinement and safety factor q. The general class of spherical tori, which includes the spherical tokamak (q > 1), the spherical pinch (1 > q > O), and the spherical RFP (q < O), have magnetic field configurations unique in comparison with conventional tokamaks and RFPs. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Plasma theory and simulation research

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research group uses both theory and simulation as tools in order to increase the understanding of instabilities, heating, diffusion, transport and other phenomena in plasmas. We also work on the improvement of simulation, both theoretically and practically. Our focus has been more and more on the plasma edge (the sheath''), interactions with boundaries, leading to simulations of whole devices (someday a numerical tokamak).

  9. Plasma tau in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Janelidze, Shorena; Insel, Philip S.; Andreasson, Ulf; Stomrud, Erik; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Baker, David; Tan Hehir, Cristina A.; Jeromin, Andreas; Hanlon, David; Song, Linan; Shaw, Leslie M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Weiner, Michael W.; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test whether plasma tau is altered in Alzheimer disease (AD) and whether it is related to changes in cognition, CSF biomarkers of AD pathology (including β-amyloid [Aβ] and tau), brain atrophy, and brain metabolism. Methods: This was a study of plasma tau in prospectively followed patients with AD (n = 179), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 195), and cognitive healthy controls (n = 189) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and cross-sectionally studied patients with AD (n = 61), mild cognitive impairment (n = 212), and subjective cognitive decline (n = 174) and controls (n = 274) from the Biomarkers for Identifying Neurodegenerative Disorders Early and Reliably (BioFINDER) study at Lund University, Sweden. A total of 1284 participants were studied. Associations were tested between plasma tau and diagnosis, CSF biomarkers, MRI measures, 18fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and cognition. Results: Higher plasma tau was associated with AD dementia, higher CSF tau, and lower CSF Aβ42, but the correlations were weak and differed between ADNI and BioFINDER. Longitudinal analysis in ADNI showed significant associations between plasma tau and worse cognition, more atrophy, and more hypometabolism during follow-up. Conclusions: Plasma tau partly reflects AD pathology, but the overlap between normal aging and AD is large, especially in patients without dementia. Despite group-level differences, these results do not support plasma tau as an AD biomarker in individual people. Future studies may test longitudinal plasma tau measurements in AD. PMID:27694257

  10. Biocompatibility of plasma nanostructured biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepičková Kasálková, N.; Slepička, P.; Bačáková, L.; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2013-07-01

    Many areas of medicine such as tissue engineering requires not only mastery of modification techniques but also thorough knowledge of the interaction of cells with solid state substrates. Plasma treatment can be used to effective modification, nanostructuring and therefore can significantly change properties of materials. In this work the biocompatibility of the plasma nanostructured biopolymers substrates was studied. Changes in surface chemical structure were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology pristine and modified samples were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface wettability was determined by goniometry from contact angle. Biocompatibility was determined by in vitro tests, the rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultivated on the pristine and plasma modified biopolymer substrates. Their adhesion, proliferation, spreading and homogeneous distribution on polymers was monitored. It was found that the plasma treatment leads to rapid decrease of contact angle for all samples. Contact angle decreased with increasing time of modification. XPS measurements showed that plasma treatment leads to changes in ratio of polar and non-polar groups. Plasma modification was accompanied by a change of surface morphology. Biological tests found that plasma treatment have positive effect on cells adhesion and proliferation cells and affects the size of cell's adhesion area. Changes in plasma power or in exposure time influences the number of adhered and proliferated cells and their distribution on biopolymer surface.

  11. Plasma-heating by induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, K.; Thorpe, M. L.

    1969-01-01

    Induction-heated plasma torch operates with an input of 1 Mw of direct current of which 71 percent is transferred to the plasma and the remainder is consumed by electrical losses in the system. Continuous operation of the torch should be possible for as long as 5,000 hours.

  12. Plasma homocysteine and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Wouters, M G; Moorrees, M T; van der Mooren, M J; Blom, H J; Boers, G H; Schellekens, L A; Thomas, C M; Eskes, T K

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of plasma homocysteine in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to examine a possible relationship between plasma homocysteine and oestrogen status. Homocysteine metabolism was studied by a standardized oral methionine loading test, and oestrogen status was assessed by the measurement of serum 17 beta-oestradiol. Forty-six premenopausal and 26 postmenopausal healthy women without a history of vascular disease or adverse pregnancy outcome were recruited by public advertisement. The main outcome measures were the concentrations of fasting and postmethionine plasma homocysteine, and serum 17 beta-oestradiol. Fasting plasma homocysteine concentrations (mean +/- SD) were significantly higher in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal women (12 +/- 4 mumol L-1 and 10 +/- 3 mumol L-1, respectively) as well as postmethionine plasma homocysteine concentrations (46 +/- 16 mumol L-1 and 32 +/- 9 mumol L-1, respectively). In premenopausal women, postmethionine plasma homocysteine was negatively and significantly correlated to serum 17 beta-oestradiol (r = -0.34). It is concluded that plasma homocysteine concentrations, both fasting and after methionine loading, are significantly higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. In premenopausal women, the higher concentrations of serum 17 beta-oestradiol may account in part for the lower concentrations of postmethionine plasma homocysteine.

