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Sample records for prawns

  1. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1999-06-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

  2. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  3. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  4. Solar aquaculture: A wintering technique for parent prawns

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Jin Long

    1994-09-01

    A new method of providing the warm water needed for parent prawn wintering using solar energy is described. Using solar energy for prawn wintering involves heat collection, heat storage and temperature maintenance. The system designed provides sufficient energy for the safe wintering of prawns with suitable water temperatures. The temperature control facilities consist of three parts: a salt gradient solar pond, a shallow solar pond and a plastic house. The technique involves use of a shallow solar pond for collection and storage of heat. The average temperature in the wintering pond plastic house was 11 degrees C and the minimum temperature in January was 5.4 degrees C. This system allowed the wintering process to be conducted using solar energy alone and may extend aquaculture to higher latitudes. The ratio of net profit with the solar energy system over investment is 1.5 which makes it economically viable.

  5. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among prawn seed collectors of Sunderbans.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Ghoshal, Goutam; Das, Tamal; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Ganguly, Ramjyoti; Samanto, Kshinangsu

    2008-12-01

    In India, particularly in Sunderban of West Bengal, collection of prawn seeds is one of the major earning resources among prawn seed collectors. They are compelled to carry out a considerable amount of hard, manual, rigorous tasks in the river of the Sunderban area for collecting prawn seeds. They have to adopt some undesirable postures that may lead to the development of musculo skeletal disorder (MSD). The main aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalent postures adopted by the prawn seed collectors during individual prawn seed collection and to analyze the causation of discomfort feeling related with those postures. For this study, 21 male and 25 female prawn seed collectors were selected randomly and a detailed posture analysis was performed among them by means of OWAS method. It was observed that these workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain prawn seed collection activity and consequently they suffered from discomfort feeling (pain) in different parts of the body.

  6. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE PRAWN NERVE SHEATHS

    PubMed Central

    Doggenweiler, C. F.; Heuser, John E.

    1967-01-01

    The sheaths from freshly teased nerve fibers of the prawn exhibit a positive radial birefringence, consistent with their EM appearance as highly organized laminated structures composed of numerous thin cytoplasmic sheets or laminae bordered by unit membranes and arranged concentrically around the axon. The closely apposed membranes in these sheaths are fragile and often break down into rows of vesicles during fixation. Desmosome-like attachment zones occur in many regions of the sheath. The membranes within these zones resist vesiculation and thereby provide a "control" region for relating the type of vesicles formed in the fragile portions of the sheaths to the specific fixation conditions. It is proposed that during fixation the production of artifactual vesicles is governed by an interplay of three factors: (a) direct chemical action of the fixative on the polar strata of adjacent unit membranes, (b) osmotic forces applied to membranes during fixation, and (c) the pre-existing natural relations between adjacent membranes. It is found that permanganate best preserves the continuity of the membranes but will still produce vesicles if the fixative exerts severe osmotic forces. These results support other reports (19) of the importance of comparing tissues fixed by complementary procedures so that systematic artifacts will not be described as characteristic of the natural state. PMID:4166578

  7. Mechanisms of colour adaptation in the prawn Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas M; Anderson, Mike; Sellars, Melony J; Tume, Ron K; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D

    2012-01-15

    Exposure of prawns to dark- or light-coloured substrates is known to trigger a strong colour adaptation response through expansion or contraction of the colouration structures in the prawn hypodermis. Despite the difference in colour triggered by this adaptive response, total levels of the predominant carotenoid pigment, astaxanthin, are not modified, suggesting that another mechanism is regulating this phenomenon. Astaxanthin binds to a specific protein called crustacyanin (CRCN), and it is the interaction between the quantities of each of these compounds that produces the diverse range of colours seen in crustacean shells. In this study, we investigated the protein changes and genetic regulatory processes that occur in prawn hypodermal tissues during adaptation to black or white substrates. The amount of free astaxanthin was higher in animals adapted to dark substrate compared with those adapted to light substrate, and this difference was matched by a strong elevation of CRCN protein. However, there was no difference in the expression of CRCN genes either across the moult cycle or in response to background substrate colour. These results indicate that exposure to a dark-coloured substrate causes an accumulation of CRCN protein, bound with free astaxanthin, in the prawn hypodermis without modification of CRCN gene expression. On light-coloured substrates, levels of CRCN protein in the hypodermis are reduced, but the carotenoid is retained, undispersed in the hypodermal tissue, in an esterified form. Therefore, the abundance of CRCN protein affects the distribution of pigment in prawn hypodermal tissues, and is a crucial regulator of the colour adaptation response in prawns.

  8. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  9. Prawn landings and their relationship with the extent of mangroves and shallow waters in western peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loneragan, N. R.; Ahmad Adnan, N.; Connolly, R. M.; Manson, F. J.

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated changes in landings of all prawns, white prawns (mainly Penaeus merguiensis), mangrove extent, rainfall and the area of shallow water in western peninsular Malaysia. The most important state for both the landings of all prawns and white prawns was Perak where about 50% of all prawns and 35% of white prawns were landed. This is also the state with the largest, and most stable, extent of mangrove forest reserve (40 000 ha) and the largest area of shallow water (<5 m deep). Juvenile prawns from Perak may contribute to the landings of the nearby, adjacent states of Penang and Selangor, where the second highest landings for white prawns and total prawns, respectively, were found. The area of shallow water accounted for the greatest proportion of variation in landings of both all prawns and white prawns, and was the most significant variable fitted to multiple regressions of landings and coastal attributes (area of shallow water, mangrove area, length of coastline). Although there was a significant linear relationship between the landings of total prawns and mangrove area in both the 1980s and 1990s, this was not the case for the mangrove-dependent white prawns where a significant relationship was found only for the 1990s. Furthermore, landings of all prawns and white prawns in Selangor and Johor, where large losses of mangrove forest reserve have been recorded, appear to have been maintained or increased in the 1990s. The lack of a clear relationship between mangrove loss and prawn landings may be due to the migration of prawns from adjacent areas or that other attributes of mangroves, such as the length of mangrove-water interface, may be more important for the growth and survival of prawn populations than total area of mangroves.

  10. Stable isotope and trace metal compositions of Australian prawns as a guide to authenticity and wholesomeness.

    PubMed

    Carter, J F; Tinggi, U; Yang, X; Fry, B

    2015-03-01

    This research has explored the potential of stable isotope and trace metal profiles to distinguish Australian prawns from prawns imported from neighbouring Asian countries. Australian prawns were collected mostly from the Brisbane area. Strong differences in Australian vs. imported prawns were evident from both the isotope and trace element data, with the differences most likely occurring because imported prawns are typically reared in aquaculture facilities and frozen prior to sale in Australia. The aquaculture origins are characterised by comparatively; low δHVSMOW, δ(13)CVPDB values, low concentrations of arsenic, zinc and potassium, and high water contents (>80%). Relatively high arsenic and cadmium contents were found within Australian prawns, but the concentrations did not exceed local human health guidelines.

  11. [Application of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated crustaceans (prawn, shrimp, and crabs)].

    PubMed

    Kameya, Hiromi; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Prawn, shrimp and crabs sold in Japan are mostly imported from overseas. Detection of irradiated crustaceans is very important for quality assurance. In this study, we used ESR to detect radiation-induced radicals after irradiation of prawn, shrimp and crabs of major species. No radiation-induced radicals were detected in prawn (black tiger prawn) or shrimp (white leg shrimp). Radiation-induced radicals due to hydroxyapatite were detected in the claws of snow crab, red king crab, and swimming crab. Our results indicate that ESR measurement on the claw parts of these three species of crab can be used to determine their irradiation history.

  12. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  13. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  14. Prawns, barnacles, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: effect modifiers or diagnostic confounders [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; González-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V; Armisén, M

    2007-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with no history of atopy reported several episodes of generalized urticaria and shortness of breath after eating shellfish (prawns and barnacles) but with good tolerance of the same foods between episodes. Skin prick tests (SPTs), serum enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST) for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, Western blot and inhibition assays, and oral challenge tests with prawns, barnacles, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and alcohol as potential effect modifiers were performed. Specific IgE to both barnacle and prawn were detected by SPTs and EAST. Results from a Western blot of raw prawn revealed an IgE binding band of 37 kDa and IgE binding bands of 143, 83, 38, 32, and 20 kDa appeared in the raw barnacle assay. Oral challenge tests were positive with prawns and prawn extract only if preceded by NSAIDs. Oral challenges with NSAIDs alone, prawns alone, barnacles with or without NSAIDs and alcohol led to no reaction. A synergistic effect of NSAIDs in inducing anaphylaxis after prawn intake was confirmed. No similar effect was achieved with barnacles despite the presence of specific IgE. Additional factors needed to elicit a clinical reaction in food allergy may not be obvious and several oral challenge protocols are mandatory in such cases.

  15. The "Prawn-in-the-Tube" Procedure in the Cuttlefish: Habituation or Passive Avoidance Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickel, Ludovic; Chichery, Marie-Paule; Agin, Veronique; Chichery, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether or not habituation contributes to the regulation of the inhibition of predatory behavior observed during the "prawn-in-the-tube" training procedure. When presented with prawns that are visible behind glass but untouchable, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their capture attempts. The first three experiments…

  16. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD

  17. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations.

  18. Heavy metal contamination of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and prawn feed in Bangladesh: A market-based study to highlight probable health risks.

    PubMed

    Rabiul Islam, G M; Habib, Mohammad Ruzlan; Waid, Jillian L; Rahman, M Safiur; Kabir, J; Akter, S; Jolly, Y N

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the dietary risk of heavy metal exposure to humans is important since it is the main source of exposure. This study aimed to estimate the degree of contamination and assess the probable health risk in the prawn food chain. In prawn feed, the concentrations of metals were detected in the following order: Hg > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals in prawn were the highest for Co and lowest for Cd. Trace amounts of As and Cr were detected in the analyzed sample. Target hazard quotients for heavy metals for adults were >1 for Pb, Cd, Hg, and Co, and for children, the same were high for Co and Hg, indicating significant health risks upon dietary exposure. All the prawn samples contained nine-fold and fourteen-fold higher concentrations than the maximum acceptable levels for Pb and Hg, respectively (0.5 mg kg(-1); WHO/FAO). Human health risk due to the Co exposure is quite alarming as the level of exposure was found to be very high. In the prawn samples intended for human consumption, the hazard index (HI) was highest in the samples obtained from Bagerhat (3.25 in flesh and 3.26 in skin), followed by the samples obtained from Satkhira (2.84 in flesh and 3.10 in skin) and Dhaka City Corporation (2.81 in flesh and 3.42 in Skin); this indicates a potential risk of prawn consumption obtained from Southeast Bangladesh. This is particularly problematic as this area accounts for the majority of prawn production and export of the country.

  19. Improvement of red color development on the surface of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masashi; Fukai, Takamitsu; Kawasaki, Ken-Ichi; Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki

    2014-02-01

    The degree of red color development on the surface of prawns by cooking is an important index for food quality. In this study, we tested several factors that are thought to influence the red color development to identify possible correlations with various conditions. Live kuruma prawns, Marsupenaeus japonicus, (15.4 cm, 25.2 g on average) were used in this study. In case of cooking at 100 °C for 1 min after 24 h of storage at 0 °C, 5 °C, and 20 °C, the red color development rate of prawns stored at 5 °C and 20 °C was significantly lower than that of prawns cooked just after killing. In case of cooking at 100 °C, 80 °C, and 60 °C after storage for 24 h at 0 °C, there was no color development at 60 °C and significantly less color development at 80 °C compared to cooking just after killing. Preparation using 1% sodium carbonate before cooking at 80 °C could compensate for the lack of red color development. Short exposure of live kuruma prawns to low-oxygen conditions had no influence on the color development, but putting the prawns in freshwater for 3 h significantly reduced the red color development rate. In conclusion, the storage time has little influence on the red color development when the cooking temperature is sufficiently high. However, in case a large amount of prawns is cooked followed by lowering the cooking temperature and/or prawns are exposed to serious stresses before cooking, an alkaline preparation could compensate for the lack of red color development.

  20. In-Depth Tanscriptomic Analysis on Giant Freshwater Prawns

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Kang, Yi; Lili, Zhao; Tan, Tian Tian; Kwong, Qi Bin; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Guojie; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (∼24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp. PMID:23734171

  1. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  2. Contrasting patterns of habitat use by prawns and crayfish in a headwater marsh of the St. Johns River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Frank; Babbitt, Kimberly J.; McIvor, Carole C.; Miller, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We compared seasonal patterns of habitat use by the prawn Palaemonetes paludosus and the crayfish Procambarus alleni in Blue Cypress Marsh Conservation Area, Florida. Prawn densities were similar to those found in other oligotrophic wetlands of southern Florida, whereas crayfish densities were much greater than reported previously for other wetlands in the area. Prawns and crayfish had strikingly different patterns of habitat use. Prawn density and biomass were similar in wet prairies and sloughs, whereas crayfish density and biomass were significantly higher in wet prairies. Within habitats, the abundance of prawns and crayfish generally increased with increasing structural complexity and the abundance of crayfish generally decreased with increasing water depth. Differences in risk of predation, frequency of agonistic encounters, food availability, and other factors likely contributed to observed patterns of habitat use. Because of differences in their ability to burrow and avoid concentration into dry-season refugia, prawns and crayfish responded very differently to seasonal variation in hydrologic conditions. Prawn densities were initially low (following a severe drought) and then increased during much of the study period, whereas crayfish densities were relatively stable throughout the study period. Overall, it appears that prawns are more responsive to antecedent hydrologic conditions and crayfish are more responsive to the availability of suitable habitats such as wet prairies.

  3. Prawn biomonitors of nutrient and trace metal pollution along Asia-Pacific coastlines.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brian; Carter, James F; Tinggi, Ujang; Arman, Ali; Kamal, Masud; Metian, Marc; Waduge, Vajira Ariyaratna; Yaccup, Rahman Bin

    2016-12-01

    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites.

  4. A rapid approach to evaluate putative nursery sites for penaeid prawns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Smith, James A.; Boys, Craig A.; Whitney, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    Identifying nursery habitats for an aquatic species generally requires tracing adult individuals back through time and space to the area or habitat in which they developed as juveniles. We develop and trial a study design and analytical approach to evaluate the suitability of using stable isotopes to trace emigrating prawns to putative nursery sites, and evaluate assumptions inherent in the application of the approach using two penaeid species with Type-II life cycles: Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi. Prawns were collected in putative nursery sites within the Hunter River, Australia, and analysed as composite samples of 6 individuals to provide habitat-specific isotopic signatures. Prawns emigrating from the mouth of the river were used as a proxy for individuals recruiting to the adult population, and assigned to putative nursery sites using a probabilistic mixing model and a simple, distance-based approach. Bivariate (δ15N and δ13C) isotopic data was sufficient to distinguish prawns from different putative nursery sites, and isotopic composition correlated closely with salinity. Approximately 90% of emigrating prawns collected could be assigned to these sites using bivariate isotopic data, and both analytical approaches gave similar results. The design developed here is broadly applicable to a suite of penaeid species, but its application will be most powerful when sampling is also aimed at understanding nursery function by simultaneous monitoring of size structure/growth, density, and trophic relationships within nursery habitats.

  5. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  6. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  7. Production of Cost-Effective Mesoporous Materials from Prawn Shell Hydrocarbonization.

    PubMed

    Román, S; Ledesma, B; Álvarez-Murillo, A; Sabio, E; González, J F; González, C M

    2016-12-01

    In this work, prawn shell was studied as raw material for the production of mesoporous adsorbents via hydrocarbonization, studying the effect of temperature and time on the process reactivity and final characteristics of the hydrochars. By suitable characterization technique analyses (N2 adsorption at 77 K, SEM observation, ultimate analysis, surface composition), the materials were examined. It was found that in both cases mesoporous materials with low values of S BET due to the presence of CaCO3 on the material structure. In order to provide a potential application for these materials, the adsorption behaviour of hydrochars (HCs) as well as that of pristine prawn shells and ashes from prawn shell combustion was studied for the first time with the model compound p-nitrophenol (PNP). The results indicated that HC treatment was beneficial and enhanced adsorption performance, especially at high values of equilibrium concentration, attaining adsorption capacities up to 1.6 mg g(-1).

  8. Production of Cost-Effective Mesoporous Materials from Prawn Shell Hydrocarbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, S.; Ledesma, B.; Álvarez-Murillo, A.; Sabio, E.; González, J. F.; González, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, prawn shell was studied as raw material for the production of mesoporous adsorbents via hydrocarbonization, studying the effect of temperature and time on the process reactivity and final characteristics of the hydrochars. By suitable characterization technique analyses (N2 adsorption at 77 K, SEM observation, ultimate analysis, surface composition), the materials were examined. It was found that in both cases mesoporous materials with low values of S BET due to the presence of CaCO3 on the material structure. In order to provide a potential application for these materials, the adsorption behaviour of hydrochars (HCs) as well as that of pristine prawn shells and ashes from prawn shell combustion was studied for the first time with the model compound p-nitrophenol (PNP). The results indicated that HC treatment was beneficial and enhanced adsorption performance, especially at high values of equilibrium concentration, attaining adsorption capacities up to 1.6 mg g-1.

  9. Development and assays estradiol equivalent concentration from prawn (p-EEQ) in river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Shieh, Bao-Sen; Chen, Chien-Min; Lai, Hong-Thih; Wang, Shu-Yin; Huang, Da-Ji

    2017-03-01

    The present study established a fast and convenient bioassay method for aqueous ecosystems using the prawn estradiol equivalent concentration (p-EEQ) of male Macrobrachium nipponense, which produce vitellogenin (VTG) after exposure to xeno-estrogens. This method was then used to determine the concentrations of xeno-estrogen pollutants in the rivers of Taiwan. To establish the calibration curve for the concentrations based on the p-EEQ, the induced VTG content was determined using the alkali-labile phosphate method after male M. nipponense were exposed to 0, 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000ng/L of 17β-estradiol for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days, respectively. The results of the experiments showed that the induced VTG content in all of the experimental groups stabilized after 10 days, except for the 10,000ng/L experimental group, in which the induced VTG content decreased after 10 days. A 17β-estradiol-VTG10day response curve was then established based on the induced VTG content in the 0, 10, 100 and 1000ng/L experimental groups at day 10. After establishing the curve, male M. nipponense were captured from the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Chuo-shui River, the Beigang River, the Jishui River, the Agongdian River and the Sichong River in Taiwan, and the VTG content in these prawns was determined. In addition, the p-EEQ in the waters was determined based on the VTG content, and the estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) in the waters was also measured immediately after sampling using the solid-phase extraction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPE-ELISA) method. The results showed that the p-EEQ in the middle and lower reaches of the rivers in certain parts of Taiwan ranged from 38 to 400ng/L, and the detection rate was 100%. Moreover, the EEQ ranged from 7.9 to 92.9ng/L, and the detection rate was 42.9%, indicating that most of the middle and lower reaches of the rivers in Taiwan were polluted by xeno-estrogens. The 17β-estradiol concentrations determined based

  10. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource.

  11. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC.

  12. The Application of Ozone and Chitosan as Microbial Inhibitor Prawn Larvae Rearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringgenies, Delianis; Nur, Muhammad; Angelia, Rosti

    2017-02-01

    The application of ozon and chitosan solution was found to be effective means in hampering microbial growth since the introduction of ozon can inhibit microbial growth in aquatic environment and the fact that chitosan can act as a coagulant, effectively increasing water quality as prawn breeding medium and increasing the survival rate of prawn larvae. This research aims to measure the efficacy of ozon and chitosan usage in prawn larvae rearing, and to measure the survial rate of prawn larvae during the rearing stage. The study was carried out using experimental method in laboratory, with factorial research design using 3 treatment combinations and 1 control groups. The chitosan dose administered in this research was 25 ml in 25 L of sea water, euating to 10 ppm. The dissolved ozon in this research was measured at the concentration of 8.245 – 13.748 ppm. Weekly measurement of water quality in terms of temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and dissolved ozon were carried out throughout the course of the research. Total microbial population in the water was measured by means of Total Plate Count (TPC) methiod in the Institute for Natural Medicines of Diponegoro University. Statistics figure from ”ANOVA” test suggested that the application of ozon and the introduction of chitosan in prawn larvae rearing media gave impact to the microbial population in the media. Results of BNT test showed that there was a significant difference between the measurement results of the 3 treatment combination groups and that of the control group. The highest prawn larvae survival rate was found in the media with combined ozon and chitosan treatment, which was recorded at 100%. The second highest survival rate was recorded in the treatement combination group of ozon and chitosan with 80%, and the lowest survival rate was attributed to the control group with 20% prawn larvae survival rate. It is concluded that treatment combination of 10 ppm chitosan and 8.245 – 13.748 ppm of

  13. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-08-04

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite's intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village's river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.

  14. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  15. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N’Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  16. Molecular Characterisation of Colour Formation in the Prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Nicole G.; Elizur, Abigail; Brooks, Peter; Kuballa, Anna V.; Anderson, Trevor A.; Knibb, Wayne R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. Results Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05) and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05) lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. Conclusions This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation. PMID:23441225

  17. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for…

  18. Evaluation of Key Aroma Compounds in Processed Prawns (Whiteleg Shrimp) by Quantitation and Aroma Recombination Experiments.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2017-03-24

    In our previous study on the aroma compounds of heated prawn meat, the main odorants in blanched (BPM) and fried prawn meat (FPM), respectively, were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis. In this follow-up study, these aroma compounds were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold) were calculated. Results revealed 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one as the most potent odor-active compounds in both prawn samples. In FPM, as compared to BPM, higher OAVs were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 3-methylbutanal, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and trimethylpyrazine. Aroma recombination experiments corroborated that the overall aroma of the blanched as well as the fried prawn meat, respectively, could well be mimicked by the set of key odorants quantitated in this study.

  19. Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Callum; Wilson, Alastair J; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behaviour may allow animals to cope with changes in their environment. Innovative propensities are known to vary widely both between and within species, and a growing body of research has begun to examine the factors that drive individuals to innovate. Evidence suggests that individuals are commonly driven to innovate by necessity; for instance by hunger or because they are physically unable to outcompete others for access to resources. However, it is not known whether the factors that drive individuals to innovate are stable across contexts. We examined contextual variation in the drivers of innovation in rock pool prawns (Palaemon spp), invertebrates that face widely fluctuating environments and may, through the actions of tides and waves, find themselves isolated or in groups. Using two novel foraging tasks, we examined the effects of body size and hunger in prawns tested in solitary and group contexts. When tested alone, small prawns were significantly more likely to succeed in a spatial task, and faster to reach the food in a manipulation task, while hunger state had no effect. In contrast, size had no effect when prawns were tested in groups, but food-deprived individuals were disproportionately likely to innovate in both tasks. We suggest that contextual variation in the drivers of innovation is likely to be common in animals living in variable environments, and may best be understood by considering variation in the perception of relative risks and rewards under different conditions.

  20. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  1. Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Callum; Wilson, Alastair J.; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behaviour may allow animals to cope with changes in their environment. Innovative propensities are known to vary widely both between and within species, and a growing body of research has begun to examine the factors that drive individuals to innovate. Evidence suggests that individuals are commonly driven to innovate by necessity; for instance by hunger or because they are physically unable to outcompete others for access to resources. However, it is not known whether the factors that drive individuals to innovate are stable across contexts. We examined contextual variation in the drivers of innovation in rock pool prawns (Palaemon spp), invertebrates that face widely fluctuating environments and may, through the actions of tides and waves, find themselves isolated or in groups. Using two novel foraging tasks, we examined the effects of body size and hunger in prawns tested in solitary and group contexts. When tested alone, small prawns were significantly more likely to succeed in a spatial task, and faster to reach the food in a manipulation task, while hunger state had no effect. In contrast, size had no effect when prawns were tested in groups, but food-deprived individuals were disproportionately likely to innovate in both tasks. We suggest that contextual variation in the drivers of innovation is likely to be common in animals living in variable environments, and may best be understood by considering variation in the perception of relative risks and rewards under different conditions. PMID:26488728

  2. Bubble reduction after decompression in the prawn Palaemon elegans by pretreatment with hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Y; Katsenelson, K; Arieli, R

    2007-01-01

    On the theory that bubbles originate from preexisting micronuclei, we previously demonstrated that pretreatment with hyperbaric O2 (HBO2) reduced the number of bubbles in the prawn decompressed from 203 kPa. In the present study, we examined the effect of two HBO2 pretreatment pressures (405 and 709 kPa) on prawns decompressed from a range of pressures between 203-810 kPa. Prawns from the experimental groups were pretreated with O2 at 405 or 709 kPa for 5 min (series A and series B, respectively). Prawns from the control groups were exposed only to air. Following pretreatment, prawns were exposed to air at the desired pressure until saturated with nitrogen, then subjected to rapid decompression and examined under a light microscope. Series A: HBO2 pretreatment at 405 kPa for 5 min significantly reduced the number of bubbles after decompression from 203, 304 and 405 kPa (p < 0.05). The total volume of accumulated gas was not affected by HBO2. Series B: Pretreatment with HBO2 at 709 kPa significantly reduced the number of bubbles after decompression from 203, 304, 507 and 608 kPa (p < 0.05). Total gas volume after decompression from 507 and 608 kPa was reduced as a result of pretreatment with O2. This study demonstrates that HBO2 pretreatment at 405 kPa is sufficient to reduce the number of bubbles that will emerge on decompression from several levels of compression.

  3. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  4. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  5. The fish and prawn communities of a Malaysian coastal mangrove system, with comparisons to adjacent mud flats and inshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, V. C.; Sasekumar, A.; Leh, M. U. C.; D'Cruz, R.

    1990-11-01

    The fish and prawn communities of four coastal habitats in Selangor, Malaysia: (1) coastal mangrove swamps; (2) mud flats, including subtidal regions; (3) near inshore waters; and (4) far inshore waters, were examined with respect to species composition, abundance, diversity, similarity and sexual maturity. The number of fish species sampled for these habitats were 119, 70, 58 and 92 species respectively. For prawns, the number of species were 9, 16, 8 and 14 respectively. The mangrove community comprised 63-99% and 100% juvenile fish and prawn respectively. Despite a high species richness, it was low in fish species diversity due to the dominance (70%) of six species of fish of low economic value. In contrast, the prawn community was poor in species, and was dominated by three Penaeus spp. of high economic value. The intertidal mudflat community is largely transient and comprised mainly of species from both the mangrove and subtidal habitats. Fifty-six per cent of the fish population and 62·6% of the prawn population were juveniles. Many of the inshore fish and prawn species were also common species found in mangrove and mudflat habitats. Similarity coefficients indicate that the inshore fish and prawn communities are more similar to those of mud flats than mangroves. However, maturity studies indicate that only five species of fish are true migrants, that the majority of the fish species (juveniles and adults) are ubiquitous with a distribution that extends several nautical miles offshore. Results of this study indicate that tropical coastal mangroves function more importantly as feeding grounds than as nursery grounds for juveniles of commercially important fish species. Mangroves and mud flats are utilized during flood tides by many periodic foragers from the inshore waters. However, this study confirms that coastal mangroves and mud flats are important nursery areas for commercially important prawn species.

  6. [Nutrition of juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) with diets of vegetable and marine residues].

    PubMed

    Casas-Sánchez, R; Vaillard-Nava, Y; Re-Araujo, A D

    1995-01-01

    Juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus were fed two different diets: restaurant by-products (diet I) and fish and vegetable market by-products (diet II). These diets were evaluated by proximal analysis, assimilation efficiency and the factor conversion rate (FCR). Diet I registered a higher efficiency, but there was no difference in the growth rate. The growth mean (G. L.) for three months was 0.254 +/- 0.13 cm (diet I) and 0.191 +/- 0.1 cm (diet II). The conversion rate was good for both, suggesting that 6 to 7 kg of food are needed to obtain 1 kg of prawn. Survival was 76% and 100% for diets I and II, respectively.

  7. Influence of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Pervaiz Ahmed; Sikdar, Malabika

    2014-09-01

    The study was carried out in laboratory for one month to know the effect of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of Macrobrachium dayanum. Healthy specimens of Macrobrachium dayanum in the size group of (4-6 cm in length) were taken for the experiment. The eyestalk ablation was done by cutting away the eyestalks from their bases with sterilized scissor. The results here obtained indicated positive effects of eyestalk ablation on ovary and testes of Macrobrachium dayanum. The histological details of the female prawns which were ablated showed post-vitellogenic oocytes; where as unablated females prawn never developed beyond pre-vitellogenic oocytes. Similarly in males, testes showed pronounced development of different cells as compared to unablated ones. Fully developed spermatozoa were seen in ablated ones. Gonadosomatic studies also showed that ovarian and testicular cells developed better as compared to control and these findings suggest the fact that the eyestalks of M. dayanum contain ovary and testis inhibiting factors.

  8. Feasibility of using hydrothermal resources in Malaysian prawn aquaculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.I.J.; Rhodes, R.J.; Wannamaker, A.W.

    1982-08-01

    The potential application of geothermal resources in South Carolina for freshwater prawn aquaculture was examined. In coastal S.C. 23 existing geothermal well sites were identified which encompassed an area which ranged from Georgetown to Beaufort. Depth averaged approx. 615 m while temperature averaged approx. 37/sup 0/C. Artesian flow rates varied from 190 to 2650 1/min. Detailed water quality analyses were conducted at 12 sites. In general, major differences from surface waters were in chlorides, fluorides, dissolved solids, ph, alkalinity, and ammonia levels. A detailed replicated laboratory study was conducted to examine the effect of geothermal water on growth and survival of prawns. After 42 days very poor survival was recorded from the various 100% geothermal water treatments. However, 50:50 mixture of shallow well water and geothermal water resulted in a survival rate of 83%, which was similar to the control treatments. Growth was also similar to that observed among the control animals.

  9. Subcellular distribution and trophic transfer of Pb from bivalves to the common prawn Palaemon serratus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Beiras, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The edible clam Dosinia exoleta has been reported to accumulate high contents of lead (Pb) in soft tissues disregarding the levels of Pb in the environment. This is due to the retention of Pb in the form of metal rich granules (MRG) in their kidneys throughout the mollusc lifespan. The potential for trophic transfer of Pb in this form to predators is expected to be low, since metals in the form of MRG are generally supposed to be trophically unavailable, but this assumption is based on studies with other metals (Ag, Cd, Cu or Zn) and has not been demonstrated with Pb until now. This study was designed to test if the Pb present in D. exoleta in the form of MRG is available to a decapod consumer, the common prawn Palaemon serratus, in comparison with a mussel diet showing a different subcellular distribution of Pb. As hypothesised, despite the high Pb concentrations (15µgg(-1)ww) offered to the prawns as D. exoleta tissues, Pb was almost completely unavailable for trophic transfer, and the prawns fed with this diet during 28 days showed the same Pb accumulation as prawns fed with a control diet with a much lower Pb concentration. On the contrary, individuals fed with mussel tissues containing the same Pb concentrations as the diet based on D. exoleta tissues showed 10 times higher Pb bioaccumulation, corresponding to a trophic transfer factor of 1.1%. Subcellular fractionation experiments revealed that the fraction of Pb in the form of MRG was much lower for the mussel, confirming, as observed for other metals, that MRG-associated Pb is not available for trophic transfer to decapod crustaceans.

  10. A study on pathogens of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus Chinensis) virus diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing

    1995-09-01

    This pathogenic study shows that the viral diseases of Chinese prawns ( Penaeus chinensis, O'sbeck) is due to three kinds of viruses: epithelium envelope baculovirus of Penaeus chinensis (EEBV-PC, detected by the authors in 1993), infections hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, and hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus, and that the first two viruses seem to be the main pathogens of the epidemic in the northern regions in 1993.

  11. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  12. Impact of cyclones and aquatic macrophytes on recruitment and landings of tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loneragan, N. R.; Kangas, M.; Haywood, M. D. E.; Kenyon, R. A.; Caputi, N.; Sporer, E.

    2013-07-01

    The cover of seagrasses and macroalgae, landings and fishery-independent measures of spawning stock and recruitment for brown tiger prawns, were monitored immediately following a major cyclone in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia in March 1999. Anecdotal evidence on the extent of seagrass from 1990 to 1998 suggests that the cyclone caused a major, immediate disruption and loss of the seagrass/macroalgal beds (to ≤2% cover), the critical prawn nursery habitat, and mangroves in the shallow inshore waters of the system. Prawn landings and recruitment to the fishery were not affected in the year of the cyclone, but were markedly lower in the two years immediately afterwards and then increased as the cover of macrophytes increased to over 40% in 2003. Tiger prawn landings and catch rates were not affected in Shark Bay, a system 500 km south of Exmouth Gulf that did not experience cyclonic disturbance. Seagrasses in Exmouth Gulf showed a succession of species from small colonising species (Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis) to larger, broad-leaved species (Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium) only two years after the cyclone. The recruitment and landings of tiger prawns were correlated significantly with the total cover of macroalgae and seagrass. The large loss of seagrass and macroalgae reduced the settling habitat for postlarvae and the nursery habitat for juvenile tiger prawns, probably leading to the lower recruitment to the fishery. These findings suggest that the extent of seagrass and macroalgae are some of the factors defining the productivity of the tiger prawn fishery in Exmouth Gulf.

  13. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  14. Bio-assembled, piezoelectric prawn shell made self-powered wearable sensor for non-invasive physiological signal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-03-01

    A human interactive self-powered wearable sensor is designed using waste by-product prawn shells. The structural origin of intrinsic piezoelectric characteristics of bio-assembled chitin nanofibers has been investigated. It allows the prawn shell to make a tactile sensor that performs also as a highly durable mechanical energy harvester/nanogenerator. The feasibility and fundamental physics of self-powered consumer electronics even from human perception is highlighted by prawn shells made nanogenerator (PSNG). High fidelity and non-invasive monitoring of vital signs, such as radial artery pulse wave and coughing actions, may lead to the potential use of PSNG for early intervention. It is presumed that PSNG has enormous future aspects in real-time as well as remote health care assessment.

  15. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  16. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

  17. Limnology of Kharland (saline) ponds of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra in relation to prawn culture potential.

    PubMed

    Saksena, D N; Gaidhane, D M; Singh, H

    2006-01-01

    The coastal saline soils, Kharlands, have great potential for their use in aquaculture. This study has been taken up to understand the limnology of the ponds in Kharland area for assessing their prawn culture potential. This study was carried out during September, 1999 to August, 2001. Each Kharland pond has an area of 0.045 hectare. During the study, depth of pond water was 47.7 to 120.0 cm, temperature varied from 25.7 to 34.5 degrees C; transparency from nil to 65.0 cm; specific conductivity from 1.78 to 94.5 microS.cm(-1); total dissolved solids from 0.89 to 27.55 ppt; pH 5.42 to 8.25; dissolved oxygen 1.6 to 8 mg.l(-1); free carbon dioxide 10.00 to 44.00 mg.l(-1); total alkalinity 5.00 to 142.00 mg.l(-1); salinity 0.45 to 39.55 ppt; total hardness 245.00 to 5945.00; calcium 56.05 to 1827.6; magnesium 110.74 to 4507.75 mg.l(-1); dissolved organic matter 1.45 to 9.68 mg.l(-1); ammonia 1.00-8.00 microg.l(-1); nitrite nil to 20.00 micro l(-1) and nitrate 7.5 to 17.5 microg.l(-1). These Kharland ponds are unique in physio-chemical characteristics during their seasonal cycle. From July to October, these ponds have nearly freshwater while from November to May pond water becomes saline. Thus, there is a great possibility of taking up monoculture of both the freshwater and brackish water prawns as well as polyculture of prawns and fishes in the Kharland ponds.

  18. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  19. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Shih, Chun-Han; Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago.

  20. Molecular importance of prawn large heat shock proteins 60, 70 and 90.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Nizam, Faizal; Ravichandran, Gayathri; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arshad, Aziz; Elumalai, Preetham; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the innate immune system of prawn, a comparative molecular approach was proposed to study the crustacean large HSPs 60, 70 and 90. Three different large HSPs were identified from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr) cDNA library during screening. The structural and functional characteristic features of HSPs were studied using various bioinformatics tools. Also, their gene expression and mRNA regulation upon various pathogenic infections was studied by relative quantification using 2(-ΔΔCT) method. MrHSP60 contains a long chaperonin 60 domain at 46-547 which carries a chaperonin 60 signature motif between 427 and 438, whereas MrHSP70 contains a long HSP70 domain at 21-624 and MrHSP90 carries a HSP90 domain at 188-719. The two dimensional analysis showed that MrHSP60 contains more amino acids (52%) in helices, whereas MrHSP70 (40.6%) and MrHSP90 (51.8%) carried more residues in coils. Gene expression results showed significant (P < 0.05) expression of MrHSP60, 70 and 90 in haemocyte, gill and hepatopancreas, respectively. Further, the expression level was up-regulated upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophilla and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodo virus (MrNV)] infections during various time periods. The gene expression results exhibited the potential involvement of these three HSPs in the immune system of prawn. The study indicated the potentiality of these molecules, thereby protecting cells against pathogens as well as severe cellular and environmental stresses in crustaceans.

  1. Insights into Sexual Precocity of Female Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense through Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongxia; Li, Xilian; Sun, Yuhang; Hou, Fujun; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Fei; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is the most prevalent aquaculture species in China. The sexual precocity in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because more and more individuals matured at a small size, which devalues the commercial production. In this study, we developed deep-coverage transcriptomic sequencing data for the ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using next-generation RNA sequencing technology and attempted to provide the first insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in this species. Results A total of 63,336 unigenes were produced from the ovarian cDNA libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Through BLASTX searches against the NR, STRING, Pfam, Swissprot and KEGG databases, 15,134 unigenes were annotated, accounting for 23.89% of the total unigenes. 5,195 and 3,227 matched unigenes were categorized by GO and COG analysis respectively. 15,908 unigenes were consequently mapped into 332 KEGG pathways, and many reproduction-related pathways and genes were identified. Moreover, 26,008 SSRs were identified from 18,133 unigenes. 80,529 and 80,516 SNPs were yielded from ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, respectively, and 29,851 potential SNPs between these two groups were also predicted. After comparing the ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, 549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 9 key DEGs that may be related to sexual precocity of M. nipponense were identified. 20 DEGs were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and 19 DEGs show consistent expression between QPCR and RNAseq-based differential expression analysis datasets. Conclusion This is the first report on the large-scale RNA sequencing of ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M

  2. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  3. Effect of feeding Bacillus sp. as probiotic bacteria on growth of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man).

    PubMed

    Deeseenthum, Sirirat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Brookes, John D

    2007-05-01

    The effects of feeding two Bacillus spp. isolated from the intestine of the giant freshwater prawn on the growth of Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) was examined. The isolated Bacillus KKU02 and Bacillus KKU03 (approximately 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) were mixed into commercial prawn feed (200 mL kg(-1)). After rearing shrimp with the bacteria in four feed treatments, (Bacillus KKU03, Bacillus KKU02, mixed culture and control groups) for 120 days, body length and weight of the prawns in mixed culture tanks were significantly higher (p = 0.05) than in the control tanks (7.48 cm and 3.32 g, vs 6.6 cm and 2.1 g, respectively). Both isolates were found to produce amylase and protease. The stabilities of the single Bacillus sp., mixed culture and commercial probiotic in the feeds were examined during storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature. The percentage viability of Bacillus KKU02, Bacillus KKU03 and mixed culture stored at room temperature declined dramatically to 2.54, 21.88 and 10.92% within 2 weeks, respectively. At 4 degrees C however, the percentage viability of the tested probiotics reduced slowly. The survival of the commercial probiotics was the same at both temperatures about 50% after 70 days' storage.

  4. Molecular characterization of a novel ovary-specific gene fem-1 homolog from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Yi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Jing-Yun; Li, Jia-Le; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-10

    The feminization-1 (fem-1) gene is characterized by one of the most common protein-protein interaction motifs, ankyrin repeat motifs, displays many expression patterns in vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays an essential role in the sex-determination/differentiation pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, a fem-1 homolog, designated as Mnfem-1, was first cloned from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The prawn Mnfem-1 gene consists of six exons and five introns. The full-length cDNA (2603bp) of Mnfem-1 contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 622 amino acids. The Mnfem-1 RNA and protein are exclusively expressed in the ovary in adult prawns as revealed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. In situ hybridization results showed that strong positive signals were concentrated at the edge of the previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocyte. During embryogenesis, Mnfem-1 is highly expressed in both unfertilized eggs and embryos at cleavage stage and thereafter dropped to a low level from blastula to zoea, indicating that the Mnfem-1 in early embryos is maternal. After hatching, the Mnfem-1 expression significantly increased in the larvae at length of 2cm, an important stage of sex differentiation. Yeast two hybridization results showed that the Mnfem-1 protein can be potentially interactive with cathepsin L and proteins containing the domains of insulinase, ankyrin or ubiquitin. Our results suggested that Mnfem-1 could have roles in prawn ovarian development and sex determination/differentiation.

  5. Bopyrid isopods parasitizing on the cultured fresh water prawn, Macrobrachiummalcolmsonii in South India.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Trilles, J P; Rajkumar, M; Rahman, M M; Saravanakumar, A

    2017-03-01

    The bopyrid isopods are common in wild Macrobrachium spp. but not common in aquaculture condition. This is the first study that reports the parasitizing of bopyrid isopods on the cultured M. malcolmsonii. Bopyrid isopod (Probopyrus buitendijki) was identified in the branchial cavities of the fresh water prawn, M. malcolmsonii from grow-out culture pond at Kuriyamangalam, India. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii is a new host for P. buitendijki. A total of 1323 M. malcolmsonii were checked for this study. The overall prevalence of the parasitic infestation was reached 46.2 %. The parasitic infection was higher in female (83 %) than in male (3.4 %). Highest prevalence of infestation was found in the median size group (7-8 cm) (58.7 %). Infected females were not berried unlike uninfected prawns. The parasites cause infertility and does not found any organ deformities due to the infestation. The parasite was inversely attached in the gill chamber with no lesion on the gill but the infected branchial chamber became bulged.

  6. The "prawn-in-the-tube" procedure: what do cuttlefish learn and memorize?

    PubMed

    Cartron, Lelia; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic

    2013-03-01

    For several decades the "prawn-in-the-tube" procedure has been extensively used in the exploration of behavioral plasticity and its neural correlates in cuttlefish. Although the nature of the task has been characterized, the effect of reinforcement and the extent of different cues cuttlefish can use to solve and memorize the task remain unclear. To determine whether cuttlefish learned to inhibit predatory behavior because of pain incurred when the tentacles hit the glass tube, the shrimp prey (typically attacked with a tentacle strike) was replaced by crabs (normally caught by a jumping strategy, using all eight arms together, which is thought less likely to be painful). We showed that the cuttlefish is still capable of learning inhibition of predatory behavior when it adopts another catching strategy, which suggests that pain from the tentacles hitting the tube has little effect on the learning process. The two latest experiments have shown that cuttlefish do not learn to inhibit predatory behavior towards a specific type of prey, but rather learn and memorize visual (light polarization) and tactile information from the glass tube. The "prawn-in-the-tube" procedure is a powerful and user-friendly tool in the investigation of the processing and retention of multisensory information in invertebrates. Our recent findings now open up new areas of investigation into the neural correlates of learning and memory processes in cuttlefish.

  7. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Cassandra L.; White, William T.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  8. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture.

  9. Viral diseases of the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a review.

    PubMed

    Bonami, Jean-Robert; Sri Widada, Joannes

    2011-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is cultivated essentially in Southern and South-eastern Asian countries such as continental China, India, Thailand and Taiwan. To date, only two viral agents have been reported from this prawn. The first (HPV-type virus) was observed by chance 25 years ago in hypertrophied nuclei of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells and is closely related to members of the Parvoviridae family. The second, a nodavirus named MrNV, is always associated with a non-autonomous satellite-like virus (XSV), and is the origin of so-called white tail disease (WTD) responsible for mass mortalities and important economic losses in hatcheries and farms for over a decade. After isolation and purification of these two particles, they were physico-chemically characterized and their genome sequenced. The MrNV genome is formed with two single linear ss-RNA molecules, 3202 and 1250 nucleotides long, respectively. Each RNA segment contains only one ORF, ORF1 coding for the RNA-dependant RNA polymerase located on the long segment and ORF2 coding for the structural protein CP-43 located on the small one. The XSV genome (linear ss-RNA), 796 nucleotides long, contains a single ORF coding for the XSV coat protein CP-17. The XSV does not contain any RdRp gene and consequently needs the MrNV polymerase to replicate.

  10. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Cassandra L; White, William T; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended.

  11. Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M

  12. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  13. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae.

  14. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.

  15. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  16. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development.

  17. A novel prophenoloxidase, hemocyanin encoded copper containing active enzyme from prawn: gene characterization.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Pothikasalam, Gopi; Milton, James; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Prabha, Nagaram

    2013-07-25

    The copper containing prophenoloxidase enzyme plays a crucial role in the defense system of arthropods, especially crustaceans and insects. In this study, we have reported a full length cDNA of prophenoloxidase identified from the constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by genome sequence FLX technology. The identified full length M. rosenbergii prophenoloxidase (MrProPO) consists of 3378 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2099 bp. This ORF encoded a polypeptide of 700 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 80 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The motif analysis of MrProPO shows two copper binding sites (CuA and CuB) along with hemocyanin signatures and a thiol-ester like motif. MrProPO exhibited the maximum similarity (97%) with ProPO from Macrobrachium nipponense and is closely clustered with other crustacean ProPO in the phylogenetic tree. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that MrProPO is a member of the prophenoloxidase family, due to the conserved domains, motifs and similarity with other known ProPOs. The 3D structural analysis of MrProPO reveals that it has more random coils, moderate α-helices, few extended β-sheets and a very few β-turns. Among the 700 aa of MrProPO, 355 (50.71%), 206 (29.43%), 110 (15.71%) and 29 (4.14%) amino acids are responsible for random coils, α-helices, extended β-sheets and β-turns respectively. The gene expression results indicate MrProPO is widely distributed in all the tissues studied, but significantly (P<0.05) highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. The relative expression of mRNA was quantified in hepatopancreas after being infected with virus [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) using real-time PCR. MrProPO mRNA transcription significantly (P<0.05) increased at 24h post injection (p.i.) with subsequent decrease at 48 h p.i. in both viral

  18. Pathology Associated with White Spot Virus (WSV) Infection in Wild Broodstock of Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Kua, Beng Chu; Rashid, Noraziah Mat

    2012-01-01

    A total of six wild broodstocks of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, were found positive for White Spot Virus (WSV) with an IQ2000 detection kit. Using histopathology, the intranuclear inclusion of haemocyte due to WSV infection was observed in the epithelium cells of the antennal gland, stomach and gills. This result confirmed that the wild broodstocks were positive with WSV without showing any white spot. Additionally, histopathological examination also revealed an accumulation of haemocytes around the hepatopancreatic tubules resulting from bacterial infection. Encapsulation and nodule formation, as well as related necrosis, were also observed around the hepatopancreatic tubules infected with a metazoan parasite. Encysted tylocephalum larval cestodes were observed in the hepatopancreas, with haemocytic aggregation being observed around the infected tubules. These findings showed some bacterial and parasitic infections which, in addition to the viral infection itself, could contribute to the 80% mortality rate in wild broodstocks infected with WSV. PMID:24575228

  19. Gamma irradiation-aided chitin/chitosan extraction from prawn shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Benamer, S.; Nacer Khodja, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chitin and chitosan were extracted from prawn shells. The influence of a 25 kGy irradiation dose on the deproteination process was investigated. The deproteination degree was followed by Lowry-Folin method. The demineralisation degree versus reaction time with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution was followed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Chitin and chitosan obtained were characterised by FTIR spectrometry. The influence of some parameters, such as reaction time, alkaline concentration and temperature on the deacetylation degree was also investigated. The deacetylation degree was evaluated by FTIR spectrometry using the bands at 1320 cm -1 and 1420 cm -1. It was found that the irradiation of the shells at a dose of 25 kGy reduces the time of the deproteination reaction by a factor of three, comparatively to the non-irradiated samples.

  20. Pathology Associated with White Spot Virus (WSV) Infection in Wild Broodstock of Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Kua, Beng Chu; Rashid, Noraziah Mat

    2012-05-01

    A total of six wild broodstocks of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, were found positive for White Spot Virus (WSV) with an IQ2000 detection kit. Using histopathology, the intranuclear inclusion of haemocyte due to WSV infection was observed in the epithelium cells of the antennal gland, stomach and gills. This result confirmed that the wild broodstocks were positive with WSV without showing any white spot. Additionally, histopathological examination also revealed an accumulation of haemocytes around the hepatopancreatic tubules resulting from bacterial infection. Encapsulation and nodule formation, as well as related necrosis, were also observed around the hepatopancreatic tubules infected with a metazoan parasite. Encysted tylocephalum larval cestodes were observed in the hepatopancreas, with haemocytic aggregation being observed around the infected tubules. These findings showed some bacterial and parasitic infections which, in addition to the viral infection itself, could contribute to the 80% mortality rate in wild broodstocks infected with WSV.

  1. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Tzong-Der; Pao, Yueh-Yang; Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition.

  2. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  3. Screening of parasitic and IHHNV infections in wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Rejang River at Kuching, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M

    2011-04-01

    A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology.

  4. The hot-water extract of leaves of noni, Morinda citrifolia, promotes the immunocompetence of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Marisa Halim, Atika; Lee, Pai-Po; Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2017-03-27

    The hot-water Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (HMLE) was prepared for in vitro assessment on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), and phagocytic activity (PA). Furthermore, the HMLE was administrated in the diet at 0.6, 3, and 6 g (kg diet)(-1) for Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the potential effects on the immunocompetence of prawns were evaluated. PO activity, RBs, and PA in hemocytes incubated with the HMLE at 140, 20, 20, and 140 mg l(-1) significantly increased. The immune parameters of the total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), RBs, PO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, PA, transglutaminase (TG) activity and hemolymph clotting time were evaluated before and after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks of the feeding trial. During 9 weeks of the feeding trial, higher THCs, DHCs, RBs, PO, and TG as well as accelerated clotting times were observed in prawns fed HMLE-containing diets at 0.6 g kg(-1). The mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase, TG, crustin, and lysozyme of prawns fed HMLE-containing diets at 0.6 g kg(-1) for 9 weeks of the feeding trial significantly increased. The susceptibility of prawns fed the HMLE at 0.6 g kg(-1) to Lactococcus garvieae infection significantly decreased, and the relative survival percentage was 23.1%. We therefore found that HMLE administrated through the diet at 0.6 g kg(-1) was capable of enhancing the immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii.

  5. Toxic effects of blooms of marine species of Oscillatoriales on farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon, Penaeus japonicus) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina).

    PubMed

    Smith, P T

    1996-08-01

    Benthic and planktonic blooms of species of Oscillatoriales coincided with mortalities of Penaeus monodon during four episodes at Australian prawn farms. Oscillatoria corakiana was the dominant planktonic species at 65-90,000 cells/ml, but Spirulina sp., Lyngbya sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nodularia sp. were also identified from the water column, benthic layers or surface mats. The levels and variety of Vibrionaceae in prawn tissue, suggest that mortalities were caused by secondary infections of bacteria. However, experimental results indicate that toxicity of the blooms of Oscillatoriales was the primary cause of disease. Pond water and extracts from a tank culture of benthic Oscillatoriales caused mortalities when injected into P. monodon and P. japonicus. Immersion of artemia in extracts from the tank culture also caused mortalities, with L.D50 values for the supernatant extract of 70 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 50 mg/litre for adult artemia, and LD50 values for the pellet extract of 110 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 200 mg/litre for adult artemia. Experiments with artemia suggested the blooms of Oscillatoriales produced water-soluble, heat-labile toxin/s. Mortalities may have been caused by a neurotoxin because: (a) there was a lack of histopathological evidence of damage to the digestive tracts of prawns during each episode; and (b) artemia cysts immersed in extracts of Oscillatoriales died before they developed digestive tracts. PSP toxin, anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and microcystins were not detected when pond water from a diseased pond was tested. It is proposed that sub-lethal levels of toxin weakened the prawns, causing reduced feeding behaviour and an impaired immune system. As a result, prawns were prone to secondary infection by pathogenic bacteria. Because Oscillatoriales are ubiquitous in prawn farms, the findings have significant implications for the assessment of disease in the prawn farming industry.

  6. Immunoaffinity column cleanup with LC/MS/MS for the determination of chloramphenicol in honey and prawns: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Jennifer; Marley, Elaine; Donnelly, Carol

    2013-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation was conducted to establish the effectiveness of an immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup procedure followed by LC/MS/MS for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in honey and prawns. Honey is dissolved in buffer solution and centrifuged, and an aliquot applied to an IAC. For prawns, a portion of the homogenized sample is shaken with buffer and centrifuged, and an aliquot similarly applied to an IAC. For both matrix extracts, CAP is removed from the IAC with neat methanol, then directly analyzed by electrospray LC/MS/MS in the negative ionization mode using m/z 321 as a precursor ion and m/z 257 and 152 as qualifier and quantifier ions, respectively. Test portions of blank honey and prawns were fortified with CAP to give levels of 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 microg/kg. Recoveries of CAP on 3 consecutive days ranged from 83-103% for honey and 84-108% for prawns. Based on results for fortified blank matrixes (triplicate at three levels), the RSD for repeatability (RSDr) averaged 8.4% for honey and 4.8% for prawns. The method LOD was 0.05 for prawns and 0.16 microg/kg for honey, both well below the minimum required method performance limit for CAP. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by participation in proficiency testing, where satisfactory Z-scores were obtained for CAP in incurred samples of both honey and prawns. The method was shown to be applicable to a wide range of other matrixes, including milk, egg, royal jelly, meat, and seafood products.

  7. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non

  8. Acute Toxicity of Nitrite to Various Life Stages of the Amazon River Prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum, Heller, 1862.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Vaz Dos Santos, André Martins; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Brazão, Claudia Caramelo; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2016-11-01

    This study determined the effects of nitrite on different life stages of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Prawns of each life stage (postlarvae, juveniles and adults) were stocked in 24 experimental units (n = 10 prawns), under a complete randomized design. Individuals were exposed to nitrite (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg L(-1)). The median lethal concentration after 96 h (96 h LC50) was calculated through the Weibull I. The mortality results showed that M. amazonicum is slightly less tolerant to nitrite than other species of Macrobrachium. The 96 h LC50 for postlarvae, juveniles and adults of M. amazonicum were of 1.49, 2.36 and 2.34 mg nitrite/L, respectively. Nitrite intoxication risk quotient suggest moderated risk to low risk to the species. Usually in production systems nitrite values are lower than safe levels suggested in this study (0.1 mg L(-1) to postlarvae and 0.2 mg L(-1) nitrite to juvenile and adults), which makes our results appropriate for the production of this species.

  9. Impacts of trawling on benthic macro-fauna and -flora of the Spencer Gulf prawn fishing grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, Ib; Hammett, Zoe; Lauer, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The overall effects of trawling on benthic habitats and their assemblages are dependent on the distribution and intensity of trawl effort. The benthic habitats of the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are subjected to known variable levels of trawling disturbance recorded from fisher's logbooks. These habitats have not been quantitatively investigated. The aim of the study was firstly to characterise the macro-faunal and -floral assemblages and secondly, to comparatively assess trawl impact by testing the null hypothesis of no differences between five sites exposed to different intensity of trawl effort. The distribution and abundance of benthic macro-fauna and -flora were studied at two sampling resolutions by using beam trawl sampling (˜10,000 m 2) and underwater stereophotography (˜4.5 m 2) at five sites with different levels of trawl disturbance (effort). The results showed that the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are characterised by sandy sediments with a low content of silt and clay, with the exception of one site with very fine gravel. Biomass, abundance and cover of macro-fauna and -flora were generally low throughout, but with large differences among sites. Biomass, abundance and cover were found to be negatively correlated to both trawl hours from 1994-1998 and during the period of study. ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses using biomass, abundance and percentage cover as variables showed significant differences between sites with eight species or taxonomic groups contributing more than 10% to the observed similarity within sites. The two northern sites were dominated by sponges and the bearded mussel, Trichomya hirsutus, and the southern hammer oyster, Malleus meridianus. Other species that contributed to the similarity within sites were the ascidian, Polycarpa viridis, mobile epifauna (the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and the western king prawn, Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus) and demersal fish species (Degens leatherjacket, Thamnaconus

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of FGLamide allatostatin gene from the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guo-Li; Yang, Jin-Shu; Cao, Jun-Xia; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2006-06-01

    Allatostatins are important regulatory neuropeptides that inhibit juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in insects. However, to date, the structure and expression of the gene encoding allatostatins have not been reported in any species other than insects. In this study, we used a combination of a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screening of a central nervous system cDNA library of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to isolate and sequence a cDNA clone (2885 bp) encoding a 701 amino acid FGLamide allatostatin precursor polypeptide. This is the first reported allatostatin gene in crustacean. The deduced precursor was conceptually split into at least 35 FGLamide allatostatins at dibasic cleavage sites (Lys and Lys/Arg), far more than reported for any other known FGLamide allatostatin precursors from insects (13-14 allatostatins). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the gene was expressed in the brain, gut, thoracic and abdominal ganglia, but not in the heart, muscle, ovary, gill, or hepatopancreas. Furthermore, developmentally-dependent expression of the gene was observed in the brain and thoracic ganglia of the prawn by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis.

  11. Food authentication of commercially-relevant shrimp and prawn species: from classical methods to Foodomics.

    PubMed

    Ortea, Ignacio; Pascoal, Ananías; Cañas, Benito; Gallardo, José M; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2012-08-01

    Although seafood species identification has traditionally relied on morphological analysis, sometimes this is difficult to apply for the differentiation among penaeid shrimps owing to their phenotypic similarities and to the frequent removal of external carapace during processing. The objective of this review is to provide an updated and extensive overview on the molecular methods for shrimp and prawn species authentication, in which several omics approaches based on protein and DNA analysis are described. DNA-based methods include the amplification by PCR of different genes, commonly the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase I genes. A recently described method based on RFLP coupled to PCR turned out to be particularly interesting for species differentiation and origin identification. Protein analysis methods for the characterization and detection of species-specific peptides are also summarized, emphasizing some novel proteomics-based approaches, such as phyloproteomics, peptide fragmentation, and species-specific peptide detection by HPLC coupled to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, the latter representing the fastest method described to date for species authentication in food.

  12. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV.

  13. Parvo-like virus in the hepatopancreas of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Laisutisan, Kesinee; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Flegel, Timothy W

    2009-07-23

    A survey of cultivated giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Thailand revealed the presence of unusual spherical to ovoid inclusions in nuclei of hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells. These began as small eosinophilic inclusions that became more basophilic as they increased in size. They were present in both R-cells and E-cells but were largest and deeply basophilic only in the E-cells. Confocal laser microscopy revealed that stained nucleic acid fluorescence from the inclusions was lost by treatment with DNase I specific for double- and single-stranded DNA and also lost or reduced by treatment with mungbean nuclease specific for single-stranded nucleic acids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the inclusions contained tightly packed, unenveloped, viral-like particles of approximately 25 to 30 nm diameter, resembling those produced by shrimp parvoviruses. However, PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical tests for shrimp parvoviruses previously reported from Thailand were all negative. These results suggested that the inclusions contained a parvo-like virus, not previously reported from M. rosenbergii in Thailand.

  14. Sensitivity of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Crustacea: Decapoda), to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Ramle, Nur-Amalina; Abas, Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT₅₀) and concentrations (LC₅₀) were calculated. At the end of the 4-day period, live prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT₅₀ and LC₅₀ increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC₅₀s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 32.3, 7.0, 525.1 and 35.0 µg/L, respectively. Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb bioconcentration in M. lanchesteri increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to M. lanchesteri, followed by Pb, Cu and Zn. Comparison of LC₅₀ values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean organisms reveals that M. lanchesteri is equally or more sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested crustaceans.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression pattern of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N M A; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Qiao, H; Jin, S; Bai, H K; Zhang, W Y; Liang, G X; Gong, Y S; Xiong, Y W; Wu, Y

    2016-08-29

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) produces nitric oxide (NO) by catalyzing the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline, with the concomitant oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recently, various studies have verified the importance of NOS invertebrates and invertebrates. However, the NOS gene family in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length NOS complementary DNA from M. nipponense (MnNOS) and characterized its expression pattern in different tissues and at different developmental stages. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed the MnNOS gene to be expressed in all investigated tissues, with the highest levels observed in the androgenic gland (P < 0.05). Our results revealed that the MnNOS gene may play a key role in M. nipponense male sexual differentiation. Moreover, RT-qPCR revealed that MnNOS mRNA expression was significantly increased in post-larvae 10 days after metamorphosis (P < 0.05). The expression of this gene in various tissues indicates that it may perform versatile biological functions in M. nipponense.

  16. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  17. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system.

  18. Toxic impact of aldrin on acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros: In vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.S.; Jayaprada, P.; Rao, K.V.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The increasing contamination of the aquatic environment by the indiscriminate and widespread use of different kinds of pesticides is a serious problem for environmental biologists. Organochlorine insecticides are more hazardous since they are not only more toxic but also leave residues in nature. The deleterious effects of aldrin on several crustaceans have been studied. But studies concerning the impact of aldrin on biochemical aspects of crustaceans are very much limited. The present study is aimed at probing the in vitro effects of aldrin on the acid and alkaline phosphatase activity levels in selected tissues of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius).