  13. Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

  14. Plasma digital density determining device

    DOEpatents

    Sprott, Julien C.; Lovell, Thomas W.; Holly, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The density of a decaying plasma in an electrically conducting enclosure is determined by applying an excitation to the cavity formed by the enclosure and counting digitally the number of resonant frequencies traversed by the combination of the cavity and the decaying plasma.

  15. Plasma Processes for Semiconductor Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchon, W. N. G.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma processing is a central technique in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. This self-contained book provides an up-to-date description of plasma etching and deposition in semiconductor fabrication. It presents the basic physics and chemistry of these processes, and shows how they can be accurately modeled. The author begins with an overview of plasma reactors and discusses the various models for understanding plasma processes. He then covers plasma chemistry, addressing the effects of different chemicals on the features being etched. Having presented the relevant background material, he then describes in detail the modeling of complex plasma systems, with reference to experimental results. The book closes with a useful glossary of technical terms. No prior knowledge of plasma physics is assumed in the book. It contains many homework exercises and serves as an ideal introduction to plasma processing and technology for graduate students of electrical engineering and materials science. It will also be a useful reference for practicing engineers in the semiconductor industry.

  16. Plasma cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Flavio; Fonseca, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, yet aggressive plasma cell (PC) neoplasm, variant of multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by high levels of PCs circulating in the peripheral blood. PCL can either originate de novo (primary PCL) or as a secondary leukemic transformation of MM (secondary PCL). Presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in MM such as renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but can also include hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected PCL should include a review of the peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) with immunofixation, and protein electrophoresis of an aliquot from a 24h urine collection (UPEP). The diagnosis is made when a monoclonal population of PCs is present in the peripheral blood with an absolute PC count exceeding 2000/μL and PC comprising 20% or more of the peripheral blood white cells. The prognosis of PCL is poor with a median survival of 7 to 11 months. Survival is even shorter (2 to 7 months) when PCL occurs in the context of refractory or relapsing MM. There have been no prospective randomized trials investigating the treatment of PCL. Recommendations are primarily based upon data from small retrospective series, case reports, and extrapolation of data from patients with MM. In general, patients are treated with induction therapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in those who are appropriate candidates for this approach. The best induction regimen for PCL is not known and there is great variability in clinical practice. Newer agents that are being incorporated into frontline and salvage therapy for MM have also demonstrated activity in PCL such as Immunomodulatory agents and the use of bortezomib with different combinations.

  17. Plasma cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Flavio; Fonseca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, yet aggressive plasma cell (PC) neoplasm, variant of multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by high levels of PCs circulating in the peripheral blood. PCL can either originate de novo (primary PCL) or as a secondary leukemic transformation of MM (secondary PCL). Presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in MM such as renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but can also include hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected PCL should include a review of the peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) with immunofixation, and protein electrophoresis of an aliquot from a 24h urine collection (UPEP). The diagnosis is made when a monoclonal population of PCs is present in the peripheral blood with an absolute PC count exceeding 2000/μL and PC comprising 20% or more of the peripheral blood white cells. The prognosis of PCL is poor with a median survival of 7 to 11 months. Survival is even shorter (2 to 7 months) when PCL occurs in the context of refractory or relapsing MM. There have been no prospective randomized trials investigating the treatment of PCL. Recommendations are primarily based upon data from small retrospective series, case reports, and extrapolation of data from patients with MM. In general, patients are treated with induction therapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in those who are appropriate candidates for this approach. The best induction regimen for PCL is not known and there is great variability in clinical practice. Newer agents that are being incorporated into frontline and salvage therapy for MM have also demonstrated activity in PCL such as Immunomodulatory agents and the use of bortezomib with different combinations. PMID:21295388

  18. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-18

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

  19. Plasma diagnostics and plasma-surface interactions in inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Monica Joy

    The semiconductor industry's continued trend of manufacturing device features on the nanometer scale requires increased plasma processing control and improved understanding of plasma characteristics and plasma-surface interactions. This dissertation presents a series of experimental results for focus studies conducted in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. First novel "on-wafer" diagnostic tools are characterized and related to plasma characteristics. Second, plasma-polymer interactions are characterized as a function of plasma species and processing parameters. Complementary simulations accompany each focus study to supplement experimental findings. Wafer heating mechanisms in inductively coupled molecular gas plasmas are explored with PlasmaTemp(TM), a novel "on-wafer" diagnostic tool. Experimental wafer measurements are obtained with the PlasmaTemp(TM) wafer processed in argon (Ar) and argon-oxygen (Ar/O2) mixed plasmas. Wafer heating mechanisms were determined by combining the experimental measurements with a 3-dimensional heat transfer model of the wafer. Comparisons between pure Ar and Ar/O2 plasmas demonstrate that two additional wafer heating mechanisms can be important in molecular gas plasmas compared to atomic gas discharges. Thermal heat conduction from the neutral gas and O-atom recombination on wafer surface can contribute as much as 60% to wafer heating under conditions of low-energy ion bombardment in molecular plasmas. Measurements of a second novel "on-wafer" diagnostic sensor, the PlasmaVolt(TM), were tested and validated in the ICP system for Ar plasmas varying in power and pressure. Sensor measurements were interpreted with a numerical sheath simulation and comparison to scaling laws derived from the inhomogeneous sheath model. The study demonstrates sensor measurements are proportional to the RF-current through the sheath and the scaling is a function of sheath impedance. PlasmaVolt(TM) sensor measurements are proportional to the