  19. Reproductive biology of the prawn Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in Thermaikos Gulf (N. Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Kosmas; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The reproductive biology including insemination frequency, ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index (GSI), size at first maturity, and fecundity of Melicertus kerathurus were investigated using monthly samples from Thermaikos Gulf. Insemination was recorded by the presence of a spermatophore in the thelycum, and ovarian development was based on macroscopic ovarian staging (ST1-ST5). Inseminated females were found throughout the year with high percentages recorded from April to July. Although all ovarian stages were represented in mated females, insemination increased with size and ovarian maturation. High percentages of vitellogenic or mature ovarian stages were observed from May to July, while immature and developing ovaries were predominant mainly in winter. Spawned ovaries occurred from May to October. Carapace length at first maturity based on the presence of a spermatophore (CL50sp) was estimated at 39.20 mm, while that based on the presence of vitellogenic and mature ovaries (CL50ov) at 40.70 mm. The seasonal peak in the proportion of mature females (ST4) varied with size. Inseminated females at ST4 and GSI peaked in June-July. GSI varied in relation to insemination status and ovarian stage. In large females (>50 mm CL), the decline in mature ovaries and GSI increment with size indicates a relative reduction in the reproductive output. The number of oocytes ranged from 62,742 to 602,947 (mean ± SD: 268,000 ± 113,000). As the prawns are targeted during the spawning season, mainly by the artisanal fishery, and female size at first maturity is selected by artisanal net size, managerial measures toward artisanal fishery should be implemented.

  20. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  1. Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-12-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ).

  2. Extension of the shelf life of prawns (Penaeus japonicus) by vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, M E; Pérez-Mateos, M; Borderías, J A; Montero, P

    2000-10-01

    The present study has investigated the application of high pressures (200 and 400 MPa) in chilled prawn tails, both conventionally stored (air) and vacuum packaged. Vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment did extend the shelf life of the prawn samples, although it did affect muscle color very slightly, giving it a whiter appearance. The viable shelf life of 1 week for the air-stored samples was extended to 21 days in the vacuum-packed samples, 28 days in the samples treated at 200 MPa, and 35 days in the samples pressurized at 400 MPa. Vacuum packaging checked the onset of blackening, whereas high-pressure treatment aggravated the problem. From a microbiological point of view, batches conventionally stored reached about 6 log CFU/g or even higher at 14 days. Similar figures were reached in total number of bacteria in vacuum-packed samples and in pressurized at 200-MPa samples at 21 days. When samples were pressurized at 400 MPa, total numbers of bacteria were below 5.5 log CFU/g at 35 days of storage. Consequently, a combination of vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment would appear to be beneficial in prolonging freshness and preventing spotting.

  3. Immune gene discovery by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of hemocytes in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the most important commercial species in eastern China. However, little information of immune genes in E. carinicauda has been reported. To identify distinctive genes associated with immunity, an expressed sequence tag (EST) library was constructed from hemocytes of E. carinicauda. A total of 3411 clones were sequenced, yielding 2853 ESTs and the average sequence length is 436 bp. The cluster and assembly analysis yielded 1053 unique sequences including 329 contigs and 724 singletons. Blast analysis identified 593 (56.3%) of the unique sequences as orthologs of genes from other organisms (E-value < 1e-5). Based on the COG and Gene Ontology (GO), 593 unique sequences were classified. Through comparison with previous studies, 153 genes assembled from 367 ESTs have been identified as possibly involved in defense or immune functions. These genes are categorized into seven categories according to their putative functions in shrimp immune system: antimicrobial peptides, prophenoloxidase activating system, antioxidant defense systems, chaperone proteins, clottable proteins, pattern recognition receptors and other immune-related genes. According to EST abundance, the major immune-related genes were thioredoxin (141, 4.94% of all ESTs) and calmodulin (14, 0.49% of all ESTs). The EST sequences of E. carinicauda hemocytes provide important information of the immune system and lay the groundwork for development of molecular markers related to disease resistance in prawn species. PMID:23092732

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) spermatozoa using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian D; Webb, Robyn; Johnston, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and "arch-like" structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans.

  5. Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Danyi, S; Widart, J; Douny, C; Dang, P K; Baiwir, D; Wang, N; Tu, H T; Tung, V T; Phuong, N-T; Kestemont, P; Scippo, M-L

    2011-04-01

    Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 34, 142-152. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin (EF) and ciprofloxacin (CF) residues were investigated in the edible tissues of two important Asian aquacultured species such as Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Fish and prawn were treated with medicated feed with multiple doses of EF, in field conditions. A validation study of the analytical method was realized in terms of linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), recovery and decision limit (CCα). The time needed before the antibiotic disappears from animal tissues or reach the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100μg/kg) was assessed. The concentration values of EF detected in Tra catfish tissue were between the MRL and 2×MRL concentrations, according to the fish density, 7days following the end of the enrofloxacin treatment (20mg/kg body weight per day, for seven consecutive days). The concentration value of ER in prawn tissue was lower than the MRL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 14μg/kg) 5 and 7days after the stop of the EF treatment (50mg/kg body weight per day, for five consecutive days), respectively. The mean detected levels of CF was much lower in comparison with that of EF, indicating that only a small part of EF is metabolized into CF (<5%) in both Tra catfish and prawn.

  6. An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Roy, Arpita; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% α-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria

  7. A novel effect of imidazole derivative KK-42 on increasing survival of Aeromonas hydrophila challenged prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Feng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xiang-Li; Lv, Yan-Jie; Ning, Qian-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Imidazole derivative KK-42 is well known as the insect growth regulator. Here we find that KK-42 pretreatment could promote the survival of Macrobrachium nipponense infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, which is considered to be possibly related to the prophenoloxidase (proPO), a conserved copper-containing enzyme that plays an important role in defense against pathogens. In this study, a full-length of proPO gene from M. nipponense haemocytes, designated as MnproPO, was firstly cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA contained 2428 bp with a 2013 bp open reading frame encoding a putative proPO protein of 671 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 76.5 kDa and pI of 7.31. It was predicted to possess all the expected features of proPO members, including two putative copper-binding sites with six histidine residues and a thiol ester-like motif. Sequence analysis showed that MnproPO exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (93%) to a proPO of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The gene was expressed highly in haemocytes and weakly in hepatopancreas. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the MnproPO expression increased significantly at 3, 12 and 24 h after KK-42 treatment, the PO activity also importantly rose from 6 to 48 h in KK-42-treated prawns and reached the maximum at 24 h with a 2.3-fold higher than that in control group. Injection of A. hydrophila could stimulate the MnproPO transcription and PO activity whether or not the prawns were pretreated by KK-42, the mRNA level increased obviously only at 3 h and 6 h after the bacterium injection (challenged control), but increased constantly during the phase of experiment except at 6 h under the condition of KK-42 pretreatment (challenged treatment group). The change trend of PO activity was basically similar to that of MnproPO expression. Our present results demonstrate that the MnproPO expression as well as PO activity may be induced by KK-42, which is likely one of the molecular mechanisms of KK

  8. Genetic diversity of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon in relation to trace metal pollution at the Tanzanian coast.

    PubMed

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Mdegela, Robinson H; Gwakisa, Paul; Kochzius, Marc

    2017-01-30

    The genetic diversity of giant tiger prawns in relation to trace metals (TMs) pollution was analysed using 159 individuals from eight sites at the Tanzanian coast. The seven microsatellites analysed showed high degree of polymorphism (4-44 alleles). The measured genetic diversity (Ho=0.592±0.047) was comparable to that of populations in the Western Indian Ocean. Apart from that, correlation analysis revealed significant negative associations between genetic diversity and TMs pollution (p<0.05), supporting the genetic erosion hypothesis. Limited gene flow was indicated by a significant genetic differentiation (FST=0.059, p<0.05). The Mantel test rejected the isolation-by-distance hypothesis, but revealed that gene flow along the Tanzanian coast is limited by TMs pollution. This suggests that TMs affect larvae settlement and it may account for the measured deficiency of heterozygosity. This calls for strengthened pollution control measures in order to conserve this commercially important species.

  9. Marine biogeographic boundaries and human introduction along the European coast revealed by phylogeography of the prawn Palaemon elegans.

    PubMed

    Reuschel, Silke; Cuesta, José A; Schubart, Christoph D

    2010-06-01

    A phylogeographic analysis is carried out for the widely distributed European littoral prawn Palaemon elegans in order to test for potential genetic differentiation and geographic structure. Mitochondrial sequences were obtained from 283 specimens from the northeastern Atlantic, the Baltic, Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas. Our study revealed a surprisingly complex population structure. Three main haplogroups can be separated: one from the Atlantic (Type I) and two from the Mediterranean (Types II and III). While the Mediterranean types occur in sympatry, a clear phylogeographic break was observed along the Almería-Oran Front separating Type I and giving evidence for a genetic isolation of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. Type III represents the most distinct haplogroup with high levels of nucleotide divergence, indicating the occurrence of a cryptic species with a Messinian origin. The colonization of the southeastern Baltic Sea is most likely due to human introduction.

  10. Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, J A; Sambhi, S K; Paynter, J L; Hawkins, J A; Atherton, J G

    1991-01-01

    During attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. Contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall, features characteristic of bacteria in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group, a phylogenetically distinct group of eubacteria. Two strains of contaminant bacteria were isolated in pure culture. Both exhibited morphology and antibiotic resistance consistent with their membership in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group (order Planctomycetales) of eubacteria. Tissue culture media for marine invertebrates may select for such bacteria if high concentrations of cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics are included. Images PMID:1781677

  11. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p < 0.05). There was delay in the growth of Enterobacteriaceae and H2S producing bacteria up to 6th and 9th day of storage, respectively in high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

    2012-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating

  13. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; O’Doherty, John V.; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  14. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O’Doherty, John V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo. PMID:26636332

  15. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  16. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, John V

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo.

  17. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  18. Feeding and larval growth of an exotic freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), from Northeastern Pará, Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jean N; Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Costa, Anne K; Maciel, Cristiana R

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we carried out experiments on the diet of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We tested which type of food and which density of food is suitable for larval development. For the experiment on the type of food, eight treatments were carried out: (I) starvation, (AL) microalgae, (RO) rotifers, (AN) Artemia, (RO + AN) rotifers + Artemia, (AL + RO) microalgae + rotifers, (AL + AN) microalgae + Artemia, (AL + RO + AN) microalgae + rotifers + Artemia. For the experiment on the density of food, we used the type of food, which had resulted in a high survival rate in the previous experiment. Three treatments were carried out: 4, 8 and 16 Artemia nauplii /mL. The rate of feeding during larval development was observed. The survival, weight and percentage of juveniles of each feeding experiment were determined. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered.

  19. Molecular Analysis of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) Supports the Existence of a Single Species throughout Its Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

  20. Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayram, K.; Geraldine, P.

    1996-02-01

    Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

  1. Antioxidant response of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda to harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum exposure and its histological change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Cuimin; Ren, Xianyun; Ge, Qianqian; Wang, Jiajia; Li, Jian

    2017-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, one of the most widespread red tide causing species, affects marine aquaculture and ecosystems worldwide. In this study, ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda were exposed to P. minimum cells (5 × 104 cells mL-1) to investigate its harmful effects on the shrimp. Antioxidant activities and histological changes were used as indicators of health status of the shrimp. In 72 hours, the mortality of E. carinicauda was not affected, but its antioxidant response and histology were statistically different from those of control. Elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and depressed catalase (CAT) activity were observed in gill; while increased SOD, glutathione S-transferase (GST), CAT activities and modulated GPX activity were observed in hepatopancreas. Thus, antioxidant activities in gill and hepatopancreas seem to respond differentially to harmful alga exposure. Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in early a few hours indicates the damage of the antioxidant defense system. Although MDA content recovered to a low level thereafter, a series of histological abnormalities including accumulation or infiltration of hemocytes, tissue lesions and necrosis were discovered in gill and hepatopancreas. Exposure to P. minimum induced sublethal effects on E. carinicauda, including temporary oxidative damage and histological injury.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26848659

  3. Effects of Artificial Shelter and Chitosan on Growth Performance of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri de Man, 1911).

    PubMed

    Jongyotha, Suriya; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suraniranat, Prawit

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were carried out at the Department of Fisheries, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand during September 2013 to February 2014 aiming to pursue both the better growth performance and survival rate of the freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) where a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications was used for each experiment. For experiment 1, different percentages of grass shelter were used, i.e. 0% (Control, T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3) and 75% (T4). For experiment 2, different percentages of commercial chitosan were used, i.e. 0% (Control, T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3) and 75% (T4). Both experiments were carried out at the same time and each of them was lasted for 75 days. The results showed that the added grass shelter gave significantly higher Total Weight (TW) and Survival Rate (SR) than the control treatment. However, there were no significant differences found on TW and SR among the added grass shelter treatments (T2 up to T4). Chitosan gave significantly higher TW, AW and Number of Molting (NM) than the control treatment. There were no significant differences on TW, NM and AW found amongst the chitosan treatments. The results of the experiment 1 showed that the best rate of grass shelter for the culturing of the Macrobrachium lanchesteri was at a rate of 25% (T 2) and the best rate of the chitosan was at a rate of 4% (Diet 3) for the Experiment 2.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-02-02

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii.

  5. The distribution of APGWamide and RFamides in the central nervous system and ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Palasoon, Ronnarong; Panasophonkul, Sasiporn; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Hanna, Peter; Sobhon, Prasert; Chavadej, Jittipan

    2011-06-01

    Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity (RF-ir) was detected in neurons of all neuronal clusters of the eyestalk and CNS, except clusters 1 and 5 of the eyestalk, and dorsal clusters of the subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia. The RF-ir was also found in all neuropils of the CNS and SG, except the lamina ganglionaris. These immunohistochemical locations of the APGWamide-like and RF-like peptides in the eyestalk indicate that these neuropeptides could modulate the release of the neurohormones in the sinus gland. The presence of RFamide-like peptides in the thoracic and abdominal ganglia suggests that it may act as a neurotransmitter which controls muscular contractions. In the ovary, RF-ir was found predominantly in late previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes, and to a lesser degree in late vitellogenic oocytes. These RFs may be involved with oocyte development, but may also act with other neurohormones and/or neurotransmitters within the oocyte in an autocrine or paracrine manner.

  6. A preliminary study of the algicidal mechanism of bioactive metabolites of Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria in prawn ponds.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wen; Huang, Xianghu; Li, Changling

    2014-01-01

    The algae, Oscillatoria, is commonly found in prawn ponds and can lead to reduced productivity. We examined metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus for algicidal qualities. To determine the possible algicidal mechanisms of these bioactive metabolites, different amounts of sterile filtrate of bacterial suspensions were added to cultures containing Oscillatoria. The dry weight, the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PC, phycocyanin; APC, allophycocyanin; PE, phycoerythrin), and MDA (malondialdehyde) and the activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase), and CAT (catalase) of algae were measured during the algicidal application. The results showed that lower concentrations of the sterile filtrate (addition ≤ 4 mL) accelerated the growth rate of Oscillatoria, but significant inhibition and lysis were observed with higher concentrations (addition ≥ 8 mL). In two trials (the additions were 8 mL and 10 mL, respectively), the algal dry weights were reduced by 26.02% and 45.30%, and the chl-a concentrations were decreased by 46.88% and 63.73%, respectively, after seven days. During the algicidal treatment, the concentrations of PC, APC, PE, and MDA and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were significantly increased in the early cultivation and declined quickly at later stages. Finally, the algae-lysing mechanism of the bioactive metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria had been proposed.

  7. A Preliminary Study of the Algicidal Mechanism of Bioactive Metabolites of Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria in Prawn Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wen; Huang, Xianghu; Li, Changling

    2014-01-01

    The algae, Oscillatoria, is commonly found in prawn ponds and can lead to reduced productivity. We examined metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus for algicidal qualities. To determine the possible algicidal mechanisms of these bioactive metabolites, different amounts of sterile filtrate of bacterial suspensions were added to cultures containing Oscillatoria. The dry weight, the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PC, phycocyanin; APC, allophycocyanin; PE, phycoerythrin), and MDA (malondialdehyde) and the activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase), and CAT (catalase) of algae were measured during the algicidal application. The results showed that lower concentrations of the sterile filtrate (addition ≤ 4 mL) accelerated the growth rate of Oscillatoria, but significant inhibition and lysis were observed with higher concentrations (addition ≥ 8 mL). In two trials (the additions were 8 mL and 10 mL, respectively), the algal dry weights were reduced by 26.02% and 45.30%, and the chl-a concentrations were decreased by 46.88% and 63.73%, respectively, after seven days. During the algicidal treatment, the concentrations of PC, APC, PE, and MDA and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were significantly increased in the early cultivation and declined quickly at later stages. Finally, the algae-lysing mechanism of the bioactive metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria had been proposed. PMID:24744687

  8. An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

  9. An investigation into occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus outbreak in traditional paddy cum prawn fields in India.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K M; Mohamed Hatha, A A

    2012-01-01

    A yearlong (September 2009-August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds.

  10. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A.; Lyons, Russell E.; Salin, Krishna R.; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  11. Identification and comparative analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) microRNA expression profile during hypoxia using a deep sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Fu, Hongtuo; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Gu, Zhimin; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxia refers to a state of oxygen deficiency, which is observed frequently in aquaculture ponds. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important effectors in regulating gene expression through posttranscriptional mechanisms. They are key elements in the response to hypoxia. The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an important commercial aquaculture species, and is sensitive to hypoxia. To date, there are no reports describing M. nipponense miRNAs. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing technology was used for high-throughput analysis of miRNAs in a small RNA library isolated from four M. nipponense tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocytes). In total, 9,227,356 reads were obtained, 4,293,155 of which were related to 267 unique miRNAs, including 203 conserved and 64 prawn-specific miRNAs. Furthermore, miRNA features including length distribution and end variations were characterized. Annotation of targets revealed a broad range of biological processes and signal transduction pathways regulated by M. nipponense miRNAs. In addition, 880 co-expressed and 39 specific (25 normoxia-specific and 14 hypoxia-specific) miRNAs that may be involved in the response to hypoxia were confirmed using miRNA microarray analysis from the four prawn tissues combined. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of eight miRNAs in the normoxia and hypoxia groups showed good concordance between the sequencing and qPCR data. This study provides the first large-scale identification and characterization of M. nipponense miRNAs and their potential targets, and represents a foundation for further characterization of their roles in the regulation of the diversity of hypoxia processes.

  12. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-05-07

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  13. Molecular profiles and pathogen-induced transcriptional responses of prawn B cell lymphoma-2 related ovarian killer protein (BOK).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have reported a molecular characterization of the first B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) related ovarian killer protein (BOK) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). BOK is a novel pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family that entails in mediating apoptosis to remove cancer cells. A cDNA sequence of MrBOK was identified from the prawn cDNA library and its full length was obtained by internal sequencing. The coding region of MrBOK yields a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. The analysis revealed that MrBOK contains a transmembrane helix at V(261)-L(283) and a putative BCL-2 family domain at V(144)-W(245). MrBOK also possessed four putative BCL-2 homology domains including BH1, BH2, BH3 and weak BH4. The BH3 contains 21 binding sites and among them five residues are highly conserved with the aligned BOK proteins. The homology analysis showed that MrBOK shared maximum similarity with the Caligus rogercresseyi BOK A. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was classified into nine sister groups which includes BOK, BAK, BAX, BAD, BCL-2, BCL-XL, NR13 and MCL members. The BOK protein group further sub-grouped into vertebrate and invertebrate BOK, wherein MrBOK located within insect monophyletic clad of invertebrate BOK. The secondary structural analysis showed that MrBOK contains 11 α-helices (52.2%) which are connected over random coils (47.7%). The 3D structure of MrBOK showed three central helices (α6, α7 and α8) which formed the core of the protein and are flanked on one side by α1, α2 and α3, and on the other side by α4, α5 and α11. MrBOK mRNA is expressed most abundantly (P < 0.05) in ovary compared to other tissues taken for analysis. Hence ovary was selected to study the possible roles of MrBOK mRNA regulation upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus] infection. During bacterial and viral infection, the highest MrBOK mRNA transcription was varied

  14. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and mRNA Expression of Hemocyanin Subunit in Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Youqin; Ding, Zhili; Sun, Shengming; Wang, Ligai; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Hemocyanin is a copper-containing protein with immune function against disease. In this study, a hemocyanin subunit named MnHc-1 was cloned from Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnHc-1 was 2,163 bp with a 2,028-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 675 amino acids. The MnHc-1 mRNA was expressed in the hepatopancreas, gill, hemocytes, intestine, ovary, and stomach, with the highest level in the hepatopancreas. In the infection trial, the MnHc-1 mRNA transcripts in the hemocytes were significantly downregulated at 3 h after injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and then upregulated at 6 h and 12 h, followed by a gradual recovery from 24 to 48 h. The MnHc-1 transcriptional expression in the hepatopancreas was measured after M. nipponense were fed seven diets with 2.8, 12.2, 20.9, 29.8, 43.1, 78.9, and 157.1 mg Cu kg−1 for 8 weeks, respectively. The level of MnHc-1 mRNA was significantly higher in the prawns fed 43.1–157.1 mg Cu kg−1 diet than in that fed 2.8–29.8 mg Cu kg−1 diet. This study indicated that the MnHc-1 expression can be affected by dietary copper and the hemocyanin may potentially participate in the antibacterial defense of M. nipponense. PMID:27818993

  15. Phylogeography and genetic structure of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Lee, Ying-Chou

    2017-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is mainly distributed in East Asia. The phylogeography, population genetic structure and historical demography of this species in the East Asia were examined by using partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA in mitochondrial DNA. Ten populations that included 239 individuals were collected from Taiwan (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, Mingte Reservoir, MTR and Chengching Lake Reservoir, CLR), mainland China (Taihu Lake, TLC, Min River, MRC, Jiulong River, JRC and Shenzhen Reservoir, SRC), Japan (Biwa Lake, BLJ and Kasumigaura Lake, KLJ) and Korea (Han River, HRK). The nucleotide diversity (π) of all individuals was 0.01134, with values ranging from 0.0089 (BLJ, Japan) to 0.01425 (MTR, Taiwan). A total of 83 haplotypes were obtained, and the haplotypes were divided into 2 main lineages: lineage A included the specimens from BLJ, KLJ, CLR, MTR, TLC, MRC and JRC, and lineage B comprised the ones from HRK, SRC, SMR, MTR, TLC, MRC and JRC. Lineage A could be further divided two sub-lineages (A1 and A2). Individuals of lineage A2 were only from TLC. Demographic expansion was observed in each lineage, starting within the second-to-latest interglacial period for lineage A and within the last glacial period for lineage B. All FST values among the ten populations were significantly different, except for the values between MRC and JRC, and SMR and SRC. The phylogeography and genetic structure of M. nipponense in East Asia might be influenced by Pleistocene glacial cycles, lake isolation and human introduction. The possible dispersal routes of M. nipponense in the East Asia were also discussed. PMID:28267807

  16. RpL10A regulates oogenesis progression in the banana prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Timmons, Allison; McCall, Kimberly

    2011-09-01

    To develop banana prawn (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) aquaculture, the mechanism of ovarian maturation is under investigation. In a previous study, we reported the RpL10A protein as an ovarian maturation stimulator. To further investigate the function of RpL10A, we turned to the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) to take advantage of the genetic tools available. Here, we elucidate the expression and function of RpL10A in the D. melanogaster ovary. RpL10A is expressed in the cytoplasm of both nurse and follicle cells throughout oogenesis. While shrimp have one RpL10A gene, D. melanogaster has two genes, RpL10Aa and RpL10Ab. RpL10Ab displays more similarity with shrimp RpL10A and was further investigated. RpL10Ab homozygous mutants are lethal and germline clone analysis showed that RpL10Ab is an essential gene in oogenesis. Moreover, RpL10Ab(-) germline clones resulted in premature death of the follicle cells. This phenotype is reminiscent of some insulin pathway mutants, suggesting that RpL10Ab may be involved in the insulin signaling pathway. In addition, RpL10Ab(-) follicle cells showed abnormal nuclei and membranes. Shrimp RpL10A rescued RpL10Ab homozygous mutants, revealing their functional conservation. Surprisingly, we found cell death in multiple tissues when RpL10A was over-expressed, suggesting that proper RpL10A levels are important. This research reveals novel findings about the role of RpL10A during oogenesis and may, in the future, lead to new approaches to stimulate ovarian development in shrimp.

  17. Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2013-07-01

    The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single α-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (≈25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme.

  18. Auto-induction for high yield expression of recombinant novel isoallergen tropomyosin from King prawn (Melicertus latisulcatus) for improved diagnostics and immunotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Martina; Kamath, Sandip D; Saptarshi, Shruti R; Smout, Michael J; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-12-15

    Food allergies are increasing worldwide, demonstrating a considerable public health concern. Shellfish allergy is one of the major food groups causing allergic sensitization among adults and children, affecting up to 2% of the general world population. Tropomyosin (TM) is the major allergen in shellfish and frequently used in the diagnosis of allergic sensitization and the detection of cross-contaminated food. To improve and establish better and more sensitive diagnostics for allergies and immunotherapeutics, large quantities of pure allergens are required. To establish a reproducible method for the generation of pure recombinant tropomyosin we utilized in this study different Escherichia coli strains (NM522, TOP10 and BL21(DE3)RIPL). In addition, isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction was compared with a novel auto-induction system to allow the generation of larger quantities of recombinant allergen. We demonstrated that the B-strain of E. coli is better for the expression of TM compared to the K-strain. Moreover, a higher yield could be achieved when using the auto-induction system, with up to 62 mg/l. High yield expressed recombinant TM from King prawn (KP) was compared to recombinant TM from Black tiger prawn (Pen m 1). We demonstrated that recombinant TM from KP and known isoallergen Pen m 1 have very similar molecular and immunological characteristics. Overall, we demonstrate that auto-induction can be used to express larger quantities of recombinant allergens for the development of diagnostic, to quantify allergens as well as immunotherapeutics employing isoallergens.

  19. Variation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ovaries and its effects on ovarian maturation and oocyte proliferation in the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sugiyama, Eiji; Soonklang, Nantawan; Meeratana, Prasert; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important bioactive mediators for many physiological functions. In some decapod crustaceans, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been detected in reproductive organs, and may play a role in the control of ovarian maturation. However, in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the presences of PGE2 and key enzymes for PGE2 biosynthesis, as well as its effects on ovarian maturation have not yet been investigated. In this study we reported the presence of PGE2, cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the ovarian tissues of M. rosenbergii, using immunohistochemistry. Intense immunoreactivities of PGE2 (PGE2-ir), COX1 (Cox1-ir) and PGES (PGES-ir) were detected in previtellogenic oocytes (Oc1 and Oc2), while the immunoreactivities were absent in the late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc4). This finding supports the hypothesis that the PGE2 biosynthesis occurs in the ovary of this prawn. To ascertain this finding we used LC-MS/MS to quantitate PGE2 concentrations during ovarian developmental cycle. The levels of PGE2 were significantly higher in the early ovarian stages (St I and II) than in the late stages (St III and IV). Moreover, we found that administration of PGE2 stimulated the ovarian maturation in this species by shortening the length of the ovarian cycle, increasing ovarian-somatic index, oocyte proliferation, and vitellogenin (Vg) level in the hemolymph.

  20. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  1. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense)

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, Md. Lifat; Nguyen, Viet Tuan; Mather, Peter B.; Hurwood, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp) with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO) terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million) ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries. Among the

  2. [Effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the growth and food utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Günther, Jorge; Jiménez-Montealegre, Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the growth of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, minimizing the indirect effects of the probiotic on the water quality and leaving only the possible bactericidal and digestion-support effects. A model of stress was also designed in tilapia to compare the effect with tilapia under normal conditions. The dose in the food was 0.1% of the probiotic (5 x 10(8) CFU/g and 99.9 % maltrine) in the dry diet. Every 14 days the animals were weighed in group (tilapias +/- 0.1 g, prawns +/- 0.001 g) to estimate average body weight. In the first experiment (tilapia) the specific growth rate (SGR) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) were bad in relation with the factor probiotic, but the differences were not significant. In the second experiment (tilapia) both the SGR and the FCR deteriorated with the addition of B. subtilis to the diet; the difference was significant to 94%. The stress factor, on the contrary, caused a notable worsening of both the growth and the food utilization. In the experiment with prawns the addition of B. subtilis caused a light deterioration of the growth and of the food utilization, with a statistical probability of mistake of 10% in case of the growth. During the experiment the direct effects over the digestive system should have prevailed, either by the contribution of macro- and micronutrients, or by the enzymes that contribute to the digestion. The negative effect due to the addition of the probiotic to the food was small (about 10% in both the SGR and the FCR) being difficult to detect statistically. The reports on the positive action of probiotics on the growth in aquatic animals have been conducted mainly in ponds, and our information does not contradict directly a possible positive action of B. subtilis in this type of systems. Since the

  3. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation in maturation diet on female reproductive performance and larval quality of giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    PubMed Central

    Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Siranonthana, Nisa; Senanan, Wansuk

    2016-01-01

    The giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one of the most farmed freshwater crustaceans in the world. Its global production has been stalling in the past decade due to the inconsistent quality of broodstock and hatchery-produced seeds. A better understanding of the role of nutrition in maturation diets will help overcome some of the production challenges. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, ARA) is a fatty acid precursor of signaling molecules important for crustacean reproduction, prostaglandins E and F of the series II (PGE2 and PGF2α), and is often lacking in maturation diets of shrimp and prawns. We examined the effects of ARA in a combination of different fish oil (FO) and soybean oil (SO) blends on females’ reproductive performance and larval quality. Adult females (15.22 ± 0.13 g and 11.12 ± 0.09 cm) were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing one of two different base compositions (A or B), supplemented with one of three levels of Mortierella alpine-derived ARA (containing 40% active ARA): 0, 1 or 2% by ingredient weight. The two base diets differed in the percentages of (FO and SO with diet A containing 2% SO and 2% FO and diet B containing 2.5% SO and 1.5% FO, resulting in differences in proportional contents of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LOA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA)). After the eight-week experiment, prawns fed diet B with 1 and 2% ARA supplement (B1 and B2) exhibited the highest gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), egg clutch weight, fecundity, hatching rate, number of larvae, and reproductive effort compared to those fed other diets (p ≤ 0.05). Larvae from these two dietary treatments also had higher tolerance to low salinity (2 ppt). The maturation period was not significantly different among most treatments (p ≥ 0.05). ARA supplementation, regardless of the base diet, significantly improved GSI, HSI, egg clutch weight and fecundity. However, the diets with an enhanced ARA and LOA

  4. Measurement of haem and total iron in fish, shrimp and prawn using ICP-MS: Implications for dietary iron intake calculations.

    PubMed

    Wheal, Matthew S; DeCourcy-Ireland, Emma; Bogard, Jessica R; Thilsted, Shakuntala H; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-five species of fish, shrimp and prawn from local markets in Bangladesh were analysed for concentrations of total Fe, haem Fe and non-haem Fe by ICP-MS. Total Fe and non-haem Fe concentrations were measured in nitric acid-digested samples and haem Fe was extracted using acidified 80% acetone for 60 min. Total Fe concentrations ranged from 0.55-14.43 mg/100 g FW, and haem Fe% ranged from 18%-93% of total Fe. Repeat extractions with 80% acetone recovered additional haem Fe, suggesting that previous measurement by this technique may have underestimated haem Fe content. Calculation of Fe balance (summing Fe in acetone extracts and Fe in the residue after haem Fe extraction) was not significantly different from total Fe, indicating the two processes recovered the different forms of Fe with similar effectiveness.

  5. Feeding ecology of non-native Siberian prawns, Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in the lower Snake River, Washington, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hurst, William

    2016-01-01

    We used both stomach content and stable isotope analyses to describe the feeding ecology of Siberian prawns Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862), a non-native caridean shrimp that is a relatively recent invader of the lower Snake River. Based on identifiable prey in stomachs, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis Holmes, 1896 comprised up to 34-55% (by weight) of diets of juvenile to adult P. modestus, which showed little seasonal variation. Other predominant items/taxa consumed included detritus, amphipods, dipteran larvae, and oligochaetes. Stable isotope analysis supported diet results and also suggested that much of the food consumed by P. modestus that was not identifiable came from benthic sources — predominantly invertebrates of lower trophic levels and detritus. Palaemon modestus consumption of N. mercedis may pose a competitive threat to juvenile salmon and resident fishes which also rely heavily on that prey.

  6. Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.

    PubMed

    Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis.

  7. Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-08-01

    White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR.

  8. Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: Is there a risk to marine fauna and public health?

    PubMed

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Mangroves ecosystems support livelihood and economic activities of coastal communities in the tropics and subtropics. Previous reports have documented the inefficiency of waste treatment facilities in Tanzania to contain trace metals. Therefore, the rapidly expanding coastal population and industrial sector is likely to threaten mangrove ecosystems with metal pollution. This study analysed trace metals in 60 sediment samples and 160 giant tiger prawns from the Tanzanian coast in order to document the distribution of trace metals and to establish if measured levels present a threat to mangrove fauna and are of public health importance. High levels of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V was observed in mangroves of river Pangani, Wami, and Rufiji. Multivariate analysis showed that they originate mainly from weathering and erosion in the river catchments. Extreme enrichment of Cd was observed in a mangrove affected by municipal sewage. The distribution of Hg, Pb, and Zn was related with urbanisation and industrial activities along the coast. The metal pollution index was high at Pangani, Saadani, and Rufiji, suggesting that these estuarine mangroves are also affected by human activities in the catchment. Moderate to considerable ecological risks were observed in all sampled mangroves, except for Kilwa Masoko. It was revealed that As, Cd, and Hg present moderate risks to fauna. High levels of Cu, Fe and Zn were observed in prawns but the level of the non-essential Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed the maximum allowed levels for human consumption. However, based on the trends of fish consumption in the country, weekly intake of Hg is likely to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake level, especially in fishing communities. This calls for measures to control Hg emissions and to strengthen sewage and waste treatment in coastal cities and urban centres in the basin of major rivers.

  9. Candidate genes that have facilitated freshwater adaptation by palaemonid prawns in the genus Macrobrachium: identification and expression validation in a model species (M. koombooloomba)

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shorash; Mather, Peter B.; Hurwood, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The endemic Australian freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium koombooloomba, provides a model for exploring genes involved with freshwater adaptation because it is one of the relatively few Macrobrachium species that can complete its entire life cycle in freshwater. Methods The present study was conducted to identify potential candidate genes that are likely to contribute to effective freshwater adaptation by M. koombooloomba using a transcriptomics approach. De novo assembly of 75 bp paired end 227,564,643 high quality Illumina raw reads from 6 different cDNA libraries revealed 125,917 contigs of variable lengths (200–18,050 bp) with an N50 value of 1597. Results In total, 31,272 (24.83%) of the assembled contigs received significant blast hits, of which 27,686 and 22,560 contigs were mapped and functionally annotated, respectively. CEGMA (Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach) based transcriptome quality assessment revealed 96.37% completeness. We identified 43 different potential genes that are likely to be involved with freshwater adaptation in M. koombooloomba. Identified candidate genes included: 25 genes for osmoregulation, five for cell volume regulation, seven for stress tolerance, three for body fluid (haemolymph) maintenance, eight for epithelial permeability and water channel regulation, nine for egg size control and three for larval development. RSEM (RNA-Seq Expectation Maximization) based abundance estimation revealed that 6,253, 5,753 and 3,795 transcripts were expressed (at TPM value ≥10) in post larvae, juveniles and adults, respectively. Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that 15 genes were expressed differentially in different individuals but these genes apparently were not involved with freshwater adaptation but rather were involved in growth, development and reproductive maturation. Discussion The genomic resources developed here will be useful for better understanding the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation in

  10. Evaluation of paraprobiotic applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum in improving the immune response and disease protection in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Dash, Gyanaranjan; Raman, Ram Prakash; Pani Prasad, K; Makesh, M; Pradeep, M A; Sen, Swatipriyanka

    2015-03-01

    Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight ± SE: 0.54 ± 0.03 g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387 kcal 100 g(-1)) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (10(7) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB2 (10(8) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB3 (10(9) cfu g(-1) diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P < 0.05) with concurrent decrease (P < 0.05) in cumulative mortality against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in all the experimental groups except for HKPB1, where PO and RB activity did not improve significantly (P > 0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P < 0.05) in HKPB2 and HKPB3 compared to HKPB1 and the control, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L. plantarum at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1) diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune

  11. Behaviour and biomarkers as tools to assess the acute toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the common prawn Palaemon serratus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos; Oliveira, Cristiana; Gravato, Carlos; Almeida, Joana R

    2013-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is considered an important marine environmental contaminant, given its recognised environmental persistence and toxicity. However, its effects in marine crustaceans are poorly studied, namely the accumulation and sub-cellular effects that might be linked to behavioural alterations and may lead to ecologically relevant consequences. This study aims to investigate behavioural and physiological responses of the common prawn (Palaemon serratus) after acute exposure to BaP and infer the potential effects for the population in the wild. The applied approach included the evaluation of swimming performance after exposure, and several biochemical biomarkers involved in biotransformation, oxidative damage, energy production and levels of BaP-type compounds in tissues (eye, digestive gland and muscle) in a 96 h acute bioassay with exposure to BaP (16-4096 μg/L). The objective was to establish a link between behaviour (swimming velocity) and biochemical responses in order to assess the ecological relevance of the effects induced by BaP in P. serratus and to select useful tools for environmental risk assessment. Results showed swimming velocity impairment (LOEC = 128 μg/L), lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction (LOEC = 4096 μg/L) and BaP-type compounds increase in eye (LOEC = 32 μg/L), digestive gland and muscle (LOEC = 512 μg/L) of prawn after exposure to BaP. This oxidative damage in lipids seems to be caused by the incapacity to activate detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes, once glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were not affected by the exposure. This could be also an explanation to the increased levels of BaP-type compounds observed in tissues. An inability to increase the activities of enzymes involved in the production of energy was also observed, which may help to explain the detoxification failure and consequent increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The inhibition of swimming velocity was

  12. Isolation of AHL-degrading bacteria from micro-algal cultures and their impact on algal growth and on virulence of Vibrio campbellii to prawn larvae.

    PubMed

    Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Natrah, Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Flandez, Ace Vincent Bravo; Kumar, Uday; Niu, Yufeng; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Inactivation of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules, such as acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) of pathogenic bacteria, has been proposed as a novel method to combat bacterial diseases in aquaculture. Despite the importance of micro-algae for aquaculture, AHL degradation by bacteria associated with micro-algal cultures has thus far not been investigated. In this study, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. NFMI-T and Bacillus sp. NFMI-C from open cultures of the micro-algae Tetraselmis suecica and Chaetoceros muelleri, respectively. An AHL degradation assay showed that either monocultures or co-cultures of the isolates were able to degrade the AHL N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. In contrast, only Bacillus sp. NFMI-C was able to inactivate N-hydroxybutanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, the AHL produced by Vibrio campbellii. The isolated bacteria were able to persist for up to 3 weeks in conventionalized micro-algal cultures, indicating that they were able to establish and maintain themselves within open algal cultures. Using gnotobiotic algal cultures, we found that the isolates did not affect growth of the micro-algae from which they were isolated, whereas a mixture of both isolates increased the growth of Tetraselmis and decreased the growth of Chaetoceros. Finally, addition of Bacillus sp. NFMI-C to the rearing water of giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae significantly improved survival of the larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, whereas it had no effect on larval growth.

  13. Effects of high-salinity seawater acclimation on the levels of D-alanine in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masahumi

    2015-12-10

    Changes in D- and L-alanine contents were determined in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, during acclimation from seawater containing 100% salinity to artificial seawater containing 150% salinity. In the hepatopancreas, contents of both amino acids increased by approximately threefold. The activity of alanine racemase, which catalyzes the interconversion of D- and L-alanine, also increased in the high-salinity seawater. In addition, the expression of the gene encoding alanine racemase increased in the hepatopancreas with an increase in the alanine racemase activity. These data indicate that the biosynthesis of D- and L-alanine is controlled by the gene expression level of alanine racemase, and D-alanine in the hepatopancreas functions as a major osmolyte for isosmotic regulation. In contrast, the content of D-alanine and alanine racemase activity did not change in the muscle during hyper-osmotic acclimation. Therefore, we suggest that D-alanine, which exists in the several tissues of M. japonicus, is considered to be utilized in some different physiological phenomena in different tissues.

  14. Isolation of prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein gene and its expression in responding to bacterial and viral infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qianqian; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Li, Jitao; Sun, Ming; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-04-01

    The pattern recognition proteins (PRPs) play a major role in immune response of crustacean to resist pathogens. In the present study, as one of PRPs, lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) gene in the ridge tail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) ( EcLGBP) was isolated. The full-length cDNA of EcLGBP was 1338 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acid residules. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcLGBP shared high similarities with LGBP and BGBP from other crustaceans. Some conservative domains were predicted in EcLGBP sequence. EcLGBP constitutively expressed in most tissues at different levels, and the highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. With infection time, the cumulative mortality increased gradually followed by the proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The expression of EcLGBP in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection was up-regulated in hemocytes and hepatopancreas, and the up-regulation in hepatopancreas was earlier than that in hemocytes. EcLGBP expression after WSSV infection increased at 3 h, then significantly decreased in both hemocytes and hepatopancreas. The results indicated that EcLGBP was involved in the immune defense against bacterial and viral infections.

  15. Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

    2012-03-01

    In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (∼50 000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment.

  16. Feeding Ecology of Predatory Fishes from Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, with Special Reference to Predation on Penaeid Prawns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, D. T.; Blaber, S. J. M.; Salini, J. P.; Farmer, M. J.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the feeding ecology of predatory fishes in the inshore waters of Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria, a large tropical bay in northern Australia. This knowledge will increase our understanding of trophic ecology of fishes in tropical waters and, in particular, their interactions with commercially important penaeid prawns. Several structurally complex habitats, including seagrass beds, mixed seagrass/reef habitats and mangrove areas, which support a diverse marine fauna, are found in these shallow waters. Consequently the diets of most predatory fishes in the region comprise a wide variety of fish and invertebrate prey. Juveniles of several species of penaeid live in seagrasses, where they are preyed on by, especially, Scomberoides commersonianusand the common shark species. However, the impact on juvenile penaeid populations is not as high as in the tropical estuaries of north-eastern Australia where fish abundances are lower. Many predatory fishes are size-selective and, in general, larger fish eat bigger penaeids. Seasonal and diel predation on penaeids is largely density-dependent. Evidence from this and previous studies indicates that individual species of tropical marine fishes eat similar prey (taxa and proportions) regardless of their habitat; any differences are chiefly only at the level of genus or species.

  17. L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    SciTech Connect

    Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom )

    1991-01-01

    Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

  18. Enhancement of trypsin-like enzymes by A23187 ionophore is crucial for sperm penetration through the egg vestment of the giant freshwater prawn.

    PubMed

    Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Somrit, Monsicha; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2015-12-01

    We report the presence of trypsin-like enzymes preferring Boc-QAR-MCA substrate in sperm collected from different portions of male reproductive tracts of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and compare enzyme activities before and after an A23187 calcium ionophore treatment. Fluorogenic enzyme assays revealed that testicular sperm lysates showed high trypsin-like enzyme activity but the activity was relatively low in vas deferens sperm lysates as well as in the live sperm. Upon sperm treatment with A23187, trypsin-like activity was greatly enhanced in distal vas deferens sperm. Substrate- and inhibitor-based localization studies indicated that the sperm trypsin-like enzymes were not of a soluble type but were rather of a membrane-borne type, localized at the anterior spike and upper part of the main body. Notable structural changes were also evident in A23187-induced sperm including extensive ruffling of the sperm membrane structure at the base of the main body thereby supporting the acrosome reaction response in this species. We further proved by substrate inhibition assays that the enhanced trypsin-like enzyme activity participates in sperm penetration through the vitelline envelope, a novel sperm-egg penetration mechanism that is unique in this species.

  19. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.

  20. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii.

  1. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles for Better Survival and Growth of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Veeran; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Rajkumar, Gopalan; Satgurunathan, Thangavelu; Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-10-05

    This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0.04 g) for a period of 90 days. In the carcasses of experimental prawns, the content of Mg was found to be elevated significantly with respect to the individual diet (102.14, 183.29, 205.46, 221.03, 237.10 and 254.36 μg Mg g(-1) respectively) when compared with that of the control. The contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na and K levels were also found to be elevated in the carcasses of experimental prawns. Significant (P < 0.05) improvements were observed in nutritional indices [survival rate (SR), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER)], activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase), concentrations of basic biochemical constituents (total protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, lipid, profiles of amino acids and fatty acids) and population of haemocytes [total and differential (hyalinocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes)] in all the test PL. Maximum performance was recorded in 500 mg kg(-1) MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL. There were no significant elevations recorded in activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metabolic enzymes [glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)] recorded in any of the MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed increases in the staining

  2. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections.

  3. Developmental effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi: Mitochondria as a target of environmental UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Thaline; Schramm, Heloísa; Zeni, Eliane C; Simioni, Carmen; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2016-10-01

    In South America, increased UVB radiation has become an important environmental issue that is potentially threatening aquatic ecosystems. Considering that species exhibit different degrees of sensitivity to UVB radiation and that embryos are more sensitive than organisms at later life stages, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of UVB radiation on subcellular compartments of embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi. This species lives and reproduces in clear and shallow waters, where UV radiation can fully penetrates. Embryos were irradiated with a UVB 6W lamp for 30min and examined after 1h, 12h, 24h and 48h of exposure. The irradiance of the UVB used simulates the UV radiation that embryos receive in the natural environment. The subcellular compartment most affected by the UVB radiation was the mitochondria, which exhibited a circular shape, a decrease in mitochondrial cristae, rupture of membranes and a morphology compatible with fission. These impairments were observed simultaneously with increased ROS production, just after 1h of UVB exposure. Thus, we investigated proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Drp-1) and fusion (Mfn-1), which are essential to cell maintenance. We found a significant increase in Drp-1 expression at all analyzed time-points and a significant decrease in Mfn-1 expression only after 24h of UVB exposure. Additionally, a decrease in embryonic cell viability was verified via the mitochondrial integrity assay. To conclude, we observed important mitochondrial dysfunctions against the environmental stress caused by UVB radiation. Moreover, the cellular responses found are critical and should not be disregarded, because they impact embryos that can potentially compromise the aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of vitellogenin in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and the effects of RNA interference and eyestalk ablation on ovarian maturation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Sun, Shengming; Zhang, Wenyi; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei

    2015-05-10

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of yolk protein, which functions as a nutritive resource that is important for embryonic growth and gonad development. In this study, the cDNA encoding the Vg gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense was cloned using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The transcript encoded 2536 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 286.810 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated high expression of Mn-Vg in the female ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas. As ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-Vg increased in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. In the hepatopancreas, the expression level rose more slowly at the early stage of vitellogenesis and reached the peak more rapidly compared to the expression pattern in ovary. The observed changes in Mn-Vg expression level at different development stages suggest the role of nutrient source in embryonic and larval development. Eyestalk ablation caused the Mn-Vg expression level to increase significantly compared to eyestalk-intact groups during the ovary development stages. Ablation accelerated ovary maturation by removing hormone inhibition of Mn-Vg in the hepatopancreas and ovary. In adult females, Mn-Vg dsRNA injection resulted in decreased expression of Mn-Vg in both the hepatopancreas and ovary, and two injection treatment dramatically delayed ovary maturation. Vg RNA interference down-regulated the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) expression level in the ovary, which illustrates the close relationship between Vg and VgR in the process of vitellogenesis.

  5. The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-11-01

    Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). In contrast, DA and Crz caused inhibitory effects on the AG through significant decreases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). Moreover, the prawns treated with Crz died before day 16 of the experimental period. We propose that 5-HT and certain GnRHs can be now used to stimulate reproduction in male M. rosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research.

  6. Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  7. Electrochemical measurement of hydrogen peroxide in plasma: evaluation of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and crucian carp (Cyprinus carpio) phagocytes under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinhong, Wang; Wei, Ji; Yaqing, Chang

    2007-12-01

    An electrochemical technique for the real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to describe respiratory burst activity (RBA) of phagocytes in plasma which can be used to evaluate the ability of immune system and disease resistance. The method is based upon the electric current changes, by redox reaction on platinum electrode of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) released from phagocytes stimulated by the zymosan at 680 mV direct current (d.c.). Compared with the control, activation of respiratory burst by zymosan particles results in a high amperometric response, and a current peak was obtained during the whole monitoring process. The peak current was proved by addition of Cu2+ and other controls, to be the result of intense release of H2O2 from phagocytes. The peak area was calculated and used to evaluate the quantity of effective H2O2, which represents the quantity of H2O2 beyond the clearance of related enzymes in plasma. According to Faraday's law, the phagocytes' ability of prawns to generate effective H2O2 was evaluated from 1.253 x 10(-14) mol/cell to 6.146 x 10(-14) mol/cell, and carp from 1.689 x 10(-15) mol/cell to 7.873 x 10(-15) mol/cell. This method is an acute and quick detection of extracellular effective H2O2 in plasma and reflects the capacity of phagocytes under natural conditions, which could be applied for selecting species and parents with high immunity for breeding in aquaculture.

  8. Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

  9. Chitinases biosynthesis by immobilized Aeromonas hydrophila SBK1 by prawn shells valorization and application of enzyme cocktail for fungal protoplast preparation.

    PubMed

    Halder, Suman Kumar; Maity, Chiranjit; Jana, Arijit; Ghosh, Kuntal; Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2014-02-01

    Production and optimization of β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase and chitinase by Ca-alginate immobilized Aeromonas hydrophila SBK1 was carried out using prawn shell as cost-effective substrate. Beads prepared with 5.0% Na-alginate (containing 2.0% colloidal chitin) and 1.0 M CaCl2 showed considerable beads integrity and supported maximum production of chitinolytic enzymes. Bead diameter, 3 mm; temperature, 35°C; pH 7.0; agitation, 90 rpm were found ideal for the maximum production of the enzymes. The fermentation and thermodynamic indices revealed the feasibility of immobilized cells over free cells for enzymes production. Reasonable amount of chitosaccharides (degree of polymerization; 1-6) accumulated in the production media which have paramount antioxidant activity. Scale up experiment was successfully carried out in 5 L fermentor. In immobilized state, the chitosaccharides yield and antioxidant activity increased about 44.76% and 22.22%, whereas specific productivity of β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase and chitinase increased by 22.86% and 33.37% over free state. The cell entrapped beads can be reused upto ten cycles without marked loss of its biocatalytic efficiency. High level of protoplast of Aspergillus niger was generated by treating mycelia with 10 U/ml of crude chitinase after 4 h at pH 7.0 and in the temperature 35-40°C, and 67% of the protoplasts were found to be regenerated.

  10. The roles of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α-subunit gene from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda in response to salinity stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jitao; Ma, Peng; Liu, Ping; Chen, Ping; Li, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NAK) is one important transporter protein and plays a key role in maintaining osmotic homeostasis in low and high salinity acclimation in variety of crustacean species. The ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda is an euryhaline and economic shrimp species in China, but it remains unclear about its mechanism of salinity adaption. In this study, a full-length of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit (α-NAK) cDNA was cloned from E. carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of α-NAK was of 3680 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 3030 bp encoding a polypeptide of 1009 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 112.27 kDa. Eight transmembrane domains and two sites of phosphorylation and ATP binding were identified in E. carinicauda α-NAK. BLAST analysis revealed that the sequence of α-NAK amino acids of E. carinicauda shared more than 75% homologies with those of other crustacean. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that E. carinicauda α-NAK gene could be detected in all the tested tissues with highest expression level in gill. The expression profiles of E. carinicauda α-NAK transcripts were analyzed in gill and hepatopancreas tissues after salinity stresses. The results showed that the expression level of E. carinicauda α-NAK gene in both gill and hepatopancreas reached peak at different time after low and high salinity stresses, and showed different expression profiles. The expression profiles of proPO transcripts in gills after salinity stresses also indicated α-NAK and proPO played synergistic actions for salinity responses in E. carinicauda. These results indicated that E. carinicauda α-NAK involved in stress responses against salinity.

  11. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal

  12. Regionally specific distribution of the binding of anti-glutamine synthetase and anti-S100 antibodies and of Datura stramonium lectin in glial domains of the optic lobe of the giant prawn.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Silvana; Bressan, Cristine M; Carvalho, Sergio L; Cavalcante, Leny A

    2006-04-15

    We previously characterized some crustacean glial cells by markers such as 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Here we use antibodies against glutamine synthetase full-length molecule (anti-GS/FL), a GS C-terminal peptide (anti-GS/20aa-C), and brain S100 (anti-S100), as well as the binding of the insect glia and rat astrocytic marker Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), in the optic lobe of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. All markers label the lamina ganglionaris cartridge region (lighter: anti-GS/FL; heavier: DSL). In addition, anti-GS/FL labels superficial somata of external and internal medullas and internal chiasm cells. Both anti-GS/20aa-C and anti-S100 label heavily the glial sheaths of the lamina ganglionaris. In addition, anti-S100 binds to the perineurial glia of medullary parenchymal vessels. Western blot analyses show that both anti-GS/FL and anti-GS/20aa-C bind mostly to a band of 50-55 kDa, compatible with a long isoform of vertebrate GS, and accessorily to a possible dimer and, in the case of anti-GS/20aa-C, to an ill-defined band of intermediate mass. Binding of anti-S100 is selective for a single band of about 68 kDa but shows no protein in the weight range of the canonical S100 protein superfamily. DSL reveals two bands of about 75 and about 120 kDa, thus within the range of maximal recognition for rat astrocytes. Our results suggest that phenotype protein markers of the optic lobe glia share antigenic determinants with S100 and (a long form of) GS and that, similarly to vertebrate and insect glia, crustacean glia protein and N-glycan residue markers display regional heterogeneity.

  13. Effect of γ-irradiation on the thermomechanical and morphological properties of chitosan obtained from prawn shell: Evaluation of potential for irradiated chitosan as plant growth stimulator for Malabar spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Kabir, Shahriar; Rashid, Taslim Ur; Nesa, Bodrun; Nasrin, Romana; Haque, Papia; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have synthesized chitosan from waste prawn shell via γ-irradiation of chitin and subsequent alkaline treatment. The detailed experimental studies demonstrated that nonirradiated chitin deacetylated by 40% NaOH solution showed 72% degree of deacetylation (DD), however 50 kGy irradiated chitin, deacetylated by 20% NaOH demonstrated 81.5% DD. Chitosan in solid state as obtained from γ-irradiation of chitin was further irradiated by different doses (2-100 kGy) of gamma irradiation and the effects of irradiation on the molecular weight, thermo-mechanical by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and antimicrobial properties were evaluated with respect to nonirradiated chitosan sample. Gamma irradiation of chitosan with a dose of 100 kGy caused a decrease in average molecular weight from 1.9×105 to 6.5×104 Da and thus increased its solubility in water. Nonirradiated and γ-irradiated chitosan at concentration 1% (w/w) in water were prepared and used to evaluate of its potentiality for growth stimulation of Malabar spinach. The chitosan solution was sprayed on the specimen plants and neighboring soil where germinations were taken place and various plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf areas, dry and wet weight of the plants and roots were investigated. The details study revealed that application of 30 kGy irradiated chitosan yielded 60% higher growth of the Malabar spinach than that obtained from nonirradiated chitosan. The data are consistent with preliminary results from field experiments and unambiguously confirms that a minor amount of chitosan has a profound effect on the growth and development of Malabar spinach.

  14. 77 FR 13082 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review,...

  15. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  16. "Pawns and Prawns": International Academics' Observations on Their Transition to Working in an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Swirski, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Internationalisation in the Australian higher education sector has most usually been considered in relation to issues concerned with the attraction, retention and experience of students studying both on and offshore at Australian universities. Less attention has been paid to the experiences of the international academics that represent a…

  17. First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2014-09-01

    Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress.

  18. New insights into the spermatogenesis of the black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian; Johnston, Stephen

    2017-02-05

    This study reports a comprehensive description of penaeid spermatogenesis (Penaeus monodon) by light and transmission electron microscopy. A conspicuous characteristic of spermatocytogenesis was a ring-like structure with high electron-density adjacent to the nucleus of a primary spermatocyte. During the spermiogenesis from stage I (StI) to stage VI spermatid (StVI), the formation of the acrosome and decondensation of the nucleus were the most notable morphological transformations. StIs were small and compact and they were contained in the syncytia. In the cytoplasm of StII, mitochondrion-like bodies (MLB) participated the extension of perinuclear multi-layered lamellae. The association of MLBs and endoplasmic reticula appeared to contribute to the formation of small cytoplasmic pre-acrosomal vesicles (PV) which coalesced into an acrosomal chamber (AC) at the periphery of StIII. A dense anterior acrosomal body (AB) was formed in the enlarged AC in StIV. The nuclear envelope became disintegrated in StV. At last, an AB-derived spiky acrosome was emerged from AC in StVI. Sperm nuclei became increasingly decondensed during the entire process of spermiogenesis and the nuclear components in the testicular spermatozoa appeared to only contain chains of DNA and nucleosome-contained chromatin.

  19. Isolation and identification of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus from prawn (Penaeus monodon) seafood: Preservation strategies.

    PubMed

    Yaashikaa, P R; Saravanan, A; Kumar, P Senthil

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial diseases are one of the major problems which affects the production, development and expansion of aqua culture. Vibrio sp. are widespread in marine and estuarine environments. The several pathogenic species are commonly associated with outbreaks of Vibrio species and it is mainly associated with food poisonings. In this research, the occurrence of Vibrio sp. was studied by the isolation and it is confirmed by the biochemical methods. The growth rate was studied by changing the different operating parameters. Isolation studies were done by using enrichment and selective plating methods. The different biochemical test was carried out and inferred that the isolated organisms were Vibrio choleraee and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antibiotic study was also performed to find out the resistant and sensitivity of the Vibrio species. From the results, it was observed that this can be able to correlate the growth of vibrio species to a limited condition and other environmental parameters for which it will be able to find the remedial measures to prevent the growth and spreading of the diseases. Also the different preservation method was carried out to suppress the growth rate of Vibrio sp.

  20. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  1. Range expansion of an exotic Siberian prawn to the Lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Baxter, Rex D.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of non-native plant and animal species in aquatic systems is of increasing concern because of their potentially negative ecological and economic impacts (Sytsma et al. 2004). There are many examples of food web repercussions resulting from non-native invertebrate introductions. For example, in Flathead Lake, Montana, the kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population crashed after the introduction of a planktivorous mysid, My-sis relicta caused restructuring of the zooplankton community (Spencer et al. 1991) and the introduc-tion of the spiny water flea (Bythotrephes spp.) to the Great Lakes also restructured zooplankton communities (Barbiero and Tuchman 2004). The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has nearly extirpated some native unionid clams through competition for food and shell fouling (Strayer 1999). In San Francisco Bay, California, one of the most highly invaded estuaries in the world (Cohen and Carlton 1998), the benthic fauna has been highly modified by the introduction of hundreds of exotic invertebrates including the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis. Non-native invertebrate species, including the New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and an-other Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, have also been introduced to the Columbia River (Sytsma et al. 2004), but the ecological effects to Columbia River species are largely unknown.

  2. 76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... Sheet and Strip From Canada; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460...

  3. Core-shell drug carrier from folate conjugated chitosan obtained from prawn shell for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Sazedul; Haque, Papia; Rashid, Taslim U; Khan, M Nuruzzaman; Mallik, Abul K; Khan, M Nazrul I; Khan, Mala; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur

    2017-04-01

    A multifunctional drug carrier with dual targeting (magnetic and folate-receptor) and pH sensitive core-shell hybrid nanomaterial has been developed to carry an anticancer drug doxorubicin.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were used as core of the carrier and cross-linked folate conjugated chitosan (FA-CS) was acted as shell in which doxorubicin was physically entrapped. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed the average particle size of IONPs and FA-CS coated IONPs 8.2 and 15.4 nm respectively. Magnetic measurement indicated that both the IONPs and FA-CS coated IONPs were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a magnetization value 57.72 and 37.44 emu/g respectively. At pH 5.8 (malignant tissue) showed a burst release of 30.05% of the doxorubicin in the first 4 h followed by a sustained release of 88.26% of drug over 72 h. From these results it is expected that doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles can be a promising drug carrier for the treatment of solid tumors with the ability to reduce toxic side effects of drugs by selective targeting and sustained release.

  4. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect

    Li Li; Xie Xixian; Yang Feng . E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals molecular strategies of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in response to acute and chronic nitrite stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species.

  6. Gene expression profile analysis of testis and ovary of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, reveals candidate reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Jin, S B; Gong, Y S; Zhang, W Y

    2015-03-20

    This study utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing technology to identify reproduction- and development-related genes of Macrobrachium nipponense by analyzing gene expression profiles of testis and ovary. More than 20 million 1 x 51-bp reads were obtained by Illumina sequencing, generating more than 7.7 and 11.7 million clean reads in the testis and ovary library, respectively. As a result, 10,018 unitags were supposed to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ovary and testis. Compared to the ovary library, 4563 (45.5%) of these DEGs exhibited at least 6-fold upregulated expression, while 5455 (54.5%) DEGs exhibited at least 2-fold downregulated expression in the testis. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that 113 GO terms had potential molecular functions in reproduction. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes results revealed that the most important pathways may be relevant to reproduction and included 7 pathways. Forty-two genes were identified as reproduction-, development-, and sex-related genes based on GO classification and sequence comparison with other publications, including male reproductive-related LIM protein, spermatogenesis-associated protein, gametocyte-specific factor 1, VASA-like protein, vitellogenin, sex-determining protein fem-1, and other potential candidates. These results will advance research in the field of molecular genetics in M. nipponense and offer a valuable resource for further research related to reproduction in crustaceans.

  7. 77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or otherwise... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn...) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and...

  8. 77 FR 13275 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on... vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn...) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and...

  9. 75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or otherwise... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); 4)...

  10. 75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell... vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn...) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and...

  11. 77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ..., wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on... vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and...

  12. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or otherwise... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn...) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and...

  13. 76 FR 23972 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ..., wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on... vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and...

  14. 75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\11\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled...

  15. 76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail... vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.0020 and 0306.23.0040); (4) shrimp...

  16. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ..., shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\6\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or otherwise... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and...