  20. Plasma waves near the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoppe, M. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Etcheto, J.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma waves associated with the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath to the outer magnetosphere are investigated to obtain a clear definition of the boundaries and regions, to characterize the waves observed in these regions, to determine which wave modes are present, and to determine their origin. Emphasis is on high time resolution data and a comparison between measurements by different antenna systems. It is shown that the magnetosheath flux transfer events, the magnetopause current layer, the outer magnetosphere, and the boundary layer can be identified by their magnetic field and plasma wave characteristics, as well as by their plasma and energetic particle signatures. The plasma wave characteristics in the current layer and in the boundary layer are very similar to the features in the flux transfer events, and upon entry into their outer magnetosphere, the plasma wave spectra are dominated by intense electromagnetic chorus bursts and electrostatic emissions.

  1. Current Drive in Recombining Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2012-05-15

    The Langevin equations describing the average collisional dynamics of suprathermal particles in nonstationary plasma remarkably admit an exact analytical solution in the case of recombining plasma. The current density produced by arbitrary particle fluxes is derived including the effect of charge recombination. Since recombination has the effect of lowering the charge density of the plasma, thus reducing the charged particle collisional frequencies, the evolution of the current density can be modified substantially compared to plasma with fixed charge density. The current drive efficiency is derived and optimized for discrete and continuous pulses of current, leading to the discovery of a nonzero "residual" current density that persists indefinitely under certain conditions, a feature not present in stationary plasmas.

  2. Laser-produced annular plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Veloso, F.; Chuaqui, H.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Favre, M.; Mitchell, I. H.; Wyndham, E.

    2006-06-15

    A new technique is presented for the formation of annular plasmas on a metal surface with a high-power laser using a combination of axicon and converging lenses. The annular plasma formed on a titanium target in a chamber of hydrogen gas was investigated using schlieren imaging and Mach Zehnder interferometry. Expansion of the plasma was shown to be anisotropic with velocities of {approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} m/s. Electron densities of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were measured with radial profiles that confirm the presence of a hollow structure. The interferometric observations also show the presence of an inward shock wave traveling to the center of the annular plasma, which compresses the background neutrals, reaching a density around 18 times initial gas density, at 95 ns after the initial annular plasma is produced.

  3. [Sterilization by the plasma procedure].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J

    1992-01-01

    Plasma sterilisation of heat sensitive materials appears as an attractive substitute for ethylene oxide processing which leaves adsorbed toxic residues. In oxygen-based plasmas, the de-activation of pathogenic organisms is assumed to be due to their slow combustion with the active species which produces CO2 and H2O. In the absence of ion bombardment, the concentration of oxygen atoms is an important parameter entering the plasma sterilisation efficiency. Means for achieving high production of oxygen atoms are reviewed and discussed. In particular, an initial improvement would be to generate the plasma in the sterilisation volume itself. Uniform plasma excitation at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) which allows resonant coupling in the whole treatment volume (no shadowing) and requires reduced electric fields to sustain the discharge (no heating of biomaterials) is particularly adapted to this purpose.

  4. Photovoltaic Plasma Interaction Test 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Bradford A.; Chrulski, Daniel; Myers, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is developing a plasma contactor to mitigate the harmful effects of charge collection on the station's large photovoltaic arrays. The purpose of the present test was to examine the effects of charge collection on the solar array electrical circuit and to verify the effectiveness of the plasma contactor. The results showed that the plasma contactor was able to eliminate structure arcing for any array output voltage. However, the current requirements of the plasma contactor were higher than those for prior testing and predicted by analysis. Three possible causes for this excess current demand are discussed. The most likely appeared to be a high local pressure on or very near the surface of the array as a result of vacuum tank conditions. Therefore, in actual space conditions, the plasma contactor should work as predicted.

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Malmström, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Ossola, Reto; Weisser, Hendrik; Quandt, Andreas; Hansson, Karin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars; Björck, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a major bacterial pathogen and a potent inducer of inflammation causing plasma leakage at the site of infection. A combination of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies were used to measure how the intracellular proteome homeostasis of S. pyogenes is influenced by the presence of human plasma, identifying and quantifying 842 proteins. In plasma the bacterium modifies its production of 213 proteins, and the most pronounced change was the complete down-regulation of proteins required for fatty acid biosynthesis. Fatty acids are transported by albumin (HSA) in plasma. S. pyogenes expresses HSA-binding surface proteins, and HSA carrying fatty acids reduced the amount of fatty acid biosynthesis proteins to the same extent as plasma. The results clarify the function of HSA-binding proteins in S. pyogenes and underline the power of the quantitative mass spectrometry strategy used here to investigate bacterial adaptation to a given environment. PMID:22117078

  6. Negative-ion plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, D. P.; Rynn, N.

    1988-08-01

    Three designs for negative-ion plasma sources are described. Two sources utilize metal hexafluorides such as SF6 and WF6 to scavenge electrons from electron-ion plasmas and the third relies upon surface ionization of alkali halide salts on heated alumina and zirconia. SF6 introduced into electron-ion plasmas yielded negative-ion plasma densities of 10 to the 10th/cu cm with low residual electron densities. On alumina, plasma densities of 10 to the 9th/cu cm were obtained for CsCl, CsI, and KI and 10 to the 9th/cu cm for KCl. On zirconia 10 to the 10th/cu cm densities were obtained for CsCl. For alkali halide sources, electron densities of less than about 10 to the -4th have been achieved.

  7. Wakefield Generation in Plasma Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Leemans, W. P.; Brussaard, G. J. H.; Esarey, E.; Wurtele, J. S.

    1999-11-01

    Laser wakefield generation in plasma channels is experimentally studied. Plasma channels, produced using the ignitor-heater method [1] in hydrogen and nitrogen, have been used to guide intense (> 5 x 10^17 W/cm^2), short (<70 fs) infrared (800 nm) laser pulses. Laser pulses injected into these channels produce a plasma wake with a phase velocity close to the speed of light. The transverse density profile of the channel determines the properties of the laser mode as well as of the plasma wave mode. The longitudinally integrated properties of the channel are measured with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer using 400 nm radiation. The probe and reference beam are combined directly on a CCD camera to provide two-dimensional interferograms and also through a spectrometer to allow Fourier domain interferometry. Progress on measuring the transverse channel profile and wakefield amplitudes will be presented. [1] P. Volfbeyn, E. Esarey and W.P. Leemans, Phys. Plasmas 6, 2269 (1999).

  8. Helicon plasma thruster discharge model

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.

    2014-04-15

    By considering particle, momentum, and energy balance equations, we develop a semi-empirical quasi one-dimensional analytical discharge model of radio-frequency and helicon plasma thrusters. The model, which includes both the upstream plasma source region as well as the downstream diverging magnetic nozzle region, is compared with experimental measurements and confirms current performance levels. Analysis of the discharge model identifies plasma power losses on the radial and back wall of the thruster as the major performance reduction factors. These losses serve as sinks for the input power which do not contribute to the thrust, and which reduce the maximum plasma density and hence propellant utilization. With significant radial plasma losses eliminated, the discharge model (with argon) predicts specific impulses in excess of 3000 s, propellant utilizations above 90%, and thruster efficiencies of about 30%.

  9. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  10. Critical Issues in Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, M.; Hosokai, T.

    2004-10-01

    Updated achievements and critical issues in plasma accelerators are summarized. As to laser plasma accelerators, we cover the results of plasma cathodes by U.Michigan, LBNL, LOA and U.Tokyo. Although many new results of accelerated electrons have been reported, the electrons do not yet form a bunch with narrow energy spread. Several injection schemes and measurements to verify ultrashort bunch (tens fs) with narrow energy spread, low emittance and many charges are planned. E-162 experiments by UCLA / USC / SLAC and a newly proposed experiment on density transition trapping are introduced for electron beam driven plasma accelerators. Their main purpose is realization of GeV plasma accelerator, but application to pump-and-probe analysis for investigation of ultrafast quantum phenomena is also promising.

  11. Aerospace applications of pulsed plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey

    2012-10-01

    The use of a thermal equilibrium plasma for combustion control dates back more than a hundred years to the advent of internal combustion (IC) engines and spark ignition systems. The same principles are still applied today to achieve high efficiency in various applications. Recently, the potential use of nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion control has garnered increasing interest due to the possibility of plasma-assisted approaches for ignition and flame stabilization. During the past decade, significant progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of plasma chemistry interactions, energy redistribution and the nonequilibrium initiation of combustion. In addition, a wide variety of fuels have been examined using various types of discharge plasmas. Plasma application has been shown to provide additional combustion control, which is necessary for ultra-lean flames, high-speed flows, cold low-pressure conditions of high-altitude gas turbine engine (GTE) relight, detonation initiation in pulsed detonation engines (PDE) and distributed ignition control in homogeneous charge-compression ignition (HCCI) engines, among others. The present paper describes the current understanding of the nonequilibrium excitation of combustible mixtures by electrical discharges and plasma-assisted ignition and combustion. Nonequilibrium plasma demonstrates an ability to control ultra-lean, ultra-fast, low-temperature flames and appears to be an extremely promising technology for a wide range of applications, including aviation GTEs, piston engines, ramjets, scramjets and detonation initiation for pulsed detonation engines. To use nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion in real energetic systems, one must understand the mechanisms of plasma-assisted ignition and combustion and be able to numerically simulate the discharge and combustion processes under various conditions.