  17. 76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ..., shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\6\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or otherwise... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.0020 and...

  18. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus...; Countervailing Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip...

  19. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\12\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or..., white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis... processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.0020 and...

  20. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  1. 75 FR 12175 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\5\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  2. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  3. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\8\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp and prawns in...

  4. 75 FR 27299 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China and Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... any state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  5. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)-related sequences in the genome of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon from Africa and Australia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2006-06-01

    We found an infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)-related sequence within the shrimp genome in populations of Penaeus monodon from Africa and Australia. IHHNV is a single-stranded DNA virus that has caused severe mortality and stunted growth in penaeid shrimp. Recently, IHHNV-related sequences were found in samples of P. monodon from Madagascar and Tanzania. These sequences vary considerably (14 and 8%, respectively) from that of IHHNV found in association with viral epidemics. Laboratory bioassays were carried out with P. monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei to determine if either of these IHHNV-related sequences is infectious. We used juvenile and adult P. monodon containing the virus-related sequences from four geographic regions to generate inocula and tissues for feeding. Specific pathogen free P. monodon and L. vannamei were used as indicator shrimp. During the 2-4 week bioassays, none of the indicator shrimp showed signs of infection or disease. Results of both PCR assays and histological examination of the indicator shrimp were negative for IHHNV infection, indicating that the Africa type IHHNV-related sequences are not infectious. With the shrimp containing the Madagascar type IHHNV-related sequence (designated as type A), we performed genome walking at the 3' end of the virus-related sequence and found that this virus-related sequence is part of the P. monodon genome. A fragment of 1.9 kb flanking sequence was cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis showed that this flanking sequence contains shrimp microsatellite DNA. Also, its translated amino acid sequence was highly similar to a retrotransposon. This result provides molecular evidence that the type A IHHNV-related sequence is shrimp DNA. This sequence was found in the P. monodon collected from Africa and Australia.

  6. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-10-08

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48-96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  7. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  8. A Behavioural Approach to Understanding Semi-Subsistence Farmers' Technology Adoption Decisions: The Case of Improved Paddy-Prawn System in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambodo, Leonardo A. A. T.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study traced the origins of subsistence Farmers' technology adoption attitudes and extracted the critical elements in their decision making systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis was structured using a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The role of a "bargaining process" was particularly…

  9. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. PMID:26457718

  10. Oceanic dispersal barriers, adaptation and larval retention: an interdisciplinary assessment of potential factors maintaining a phylogeographic break between sister lineages of an African prawn

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic breaks separating regional lineages of marine organisms with potentially high broadcasting abilities are generally attributed either to dispersal barriers such as currents or upwelling, or to behavioural strategies promoting self-recruitment. We investigated whether such patterns could potentially also be explained by adaptations to different environmental conditions by studying two morphologically distinguishable genetic lineages of the estuarine mudprawn Upogebia africana across a biogeographic disjunction in south-eastern Africa. The study area encompasses a transition between temperate and subtropical biotas, where the warm, southward-flowing Agulhas Current is deflected away from the coast, and its inshore edge is characterised by intermittent upwelling. To determine how this phylogeographic break is maintained, we estimated gene flow among populations in the region, tested for isolation by distance as an indication of larval retention, and reared larvae of the temperate and subtropical lineages at a range of different temperatures. Results Of four populations sampled, the two northernmost exclusively included the subtropical lineage, a central population had a mixture of both lineages, and the southernmost estuary had only haplotypes of the temperate lineage. No evidence was found for isolation by distance, and gene flow was bidirectional and of similar magnitude among adjacent populations. In both lineages, the optimum temperature for larval development was at about 23°C, but a clear difference was found at lower temperatures. While larvae of the temperate lineage could complete development at temperatures as low as 12°C, those of the subtropical lineage did not complete development below 17°C. Conclusion The results indicate that both southward dispersal of the subtropical lineage inshore of the Agulhas Current, and its establishment in the temperate province, may be limited primarily by low water temperatures. There is no evidence that the larvae of the temperate lineage would survive less well in the subtropical province than in their native habitat, and their exclusion from this region may be due to a combination of upwelling, short larval duration with limited dispersal potential near the coast, plus transport away from the coast of larvae that become entrained in the Agulhas Current. This study shows how methods from different fields of research (genetics, physiology, oceanography and morphology) can be combined to study phylogeographic patterns. PMID:19108720

  11. Characterization of blooming algae and bloom-associated changes in the water quality parameters of traditional pokkali cum prawn fields along the South West coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ajin, A M; Silvester, Reshma; Alexander, Deborah; M, Nashad; Abdulla, Mohamed Hatha

    2016-03-01

    In tropical shrimp farms, especially in traditional pokkali shrimp ponds, poor water quality management can lead to serious threats like heavy algal blooms and frequent disease outbreaks. An investigation regarding the frequent disease outbreaks in selected pokkali shrimp pond adjoining the Cochin backwaters has been conducted. Water quality parameters were analyzed during the study period. Results indicate a considerable fluctuation in the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the study in the shrimp farm where the algal bloom was observed. Poor water exchange along with nutrient loading from adjacent housing areas resulted in heavy algal bloom in the pond which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon. It also led to considerably high alkaline pH. High levels of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) were recorded in the sampling sites. Heavy algal bloom was observed throughout the study period in the selected pond especially in the summer. Anabaenopsis elenkinii and Merismopedia elagans which were the dominant species from the culture pond caused the bloom. Characterization and percentage distribution of bacteria present in the water and those associated with the algal blooms were carried out. The algae were found to support greater diversity of bacteria when compared to water. Pathogenic species like Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were encountered in the study. Experimental challenge studies using Artemia as a model showed that the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly pathogenic. Hence, this study reveals how algal growth supports opportunistic pathogens in great diverse in a shrimp pond and causes frequent disease outbreaks under favourable conditions.

  12. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (P<0.05) from the OC of juveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum K(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and accumulation of serum Na(+) concentration occurred after 16 h of exposure to ISW. At higher salinity, an increase in serum Na(+) concentration leads to an increase in the serum osmolality of the juveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  13. Prawne możliwości ochrony georóżnorodności i różnorodności krajobrazowej w warunkach polskich / Legal possibilities of geodiversity and landscape diversity conservation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Renata; Chabudziński, Łukasz

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents chosen Polish law rules applicable for geo- and landscape diversity conservation. The meaning of geodiversity is wide, as a complex of elements and processes created by abiotic environmental components. The landscape values diversity is defined after Polish Nature Conservation Act, as the ecological, aesthetic and cultural values created by natural or anthropogenic forces. According to law regulations, the paper presents possibilities of geology, mineral resources, relief, soils, surface and underground waters and landscape conservation. The special attention was focused on spatial conservation forms of natural and cultural resources (e.g. landscape parks, natural-landscape complexes or cultural parks) and legal possibilities of biodiversity conservation application for geodiversity conservation (the list of protected Nature 2000 habitats in annex 1 to EC Habitat Directive). In the light of nature protection trends in last dozen years, focused on biotic elements, the recommendations of paper may be useful for practitioners and theoreticians of nature protection in more effective conservation of natural abiotic components and landscape.

  14. 75 FR 74684 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  15. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off, deveined or not... wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river...

  16. 76 FR 30648 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp...

  17. 75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  18. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  19. 75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  20. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not... include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on...

  1. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... swinging or fanning of the tail.” (2) (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will...

  2. 50 CFR 660.383 - Open access fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ridgeback prawns, and, south of Pt. Arena, CA (38°57.50′ N. lat.), California halibut or sea cucumbers... and sea cucumber. Non-groundfish trawl gear is exempt from the limited entry trawl gear restrictions..., California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn,...

  3. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... swinging or fanning of the tail.” (2) (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will...

  4. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  5. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  6. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  7. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2011 (April 2011 - March 2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Kock, Tobias J.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk; Christiansen, Helena E.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Ortega, Lori A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Klett, Katherine J.C.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Schmidt, Amanda; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2013-01-01

    Chapter Four – We conducted monthly beam trawling in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs to describe the seasonal abundance of benthic epifauna that are potentially important as prey to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The predominant taxa collected were Siberian prawns, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis, and the amphipod Corophium sp. Prawns were relatively abundant at shallow sites in both reservoirs in June, but were more abundant at deep sites in lower and middle reservoir reaches in autumn. Prawn densities were commonly <0.2/m2. Prawn length-frequency data indicated that there were at least two size classes. Juvenile prawns present in shallow water more often than adult prawns, which were generally only found in deep water by autumn. Ovigerous prawns had an average of 171 eggs, which represented about 11.5% of their body weight. Limited diet analyses suggested that prawns consumed Corophium, Neomysis, and aquatic insects. Neomysis dominated all catches both in terms of abundance and biomass, and they were more abundant in Lower Granite compared to Little Goose reservoir. Neomysis were more abundant at shallow sites than at deep sites. Corophium were present in our collections but were never abundant, probably because our trawl was not effective at capturing them. The caloric content of prawns (4,782 Kcal), Neomysis (4,962 Kcal), and Corophium (4,926 Kcal) indicates that these prey would be energetically profitable for juvenile salmon. Subyearling fall Chinook salmon prey heavily on Neomysis and Corophium at times, but the importance of prawns as prey is uncertain.

  8. Recruitment and connectivity influence the role of seagrass as a penaeid nursery habitat in a wave dominated estuary.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew D; Fry, Brian; Becker, Alistair; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie

    2017-04-15

    Estuaries provide a diverse mosaic of habitats which support both juveniles and adults of exploited species. In particular, estuaries play an important role in the early life history of many penaeid prawn species. This study used a combination of stable isotope ecology and quantitative sampling to examine recruitment and the nursery function of seagrass habitats for Eastern King Prawn (Penaeus [Melicertus] plebejus), and the processes that contributed to this nursery role. Stable isotopes were used to assign prawns joining the adult stock to putative nursery habitat areas within the estuary. Emigrating prawns originated from only 11 of the 20 sites surveyed. Of these, 8 sites were designated as Effective Juvenile Habitat (EJH), and 5 sites designated as Nursery Habitat (NH). The contribution of individuals from different nursery areas to the adult stock was related to both the abundance of prawns within an area and the distance to the mouth of the estuary, and with the exception of 1 site all EJH and NH were located in the northern section of the estuary. Quantitative sampling in this area indicated that prawns were present at an average density of 165±11 per 100m(2), and density formed non-linear relationships with the distance to the mouth of the estuary, seagrass cover and temperature. Prawn size also formed non-linear relationships with prawn density and seagrass cover. Spatial patterns in abundance were consistent with wind-driven recruitment patterns, which in turn affected the nursery role of particular areas within the system. These findings have implications for targeted fishery restoration efforts for both Eastern King Prawn and other ocean spawned species in wave dominated estuaries where circulation is primarily wind-driven.

  9. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... its predecessor. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

  10. 76 FR 40881 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in...

  11. 50 CFR 660.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... prawn, (11) Non-groundfish trawl gear for California halibut, (12) Non-groundfish trawl gear for sea cucumber, (13) Open access longline gear for groundfish, (14) Open access Pacific halibut longline...

  12. 50 CFR 660.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prawn, (11) Non-groundfish trawl gear for California halibut, (12) Non-groundfish trawl gear for sea cucumber, (13) Open access longline gear for groundfish, (14) Open access Pacific halibut longline...

  13. 50 CFR 660.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prawn, (11) Non-groundfish trawl gear for California halibut, (12) Non-groundfish trawl gear for sea cucumber, (13) Open access longline gear for groundfish, (14) Open access Pacific halibut longline...

  14. Biological Survey of Marine Communities around Triangular Island (Shoalwater Bay, Queensland),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    FAMILY PORCELLANIDAE* (M) SECTION BRACHYURA* (M) OTHER DECAPODA* (M) PHYLUM CHAETOGNATHA* (H) PHYLUM CHORDATA SUB-PHYLUM UROCHORDATA CLASS ASCIDIACEA...PHYLUM ARTHROPODA CLASS CRUSTACEA ORDER DECAPODA FAMILY PENAEIDAE Penaeus plebejus Hess Eastern king prawn PHYLUM CHORDATA CLASS ELASMOBRANCHII ORDER

  15. SPECIES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ESTUARINE DETRITIVORES: INHIBITION OR FACILITATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native Hawaiian estuarine detritivores; the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus, and the neritid gastropod Neritina vespertina, were maintained in flow-through microcosms with conditioned leaves from two riparian tree species, Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and guava (Psidium guajava). Th...

  16. Putative spawner-isolated mortality virus associated with mid-crop mortality syndrome in farmed Penaeus monodon from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Owens, L; Haqshenas, G; McElnea, C; Coelen, R

    1998-11-30

    Beginning in 1994, farms in northern Australia experienced a higher than normal mortality rate in 12 to 15 g prawns from growout ponds. The farmers named this problem mid-crop mortality syndrome (MCMS). Intramuscular injection of filtered (450 nm), cell-free extracts of moribund prawns from these ponds killed healthy prawns between 5 to 30 d post-injection. A 20 nm virus was visualized by electron microscopy from a 1.4 g ml-1 band recovered from caesium chloride gradients of extracts from the moribund prawns. DNA was extracted from this band, restriction enzyme digested and ligated into pGEM7zf(+) vector. A digoxigenin-labelled polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated, gene probe was subsequently prepared by amplifying an inserted sequence (approximately 2 kb) of one selected clone specific for the virus. Specimens of the moribund prawns stained positively by in situ DNA hybridization in endodermal tissues, including the apical ends of hepatopancreatic tubules, the midgut and hindgut caecae, the midgut, and the hindgut folds. In prawns that showed haemocytic enteritis, some haemocytes in the affected midgut showed limited staining. The positively-staining cells showed no cytolysis. In prawns injected with cell-free viral extracts, additional tissues were positive by probe analysis, including strong staining in the male reproductive tract, specifically in the terminal ampoule and the medial vas deferens. Limited staining also occurred in the ovary and in both the stromal matrix and spheroid cells of the lymphoid organ. It was evident that the infection was enteric by natural pathways and systemic by injection. Historical specimens of Penaeus monodon experimentally infected with spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV) were probe-positive in exactly the same pattern as the naturally and experimental MCMS prawns. Altogether, the evidence suggested that the MCMS agent was a parvo-like virus very similar or identical to SMV.

  17. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    PubMed

    Mann, Richard P; Perna, Andrea; Strömbom, Daniel; Garnett, Roman; Herbert-Read, James E; Sumpter, David J T; Ward, Ashley J W

    2012-01-01

    Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis). We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  18. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    PubMed

    Mann, Richard P; Perna, Andrea; Strömbom, Daniel; Garnett, Roman; Herbert-Read, James E; Sumpter, David J T; Ward, Ashley J W

    2013-01-01

    Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis). We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture the observed locality of interactions. Traditional self-propelled particle models fail to capture the fine scale dynamics of the system. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics, while maintaining a biologically plausible perceptual range. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  19. Warm water aquaculture using waste heat and water from zero discharge power plants in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Heckmann, R.A.; Winget, R.N.; Infanger, R.C.; Mickelsen, R.W.; Hendersen, J.M.

    1984-01-31

    Two series of experiments were completed to determine (a) toxicity of waste water from power plants on warm water fish and (b) multiple use of waste heat and water for aquatic animal and plant production. All three types of waste water from a typical coal-fired power plant are acceptable for growing catfish and tilapia following aeration. This growth was compared with fish raised in spring water. Closed, recirculating polyculture systems using evaporation pond water operated efficiently for plant (duckweed) and animal (fish and freshwater prawns) production. Duckweed is an excellent supplement for fish feed. Tilapia and freshwater prawns grew rapidly in the tanks containing duckweed only. 10 references, 13 tables.

  20. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2012: Annual report 2002-032-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, Willam P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Chittaro, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Finally, we examined the role of different invasive invertebrates in lower Snake River reservoir food webs that are food, or competitors for food, for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The Siberian prawn, a relatively new invader, is relatively abundant but its role on the food web is largely unexplored. Prawns are successfully reproducing and their diet is 81% Neomysis (an invasive opossum shrimp) which is heavily used at times by juvenile salmon for food. Neomysis has become very abundant in lower Snake River reservoirs in recent years and may be a profitable food item for many fish species.

  1. Field Verification Program (Aquatic Disposal). Bioenergetic Effects of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material on the Polychaete Nephtys incisa: A Field Verification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    saturation. The worms were fed 100 mg of powdered prawn flakes per chamber per day for the duration of each experiment. Physiological Measurements 31...the epidermis and the appearance .5. of macrophages containing black particles. They concluded that the changes in epidermal structure were due to

  2. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis),...

  3. 78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail... aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis),...

  4. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off, deveined or not deveined, cooked...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\4\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis),...

  5. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp...

  6. 75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp...

  7. Nevada - the frontier of bio-geothermal conversion of blue-green algae, Spirulina, a high-protein food

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, G.W.

    1983-08-01

    This article discusses the efforts that are underway to develop algal biomass production for both human and animal food, food supplements, other algally derived products, aquaculture of prawns and fish, and the production of new building materials derived from geothermal water that will be competitive with concrete. These projects are being mobilized to develop all aspects of Nevada geothermal and other hot water resources.

  8. Diets of deepwater oreos (Oreosomatidae) and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus.

    PubMed

    Forman, J S; Horn, P L; Stevens, D W

    2016-06-01

    The diets of black oreo Allocyttus niger, smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus, spiky oreo Neocyttus rhomboidalis and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus were determined from examination of contents of 240, 311, 76 and 415 non-empty stomachs, from fishes sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand. Hoplostethus atlanticus had an opportunistic predatory strategy with a broad diet dominated by prawns and mesopelagic teleosts, but with substantial components of mysids and cephalopods. Pseudocyttus maculatus was strongly specialized on gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish and salps). Allocyttus niger consumed mainly salps and hyperiid amphipods, and to a lesser extent fishes, prawns, mysids and copepods. Neocyttus rhomboidalis primarily consumed salps, along with mysids, euphausiids and fishes. Only P. maculatus did not exhibit significant ontogenetic variation in diet. The diets were also influenced by year and bottom depth. Differences in the distributions and diets of the four species probably reduce conflicts in resource use.

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    development of China’s off- shore petroleum and natural gas industry, we must borrow from the important experiences of international petroleum...nuclear power plant at Qinshan. The site selected for the second phase project is at Yangliu Shan on the shore of Zhejiang’s Hangzhou Bay. It will...technical progress and well as an indicator of human civilization. Artificial breeding of prawns, crabs , and other aquatic products was not achieved

  10. Counter-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Warfare: Kill Authorizations for the Carrier Strike Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    and Threat of Unmanned Aerial Systems in the Twenty- First Century,” Major Darin L. Gaub notes a $400 million contract selling Searcher and I- bird UAS...the Santa Fe Institute has been experimenting with a system called PRAWNS (Proliferated Autonomous Weapons). This swarm system works on a...similar to the Close-In Weapons System called Skyshield (Singer 2009, 273). In addition, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has an $11

  11. Challenges in understanding the sources of bioaccumulated metals in biota inhabiting turbid river systems.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Simpson, Stuart L

    2014-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by Macrobrachium prawns was observed to occur in the Strickland River downstream of a gold mine at Porgera, Papua New Guinea. This was despite the total metal concentrations of waters and sediments indicating no difference from reference sites within tributaries. To provide information on potential sources and bioavailability of metals to prawns, an extensive range of analyses were made on waters, suspended solids, deposited sediments and plant materials within the river system. Dissolved metal concentrations were mostly sub-micrograms per liter and no major differences existed in concentrations or speciation between sites within the Strickland River or its tributaries. Similarly, no differences were detected between sites for total or dilute acid-extractable metal concentrations in bed sediments and plant materials, which may be ingested by the prawns. However, the rivers in this region are highly turbid and the dilute acid-extractable cadmium and zinc concentrations in suspended solids were greater at sites in the Strickland River than at sites in tributaries. The results indicated that mine-derived inputs increased the proportion of these forms of metals or metalloids in the Strickland River. These less strongly bound metals and metalloids would be more bioavailable to the prawns via the dietary pathway. The results highlighted many of the difficulties in using routine monitoring data without information on metal speciation to describe metal uptake and predict potential effects when concentrations are low and similar to background. The study indicated that the monitoring of contaminant concentrations in organisms that integrate the exposure from multiple exposure routes and durations may often be more effective for detecting impacts than intermittent monitoring of contaminants in waters and sediments.

  12. Evaluation of attractants and egg-laying substrate preference for oviposition by Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn

    2004-06-01

    Evaluation of oviposition attractants and substrate preferences of Aedes albopictus was carried out under laboratory and field conditions. To obtain candidate oviposition substances we used a water rinse of 3 mollusk species: blood cockle (Anadara granosa), carpet shell (Paphia undulata), and sea mussel (Mytilus smaragdinus), and the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). The rinse water of carpet shell and giant tiger prawn showed higher attractiveness for ovipostion than the other candidate attractants. The filter paper substrate received fewer eggs than the other two substrates. There was no significant difference between the mean number of eggs laid on hardboard paddles and sponge sheets. The hatching rate of Ae. albopictus eggs laid on hardboard paddles was higher than those from the filter papers and sponge sheets. The sponge had lethal effects on Ae. albopictus eggs, and very few eggs laid on sponge hatched. In field experiments, evaluation of attractiveness of carpet shell rinse in ovitraps lined with sponge sheet as egg-laying substrate was carried out in various habitats and different areas of Thailand. The mean number of eggs in traps containing carpet shell rinse was significantly higher than those laid in rainwater traps. These studies reveal that the carpet shell and giant tiger prawn rinses are sources of oviposition attractant for Ae. albopictus under both laboratory and field conditions and could possibly be used as an attractant in surveillance and control.

  13. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    PubMed

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB.

  14. Dorsal transcription factor is involved in regulating expression of crustin genes during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a dorsal homolog (MrDorsal) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrDorsal comprised 2533 bp with an open reading frame of 1986 bp, which encoded a peptide of 661 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal contains a Rel homolog domain and an IPT/TIG (i.e., Ig-like, plexin, and transcription factors) domain. The signature sequence of dorsal protein FRYMCEG existed in the deduced amino acid sequence. Sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal shared high similarities with Dorsal from invertebrate species. MrDorsal was abundant in the hemocytes and gills of healthy prawns but minute levels were detected in other tissues. The expression of MrDorsal was significantly upregulated 48 h after the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-) challenge. Knockdown of MrDorsal using double-stranded RNA could suppress the transcription of crustin genes (MrCrustin2 and MrCrustin4) in gills of prawns after 48 h of the WSSV challenge. Results indicated that MrDorsal was involved to regulate the expression of crustin genes and it might play potential important roles during WSSV infection.

  15. Morphometric and molecular analyses for populations of Palaemon longirostris and Palaemon garciacidi (Crustacea, Palaemonidae): Evidence for a single species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartaxana, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    Authors have disagreed on the taxonomic status of the white prawns along the coasts of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The present study compares variation in morphology and mtDNA in populations of white prawns, identified as Palaemon longirostris and P. garciacidi, from the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and Tunisia. Differences in morphology among populations were tested using a multiple discriminant analyses (DA) on morphometric data. In order to resolve variation in mtDNA, 16S and COI mitochondrial (mt) genes were used. The morphometric analyses do not support their separation into distinct species, since individual prawns could not be assigned unequivocally to one of the various studied populations and a geographic pattern could be detected only in females. Molecular data corroborate the morphological analyses, since no geographic structure was found and the levels of sequence divergence observed among haplotypes from distinct populations (0.1-0.8%) are consistent with other 16S and COI intraspecific divergences of decapod crustaceans. Therefore, findings from this study do not support the distinction of P. longirostris and P. garciacidi as different species.

  16. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns.

  17. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Søndergaard, Annette Bøge; Bøknæs, Niels; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2017-02-09

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p < 0.05), however interaction between seasons and processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (<0.003 mg/kg wet weight) in both raw and smoked fillets rich in organic arsenic (up to 9.0 mg/kg for farmed salmon and 0.7 mg/kg for wild caught Greenland halibut per wet weight). Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content.

  18. Effect of thermal processing on T cell reactivity of shellfish allergens - Discordance with IgE reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Abramovitch, Jodie B.; Lopata, Andreas L.; O’Hehir, Robyn E.

    2017-01-01

    Crustacean allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. We showed previously that heating increases IgE reactivity of crustacean allergens. Here we investigate the effects of thermal processing of crustacean extracts on cellular immune reactivity. Raw and cooked black tiger prawn, banana prawn, mud crab and blue swimmer crab extracts were prepared and IgE reactivity assessed by ELISA. Mass spectrometry revealed a mix of several allergens in the raw mud crab extract but predominant heat-stable tropomyosin in the cooked extract. PBMC from crustacean-allergic and non-atopic control subjects were cultured with the crab and prawn extracts and proliferation of lymphocyte subsets was analysed by CFSE labelling and flow cytometry. Effector responses were assessed by intracellular IL-4 and IFN-γ, and regulatory T (CD4+CD25+CD127loFoxp3+) cell proportions in cultures were also compared by flow cytometry. For each crustacean species, the cooked extract had greater IgE reactivity than the raw (mud crab p<0.05, other species p<0.01). In contrast, there was a trend for lower PBMC proliferative responses to cooked compared with raw extracts. In crustacean-stimulated PBMC cultures, dividing CD4+ and CD56+ lymphocytes showed higher IL-4+/IFN-γ+ ratios for crustacean-allergic subjects than for non-atopics (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference between raw and cooked extracts. The percentage IL-4+ of dividing CD4+ cells correlated with total and allergen-specific IgE levels (prawns p<0.01, crabs p<0.05). Regulatory T cell proportions were lower in cultures stimulated with cooked compared with raw extracts (mud crab p<0.001, banana prawn p<0.05). In conclusion, cooking did not substantially alter overall T cell proliferative or cytokine reactivity of crustacean extracts, but decreased induction of Tregs. In contrast, IgE reactivity of cooked extracts was increased markedly. These novel findings have important implications for improved diagnostics, managing

  19. Environmental monitoring of pesticide exposure and effects on mangrove aquatic organisms of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Scarlet, Perpetua; Halling, Maja; Kreuger, Jenny; Macia, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides in Mozambique is increasing along with the development of agriculture in the country. Mangroves along the coastlines are ecologically important areas and vital nursing grounds for many aquatic species, several of which are of high economic value in Mozambique. Barred mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus), Jarbua fish (Terapon jarbua), Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus) and the clam Meretrix meretrix were collected at three mangrove sites in the Maputo Bay area. This was complemented with samplings of the freshwater fish Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), which was collected from three sampling sites along rivers in the surroundings of Maputo and from three sites along the Olifants and Limpopo River. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is an established biomarker for organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, was measured in brain and liver tissue in fish, and hepatopancreas tissue in prawn and clam. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was also analyzed. Freshwater samples for pesticide analyses were collected in order to get an initial understanding of the classes and levels of pesticides present in aquatic systems in Mozambique. In addition to field samplings two 48-h exposure experiments were also conducted where the Indian white prawn and Barred mudskipper were exposed to malathion, and Mozambique tilapia exposed to malathion and diazinon. Field results show a significant decrease in AChE activity in fish from four of the sampling sites suggesting that pesticides present in water could be one stressor potentially affecting aquatic organisms negatively. The 48 h exposure experiment results showed a clear dose-response relationship of AChE activity in mudskipper and tilapia suggesting these species as suitable as sentinel species in environmental studies.

  20. Assessment of microwave cooking on the bioaccessibility of cadmium from various food matrices using an in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Duan, Han-Ying; Teng, Jiu-Wei

    2014-08-01

    Bioaccessibility represents the maximum amount of pollutant ingested with food that is available for intestinal absorption. The measurement of bioaccessibility can achieve a more accurate risk assessment. Thus, in this study, the bioaccessibility of raw/microwave-cooked store-bought food including carrot, potato, white radish, lotus root, sweet corn, long grain rice, soybean, fleshy prawn, eastern oyster, kelp, and common carp were investigated by applying an in vitro digestion method. A validated microwave digestion/ICP-MS method was applied for determining the concentration of Cd. In this study, the concentration of Cd ranged 3.7-215.8 μg/kg fw in which carrot contained the lowest Cd while the fleshy prawn contained the highest Cd. There are no statistical differences of Cd content in microwave-cooked food and raw food except potato, lotus root, and eastern oyster. Cd in most of the cooked food materials was less bioaccessible than in raw food except sweet corn, potato, and kelp. The bioaccessibility of Cd was around 100 % in either raw or cooked potatoes. Microwave cooking caused the decreasing of bioaccessibility around 0-68 %, depending on different food matrix. Maximal decreasing of Cd bioaccessibility occurred in common carp. Thus, microwave cooking could be a feasible strategy for decreasing Cd bioaccessibility. In addition, the Cd dissolution in oral, gastric, and small intestine phase was different in different food matrix. For most of the investigated food items, Cd was largely migrated either into the oral phase (carrot, potato, white radish, lotus root, raw soybean, kelp, and common carp) or into the gastric phase (sweet corn, cooked soybean, rice, fleshy prawn, and eastern oyster). Our findings will have significant implications for food processing aiming to decrease the absorption of Cd and risk assessment analysis improvements. Further study is needed to use the animal model to validate these results.

  1. Clearance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) and immunological changes in experimentally injected Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ravi, M; Nazeer Basha, A; Taju, G; Ram Kumar, R; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2010-03-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii was experimentally challenged with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) to study the clearance of these viruses and consequent changes in various immunological parameters. The healthy animals were injected MrNV and XSV intramuscularly and various organ samples such as gill tissue, head soft tissue, pleopods and intestine were collected at different time intervals of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100d post-infection (p.i.) to study the viral clearance. Tissue tropism and clearing of MrNV and XSV were confirmed by RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR and bioassay. These 2 viruses failed to cause mortality or clinical signs of disease in injected adult prawns during the experimental period of 100 days. The result of RT-PCR analysis revealed that all the organs showed positive for both viruses by single step RT-PCR on 3, 5 and 10 d p.i., positive by nested RT-PCR on 15 and 20 d p.i. and all the organs became negative at 25 d p.i. onwards. The viral inoculum prepared from the tissue of MrNV and XSV-injected M. rosenbergii at 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 d p.i. caused 100% mortality in post-larvae of M. rosenbergii at 9, 8, 7, 10 and 10 d p.i., respectively whereas the inoculum prepared at 25, 50 and 100 d p.i. failed to cause significant mortality in post-larvae of prawn. Immunological parameters such as proPO, superoxide anion, SOD, THC, clotting time and oxyhemocyanin were determined in MrNV and XSV-injected prawns and significant differences in some of the immunological parameters were found in the early days p.i. and became insignificant in the later days p.i.