  12. Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Christopher E.

    2002-04-01

    Among all the advanced accelerator concepts that use lasers as the power source, most of the effort to date has been with the idea of using a laser pulse to excite a accelerating mode in a plasma. Within this area, there are a variety of approaches for creating the accelerating mode, as indicated by the other talks in this session. What is common to these approaches is the physics of how a laser pulse pushes on plasma electrons to organize electron-density perturbations, the sources of the ultra-high (> GeV/M) accelerating gradients. It is the "ponderomotive force", proportional to the local gradient of the of the laser intensity, that pushes plasma electrons forward (on the leading edge of the pulse) and backwards (on the trailing edge) which leads to harmonic motion of the electrons. As the laser pulse moves through the plasma at group velocity Vg c, the oscillating electrons show up macroscopically as a plasma mode or wave with frequency w equal to the plasma frequency and k = w/Vg. For short laser pulses, this is the Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) concept. Closely related is the Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration (PBWA) concept. Here, the laser pulse that perturbs the plasma is composed of two closely-spaced frequencies that "beat", i.e., periodically constructively and destructively interfere, forming an electromagnetic beat wave. One can visualize this as a train of short pulses. If this beating frequency is set to the plasma frequency, then each pulse in the train will reinforce the density perturbation caused by the previous pulse. The principal advantage of multiple pulses driving up the plasma wave as opposed to a single pulse is in efficiency, allowing for the production of relatively large diameter (more 1-D like) accelerating modes. In this talk I will discuss past, current and planned PBWA experiments which are taking place at UCLA, RAL in England, and LULI in France.

  13. Plasma vertical stabilisation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, Y.; Kavin, A.; Lukash, V.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Snipes, J. A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the progress in analysis of the ITER plasma vertical stabilisation (VS) system since its design review in 2007-2008. Two indices characterising plasma VS were studied. These are (1) the maximum value of plasma vertical displacement due to free drift that can be stopped by the VS system and (2) the maximum root mean square value of low frequency noise in the dZ/dt measurement signal used in the VS feedback loop. The first VS index was calculated using the PET code for 15 MA plasmas with the nominal position and shape. The second VS index was studied with the DINA code in the most demanding simulations for plasma magnetic control of 15 MA scenarios with the fastest plasma current ramp-up and early X-point formation, the fastest plasma current ramp-down in a divertor configuration, and an H to L mode transition at the current flattop. The studies performed demonstrate that the VS in-vessel coils, adopted recently in the baseline design, significantly increase the range of plasma controllability in comparison with the stabilising systems VS1 and VS2, providing operating margins sufficient to achieve ITER's goals specified in the project requirements. Additionally two sets of the DINA code simulations were performed with the goal of assessment of the capability of the PF system with the VS in-vessel coils: (i) to control the position of runaway electrons generated during disruptions in 15 MA scenarios and (ii) to trigger ELMs in H-mode plasmas of 7.5 MA/2.65 T scenarios planned for the early phase of ITER operation. It was also shown that ferromagnetic structures of the vacuum vessel (ferromagnetic inserts) and test blanket modules insignificantly affect the plasma VS.

  14. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-01

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  15. Meter scale plasma source for plasma wakefield experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Hogan, M. J.

    2012-12-21

    High accelerating gradients generated by a high density electron beam moving through plasma has been used to double the energy of the SLAC electron beam [1]. During that experiment, the electron current density was high enough to generate its own plasma without significant head erosion. In the newly commissioned FACET facility at SLAC, the peak current will be lower and without pre-ionization, head erosion will be a significant challenge for the planned experiments. In this work we report on our design of a meter scale plasma source for these experiments to effectively avoid the problem of head erosion. The plasma source is based on a homogeneous metal vapor gas column that is generated in a heat pipe oven [2]. A lithium oven over 30 cm long at densities over 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} has been constructed and tested at UCLA. The plasma is then generated by coupling a 10 TW short pulse Ti:Sapphire laser into the gas column using an axicon lens setup. The Bessel profile of the axicon setup creates a region of high intensity that can stretch over the full length of the gas column with approximately constant diameter. In this region of high intensity, the alkali metal vapor is ionized through multi-photon ionization process. In this manner, a fully ionized meter scale plasma of uniform density can be formed. Methods for controlling the plasma diameter and length will also be discussed.

  16. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  17. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    DOE PAGES

    Adamovich, I.; Baalrud, S. D.; Bogaerts, A.; ...

    2017-07-14

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The currentmore » state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges.« less

  18. Recording Spatially Resolved Plasma Parameters in Microwave-Driven Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Franz; Florian, Schamberger; Igor, Krstev; Stefan, Umrath

    2013-01-01

    In an almost cubical reactor 90 l in volume which is intended to deposit organic polymers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), microwave power is coupled into the volume via a quartz window which extends to approximately 1/10 of the sidewall area. Since the plasma is excited locally, plasma parameters like electron temperature and plasma density are expected to exhibit a spatial variation. The compilation of these plasma quantities has been accomplished with a bendable single Langmuir probe. To isolate the tungsten wire against its grounded housing tube, it was coated with polyparylene. After having compared this construction with our Langmuir probe, which has been now in use for more than a decade, we have taken data of more than half the volume of the reactor with argon and have found a definitive radial inhomogenity for all plasma parameters. To investigate whether this conduct can be determined applying optical emission spectroscopy, we improved our spectrometer which had been used for endpoint detection purposes and plasma diagnostics in chlorine-containing ambients where we could detect also a spatial dependence. This behavior is discussed in terms of Lieberman's global model.

  19. Coupling between electron plasma waves in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M. J.; Lal, A.; Clayton, C. E.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Johnston, T. W.

    1996-05-01

    A Lagrangian fluid model (cold plasma, fixed ions) is developed for analyzing the coupling between electron plasma waves. This model shows that a small wave number electron plasma wave (ω2,k2) will strongly affect a large wave number electron plasma wave (ω1,k1), transferring its energy into daughter waves or sidebands at (ω1+nω2,k1+nk2) in the lab frame. The accuracy of the model is checked via particle-in-cell simulations, which confirm that the energy in the mode at (ω1,k1) can be completely transferred to the sidebands at (ω1+nω2,k1+nk2) by the presence of the electron plasma mode at (ω2,k2). Conclusive experimental evidence for the generation of daughter waves via this coupling is then presented using time- and wave number-resolved spectra of the light from a probe laser coherently Thomson scattered by the electron plasma waves generated by the interaction of a two-frequency CO2 laser with a plasma.

  20. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovich, I.; Baalrud, S. D.; Bogaerts, A.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Cappelli, M.; Colombo, V.; Czarnetzki, U.; Ebert, U.; Eden, J. G.; Favia, P.; Graves, D. B.; Hamaguchi, S.; Hieftje, G.; Hori, M.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Kortshagen, U.; Kushner, M. J.; Mason, N. J.; Mazouffre, S.; Mededovic Thagard, S.; Metelmann, H.-R.; Mizuno, A.; Moreau, E.; Murphy, A. B.; Niemira, B. A.; Oehrlein, G. S.; Petrovic, Z. Lj; Pitchford, L. C.; Pu, Y.-K.; Rauf, S.; Sakai, O.; Samukawa, S.; Starikovskaia, S.; Tennyson, J.; Terashima, K.; Turner, M. M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-08-01

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges.

  1. [Plasma technology for biomedical material applications].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    In this paper is introduced the plasma technology for the applications of several species biomaterial such as ophthalmological material, drug delivery system, tissue culture material, blood anticoagulant material as well as plasma surface clearing and plasma sterilization, and so on.

  2. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  3. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  4. The plasma proteins. Volume V. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: DNA sequencing and chromosomal locations of human plasma protein genes; Immunoglobulins: Structure, function, and genes; Plasma apolipoproteins: Gene structure, function, and variants; /alpha/ - Macroglobulin and related thiol ester plasma proteins.

  5. Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices

    DOEpatents

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

  6. Global simulations of plasma turbulence in laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.; Rogers, B. N.; Theiler, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Braginskii Solver (GBS) code has been developed in the last few years to simulate plasma turbulence in laboratory plasmas [1]. By solving the drift-reduced Braginkii equation in magnetic configurations of increasing complexity, from linear devices to the Simple Magnetized Toroidal (SMT) configuration, GBS performs non-linear self-consistent global three-dimensional simulations of the plasma dynamics, as the result of the interplay among the plasma source, the turbulent transport, and the plasma losses at the vessel. This gradual approach has allowed gaining a deep understanding of the turbulence dynamics, by identifying the instabilities responsible for driving plasma turbulence and to estimate the turbulence saturation amplitude. In particular, simulation results have pointed out the need of global simulations to correctly represent the dynamics of laboratory plasmas, as well as the importance of not separating fluctuations and equilibrium quantities. A code validation development project has been conducted side by side with the GBS development [2]. Such validation project has lead to the establishment of a rigorous methodology to carry out experiment-simulation comparison, and has allowed quantifying precisely the level of agreement between the GBS results and the experimental data from the TORPEX experiment at CRPP. [1] P. Ricci, B.N. Rogers, S. Brunner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225002 (2008); P. Ricci and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145001 (2010); B. N. Rogers and P. Ricci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 225002 (2010); B. Li et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 056406 (2011). [2] P. Ricci et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 055703 (2009); P. Ricci et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032109 (2011).

  7. Collisionless Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space phenomena, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these rarified environments, collective electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms in a reproducible laboratory setting, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field induction probes. Large Doppler shifts detected in a He II ion spectral line directly indicate initial ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field, indicative of a fundamental process known as Larmor coupling. Characterization of the laser-produced debris plasma via a radiation-hydrodynamics code permits an explicit calculation of the laminar electric field in the framework of a ``hybrid'' model (kinetic ions, charge-neutralizing massless fluid electrons), thus allowing for a simulation of the initial response of a distribution of He II test ions. A synthetic Doppler-shifted spectrum constructed from the simulated velocity distribution of the accelerated test ions excellently reproduces the spectroscopic measurements, confirming the role of Larmor coupling in the debris-ambient interaction.