  2. Toxicity of nickel ores to marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Florence, T M; Stauber, J L; Ahsanullah, M

    1994-06-06

    Queensland Nickel proposes to import New Caledonian (Ballande) and Indonesian (Gebe) nickel ores, one option being ship-to-barge transfer in Halifax Bay, North Queensland. Because small amounts of ore may be split during the unloading and transfer operations, it was important to investigate the potential impact of the spilt ore on the ecological health of the Bay. Long-term leaching of the ores with seawater showed that only nickel and chromium (VI) were released from the ores in sufficient concentrations to cause toxicity to a range of marine organisms. The soluble fractions of nickel and chromium (VI) were released from the ores within a few days. Nickel, chromium (VI) and the ore leachates showed similar toxicity to the juvenile banana prawn Penaeus merguiensis, the amphipod Allorchestes compressa and both temperature (22 degrees C) and tropical (27 degrees C) strains of the unicellular marine alga Nitzschia closterium. In a series of 30-day sub-chronic microcosm experiments, juvenile leader prawns Penaeus monodon, polychaete worms Galeolaria caespitosa and the tropical gastropod Nerita chamaeleon were all very resistant to the nickel ores, with mortality unaffected by 700 g ore per 50 l seawater. The growth rate of the leader prawns was, however, lower than that of the controls. From these data, a conservative maximum safe concentration of the nickel ores in seawater is 0.1 g l-1. The nickel ore was not highly toxic and if spilt in the quantities predicted, would not have a significant impact on the ecological health of the Bay.

  3. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  4. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  5. An Analysis of the Naval Postgraduate School’s Commissioned Officers’ and Faculty Club Accounting System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    strawberry wine, champagne) FRL11 PUNCH 8.00 gal (oritge juice , pineapple juice , club soda ) CHAMPAGNE JAUFYS BONET CALIFRONIA GAPNJNE 6.10 btl KORBEL BRUT...PRAWNS W/COCKTAIL SAUCE $14.75 GRILLED HALIBUT STEAK 11.25 ( lemon hollandaise sauce) HERB BAKED ICELANDIC COD 8.90 (bechemel sauce) SHRIMP CURRY ON A BED...premises and prepares all types of baked goods daily. The one exception to this is wedding cakes, birthday cakes, etc. These are allowed to be brought in

  6. Studies on immunodiagnosis of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus diseases of Penaeus orientalis . Rapid early diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenxin; Shao, Jijun; Zhang, Jinxin; Lu, Ying; Xue, Qinggang; Song, Qinyun

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a rapid procedure for diagnosis of penaeid viral disease using the immune serological method. The SPA (Staphylococcal Protein A) coagglutination test in early diagnosis of penaeid viral disease has yielded satisfactory results. This is the first time SPA is used in China for diagnoses of viral diseases of marine invertebrates, especially penaeid shrimp. The SPA early diagnostic method is characterized by accuracy, rapidity, simplicity and convenience, low cost, high specificity, strong sensitivity and micro-detectability, and easy dissemination and adaptability in prawn farms.

  7. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in tropical fish and shellfish collected from the river Buriganga, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Kawser; Baki, Mohammad Abdul; Islam, Md Saiful; Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hossain, Md Muzammel

    2015-10-01

    Although fish, crustacean, and shellfish are significant sources of protein, they are currently affected by rapid industrialization, resulting in increased concentrations of heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) and associated human health risk were investigated in three fish species, namely Ailia coila, Gagata youssoufi, and Mastacembelus pancalus; one crustacean (prawn), Macrobrachium rosenbergii; and one Gastropoda, Indoplanorbis exustus, collected from the Buriganga River, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from the professional fishermen. Cu was the most accumulated metal in M. rosenbergii. Ni, As, Ag, and Sb were in relatively lower concentrations, whereas relatively higher accumulation of Cr, Mn, Zn, and Se were recorded. Mn, Zn, and Pb were present in higher concentrations than the guidelines of various authorities. There were significant differences in metal accumulation among different fish, prawn, or shellfish species. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TR) were calculated to estimate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks, respectively. The THQ for individual heavy metals were below 1 suggesting no potential health risk. But combined impact, estimated by hazard index (HI), suggested health risk for M. pancalus consumption. Although consumption of fish at current accumulation level is safe but continuous and excess consumption for a life time of more than 70 years has probability of target cancer risk.

  8. The role of epibenthic predators in structuring the marine invertebrate community of a British coastal salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, C. L. J.; James, R.

    The marine fauna of salt marshes are subjected to predation by birds, tidally feeding flatfish, crabs, prawns and small gobiid fish. The role of these epibenthic predators in structuring the community was investigated using cages to exclude predators. A range of designs of cages and partial cages was employed to control for artefacts due to caging, and sufficient cages were employed so that each cage was only sampled once to prevent the compounding of disturbance due to predation and sampling. Two mesh sizes were employed, a fine mesh excluding epibenthic predators and a coarse mesh allowing access by small crabs, prawns and gobiid fish but excluding birds and larger fish. The exclusion was maintained for 2 years. The presence of any experimental structure had a significant effect on the sedimentary regime within the cage. Epibentic predator exclusion let to an increase in infaunal predator density, but had no significant effect on the infaunal deposit feeders. There was some evidence that predators limit the surface deposit feeding gastropood Hydrobia ulvae during the winter. The gastropod Littorina littorea responded positively to the presence of any caging structure; this may be the result of changes in the availability of food, as the sides of a cage support a diatom flora which this species can exploit. The lack of a response from the infaunal deposit feeders is attributed to their horizontal mobility within the sediment. The possible interactions between epibenthic and infaunal predators are discussed.

  9. Determination of residues of malachite green in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Bergwerff, Aldert A; Scherpenisse, Peter

    2003-05-25

    Residues of malachite green (MG) were extracted from homogenized animal tissues with a mixture of McIlvaine buffer (pH 3.0)-acetonitrile, and purified over an aromatic sulfonic acid solid-phase extraction column followed by HPLC or LC-ESI-MS-MS analysis. Ascorbic acid and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride were added to reduce de-methylation of the dye. Responses were recorded at 620 nm (HPLC) or by multiple-reaction-monitoring (LC-MS-MS) after post-column oxidation using PbO(2). MG and its primary metabolite leuco-malachite green (LMG) were successfully determined at 2.5-2000 microg/kg in catfish, eel, rainbow trout, salmon, tropical prawns and turbot, with a limit of detection at 1 microg/kg (HPLC) and 0.2 microg/kg (LC-MS-MS) for both MG and LMG. Recoveries for LMG were between 86+/-15% (prawn) and 105+/-14% (eel). Freeze-thawing cycles, and storage at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C affected the recovery of both MG and LMG. Analyses of eel, trout and (processed) salmon field samples collected at local retailers, fish-market and -shops demonstrated trace levels of MG-residues.

  10. Carotenoids from Foods of Plant, Animal and Marine Origin: An Efficient HPLC-DAD Separation Method

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Irini F.; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J.; Kora, Lintita; Miniadis-Meimaroglou, Sofia; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose) egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in duck and goose egg yolk, respectively. In the Penaeus kerathurus prawn, several carotenoids (zeaxanthin, all-trans-lutein, canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, optical and geometrical astaxanthin isomers) were identified in considerable amounts by the same method. A major advantage of this HPLC method was the efficient separation of carotenoids and their cis-isomers, originating from a wide range of matrices. PMID:28239091

  11. Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.

    PubMed

    Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii.

  12. A sensitive and specific hyperbranched rolling circle amplification assay and test strip for white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Ran; Yin, Wei-Li; Yue, Zhi-Qin; Li, Ba-Fang

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a global threat to the prawn industry, and there is no simple method for field-based testing of this virus. We designed a padlock probe and primers to the capsid protein gene VP28 of WSSV, and established a hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) assay and a corresponding strip-based test. The assay and the test strip both had similar high accuracy and specificity, and their sensitivity was about 10 copies/μL, which is 100 times higher than conventional PCR. In this study, 68 batches of prawns were tested for WSSV with the HRCA assay and test strip, and the results were compared with the PCR assay. The results indicated that both the assay and test strip had accuracy similar to each other and to the PCR results. However, the assay and strip were more sensitive and user-friendly than PCR. Establishment of this method will provide a rapid detection of WSSV and also a basis for field-based detection of animal disease.

  13. Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus disease (white tail disease) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Owens, Leigh; La Fauce, Kathy; Juntunen, Karen; Hayakijkosol, Orachun; Zeng, Chaoshu

    2009-07-23

    The index case of white tail disease (WTD) is presented in adult broodstock prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii from the Flinders River in western Queensland, Australia, in mid-2007. Histological examination revealed extensive myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and some haemocytes. Juveniles from the same broodstock but not from 3 other families displayed white muscle lesions. Low-grade chronic mortalities approaching 100% over 1 yr occurred. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were attempted for both M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) with 2 sets of primers and for the satellite virus, extrasmall virus (XSV). All 3 PCRs generated amplicons of the expected sizes. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of the 3 consensus sequences identified a 91% match with MrNV viral capsid protein gene, 96% match with MrNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase gene, and a 99% match with M. rosenbergii XSV capsid protein gene. The clinical signs, histopathological lesions and RT-PCR amplicons could be reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with cell-free extracts fulfilling River's postulates. We conclude that this is an endemic strain of MrNV as the sequences are dissimilar to strains of MrNV circulating around Asia and the Americas. This case only poorly meets the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) case definition for WTD due to the age of the prawns involved and the nature of the inclusion bodies. Perhaps the OIE case definition needs broadening.

  14. Evaluating ecosystem-based management options: Effects of trawling in Torres Strait, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Nick; Pantus, Francis; Welna, Andrzej; Butler, Alan

    2008-09-01

    A suite of management options for a prawn trawl fishery in Torres Strait, Australia was assessed for impacts on the benthic fauna using a dynamic management strategy evaluation approach. The specification of the management options was gained through consultation with stakeholders. Data for the model was drawn from several sources: the fleet data from fishery logbooks and satellite vessel monitoring systems, benthic depletion rates from trawl-down experiments, benthic recovery rates from post-experiment recovery monitoring studies, and benthic distribution from large-scale benthic surveys. Although there were large uncertainties in the resulting indicators, robust measures relevant to management were obtained by taking ratios relative to the status quo. The management control with the biggest effect was total effort; reducing trawl effort always led to increases in benthic faunal density of up to 10%. Spatial closures had a smaller benefit of up to 2%. The effect of closing a set of buffer zones around reefs to trawling was indistinguishable from the status quo option. Closing a larger area, however, was largely beneficial especially for sea cucumbers. When the spatial distributions of fauna prior to fishing were accounted for, fauna with distributions positively correlated with effort improved relative to those negatively correlated. The reduction in prawn catch under effort reduction scenarios could be ameliorated by introducing temporal closures over the full-moon period.

  15. Bio-derived hierarchically macro-meso-micro porous carbon anode for lithium/sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizabeth, Indu; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Trikha, Sunil; Gopukumar, Sukumaran

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen doped hierarchically porous carbon derived from prawn shells have been efficiently synthesized through a simple, economically viable and environmentally benign approach. The prawn shell derived carbon (PSC) has high inherent nitrogen content (5.3%) and possesses a unique porous structure with the co-existence of macro, meso and micropores which can afford facile storage and transport channels for both Li and Na ions. PSC is well characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM), High resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Solid state-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies have been conducted on pristine PSC and Li/Na interacted PSC. PSC as anode for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) delivers superior electrochemical reversible specific capacity (740 mAh g-1 at 0.1 Ag-1 current density for 150 cycles) and high rate capability. When used as anode material for Sodium ion batteries (SIBs), PSC exhibits excellent reversible specific capacity of 325 mAh g-1 at 0.1 Ag-1 for 200 cycles and rate capability of 107 mAh g-1 at 2 Ag-1. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the employment of natural waste material as a potential anode for both LIB and SIB, which will definitively make a strike in the energy storage field.

  16. Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I, a CD36 Related Protein in Macrobrachium nipponense: Characterization, RNA Interference, and Expression Analysis with Different Dietary Lipid Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhili; Luo, Na; Kong, Youqin; Li, Jingfen; Zhang, Yixiang; Cao, Fang

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), is a member of the CD36 superfamily comprising transmembrane proteins involved in mammalian and fish lipid homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that this receptor plays an important role in Macrobrachium nipponense lipid metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to SR-BI in commercial crustaceans. In the present study, we report a cDNA encoding M. nipponense scavenger receptor class B, type I (designated as MnSR-BI), obtained from a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The complete MnSR-BI coding sequence was 1545 bp, encoding 514 amino acid peptides. The MnSR-BI primary structure consisted of a CD36 domain that contained two transmembrane regions at the N- and C-terminals of the protein. SR-BI mRNA expression was specifically detected in muscle, gill, ovum, intestine, hepatopancreas, stomach, and ovary tissues. Furthermore, its expression in the hepatopancreas was regulated by dietary lipid sources, with prawns fed soybean and linseed oils exhibiting higher expression levels. RNAi-based SR-BI silencing resulted in the suppression of its expression in the hepatopancreas and variation in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes. This is the first report of SR-BI in freshwater prawns and provides the basis for further studies on SR-BI in crustaceans. PMID:28003996

  17. Temporal silencing of an androgenic gland-specific insulin-like gene affecting phenotypical gender differences and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Raviv, Shaul; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2009-03-01

    Androgenic glands (AGs) of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were subjected to endocrine manipulation, causing them to hypertrophy. Transcripts from these glands were used in the construction of an AG cDNA subtractive library. Screening of the library revealed an AG-specific gene, termed the M. rosenbergii insulin-like AG (Mr-IAG) gene. The cDNA of this gene was then cloned and fully sequenced. The cysteine backbone of the predicted mature Mr-IAG peptide (B and A chains) showed high similarity to that of other crustacean AG-specific insulin-like peptides. In vivo silencing of the gene, by injecting the prawns with Mr-IAG double-stranded RNA, temporarily prevented the regeneration of male secondary sexual characteristics, accompanied by a lag in molt and a reduction in growth parameters, which are typically higher in males of the species. In terms of reproductive parameters, silencing of Mr-IAG led to the arrest of testicular spermatogenesis and of spermatophore development in the terminal ampullae of the sperm duct, accompanied by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the AGs. This study constitutes the first report of the silencing of a gene expressed specifically in the AG, which caused a transient adverse effect on male phenotypical gender differences and spermatogenesis.

  18. Application of high resolution melt (HRM) analysis for duplex detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Senapin, Saengchan; Molthathong, Sudkhate; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Jaengsanong, Chatlada; Chuchird, Niti

    2010-10-01

    In this work, a probe-free, multiplex RT-PCR was combined with high resolution melt (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) infection in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This first application of HRM multiplex RT-PCR in shrimp reveals a new potential for rapid and sensitive detection of multiple pathogens. In addition, sequence variation in XSV could be observed from the high resolution melt peaks, as confirmed by sequence analysis. In 19 field samples of the freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii the technique revealed samples negative for both viruses, positive for both viruses or positive for MrNV alone. No sample was found positive for XSV alone. Comparison of these results to those obtained using the same samples in analysis by traditional nested RT-PCR combined with gel electrophoresis revealed that HRM multiplex RT-PCR was more sensitive. Thus, the latter technique allows for rapid and sensitive, simultaneous detection of MrNV and XSV and also has the potential to be adapted for simultaneous detection of other mixed viral infections in shrimp.

  19. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression and 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration in Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Anne; Hanikenne, Marc; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Gismondi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Although it was previously highlighted that chlordecone may affect the reproduction and growth of vertebrate species, little information is available on the chlordecone effects in invertebrates. The present study investigated the effects of chlordecone on a hormone and a protein having key roles in reproduction and growth of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by measuring the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration, vitellogenin, and vitellogenin receptor gene expression, as well as the bioconcentration of chlordecone in exposed prawns. First, the results revealed that chlordecone was accumulated in M. rosenbergii. Then, it was found that Vg and VgR gene expression were increased in male and female M. rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone for 90 and 240 days, while the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentrations were decreased. This work suggests that chlordecone accumulates in prawn tissues and could affect key molecules involved in the reproduction and the growth of the invertebrate M. rosenbergii. However, many questions remain unresolved regarding the impacts of chlordecone on growth and reproduction and the signaling pathways responsible for these effects, as well as the potential role of confounding factors present in in situ studies.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of the Cephalothorax and Eyestalk in Penaeus Monodon during Ovarian Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Philip; Elizur, Abigail; Williams, Richard; Cummins, Scott F.; Knibb, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In crustaceans, a range of physiological processes involved in ovarian maturation occurs in organs of the cephalothorax including the hepatopancrease, mandibular and Y-organ. Additionally, reproduction is regulated by neuropeptide hormones and other proteins released from secretory sites within the eyestalk. Reproductive dysfunction in captive-reared prawns, Penaeus monodon, is believed to be due to deficiencies in these factors. In this study, we investigated the expression of gene transcripts in the cephalothorax and eyestalk from wild-caught and captive-reared animals throughout ovarian maturation using custom oligonucleotide microarray screening. We have isolated numerous transcripts that appear to be differentially expressed throughout ovarian maturation and between wild-caught and captive-reared animals. In the cephalothorax, differentially expressed genes included the 1,3-β-D-glucan-binding high-density lipoprotein, 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase and vitellogenin. In the eyestalk, these include gene transcripts that encode a protein that modulates G-protein coupled receptor activity and another that encodes an architectural transcription factor. Each may regulate the expression of reproductive neuropeptides, such as the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone and molt-inhibiting hormone. We could not identify differentially expressed transcripts encoding known reproductive neuropeptides in the eyestalk of either wild-caught or captive-reared prawns at any ovarian maturation stage, however, this result may be attributed to low relative expression levels of these transcripts. In summary, this study provides a foundation for the study of target genes involved in regulating penaeid reproduction. PMID:22355268

  1. Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xu, Pao; Wang, Aiming; He, Yijin; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

    2010-07-01

    In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns were exposed to high temperature stress at 35 degrees C for 48h. The growth, changes in haemolymph total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The results showed that compared the control group, the specific growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, haemolymph ALP and lysozyme activities, total protein contents, hepatic CAT and SOD activities increased while haemolymph AST, ALT and hepatic MDA contents decreased in treatment groups before the stress, but their levels did not correlate with the doses of anthraquinone extracts. The specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency and haemolymph lysozyme activity significantly increased but haemolymph AST activity decreased in 0.1% dose group; whereas haemolymph ALP activity and feed conversion efficiency increased but ALT activity and hepatic MDA contents significantly decreased in 0.2% dose group before the stress compared with the control. After high temperature stress, 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract also could improve the haemolymph total proteins, lysozyme and ALP activities, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and reduce haemolymph ALT and AST activities, hepatic malondialdehyde contents. The cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% at 48h after high temperature stress while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract were about 48-65%. The

  2. Environmental occurrence and biota concentration of phthalate esters in Epe and Lagos Lagoons, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Omogbemi, Emmanuel D; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Adegbola, Rachel A; Adewuyi, Gregory A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2015-07-01

    The high global occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrixes has resulted in the detection of their metabolites in human urine, blood, and breast milk, indicating a widespread human exposure. In addition, the notorious endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates have shown that they mimic or antagonize the action of endogenous hormones, consequently producing adverse effects on reproduction, growth and development. Herein, we have studied the occurrence of phthalate esters (PEs) in water, sediment and biota of two lagoons (Epe and Lagos) in Nigeria. Two fish species (Tilapia guineensis, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and a crustacean (the African river prawn--Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) were analyzed for PEs levels using a HPLC method and the derived values were used for calculating bioconcentration factor (BCF), biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and phthalate pollution index (PPI) in the biota and environment. We observed that the growth and health condition of the fish species were normal with a k-factor of >1. Sediment PE levels were compared with water, at both lagoons showing concentration pattern that is characterized as DEHP = DEP > DBP. We observed that DBP was the predominant compound in T. guineensis, C. nigrodigitatus and African prawn, at both lagoons, showing organ-specific differences in bioconcentration (BCF and BSAF) patterns in the fish species. While there were no observed consistency in the pattern of PE concentration in fish organs, elevated DBP levels in different fish organs may be related to fish habitat and degradation level of phthalates. Low concentration of DEHP, compared with DBP and DEP, was measured in fish organs and whole prawn body. The BSAF values for DEHP were lowest, and highest for DBP for all species at both lagoons, and DEHP easily accumulated more in the sediment (sediment PPI = 0.28 and 0.16 for Epe and Lagos lagoon, respectively). Overall, our findings suggest a broader environmental and human

  3. Structural prediction and analysis of VIH-related peptides from selected crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Ganji Purna Chandra; Kumari, Nunna Siva; Prasad, Ganji Lakshmi Vara; Rajitha, Balney; Meenu, Madan; Rao, Manam Sreenivasa; Naik, Bannoth Reddya

    2009-08-17

    The tentative elucidation of the 3D-structure of vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH) peptides is conversely underprivileged by difficulties in gaining enough peptide or protein, diffracting crystals, and numerous extra technical aspects. As a result, no structural information is available for VIH peptide sequences registered in the Genbank. In this situation, it is not surprising that predictive methods have achieved great interest. Here, in this study the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is used, to predict the structure of four VIHrelated peptides in the crustacean species. The high similarity of the 3D-structures and the calculated physiochemical characteristics of these peptides suggest a common fold for the entire family.

  4. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing and Mutagenesis of EcChi4 in Exopalaemon carinicauda

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Tianshu; Zhang, Jiquan; Song, Fengge; Sun, Yuying; Xie, Shijun; Yu, Kuijie; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-01-01

    The development of the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has resulted in the revolution of genetic engineering, and this technology has been applied in the genome editing of various species. However, there are no reports about target-specific genome editing in shrimp. In this research, we developed a microinjection method for the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda and successfully applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology to the genome editing of E. carinicauda. Through coinjection of mRNA of Cas9 nuclease and gRNA specialized for E. carinicauda chitinase 4 (EcChi4), shrimps with indel mutations were obtained. Further analysis showed that the mutations could be transmitted to the next generation. This is the first time that site-specific genome editing has been successfully demonstrated in a decapod, and will further contribute to the study of functional genomics in decapods. PMID:27605521

  6. Comparative seasonal sterol profiles in edible parts of Mediterranean fish and shellfish species.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Gülsün; Kuley, Esmeray; Etyemez, Miray; Ozoğul, Fatih

    2013-06-01

    The effect of different seasons on sterol content of seafoods was investigated. There were four sterols (cholesterol, sitosterol, desmosterol and stigmasterol) identified, with cholesterol being the predominant sterol. Stigmasterol was a minor component in fish muscle, whilst sitosterol was one of the main phytosterols found in fish muscle. Cholesterol content of fish consisted of 38-100% of total sterols in fish and 54-80% of total sterols in shellfish. The highest cholesterol content of fish muscle was found in summer and the lowest in autumn, whereas season did not have any effect on cholesterol level of green tiger prawn and speckled shrimp. Total sterol content of fish muscle ranged from 49 to 110 mg/100 g, although the range of total sterols in shrimp muscle was between 62 and 91 mg/100 g. The result of the study showed that total sterols in fish were generally found at lower levels in winter compared with other seasons.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Hee; Kannan, Narayanan; Yim, Un Hyuk; Choi, Jin-Woo; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-01

    Benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, a fast developing industrial area with steel production, port container handling, petroleum and other chemical processing in South Korea was studied. The average levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) in the benthic components were: seawater 2.99 ± 0.13 (ng/L); sediment 294 ± 118 (ng/g TOC); [biota=ng/g lipid] starfish 92; prawn 131 ± 2; mussels 127 ± 22; crab 182 ± 114; clam 187; polychaeta 215; sea cucumber 497 ± 90; squill 603 ± 38; fish 396 ± 159. Levels in the inner bay samples were higher than the outer bay samples suggesting land based pollution. Good correlation (r(2)=0.79; p<0.05) existed between PCB concentration and lipid content indicating partitioning processes in action. PCB signature in the abiotic and biotic components shows enrichment of lower chlorinated congeners emitted by a unique source nearby, viz. steel manufacturing plant.

  8. Concentration and particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed by thermal cooking.

    PubMed

    Saito, E; Tanaka, N; Miyazaki, A; Tsuzaki, M

    2014-06-15

    The concentration and particle size distribution of 19 major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by thermal cooking were investigated. Corn, trout, beef, prawns, and pork were selected for grilling. The PAHs in the oil mist emitted when the food was grilled were collected according to particle size range and analysed by GC/MS. Much higher concentrations of PAHs were detected in the oil mist emitted by grilled pork, trout, and beef samples, which were rich in fat. The main components of the cooking exhaust were 3- and 4-ring PAHs, regardless of food type. The particle size distribution showed that almost all the PAHs were concentrated in particles with diameters of <0.43 μm. For pork, the toxic equivalent of benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 50% of the PAHs in particles with diameters of <0.43 μm. From these results, we estimated that >90% of the PAHs would reach the alveolar region of the lungs.

  9. The Vibrio campbellii quorum sensing signals have a different impact on virulence of the bacterium towards different crustacean hosts.

    PubMed

    Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Natrah, Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2013-12-27

    Pathogenic bacteria communicate with small signal molecules in a process called quorum sensing, and they often use different signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression. Vibrio campbellii, one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, regulates virulence gene expression by a three channel quorum sensing system. Here we show that although they use a common signal transduction cascade, the signal molecules have a different impact on the virulence of the bacterium towards different hosts, i.e. the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and the commercially important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These results suggest that the use of multiple types of signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression is one of the features that allow bacteria to infect different hosts. Our findings emphasize that it is highly important to study the efficacy of quorum sensing inhibitors as novel biocontrol agents under conditions that are as close as possible to the clinical situation.

  10. Singlepath Salmonella. Performance Tested Method 060401.

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. A previous AOAC Performance Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. In this Emergency Response Validation extension, creamy peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser. Typhimurium. For low contamination level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.5 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method. For high-level and uninoculated control there was 100% agreement between the methods.

  11. Computational analysis and structure predictions of CHH-related peptides from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, G Purna Chandra; Kumari, N Siva; Prasad, G L V; Naik, B Reddya; Borst, D W

    2011-03-01

    The crustaceans produce several related peptides that belong to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family. While these peptides have similar amino acid sequences, they have diverse biological functions that must arise, in part, from differences in the 3D shape of these peptides. However, it is generally accepted that peptides with a high degree of sequence similarity also have a similar 3-D structure. We used the solution structure of one peptide in the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family, the molt-inhibiting hormone of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus), to predict the shape of the five known peptides related to CHH in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The high similarity of the 3-D structures of these peptides suggests a common fold for the entire family. Nevertheless, minor differences in the shape of these peptides were observed, which may be the basis for their different biological properties.

  12. A Single Injection of Hypertrophied Androgenic Gland Cells Produces All-Female Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Levy, Tom; Rosen, Ohad; Eilam, Brit; Azulay, Dudu; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Manor, Rivka; Shechter, Assaf; Sagi, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Monosex culture, common in animal husbandry, enables gender-specific management. Here, production of all-female prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) was achieved by a novel biotechnology comprising three steps: (a) A single injection of suspended hypertrophied androgenic gland cells caused fully functional sex reversal of females into "neo-males" bearing the WZ genotype; (b) crossing neo-males with normal females (WZ) yielded genomically validated WW females; and (c) WW females crossed with normal males (ZZ) yielded all-female progeny. This is the first sustainable biotechnology for large-scale all-female crustacean aquaculture. The approach is particularly suited to species in which females are superior to males and offers seedstock protection, thereby ensuring a quality seed supply. Our technology will thus revolutionize not only the structure of the crustacean aquaculture industry but can also be applied to other sectors. Finally, the production of viable and reproducible females lacking the Z chromosome questions its role, with respect to sexuality.

  13. Dual resonant birdcage coils for 1H detected 13C microscopic imaging at 11.7 T.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A M; Köckenberger, W; Bowtell, R W

    2000-06-01

    Liquid state, rotating frame cross polarisation experiments are very sensitive to RF field inhomogeneity. In this work, we present an easily fabricated, co-resident high- and low-pass linear birdcage resonator, optimised to perform liquid state rotating frame polarisation transfer at 1H and 13C frequencies. Both the RF fields have been experimentally mapped, and used to validate the spatial signal dependence of a proton detected, 13C image. The predicted performance was then confirmed using PRAWN-based, cyclic J-cross polarisation (CYCLCROP) imaging. A novel variant of a B(1)-field mapping approach is also presented, using the signal enhancement of the CYCLCROP sequence to generate proton detected, 13C field maps.

  14. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Batvari, B Prabhu Dass; Sivakumar, S; Shanthi, K; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Krishnamoorthy, R R; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) was examined in crab (Scylla serrata) and shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus monodon) collected from Pulicat lake that receives effluents from industries located in north Chennai, southeast coast of India. The results showed limited difference between crab and prawns as well as significant variations between the organs. Pb is the highly accumulated metal in both crab and shrimps, except P. monodon. The highest metal concentration was mostly found in the liver followed by other organs. The concentration of metals in edible parts (muscle) was within the permissible level and safe for consumption. However, the results of the study clearly indicate the biomagnification of metals in Pulicat lake.

  15. A selective and differential medium for Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L; Owens, L; Smith, S

    1996-01-01

    A new medium, termed Vibrio harveyi agar, has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of V. harveyi. It is possible to differentiate V. harveyi colonies from the colonies of strains representing 15 other Vibrio species with this medium. This medium has been shown to inhibit the growth of two strains of marine Pseudomonas spp. and two strains of marine Flavobacterium spp. but to allow the growth of Photobacterium strains. Colonies displaying typical V. harveyi morphology were isolated from the larval rearing water of a commercial prawn hatchery with V. harveyi agar as a primary isolation medium and were positively identified, by conventional tests, as V. harveyi. This agar displays great potential as a primary isolation medium and offers significant advantages over thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar as a medium for differentiating V. harveyi from other marine and estuarine Vibrio species. PMID:8795252

  16. Environmental occurrence and risk of organic UV filters and stabilizers in multiple matrices in Norway.

    PubMed

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm J; Fjeld, Eirik; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-07-01

    Eight organic UV filters and stabilizers were quantitatively determined in wastewater sludge and effluent, landfill leachate, sediments, and marine and freshwater biota. Crab, prawn and cod from Oslofjord, and perch, whitefish and burbot from Lake Mjøsa were selected in order to evaluate the potential for trophic accumulation. All of the cod livers analysed were contaminated with at least 1 UV filter, and a maximum concentration of almost 12 μg/g wet weight for octocrylene (OC) was measured in one individual. 80% of the cod livers contained OC, and approximately 50% of cod liver and prawn samples contained benzophenone (BP3). Lower concentrations and detection frequencies were observed in freshwater species and the data of most interest is the 4 individual whitefish that contained both BP3 and ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate (EHMC) with maximum concentrations of almost 200 ng/g wet weight. The data shows a difference in the loads of UV filters entering receiving water dependent on the extent of wastewater treatment. Primary screening alone is insufficient for the removal of selected UV filters (BP3, Padimate, EHMC, OC, UV-234, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329). Likely due in part to the hydrophobic nature of the majority of the UV filters studied, particulate loading and organic carbon content appear to be related to concentrations of UV filters in landfill leachate and an order of magnitude difference in these parameters correlates with an order of magnitude difference in the effluent concentrations of selected UV filters (Fig. 2). From the data, it is possible that under certain low flow conditions selected organic UV filters may pose a risk to surface waters but under the present conditions the risk is low, but some UV filters will potentially accumulate through the trophic food chain.

  17. High-resolution genetic linkage mapping, high-temperature tolerance and growth-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Hu, Long Yang; Mao, Yong; Tao, Ye; Zhong, Sheng Ping; Kong, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The Kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, is one of the most promising marine invertebrates in the industry in Asia, Europe and Australia. However, the increasing global temperatures result in considerable economic losses in M. japonicus farming. In the present study, to select genetically improved animals for the sustainable development of the Kuruma prawn industry, a high-resolution genetic linkage map and quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification were performed using the RAD technology. The maternal map contained 5849 SNP markers and spanned 3127.23 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.535 cM. Instead, the paternal map contained 3927 SNP markers and spanned 3326.19 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.847 cM. The consensus map contained 9289 SNP markers and spanned 3610.90 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.388 cM and coverage of 99.06 % of the genome. The markers were grouped into 41 linkage groups in the maps. Significantly, negative correlation was detected between high-temperature tolerance (UTT) and body weight (BW). The QTL mapping revealed 129 significant QTL loci for UTT and four significant QTL loci for BW at the genome-wide significance threshold. Among these QTLs, 129 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining four were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. They explained the total phenotypic variance ranging from 8.9 to 12.4 %. Because of a significantly negative correlation between growth and high-temperature tolerance, we demonstrate that this high-resolution linkage map and QTLs would be useful for further marker-assisted selection in the genetic improvement of M. japonicus.

  18. A C-type lectin (MrLec) with high expression in intestine is involved in innate immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinling; Huang, Xin; Jin, Min; Zhang, Yi; Li, Tingting; Hui, Kaimin; Ren, Qian

    2016-12-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are pattern-recognition proteins that play an important role in innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, a lectin cDNA named MrLec was cloned and characterized from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiun rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrLec was 1431 bp, which contained an open reading frame of 1041 bp that encoded a protein with 346 amino acids. MrLec was found to contain a typical signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain with 121 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec was grouped with vertebrates and had 57% identity with C-type lectin 3 from Marsupenaeus japonicas. Tissue expression analysis showed that MrLec was ubiquitously distributed at a high level in the intestine, with lower expression levels in the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill and stomach. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection induced the upregulation of MrLec in the gills and intestine. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, MrLec in gills was upregulated at 24, 36 and 48 h. In intestine, MrLec also went up at 36 and 48 h WSSV challenge. Recombinant MrLec can agglutinate (Ca(2+)-dependent) and bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. rMrLec could attach to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated possible MrLec involvement in the immune response of giant freshwater prawns.

  19. In vitro approaches to assess bioavailability and human gastrointestinal mobilization of food-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus J

    2008-06-01

    This study reports on the potential for gastrointestinal (GI) mobilization and bioavailability of food-borne PCBs in humans. The development and validation of a GI simulator and operational protocols, developed in compliance with the requirements of German DIN 19738 risk assessment test procedure, are presented. Food, naturally contaminated with PCBs, was homogenized with simulated saliva fluid and shaken in the GI simulator with simulated gastric fluids (containing pepsin, mucine) for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Afterwards, the simulated intestinal fluids (containing pepsin, mucine, trypsin, pancreatin, bile) were added and the mixture shaken for a further 6 h prior to centrifugation and filtration using Buchner funnels to separate the undigested GI residues from GI fluids. PCBs were recovered from GI residues and fluids by Soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively, cleaned up using silica-SFE, and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD). Detailed studies with fish indicate variations in mobilization and bioavailability of Sigma PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138 and 180). For example, the bioavailable fractions (fractions mobilized) in mackerel, salmon, crab and prawn were 0.77, 0.60, 0.54, and 0.72 respectively of the Sigma PCBs initially present in these food samples. The bioavailable fraction was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the PCBs. In mackerel bioavailable fractions for individual PCB congeners ranged from 0.47-0.82, from 0.30-0.70 in salmon, 0.44-0.64 in crab and in prawn from 0.47-0.77. Future studies will focus on understanding better, the variability in bioavailable fractions to be expected for different foodstuffs, in addition to tissue culture techniques using human gut cell lines to investigate a simultaneous mobilization and absorption of food-borne PCBs.

  20. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 071304.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Listeria species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004 in a variety of foods plus plastic and stainless steel. The food matrixes validated were smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, cantaloupe, cooked prawns, cooked sliced turkey meat, cooked sliced ham, salami, pork frankfurters, and raw ground beef. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, fresh bagged spinach, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University ofGuelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, a significant difference in favour of the SureTect assay was demonstrated between the SureTect and reference method for high level spiked samples of pork frankfurters, smoked salmon, cooked prawns, stainless steel, and low-spiked samples of salami. For all other matrixes, no significant difference was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity testing was conducted with 68 different isolates of Listeria species, all of which were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. None of the 33 exclusivity isolates were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay

  1. Experimental vertical transmission of Covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) in Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingli; Liu, Shuang; Li, Jitao; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaoping; Xu, Tingting; Li, Jian

    2017-01-28

    Viral covert mortality disease (VCMD) caused serious loss of shrimp aquaculture in China in recent years and the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda was suspected to be one important factor in perpetuating the high prevalence of the covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) infections for its perennial presence in the shrimp farming ponds and water from natural habitats. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of CMNV in E. carinicauda in this study. CMNV infection in gonad, fertilized eggs, and larvae were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription (RT) nested PCR (nRT-PCR), in situ hybrization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The ovarian tissue and testis tissue of artificial infected parental E. carinicauda were proved to be CMNV-positive by nRT-PCR. Fertilized eggs were also found to be CMNV-positive of nRT-PCR whether the fertilized eggs originated from the CMNV-positive female broodstock mated with the CMNV-negative male broodstock, or when they originated from the CMNV-negative female broodstock mated with the CMNV-positive male. The result of ISH indicated that the positive signals were evident in the oocytes within ovarian tissue and nauplii. By TEM analysis, CMNV virions were observed in oogoniums, oocytes, spermatocytes, fertilized eggs and nauplii. The presence of CMNV in fertilized eggs and larvae suggests that CMNV can transmit vertically via sperm and oocyte in E. carinicauda, which highlights the high probability of vertical transmission of CMNV in the main species of cultured shrimp and prawns.

  2. Identification and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies by RT-qPCR during embryonic development of the emerging model organism, Macrobrachium olfersii.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Ammar, Dib; Quispe, Ruth L; Guzman, Frank; Margis, Rogerio; Nazari, Evelise M; Müller, Yara M R

    2017-01-20

    RT-qPCR is a sensitive and highly efficient technique that is widely used in gene expression analysis and to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying embryonic development. The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium olfersii is an emerging model organism, but, the stable reference genes of this species need to be identified and validated for RT-qPCR analysis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of six genes (β-act, GAPDH, EF-1α, RpL8, RpS6, AK) in embryos and in adult tissues (cerebral ganglia, muscle and hepatopancreas) of M. olfersii. The expression stabilities of these genes were evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCt method and integrated tool RefFinder. In the general ranking, RpL8 and RpS6 were the most stable genes in embryos, while RpS6 and RpL8 were the most stable in a combined adult tissue analysis. Analysis of the adult tissues revealed that β-act and AK were the most stable genes in cerebral ganglia, RpL8 and AK in muscle, and RpS6 and β-act in hepatopancreas. EF-1α and GAPDH were the least stable genes and as normalizer genes in RT-qPCR affected expression of the Distal-less gene during M. olfersii development. This study provides suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis and allows future studies of the gene expression in M. olfersii for understanding the molecular mechanisms of their development. To our knowledge, this is the first published study that identifies and evaluates reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in M. olfersii and could be useful as basis for evaluations of reference genes in other prawns.

  3. Identification and Characterization of an Insulin-Like Receptor Involved in Crustacean Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sharabi, O; Manor, R; Weil, S; Aflalo, E D; Lezer, Y; Levy, T; Aizen, J; Ventura, T; Mather, P B; Khalaila, I; Sagi, A

    2016-02-01

    Sexual differentiation and maintenance of masculinity in crustaceans has been suggested as being regulated by a single androgenic gland (AG) insulin-like peptide (IAG). However, downstream elements involved in the signaling cascade remain unknown. Here we identified and characterized a gene encoding an insulin-like receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr-IR), the first such gene detected in a decapod crustacean. In mining for IRs and other insulin signaling-related genes, we constructed a comprehensive M. rosenbergii transcriptomic library from multiple sources. In parallel we sequenced the complete Mr-IR cDNA, confirmed in the wide transcriptomic library. Mr-IR expression was detected in most tissues in both males and females, including the AG and gonads. To study Mr-IR function, we performed long-term RNA interference (RNAi) silencing in young male prawns. Although having no effect on growth, Mr-IR silencing advanced the appearance of a male-specific secondary trait. The most noted effects of Mr-IR silencing were hypertrophy of the AG and the associated increased production of Mr-IAG, with an unusual abundance of immature sperm cells being seen in the distal sperm duct. A ligand blot assay using de novo recombinant Mr-IAG confirmed the existence of a ligand-receptor interaction. Whereas these results suggest a role for Mr-IR in the regulation of the AG, we did not see any sexual shift after silencing of Mr-IR, as occurred when the ligand-encoding Mr-IAG gene was silenced. This suggests that sexual differentiation in crustaceans involve more than a single Mr-IAG receptor, emphasizing the complexity of sexual differentiation and maintenance.

  4. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  5. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  6. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

    2014-03-01

    The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium.

  7. Environmental predictors of estuarine fish landings along a temperate coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintilan, Neil; Wen, Li

    2012-11-01

    The regulation of freshwater flow into estuaries has been identified as a potential threat to estuarine ecosystem structure and function, and the productivity of fisheries in particular. Correlative studies are one means by which associations between freshwater inputs and commercial landings have been identified. The study compared monthly landings of five species of finfish and two species of crustacean with monthly and 6-month running means of river discharge, climatic variables (temperature and rainfall) and the area of vegetated habitat (saltmarsh, mangrove and seagrass) for 11 temperate estuaries on the NSW coast. The monthly climatic and discharge record covered a 10-year period (1997-2007). High river discharge and rainfall were associated with higher catches of flathead (Platycephalus spp.) and Mullet (Mugil spp.), a result consistent with subtropical estuaries to the north. We found no relationships between landings and river discharge for any of the other species, which included school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi). Temporal variability at a monthly time-step was more consistently associated with variation in temperature, reflecting seasonal variation in activity, and possibly fishing effort. Landings of several species showed strong habitat relationships, with greater seagrass area consistently associated with higher catches of blue swimmer crab (Portunis pelagicus), and intertidal wetlands (mangrove and saltmarsh) with mud crab (Scylla serrata), school prawns, flathead, and mullet (Mugil spp.), a result consistent with habitat-scale surveys. The results draw into question the efficacy of dam releases as stimulants of fisheries productivity in the region, although the effects of flow on juvenile populations and catadromous species were not studied.

  8. Hydrobiological characteristics of Shark River estuary, Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    sardines (Harengula pensacolae) were the dominant animals collected in the higher salinities (10-25 g/l) near the mouth of the estuary. Amphipods (Corophium sp. and Grandidierella sp.), mysids (Mysidopsis almyra and Gastrosaccus dissimilis), crab larvae, and the young anchovies, sardines, and related fish were the dominant forms in the brackish water (1-10 g/l) of the mid-estuary. The presence of large numbers of juvenile and young animals and young animals indicated the importance of these brackish waters as nursery grounds. Aquatic insects, cyclopoid copepods (Macrocyclops sp.), cladocerans, mysids (Taphromysis bowmani), ostracods (Cypridopsis sp. ), fresh-water prawns (Palaemonetes paludosus), and various marshfish were dominant in the ?fresh? headwaters. The amount of plant detritus collected in the estuary averaged about ten times that of the zooplankton. The estimated mean wet-weight of the zooplankton was 65 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m?) and ranged from 1 to 173 mg/m?, with the smallest amounts occurring in the ?fresh? headwaters. Nekton, consisting of small fish and prawns, ranged from 3 to 214 mg/m? in weight and had a mean of 30 mg/m?. Largest catches were made in the headwaters at the end of the dry season, where the weight of the standing crop increased more than 15 times during the sampling period. The small fish and prawns, which were concentrated in the headwaters at the water level dropped, served as a rich source of food for predatory marine fish and birds.

  9. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  10. In-silico analysis and mRNA modulation of detoxification enzymes GST delta and kappa against various biotic and abiotic oxidative stressors.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Ravichandran, Gayathri; Nizam, Faizal; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arshad, Aziz; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the comprehensive comparative information of two different detoxification enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) delta and kappa from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (designated as MrGSTD and MrGSTK) by investigating their in-silico characters and mRNA modulation against various biotic and abiotic oxidative stressors. The physico-chemical properties of these cDNA and their polypeptide structure were analyzed using various bioinformatics program. The analysis indicated the variation in size of the polypeptides, presence or absence of domains and motifs and structure. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrGSTD shared maximum identity (83%) with crustaceans GST delta, whereas MrGSTK fell in arthropods GST kappa. It is interesting to note that MrGSTD and MrGSTK shared only 21% identity; it indicated their structural difference. Structural analysis indicated that MrGSTD to be canonical dimer like shape and MrGSTK appeared to be butterfly dimer like shape, in spite of four β-sheets being conserved in both GSTs. Tissue specific gene expression analysis showed that both MrGSTD and MrGSTK are highly expressed in immune organs such as haemocyte and hepatopancreas, respectively. To understand the role of mRNA modulation of MrGSTD and MrGSTK, the prawns were inducted with oxidative stressors such as bacteria (Vibrio harveyi), virus [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)] and heavy metal, cadmium (Cd). The analysis revealed an interesting fact that both MrGSTD and MrGSTK showed higher (P < 0.05) up-regulation at 48 h post-challenge, except MrGSTD stressed with bacteria, where it showed up-regulation at 24 h post-challenge. Overall, the results suggested that GSTs are diverse in their structure and possibly conferring their potential involvement in immune protection in crustaceans. However, further study is necessary to focus their functional differences at proteomic level.

  11. Contribution of structural reversibility to the heat stability of the tropomyosin shrimp allergen.

    PubMed

    Usui, Masakatsu; Harada, Akihito; Ishimaru, Takayuki; Sakumichi, Emiri; Saratani, Fumihiko; Sato-Minami, Chiho; Azakami, Hiroyuki; Miyasaki, Taiko; Hanaoka, Ken'ichi

    2013-01-01

    Tropomyosins are common heat-stable crustacean allergens. However, their heat stability and their effects on antigenicity have not been clarified. We purified tropomyosin in this study from raw kuruma prawns (Marsupenaeus japonicus) without heat processing. SDS-PAGE of the purified protein showed a band at approximately 35 kDa that cross-reacted with IgE from the serum of a shrimp-allergic patient, identifying it as Pen j 1. The circular dichroism spectrum of native Pen j 1 revealed the common α-helical structure of tropomyosins which easily collapsed upon heating to 80 °C. However, there were no insoluble aggregates after heating, and the protein regained its native CD spectral pattern after cooling to 25 °C. There was no significant difference in total IgG production between mice sensitized with native and heated Pen j 1. These results suggest that heat-denatured Pen j 1 refolded upon cooling and maintained its antigenicity following the heat treatment.

  12. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  13. Assessment of coastal pollution through bioassay and transplantation of intertidal clams.

    PubMed

    Jaiswar, A K; Kulkarni, B G; Chakraborty, S K

    2006-04-01

    In the present study, a survey of Mahim creek and Bay area was undertaken that indicated absence of fauna, particularly molluscs from the area, which was a repository in the past. During bioassay experiments of Mahim creek water, the clams G. divaricatum and C. antiquata could not open their valves in 100% creek water and died within 12 hrs of exposure. The 96 hrs LC50 values of Mahim creek water for G. divaricatum and C. antiquata were found to be 20% and 40% respectively during summer and 38% and 57% respectively during rainy season. When two sets of the clams were transplanted at Mahim creek, they died within 12 hrs. These experiments suggest the extreme level of pollution in the area. This level of pollution is responsible for transforming the area into barren locality in terms of fauna, specially the rich molluscan diversity. However, Gorai creek was found to be comparatively very less polluted and it still serves as breeding and nursery ground for various fishes and prawn species. Hence it must be protected and conserved.

  14. Experimental studies on the larval development of the shrimps Crangon crangon and C. allmanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criales, M. M.; Anger, K.

    1986-09-01

    Larvae of the shrimps Crangon crangon L. and C. allmanni Kinahan were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Effects of rearing methods (larval density, application of streptomycin, food) and of salinity on larval development were tested only in C. crangon, influence of temperature was studied in both species. Best results were obtained when larvae were reared individually, with a mixture of Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as food. Streptomycin had partly negative effects and was thus not adopted for standard rearing techniques. All factors tested in this study influenced not only the rates of larval survival and moulting, but also morphogenesis. In both species, in particular in C. crangon, a high degree of variability in larval morphology and in developmental pathways was observed. Unsuitable conditions, e.g. crowding in mass culture, application of antibiotics, unsuitable food (rotifers, phytoplankton), extreme temperatures and salinities, tend to increase the number of larval instars and of morphological forms. The frequency of moulting is controlled mainly by temperature. Regression equations describing the relations between the durations of larval instars and temperature are given for both Crangon species. The number of moults is a linear function of larval age and a power function of temperature. There is high variation in growth (measured as carapace length), moulting frequency, morphogenesis, and survival among hatches originating from different females. The interrelations between these different measures of larval development in shrimps and prawns are discussed.

  15. The catecholamine stress hormones norepinephrine and dopamine increase the virulence of pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio campbellii.

    PubMed

    Pande, Gde Sasmita J; Suong, Nguyen Thao; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Obtaining a better understanding of mechanisms involved in bacterial infections is of paramount importance for the development of novel agents to control disease caused by (antibiotic resistant) pathogens in aquaculture. In this study, we investigated the impact of catecholamine stress hormones on growth and virulence factor production of pathogenic vibrios (i.e. two Vibrio campbellii strains and two Vibrio anguillarum strains). Both norepinephrine and dopamine (at 100 μM) significantly induced growth in media containing serum. The compounds also increased swimming motility of the tested strains, whereas they had no effect on caseinase, chitinase, and hemolysin activities. Further, antagonists for eukaryotic catecholamine receptors were able to neutralize some of the effects of the catecholamines. Indeed, the dopaminergic receptor antagonist chlorpromazine neutralized the effect of dopamine, and the α-adrenergic receptor antagonists phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine neutralized the effect of norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol had limited to no effect. Finally, pretreatment of pathogenic V. campbellii with catecholamines significantly increased its virulence toward giant freshwater prawn larvae. However, the impact of catecholamine receptor antagonists on in vivo virulence was less clear-cut when compared to the in vitro experiments. In summary, our results show that—similar to enteric pathogens—catecholamines also increase the virulence of vibrios that are pathogenic to aquatic organisms by increasing motility and growth in media containing serum.

  16. Experimental vertical transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) from brooders to progeny in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Artemia.

    PubMed

    Sudhakaran, R; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Haribabu, P; Mukherjee, S C; Sri Widada, J; Bonami, J R; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2007-01-01

    White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in M. rosenbergii and Artemia. Prawn broodstock inoculated with MrNV and XSV by oral or immersion challenge survived without any clinical signs of WTD. The brooders spawned 5-7 days after inoculation and the eggs hatched. The survival rate of larvae gradually decreased, and 100% mortality was observed at the post-larvae (PL) stage. Whitish muscle, the typical sign of WTD, was seen in advanced larval developmental stages. The ovarian tissue and fertilized eggs were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) whereas the larval stages showed positive by RT nested PCR (nRT-PCR). In Artemia, reproductive cysts and nauplii derived from challenged brooders were normal and survival rates were within the expected range for normal rearing conditions. The reproductive cysts were found to be positive for MrNV/XSV by RT-PCR whereas the nauplii showed MrNV/XSV-positive by nRT-PCR. The PL of M. rosenbergii fed nauplii derived from challenged Artemia brooders died at 9 days post-inoculum with clinical signs of WTD.

  17. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were prawn were 10.65-38.78, 4.02 and 6.16 mBq kg(-1), respectively. (134)Cs was not detected in the seawater, sediments or biota. Thus, it was concluded that (137)Cs on the eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  18. Present scenario of landing and distribution of fish in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Khatun, S; Hossain, M B; Hassan, M N; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-11-15

    The present study was designed to know the landing and distribution pathways of fish and types and nature of stakeholders involved in fish distribution chain in Bangladesh. A total of 237 fish landing centers and 5440 markets were detected. The number of landing center and market were highest in Chittagong and Dhaka division respectively. Stakeholders in fish distribution, viz., arotdars, paikers and retailers were found to be 6219, 39506 and 122922, respectively. A 84.71% of the landing centers were found to be operated year round while 15.29% were seasonal. The major fish production zones and major gateways of the country where inland capture and culture and marine capture fish landed were identified. In any locality 62.83% of the landed fish were transported within 100 km area and 5.73% of fish were transported beyond 500 km. The quantity of fish harvested from river, beel, Kaptai lake floodplain, pond, baor, coastal area/sea and shrimp/prawn farm were 5.25, 4.41, 0.13, 35.03, 38.22, 0.23, 10.93 and 5.80%, respectively. The common constraints identified were lack of adequate infrastructure facilities in the landing center and market, unhygienic environment, influence of middlemen, money lending at high rate etc. For the betterment of fish landing and distribution, appropriate authority should pay proper attention so that both quality and fair price are ensured.

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of an antioxidant enzyme catalase (MrCat) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we reported a full length of catalase gene (designated as MrCat), identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrCat is 2504 base pairs in length, and encodes 516 amino acids. The MrCat protein contains three domains such as catalase 1 (catalase proximal heme-ligand signature) at 350-358, catalase 2 (catalase proximal active site signature) at 60-76 and catalase 3 (catalase family profile) at 20-499. The mRNA expressions of MrCat in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MrCat is highly expressed in digestive tract and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, hemocyte, hepatopancreas, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated in digestive tract after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCat gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCat existed in high thermal stability and broad spectrum of pH, which showed over 95% enzyme activity between pH 5 and 10.5, and was stable from 40 °C to 70 °C, and exhibited 85-100% enzyme activity from 30 °C to 40 °C.

  20. Estimation of 210Po and its risk to human beings due to consumption of marine species at Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S; Bhalke, S; Pandit, G G; Puranik, V D

    2009-07-01

    (210)Po was estimated in the edible muscle and soft tissue of 15 different marine species (fish, crab, prawn and bivalve) collected from Trans-Thane Creek area (Trombay) and Thane. Potential risks associated with consumption of marine organisms due to (210)Po collected from this particular area to human beings were assessed. Estimation of (210)Po was carried out using radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometric technique. The concentration of (210)Po was found to vary from 0.18 to 10.9 Bqkg(-1) wet wt in different biota species and maximum concentrations were observed in bivalves. The variations in (210)Po concentration in different species are mainly due to difference in metabolism and feeding habits. The daily intake and individual dose of (210)Po to human beings through biota consumption was calculated and found to be 31.89 mBqd(-1) and 19.44 microSvyr(-1), respectively. An assessment of the risk on human beings due to consumption of marine organism was undertaken using carcinogenic slope factor for (210)Po. 5th, 50th and 95th percentile of life time risk was calculated to be 9.74E-06, 4.39E-05 and 2.12E-04, respectively.

  1. Environmental features and macrofauna of Kahana Estuary, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.; Timbol, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Lack of ecological information on Hawaiian estuaries prompted an intensive 2-year study of a small (5.7 ha) stream-mouth estuary on windward Oahu. Water quality and macrofauna were sampled weekly at seven stations. The water mass was strongly stratified vertically except during freshets. Average values for water column temperature and bottom salinity were 23.2°C and 12‰ at the head to 28.3°C and 28‰ at the mouth. Dissolved oxygen saturation in the water column varied from about 50% at night to 140% in the afternoon. Usually, bottom waters were 3–6°C warmer than surface waters and sometimes showed severe oxygen depletion.Macrofauna, collected primarily by seining, consisted mainly of decapod crustaceans (four species of crabs, seven species of shrimps) and fishes (24 species). Other typical estuarine taxons (mollusks, barnacles, polychaetes) were scarce or absent. Diversity increased seaward from 14 species near the estuary head to 29 species near the mouth. Three species of crustaceans and six of fishes were captured at all stations. Most abundant were the native prawn, Macrobrachium grandimanus, and mullet, Mugil cephalus. Perennially resident adults occurred among crustaceans and gobioid fishes; most other fishes were present as juveniles and sporadic adults. Comparisons with other data suggest that more than 50 species of native fishes may occur in Hawaiian estuaries, and that estuarine macrofaunal diversity on oceanic islands is much lower than on continents at similar latitudes.

  2. Managing mangroves with benthic biodiversity in mind: Moving beyond roving banditry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Aaron M.

    2008-02-01

    This review addresses mangrove management activities in the broader context of the diversity of the mangrove benthos. Goals for mangrove ecosystem management include silviculture, aquaculture, or 'ecosystem services' such as coastal protection. Silvicultural management of mangroves generally neglects the benthos, although benthic invertebrates may affect tree establishment and growth, and community composition of benthic invertebrates may be a reliable indicator of the state of managed mangrove forests. Similarly, mangrove aquaculture focuses on particular species with little attention paid either to impacts on other trophic levels or to feedbacks with the trees. Exploitation of mangrove-associated prawns, crabs, and molluscs has a total economic value > US $4 billion per year. These aquaculture operations still rely on wild-collected stock; world-wide patterns of exploitation fit the well-known process of 'roving banditry', where mobile agents move from location to location, rapidly exploiting and depleting local resources before moving on to other, as-yet unprotected grounds. Collection of brood stock and fishing for other external inputs required by aquaculture (e.g., 'trash fish') removes intermediate trophic levels from marine food webs, may destabilize them, and lead to secondary extinctions of higher-order predators. Increased attention being paid to the role of mangroves in coastal protection following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami provides an opportunity to reassess the relative merits of management focused on short-term economic gains. Managing for ecosystem services may ultimately preserve benthic biodiversity in mangrove ecosystems.

  3. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  4. C, N and P Behavior in Bhitarkanika Mangroves, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, Dr

    2009-04-01

    In the east coast of India is relatively rich in mangroves has varied physiography and fluctuating freshwater input which modify their nutrient dynamics within this ecosystem The Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem is fed by two main rivers and are undergoing anthropogenic stress due to agriculture and as prawn culture and petrol boats from a fishing harbor . Hence the biogeochemistry of this pristine ecosystem is being altered significantly. . An attempt has here been made to elucidate the existing variation and role of anthropogenic variability on the nutrient variations and enrichment from mangroves. The flux estimates C, N and P have been quantified from Bhitarkanika mangrove accounting for spatial and temporal (seasonal) variation. The annual rates were estimated and compared with other mangroves in india and other parts of the world. The influence of elevated nutrient inputs through anthropogenic influence enhances their fluxes. The flux data were analyzed for net biogeochemical performance using LOICZ approach as well. The surface water samples were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon season and were quantified for dissolve nutrients. The residence time of the water was found to be low with positive salinity. An attempt has also been made to distinguish the natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Overall, the mangrove ecosystem act as a source for N and P during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season while in monsoon it acts as sink for these nutrients.

  5. [Extraction method suitable for detection of unheated crustaceans including cephalothorax by ELISA].

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Yusuke; Yamada, Itta; Uesaka, Yoshihiko; Uneo, Noriko; Abe, Akihisa; Ohashi, Eiji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2009-08-01

    When unheated whole samples of crustaceans (shrimp, prawn and crab) were analyzed with our ELISA kit (FA test EIA-Crustacean 'Nissui') using anti-tropomyosin antibodies, a remarkable reduction in reactivity was recognized. This reduction in activity was found to be due to the digestion of tropomyosin during the extraction process by proteases contained in cephalothorax. To avoid the digestion of tropomyosin by proteases, we developed an extraction method (heating method) suitable for the detection of tropomyosin in unheated crustaceans including cephalothorax. Experiments with unheated whole samples of various species of crustaceans confirmed that the heating method greatly improved the low reactivity in the standard method; the heating method gave extraction efficiencies of as high as 93-107%. Various processed crustaceans with cephalothorax, such as dry products (unheated or weakly heated products) and pickles in soy sauce (unheated products), that showed low reactivity with the standard method were confirmed to give superior results with the heating method. These results indicated that the developed heating method is suitable for detecting unheated crustaceans with cephalothorax by means of the ELISA kit.

  6. Microsatellite DNA markers: evaluating their potential for estimating the proportion of hatchery-reared offspring in a stock enhancement programme.

    PubMed

    Bravington, M V; Ward, R D

    2004-05-01

    We describe a statistical method for estimating the effectiveness of a stock enhancement programme using nuclear DNA loci. It is based on knowing the population allele frequencies and the genotypes of the hatchery parents (mother only, or mother and father), and on determining the probability that a wild-born animal will by chance have a genotype consistent with hatchery origin. We show how to estimate the proportion of released animals in the wild population, and its standard error. The method is applied to a data set of eight microsatellite loci in brown tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus), prior to the start of a possible enhancement programme. We conclude that, for this particular data set, the effectiveness of such an enhancement programme could be quantified accurately if both maternal and paternal genotypes are known, but not if maternal genotypes only are known. Full paternal genotyping would require offspring genotyping and thus would be expensive, but a partly typed paternal genotype from a mass homogenate of offspring would be almost as effective and much cheaper. The experiment would become feasible based on maternal genotypes alone, if a further three typical microsatellite loci could be found to add to the existing panel of eight. The methods detailed should be of interest to any enhancement project that relies on nuclear DNA markers to provide tags.

  7. Nitrification in brackish water recirculating aquaculture system integrated with activated packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rejish Kumar, V J; Joseph, Valsamma; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) depend on nitrifying biofilters for the maintenance of water quality, increased biosecurity and environmental sustainability. To satisfy these requirements a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) activated with indigenous nitrifying bacterial consortia has been developed and commercialized for operation under different salinities for instant nitrification in shrimp and prawn hatchery systems. In the present study the nitrification efficiency of the bioreactor was tested in a laboratory level recirculating aquaculture system for the rearing of Penaeus monodon for a period of two months under higher feeding rates and no water exchange. Rapid setting up of nitrification was observed during the operation, as the volumetric total ammonia nitrogen removal rates (VTR) increased with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production in the system. The average Volumetric TAN Removal Rates (VTR) at the feeding rate of 160 g/day from 54-60th days of culture was 0.1533+/-0.0045 kg TAN/m(3)/day. The regression between VTR and TAN explained 86% variability in VTR (P<0.001). The laboratory level RAS demonstrated here showed high performance both in terms of shrimp biomass yield and nitrification and environmental quality maintenance. Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization analysis of the reactor biofilm ensured the presence of autotrophic nitrifier groups such as Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage, Nitrobacter spp and phylum Nitrospira, the constituent members present in the original consortia used for activating the reactors. This showed the stability of the consortia on long term operation.

  8. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  9. Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Rico, Andreu; Zhang, Wenbo; Ahmad-Al-Nahid, Sk; Newton, Richard; Phan, Lam T; Zhang, Zongfeng; Jaithiang, Jintana; Dao, Hai M; Phu, Tran M; Little, David C; Murray, Francis J; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Liu, Liping; Liu, Qigen; Haque, M Mahfujul; Kruijssen, Froukje; de Snoo, Geert R; Heijungs, Reinout; van Bodegom, Peter M; Guinée, Jeroen B

    2015-12-15

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different aquatic food products. Our starting hypothesis was that different production systems are associated with significantly different environmental impacts, as the production of these aquatic species differs in intensity and management practices. In order to test this hypothesis, we estimated each system's global warming, eutrophication, and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. The contribution to these impacts and the overall dispersions relative to results were propagated by Monte Carlo simulations and dependent sampling. Paired testing showed significant (p < 0.05) differences between the median impacts of most production systems in the intraspecies comparisons, even after a Bonferroni correction. For the full distributions instead of only the median, only for Asian tiger shrimp did more than 95% of the propagated Monte Carlo results favor certain farming systems. The major environmental hot-spots driving the differences in environmental performance among systems were fishmeal from mixed fisheries for global warming, pond runoff and sediment discards for eutrophication, and agricultural pesticides, metals, benzalkonium chloride, and other chlorine-releasing compounds for freshwater ecotoxicity. The Asian aquaculture industry should therefore strive toward farming systems relying upon pelleted species-specific feeds, where the fishmeal inclusion is limited and sourced sustainably. Also, excessive nutrients should be recycled in integrated organic agriculture together with efficient aeration solutions powered by renewable energy sources.

  10. Identification and characterization of androgenic gland specific insulin-like peptide-encoding transcripts in two spiny lobster species: Sagmariasus verreauxi and Jasus edwardsii.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Sagi, Amir; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-04-01

    In this study we describe, for the first time in spiny lobsters, the androgenic gland and its putative hormone. The androgenic gland in crustaceans is the key regulator of crustacean masculinity. The transcript encoding the insulin-like androgenic gland specific factor has recently been identified and characterized in a number of decapod crustacean species including commercially important crabs, crayfish, prawns and shrimps. This insulin-like factor has proven to be the androgenic gland masculinizing hormone, and is absent in females. While the androgenic gland and its putative hormone have been identified in all other commercially valuable groups, none had been identified in lobsters. We identified and characterized the androgenic glands of two spiny lobster species (Sagmariasus verreauxi and Jasus edwardsii) and conducted a transcriptomic analysis of the S. verreauxi androgenic gland. Bioinformatics analysis led to the discovery and characterization of the insulin-like androgenic gland specific factors in both species studied. Changes in androgenic gland cell size and quantity between sub-adult and sexually mature males were evident. The transcriptomic database established for the S. verreauxi androgenic gland might enable to elucidate the mechanisms through which the insulin-like factor is secreted, transported to the target cells and how it triggers the physiological effects of sexual differentiation towards maleness and maintenance of the male gonad.

  11. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Anaphylaxis in an emergency department: a 2-year study in a tertiary-care hospital.

    PubMed

    Piromrat, Kanika; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Trathong, Sommai

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of anaphylaxis in the emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital, describe the clinical features and the management of the patients and determine those with mild manifestations. A retrospective study was conducted from 2005 to 2006 using anaphylaxis-related ICD-10 terms. Two different sets of criteria for the diagnosis of anaphylaxis were applied, first the criteria previously accepted by emergency practice, followed by the recent criteria set forth at the 2005 international meeting. Sixty-four patients fulfilled the previous criteria with an average incidence of 52.5 per 100,000 patients per year with a shift towards females in 2006. The most common presentations were cutaneous, followed by respiratory symptoms. Food allergy was the most common cause, especially prawn. After applying the recent criteria, 13 patients (20.4%) were excluded, which reduced the incidence to 42.2 per 100,000 patients per year. Long term follow up is suggested for the possible or mild cases that were re-categorized.

  13. High efficacy of white spot syndrome virus replication in tissues of freshwater rice-field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous (Herbst).

    PubMed

    Sundar Raj, N; Nathiga Nambi, K S; Abdul Majeed, S; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Farook, M A; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2012-12-01

    An attempt was made to determine the replication efficiency of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp in different organs of freshwater rice-field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous (Herbst), using bioassay, PCR, RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot and real-time PCR analyses, and also to use this crab instead of penaeid shrimp for the large-scale production of WSSV. This crab was found to be highly susceptible to WSSV by intramuscular injection. PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed the systemic WSSV infection in freshwater crab. The RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of VP28 gene in different organs of infected crab. The indirect ELISA was used to quantify the VP28 protein in different organs of crab. It was found that there was a high concentration of VP28 protein in gill tissue, muscle, haemolymph and heart tissue. The copy number of WSSV in different organs of infected crab was quantified by real-time PCR, and the results revealed a steady increase in copy number in different organs of infected crab during the course of infection. The viral inoculum prepared from different organs of infected crab caused significant mortality in tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). The results revealed that this crab can be used as an alternate host for WSSV replication and production.

  14. Veterinary drug residues in seafood inspected by the European Union, United States, Canada, and Japan from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodman, Sarah; Neff, Roni A; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-09-01

    Veterinary drugs are used to treat or prevent a wide array of production-related diseases in aquaculture. Residues of these drugs in seafood products may pose risks to consumers, prompting governments to set drug residue tolerance levels and inspect seafood for violations of these standards. This study characterizes veterinary drug inspection policies and violations among four inspecting bodies (European Union (E.U.), United States (U.S.), Canada, and Japan), using government-collected veterinary drug violation data from 2000 to 2009. Most veterinary drug violations were detected in species that are commonly farm-raised. Asian seafood products, including shrimp and prawns, catfish (or fish sold as catfish), crab, tilapia, eel, and Chilean salmon were most frequently in violation of veterinary drug residue standards. Vietnam had the greatest number of violations among exporting countries. Concentrations of most veterinary drugs in seafood found in violation did not differ between inspecting bodies that reported drug concentrations. Transparency in seafood inspection reporting varied widely among inspecting bodies. Estimation of violations in the untested fraction of seafood was precluded by a lack of information from inspecting bodies regarding the distinction between targeted and random sampling. Increased transparency could facilitate a more rigorous characterization of public health risks from consuming imported seafood.

  15. Differential detection of shrimp and crab for food labeling using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Temmei, Yusuke; Hirao, Takashi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakata, Kozue; Urisu, Atsuo; Teshima, Reiko

    2011-04-27

    Shrimp and crab are well-known as allergenic ingredients. According to Japanese food allergy labeling regulations, shrimp species (including prawns, crayfishes, and lobsters) and crab species must be differentially declared when ≥10 ppm (total protein) of an allergenic ingredient is present. However, the commercial ELISA tests for the detection of crustacean proteins cannot differentiate between shrimp and crab. Therefore, two methods were developed to discriminate shrimp and crab: a shrimp-PCR method with postamplification digestion and a crab-PCR method that specifically amplifies a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The sensitivity and specificity of both PCR methods were verified by experiments using DNA extracted from 15 shrimp species, 13 crab species, krill, mysid, mantis shrimp, other food samples (cephalopod, shellfish, and fish), incurred foods, and commercial food products. Both PCR methods could detect 5 pg of DNA extracted from target species and 50 ng of genomic DNA extracted from incurred foods containing 10 ppm (μg/g) total protein of shrimp or crab. The two PCR methods were considered to be specific enough to separately detect species belonging to shrimp and crab. Although false-positive and false-negative results were obtained from some nontarget crustacean species, the proposed PCR methods, when used in conjunction with ELISA tests, would be a useful tool for confirmation of the validity of food allergy labeling and management of processed food safety for allergic patients.

  16. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 5a infection in a residential home for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Hansell, A L; Sen, S; Sufi, F; McCallum, A

    1998-09-01

    The first outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 5a infection to be reported occurred after a party in a residential home for elderly people in May 1995. The party was attended attended by 96 residents, staff and guests. S. enteritidis PT5a was isolated from 14 of the 25 clinical cases identified after the party and S. enteritidis PT4 from another clinical case. Two elderly residents with S. enteritidis PT5a infection died. Infection with S. enteritidis PT5a was associated with consumption of prawn in mayonnaise vol-au-vents, sausage rolls, corned beef sandwiches, and sausages. The investigation of this outbreak illustrated the difficulty that elderly people may have in the completion of questionnaires. It also highlighted areas for intervention; such as reminders about basic hygiene precautions to prevent secondary spread and the importance of coordinated reinforcement in the workplace of formal food hygiene training for cooks. The Food Safety Regulations 1995 came into force soon after this outbreak: their implementation would probably have prevented it.

  17. Application of microwave-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of parabens in human ovarian cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Choolani, Mahesh; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-09-01

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. However, weak estrogenicity of some parabens has been reported in several studies, which provided the impetus for this work. Here, a simple and efficient analytical method for quantifying parabens in cancer tissues has been developed. This technique involves the simultaneous use of microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), in tandem with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) analysis for the determination of parabens. The pollutants studied included four parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl parabens). Optimization of the experimental parameters for MASE and μ-SPE was performed. Good relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.09 to 2.81% and high enrichment factors (27-314) were obtained. Coefficients of determination (r(2)) up to 0.9962 were obtained across a concentration range of 5.0-200ngg(-1). The method detection limits for parabens ranged from 0.005 to 0.0244ngg(-1). The procedure was initially tested on prawn samples to demonstrate its feasibility on a complex biological matrix. Preliminary studies on human ovarian cancer (OC) tissues showed presence of parabens. Higher levels of parabens were detected in malignant ovarian tumor tissues compared to benign tumor tissue samples.

  18. Effect of formulated diet on digestive enzymes of Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Sethuramalingam, T A; Haniffa, M A

    2002-01-01

    Six sets of feeding experiments were carried out using formulated diets containing prawn head waste (PW), chicken intestine waste (CW), banana flower (BF), cauliflower waste (CAU) Dolicos lab lab (DLL) and groundnut leaf (GNL) in four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60%) to assess the pattern of distribution and activities of digestive enzymes like cellulase, amylase, maltase, invertase, protease and lipase in the digestive tracts of Labeo rohita fingerlings. A control group of fish was fed with diets containing antibiotics to destroy the digestive tract microflora which may induce digestive functions. In general, the activity of digestive enzymes depended on the amount and type of the ingredients present in the diets ingested by the fish. Test animals showed both endogenous and bacterial cellulase activities which suggests the necessity for including cellulose (plant protein source) as dietary ingredient. Occurrence of higher amount of cellulase in the foregut and amylase in the fore and midgut influenced by DNL and GNL diets revealed the possibility of including less than 40% of the respective ingredients in the diet of rohu. Maltase and invertase were highly influenced by GNL, DLL and BF diets than PW and CW diets. More than 40% inclusion of PW and CW was found to increase protease and lipase secretion in the midgut and hindgut regions. The higher secretion of lipase in the midgut suggested the physiological versatility for lipid digestion in rohu fingerlings.

  19. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  20. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  1. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  2. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  3. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  4. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed. PMID:28212329

  5. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-02-24

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous "jaw". From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait.

  6. Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly different vertical patterns were identified: two corresponding to late autumn, which were common for all the main larval groups and other two in summer, one corresponding to larvae of coastal benthic and the second to pelagic species larvae.

  7. Light-mediated DNA Repair Prevents UVB-induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Embryos of the Crustacean Macrobrachium olfersi.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Eliane Cristina; Ammar, Dib; Leal, Mayana Lacerda; da Silva, Heloisa Schramm; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara Maria Rauh; Nazari, Evelise Maria

    2015-01-01

    High levels of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation can negatively affect aquatic animals. Macrobrachium olfersi is a prawn that lives in clear freshwaters and during the breeding season, females carry eggs in an external brood pouch. Therefore, we hypothesize that eggs are also exposed to environmental UVB radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether UVB radiation induces DNA damage and compromises cell cycle in embryos of M. olfersi. In laboratory, UVB irradiance (310 mW. cm(-2) ) that embryos receive in the natural environment was simulated. After irradiation, embryos were kept under different light conditions in order to recognize the presence of cell repair. UVB radiation induces DNA damage, specifically thymine dimers. After 48 h of UVB exposure, a significant decrease in the level of these dimers was observed in embryos kept under visible light while it remained constant in the dark. Moreover, under visible light and darkness, a decrease in proliferation was observed after 48 h of irradiation. An increase in PCNA expression and decrease in p53 expression were observed after, respectively, 1 and 48 h of exposure. Our results showed that UVB radiation disturbs the cell cycle and induces DNA damage in M. olfersi embryos. However, under visible light these embryos showed successful DNA repair.

  8. Mercury and selenium content of Taiwanese seafood.

    PubMed

    Fang, G C; Nam, D H; Basu, N

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is avid in Taiwan (and other Asian nations), but little is known about the mercury and selenium content in local seafood. This paper reports on total mercury, methylmercury and selenium levels from 14 commonly consumed seafood items obtained from Taichung, Taiwan. Mean total mercury concentrations varied nearly 100-fold across species. Fifty per cent of the marlins sampled and 35% of the sharks exceeded the 0.3 µg g(-1) US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline. Methylmercury comprised a majority of the total mercury in all species. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium-mercury molar ratios was red tilapia (166.8) > abura (87.9) > river prawn (82.4) > whiteleg shrimp (64.2) > butterfish (44.6) > milkfish (37.0) > tuna (15.6) > grouper (13.9) > ayu (13.4) > coral hind (13.0) > weever (11.8) > saury (9.0) > shark (7.8) > marlin (4.2).

  9. Removal of strontium from aqueous solutions using two unconventional biomass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moloukhia, H.; Abdel Raouf, M.W.; El Khalafawy, A.

    2007-07-01

    It has been shown that two unconventional biomass sorbent materials, namely Bulinus truncatus and shrimp (prawn) shell particles, after ashing at 700 deg. C for 6 hours, can be used for the removal of strontium ions from aqueous solutions. Experimental work was carried out to evaluate and optimize the parameters affecting sorption (i.e. equilibration time, initial contamination concentration, sorbent weight, temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, and the addition of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent. Adsorption isotherms have shown that the adsorption data fit with the Freundlich model. Kinetic studies showed that the Lagergren equation is applicable. The results obtained revealed that the presence of a complexing agent, such as (EDTA) suppresses the sorption of strontium at all pH values. The suggested mechanism of strontium removal by the two sorbents used was mainly 'ion exchange', and at higher temperatures a specific interaction mechanism was operated with ion exchange. The kinetic studies showed low desorption values for strontium release from the leachant used. The investigated sorbents were of low cost and efficient in the removal of strontium from aqueous wastes. (authors)

  10. Sensomics-Assisted Elucidation of the Tastant Code of Cooked Crustaceans and Taste Reconstruction Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Stefanie; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-02-10

    Sensory-guided fractionation by means of ultrafiltration and cation-exchange chromatography, followed by MS/MS quantitation, and taste re-engineering experiments revealed the key taste molecules coining the characteristic taste profile of the cooked meat of king prawns. Furthermore, quantitative analysis demonstrated that the taste differences between crustaceans are due to quantitative differences in the combinatorial code of tastants, rather than to qualitative differences in the tastant composition. Besides the amino acids glycine, L-proline, and L-alanine, the characteristic seafood-like sweet profile was found to be due to the sweet modulatory action of quaternary ammonium compounds, among which betaine, homarine, stachydrin, and trimethylamine-N-oxide were found as the key contributors on the basis of dose-activity considerations. Knowledge of this combinatorial tastant code provides the foundation for the development of more sophisticated crustacean flavors that are lacking any heavy metal ions and allergenic proteins present when using crustacean extracts for food flavoring.

  11. Absence of Ca2+-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition but Presence of Bongkrekate-Sensitive Nucleotide Exchange in C. crangon and P. serratus

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Csaba; Kiss, Gergely; Torocsik, Beata; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria from the embryos of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) do not undergo Ca2+-induced permeability transition in the presence of a profound Ca2+ uptake capacity. Furthermore, this crustacean is the only organism known to exhibit bongkrekate-insensitive mitochondrial adenine nucleotide exchange, prompting the conjecture that refractoriness to bongkrekate and absence of Ca2+-induced permeability transition are somehow related phenomena. Here we report that mitochondria isolated from two other crustaceans, brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) and common prawn (Palaemon serratus) exhibited bongkrekate-sensitive mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transport, but lacked a Ca2+-induced permeability transition. Ca2+ uptake capacity was robust in the absence of adenine nucleotides in both crustaceans, unaffected by either bongkrekate or cyclosporin A. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ca2+-loaded mitochondria showed needle-like formations of electron-dense material strikingly similar to those observed in mitochondria from the hepatopancreas of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and the embryos of Artemia franciscana. Alignment analysis of the partial coding sequences of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) expressed in Crangon crangon and Palaemon serratus versus the complete sequence expressed in Artemia franciscana reappraised the possibility of the 208-214 amino acid region for conferring sensitivity to bongkrekate. However, our findings suggest that the ability to undergo Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and the sensitivity of adenine nucleotide translocase to bongkrekate are not necessarily related phenomena. PMID:22768139

  12. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E.

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. On the brain of a crustacean: a morphological analysis of CaMKII expression and its relation to sensory and motor pathways.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M; Müller, Yara M R; Allodi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca(2+)-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans.

  14. Behavioural and biochemical alterations in Penaeus monodon post-larvae diet-exposed to inorganic mercury.

    PubMed

    Harayashiki, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Liu, Lei; Butcher, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Mercury is a metal naturally present in the environment with concentrations in aquatic systems increasing annually due to human activities. This represents a great concern mainly due to its high toxicity to organisms and consequences for human health. Most studies regarding the toxic effect of mercury have focussed on freshwater species using water as the exposure and uptake pathway. In contrast, the present study investigated the effects of dietary exposure of mercury to the marine crustacean Penaeus monodon post-larvae during 96 h to evaluate changes in behaviour (swimming activity and risk taken) and in biochemical biomarkers [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results showed a decrease in swimming activity with an increase in mercury exposure, but no changes were observed regarding the behavioural response 'risk taken'. Prawns from medium (0.56 μg g(-1)) and high (1.18 μg g(-1)) treatments had their GST activity reduced in relation to the beginning of experiment (time 0), while AChE activity was increased in the low (0.15 μg g(-1)) treatment in relation to time 0. In the present study, behaviour analysis were clearer than biochemical biomarkers and results might indicate P. monodon populations from a mercury contaminated environment might be at risk, since the behavioural alterations observed increases the risk of predation.

  15. Virus-like particle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells is distinctive from that produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Chare Li; Yong, Chean Yeah; Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Soon Guan; Tan, Wen Siang

    2016-11-14

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is a virus native to giant freshwater prawn. Recombinant MrNV capsid protein has been produced in Escherichia coli, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, this recombinant protein is unstable, degrading and forming heterogenous VLPs. In this study, MrNV capsid protein was produced in insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells through a baculovirus system. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the recombinant protein produced by the insect cells self-assembled into highly stable, homogenous VLPs each of approximately 40 nm in diameter. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were highly antigenic and comparable to those produced in E. coli. In addition, the Sf9 produced VLPs were highly stable across a wide pH range (2-12). Interestingly, the Sf9 produced VLPs contained DNA of approximately 48 kilo base pairs and RNA molecules. This study is the first report on the production and characterization of MrNV VLPs produced in a eukaryotic system. The MrNV VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were about 10 nm bigger and had a uniform morphology compared with the VLPs produced in E. coli. The insect cell production system provides a good source of MrNV VLPs for structural and immunological studies as well as for host-pathogen interaction studies. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2016.

  16. Experimental electron beam irradiation of food and the induction of radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Findlay, D J; Parsons, T V; Sene, M R

    1992-05-01

    Samples of chicken, prawns, cheeses and spices were irradiated on the Harwell electron linear accelerator HELIOS at 20 MeV to assess mechanisms for the induction of radioactivity. The induced radioactivity was measured using a lead shielded Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer, and the results were compared with activities calculated on the basis of photoneutron and photoproton reactions induced by real and virtual photons. In general, there was good agreement. Bounds were also placed on the induction of radioactivity by capture of neutrons produced in the food samples themselves. Further, the data were used to assess the effects of a gross malfunction of an electron beam irradiation facility; after 1 day, the specific activity of food samples irradiated to 10 kGy at 20 MeV was approximately 0.01 Bq g-1. In addition, food samples were also irradiated at 10 MeV, and irradiated and control samples were analysed for microbiological burden. Reductions in the microbiological burden of the food samples by factors consistent with those found in previous measurements were found.

  17. Impact of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron on biochemical composition of cuticle of the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus.

    PubMed

    Soltani, N; Lechekhab, H; Smagghe, G

    2009-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (Dimilin 25WP) is an insecticide of the class of benzoylphenylurea (BPUs) and is widely used in the control of insect pest in agriculture and forestry. Typically, these chemistries prevent the moulting process by inhibiting chitin formation and thereby causing abnormal cuticular deposition and abortive moulting in insect and crustacean species. In a previous study, we have shown that diflubenzuron could cause a modification in the lamellar ultrastructural, particularly in the membranous layers, in the non-target organism, the caramote prawn or triple-grooved shrimp Penaeus kerathurus (Forskal, 1775) (Decapoda, Peneidae). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential side-effects of diflubenzuron on the biochemical composition of the cuticle of treated P. kerathurus. Diflubenzuron was added to the rearing seawater at a final concentration of 1 microg/L) and newly-ecdysed adult shrimps were exposed for 10 days, i.e. until stage C during the molting cycle. The most typical treatment symptoms were a significantly reduced thickness of both the principal and membranous layers, and reduced amounts of chitin in the cuticle. These symptoms help in explaining the structural alterations observed in treated cuticles, and confirm the primary mode of action of diflubenzuron to inhibit chitin biosynthesis.

  18. A novel L-fucose-binding lectin from Fenneropenaeus indicus induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Biji; Ghosh, Krishna; Yadav, Nitin; Kanade, Santosh R

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are omnipresent in almost all life forms, being the proteins which specifically bind to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface; they have been explored for their anti-tumour activities. In this study, we purified a fucose specific-lectin (IFL) from Fenneropenaeus indicus haemolymph using fucose-affinity column and characterized for its haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, dependency on cations and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The lectin showed non-specificity against human erythrocytes. It was a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin which remained stable over wide pH and temperature ranges. The lectin showed effective dose dependent cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as evidenced by DNA ladder assay and PARP cleavage in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, an increased p21 level corresponding to cyclin D downregulation in response to IFL treatment was observed which might work as probable factors to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Therefore, we report a novel lectin from the prawn haemolymph with high specificity for L-fucose and antiproliferative towards human cancer cells. However, further establishment of the modus operandi of this lectin is required to enable its biotechnological applications.

  19. Contribution of dissolved sulfates and sulfites in hydrogen sulfide emission from stagnant water bodies in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, K I A; Dissanayake, D P; Mahanama, K R R

    2003-08-01

    Accumulation of sulfur-containing compounds and their bacterial mediated reductions have led to the emission of pungent odors from stagnant water bodies. This study is focused on the contribution of inorganic sulfur compounds in the emission of hydrogen sulfide. The measured dissolved oxygen levels have demonstrated good negative correlations with the dissolved sulfide levels implying the oxygen deficiency is the key for the reduction of sulfate ion and sulfite ion to sulfide ion. Particularly, the dissolved molar fractions of sulfide from the total dissolved sulfur compounds (sulfates, sulfites and sulfides) have a very good correlation with the dissolved oxygen for the stagnant water bodies except the artificially aerated prawn farms. For the stagnant water bodies with significant correlations, linear regressions are reported for them to be utilized in estimating one component of the regression from the measurement of the other. The measured data were further utilized to estimate the levels of hydrogen sulfide gas. The pH of the water bodies has confined much of the dissolved sulfides in the form of bisulfide ion and they can be easily escaped to the atmosphere upon acidification due to industrial discharges and/or acidic precipitations. The estimated levels of hydrogen sulfide just above the water surface were plotted for the most polluted stagnant water body in Sri Lanka for the pH range of 5-10 and temperature range of 25-35 degrees C.

  20. Spatio-temporal variability in faunal assemblages surrounding the discharge of secondary treated sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wear, R. J.; Tanner, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    Macrofaunal assemblages inhabiting the intertidal zone surrounding an input of secondary treated effluent were sampled in order to determine how the pollution impact varied temporally and spatially. Assemblages varied along the pollution gradient formed by the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant outfall in Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. While the abundance of some species did not vary, the abundance of juvenile western king prawns ( Melicertus latisulcatus) and blue crabs ( Portunus pelagicus) progressively decreased with proximity to the outfall. Species richness and diversity also decreased towards the outfall. An increase in nutrient content in the water adjacent to the outfall is likely to explain these changes. At distances of 4 and 5 km away, species diversity increased and the abundance of M. latisulcatus decreased, possibly due to a change in habitat from sand to seagrass. The occurrence of a storm prior to sampling on one occasion masked the effects of pollution and habitat changes. The results of this study suggest that the disposal of treated effluent into Gulf St Vincent is having a localised effect on the faunal assemblages surrounding the discharge point.

  1. PHB-degrading bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals as protective actors against luminescent vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; De Schryver, Peter; Van Delsen, Bart; Maignien, Loïs; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2010-10-01

    The use of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was shown to be successful in increasing the resistance of brine shrimp against pathogenic infections. In this study, we isolated for the first time PHB-degrading bacteria from a gastrointestinal environment. Pure strains of PHB-degrading bacteria were isolated from Siberian sturgeon, European sea bass and giant river prawn. The capability of selected isolates to degrade PHB was confirmed in at least two of three setups: (1) growth in minimal medium containing PHB as the sole carbon (C) source, (2) production of clearing zones on minimal agar containing PHB as the sole C source and (3) degradation of PHB (as determined by HPLC analysis) in 10% Luria-Bertani medium containing PHB. Challenge tests showed that the PHB-degrading activity of the selected isolates increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged to a pathogenic Vibrio campbellii strain by a factor 2-3. Finally, one of the PHB-degrading isolates from sturgeon showed a double biocontrol effect because it was also able to inactivate acylhomoserine lactones, a type of quorum-sensing molecule that regulates the virulence of different pathogenic bacteria. Thus, the combined supplementation of a PHB-degrading bacterium and PHB as a synbioticum provides perspectives for improving the gastrointestinal health of aquatic animals.

  2. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    PubMed Central

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous “jaw”. From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait. PMID:26906263

  3. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  4. Tissue distribution of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus of shrimp in freshwater rice-field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous (Herbst).

    PubMed

    Madan, N; Rajkumar, T; Sundar Raj, N; Farook, M A; Nambi, K S N; Abdul Majeed, S; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2014-11-01

    An attempt was made to determine the replication efficiency of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV) of shrimp in different organs of freshwater rice-field crab Paratelphusa hydrodomous (Herbst) using bioassay, PCR, RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot and q-PCR analyses. Another attempt was made to use this crab as an alternative to penaeid shrimp for the large-scale production of HPV. This crab was found to be highly susceptible to HPV by intramuscular injection. The systemic HPV infection was confirmed by PCR and Western blot analyses in freshwater crab. The expression of capsid protein gene in different organs of infected crab was revealed by RT-PCR analysis. Indirect ELISA was used to quantify the capsid protein in different organs of the crab. The copy number of HPV in different organs of the infected crab was quantified by q-PCR. The results revealed a steady decrease in CT values in different organs of the infected crab during the course of infection. The viral inoculum that was prepared from different organs of the infected crab caused significant mortality in post-larvae of tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). The results revealed that this rice-field crab could be used as an alternative host for HPV replication and also for large-scale production of HPV.

  5. Chloramphenicol stereoisomers need to be distinguished: consequences observed from a proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Mark; Czymai, Tobias; Hektor, Thomas; Sharman, Matthew; Knaggs, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Although the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) as a veterinary drug is banned in the European Union and many other countries, monitoring for CAP residues in food is routine. Positive detections are few, but taken extremely seriously. European Union laboratories analysing for CAP should validate methods according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, must be accredited to ISO 17025, and will generally participate in proficiency testing (PT) schemes, such as those offered by the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS®). The FAPAS PTs aim to cover a wide range of relevant matrices including honey, prawns, fish, milk and kidney. Test materials are prepared either by animal dosing studies or by spiking raw matrix. The most common method reported by FAPAS participants used to screen for CAP residues is LC-MS/MS, but ELISA kits are increasingly being used. A recent PT round highlighted that the result obtained might be correlated with the type of analytical method being employed. Follow-up investigations have demonstrated that some of these variations in data are a function of the different stereoisomeric forms of CAP. This paper discusses the implication of this research on method validation requirements and European Union legislation.

  6. Dietary partitioning by five sympatric species of stingray (Dasyatidae) on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, O R; Thums, M; van Keulen, M; Kempster, R M; Meekan, M G

    2013-06-01

    Dietary characteristics and the degree of dietary partitioning by five species of sympatric stingray were assessed using stomach content and sediment analyses within a coral reef lagoon at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia (the cowtail Pastinachus atrus, blue-spotted fantail Taeniura lymma, blue-spotted mask Neotrygon kuhlii, porcupine Urogymnus asperrimus rays and the reticulate whipray Himantura uarnak). A total of 2804 items were recovered from the stomachs of 170 rays and 3215 individual taxa from the environment, which were used in selectivity analyses. Twenty-four prey taxa were identified from stomach contents and pooled into 10 taxonomic categories for analysis, of which annelids, prawns, brachyurans and bivalves were the most abundant, together accounting for 96% of the diet. Himantura uarnak had the greatest interspecific dissimilarity in diet, consuming a larger proportion of crustaceans, notably penaeids (41% of total diet) than the other four species of rays, all of which had diets dominated by annelids (71-82% of total diet). Crustacean specialization by H. uarnak may exist to maximize resources and reduce competition among sympatric species. The remaining species may partition resources on the basis of space, rather than diet.

  7. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    PubMed

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control.

  8. Pelagic nekton abundance and distribution in the northern Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feyrer, Frederick; Slater, Steven B.; Portz, Donald E.; Odom, Darren; Morgan-King, Tara L.; Brown, Larry R.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the habitats occupied by species is fundamental for the development of effective conservation and management actions. The collapse of pelagic fish species in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, has triggered a need to better understand factors that drive their distribution and abundance. A study was conducted in summer–fall 2014 in an attempt to identify physical and biological habitat conditions that drive the abundance and distribution of pelagic species in the northern region of the system. The study was conducted in the three largest channels in the northern Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta by dimension, volume, and flow capacity. The pelagic community was dominated by three nonnative species, Siberian prawn Exopalaemon modestus, which comprised 56% of the total number of organisms, and two fish species, Threadfin Shad Dorosoma petenense and Mississippi Silversides Menidia audens, which together comprised 43% of the total number of organisms. Total fish and total shrimp abundance were sensitive to the most extreme values of turbidity and temperature encountered and positively associated with total zooplankton biomass. The results suggested that habitat conditions in terminal channels, historically a common feature on the landscape, support higher abundances of pelagic species and zooplankton than open-ended channels. These results provide resource managers with useful information on the habitat