  8. Experimental investigation of plasma relaxation using a compact coaxial magnetized plasma gun in a background plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott; University of New Mexico Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental studies of plasma relaxation in a low density background plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear HelCat device at UNM. These studies will advance the knowledge of basic plasma physics in the areas of magnetic relaxation and space and astrophysical plasmas, including the evolution of active galactic jets/radio lobes within the intergalactic medium. The gun is powered by a 120pF ignitron-switched capacitor bank which is operated in a range of 5-10 kV and ~100 kA. Multiple diagnostics are employed to investigate plasma relaxation process. Magnetized Argon plasma bubbles with velocities ~1.2Cs and densities ~1020 m-3 have been achieved. Different distinct regimes of operation with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images, with the parameter determining the operation regime. Additionally, a B-dot probe array is employed to measure the spatial toroidal and poloidal magnetic flux evolution to identify detached plasma bubble configurations. Experimental data and analysis will be presented.

  9. PlasmaLab/Eco-Plasma - The future of complex plasma research in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapek, Christina; Thomas, Hubertus; Huber, Peter; Mohr, Daniel; Hagl, Tanja; Konopka, Uwe; Lipaev, Andrey; Morfill, Gregor; Molotkov, Vladimir

    The next Russian-German cooperation for the investigation of complex plasmas under microgravity conditions on the International Space Station (ISS) is the PlasmaLab/Eco-Plasma project. Here, a new plasma chamber -- the ``Zyflex'' chamber -- is being developed. The chamber is a cylindrical plasma chamber with parallel electrodes and a flexible system geometry. It is designed to extend the accessible plasma parameter range, i.e. neutral gas pressure, plasma density and electron temperature, and also to allow an independent control of the plasma parameters, therefore increasing the experimental quality and expected knowledge gain significantly. With this system it will be possible to reach low neutral gas pressures (which means weak damping of the particle motion) and to generate large, homogeneous 3D particle systems for studies of fundamental phenomena such as phase transitions, dynamics of liquids or phase separation. The Zyflex chamber has already been operated in several parabolic flight campaigns with different configurations during the last years, yielding a promising outlook for its future development. Here, we will present the current status of the project, the technological advancements the Zyflex chamber will offer compared to its predecessors, and the latest scientific results from experiments on ground and in microgravity conditions during parabolic flights. This work and some of the authors are funded by DLR/BMWi (FKZ 50 WP 0700).

  10. Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-26

    Nearly all the matter encountered on Earth is either a solid, liquid, or gas. Yet plasma-the fourth state of matter-comprises more than 99 percent of the visible universe. Understanding the physical characteristics of plasmas is important to many areas of scientific research, such as the development of fusion as a clean, renewable energy source. Lawrence Livermore scientists study the physics of plasmas in their pursuit to create fusion energy, because plasmas are an integral part of that process. When deuterium and tritium are heated to the extreme temperatures needed to achieve and sustain a fusion reaction (about 100 million degrees), the electrons in these light atoms become separated from the nuclei. This process of separation is called ionization, and the resulting collection of negatively charged free electrons and positively charged nuclei is known as a plasma. Although plasmas and gases have many similar properties, plasmas differ from gases in that they are good conductors of electricity and can generate magnetic fields. For the past decade, x-ray laser interferometry has been used in the laboratory for measuring a plasma's index of refraction to determine plasma density. (The index of refraction for a given material is defined as the wavelength of light in a vacuum divided by the wavelength of light traveling through the material.) Until now, plasma physicists expected to find an index of refraction less than one. Researchers from Livermore and Colorado State University recently conducted experiments on aluminum plasmas at the Laboratory's COMET laser facility and observed results in which the index of refraction was greater than one. This surprising result implied a negative electron density. Livermore physicist Joseph Nilsen and his colleagues from Livermore and the University of Notre Dame have performed sophisticated calculations to explain this phenomenon. Previously, researchers believed that only free electrons contributed to the index of

  11. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, F.W. Jr.; Chiu, S.C.; Parks, P.; Rawls, J.M.

    1984-01-10

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for transferring energy to a plasma immersed in a magnetic field, and relates particularly to an apparatus for heating a plasma of low atomic number ions to high temperatures by transfer of energy to plasma resonances, particularly the fundamental and harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency of the plasma ions. This invention transfers energy from an oscillating radio-frequency field to a plasma resonance of a plasma immersed in a magnetic field.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkolab, Miklos

    1998-11-01

    The linear theory of plasma waves in homogeneous plasma is arguably the most mature and best understood branch of plasma physics. Given the recently revised version of Stix's excellent Waves in Plasmas (1992), one might ask whether another book on this subject is necessary only a few years later. The answer lies in the scope of this volume; it is somewhat more detailed in certain topics than, and complementary in many fusion research relevant areas to, Stix's book. (I am restricting these comments to the homogeneous plasma theory only, since the author promises a second volume on wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas.) This book is also much more of a theorist's approach to waves in plasmas, with the aim of developing the subject within the logical framework of kinetic theory. This may indeed be pleasing to the expert and to the specialist, but may be too difficult to the graduate student as an `introduction' to the subject (which the author explicitly states in the Preface). On the other hand, it may be entirely appropriate for a second course on plasma waves, after the student has mastered fluid theory and an introductory kinetic treatment of waves in a hot magnetized `Vlasov' plasma. For teaching purposes, my personal preference is to review the cold plasma wave treatment using the unified Stix formalism and notation (which the author wisely adopts in the present book, but only in Chapter 5). Such an approach allows one to deal with CMA diagrams early on, as well as to provide a framework to discuss electromagnetic wave propagation and accessibility in inhomogeneous plasmas (for which the cold plasma wave treatment is perfectly adequate). Such an approach does lack some of the rigour, however, that the author achieves with the present approach. As the author correctly shows, the fluid theory treatment of waves follows logically from kinetic theory in the cold plasma limit. I only question the pedagogical value of this approach. Otherwise, I welcome this

  13. Method & apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2004-10-19

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process and, more specifically, to the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates to a plasma monitoring module that may be adjusted in at least some manner so as to re-evaluate a previously monitored plasma process. For instance, optical emissions data on a plasma process that was previously monitored by the plasma monitoring module may be replayed through the plasma monitoring module after making at least one adjustment in relation to the plasma monitoring module.

  14. Plasma medicine: an introductory review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M. G.; Kroesen, G.; Morfill, G.; Nosenko, T.; Shimizu, T.; van Dijk, J.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. In so doing, some of the unfamiliar terminology—an unavoidable by-product of interdisciplinary research—is covered and explained. Plasma health care may provide a fast and efficient new path for effective hospital (and other public buildings) hygiene—helping to prevent and contain diseases that are continuously gaining ground as resistance of pathogens to antibiotics grows. The delivery of medically active 'substances' at the molecular or ionic level is another exciting topic of research through effects on cell walls (permeabilization), cell excitation (paracrine action) and the introduction of reactive species into cell cytoplasm. Electric fields, charging of surfaces, current flows etc can also affect tissue in a controlled way. The field is young and hopes are high. It is fitting to cover the beginnings in New Journal of Physics, since it is the physics (and non-equilibrium chemistry) of room temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas that have made this development of plasma health care possible.

  15. Thomson scattering from laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J D; Alley, W E; De Groot, J S; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H; Hammer, J H; Jadaud, J P; MacGowan, B J; Rozmus, W; Suter, L J; Williams, E A

    1999-01-12

    Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acous- tic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4{omega} probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In partic- ular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calcula- tions which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.

  16. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  17. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  18. Special issue on transient plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, James; Hoarty, David; Mancini, Roberto; Yoneda, Hitoki

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is dedicated to the "spectroscopy of transient plasmas" covering plasma conditions produced by a range of pulsed laboratory sources including short and long pulse lasers, pulsed power devices, and free electron lasers (FELs). The full range of plasma spectroscopy up to high energy bremsstrahlung radiation, including line broadening analysis for application to data recorded with the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, is covered. This issue is timely as advances in optical lasers and x-ray FELs (XFEL) are enabling transient plasma to be probed at higher energies and shorter durations than ever before. New XFEL facilities being commissioned in Europe and Asia are adding to those operating in the US and Japan and the ELI high power laser project in Europe, due to open this year, will provide short pulse lasers of unprecedented power. This special issue represents a snapshot of the theoretical and experimental research in dense plasmas, electron kinetics, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas, inertial confinement fusion and non-equilibrium atomic physics using spectroscopy to diagnose plasmas produced by optical lasers, XFELs and pulsed-power machines.

  19. Toroidal Flow in Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callen, J. D.; Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.

    2007-11-01

    Many effects influence toroidal flow evolution in tokamak plasmas. Momentum sources and radial diffusion due to axisymmetric neoclassical, paleoclassical and anomalous transport are usually considered. In addition, the toroidal flow can be affected by field errors. Small, non-axisymmetric field errors arise from coil irregularities, active control coils and collective plasma magnetic distortions (e.g., NTMs, RWMs). Resonant field errors cause localized electromagnetic torques near rational surfaces in the plasma, which can lock the plasma to the wall leading to magnetic islands and reduced confinement or disruptions. Their penetration into the plasma is limited by flow-shielding effects; but they can be amplified by the plasma response at high beta. Non-resonant field errors cause magnetic pumping and radial banana drifts, and lead to toroidal flow damping over the entire plasma. Many of these processes can also produce momentum pinch and intrinsic flow effects. This poster will seek to present a coherent picture of all these effects and suggest ways they could be tested and distinguished experimentally.

  20. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    PubMed

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy.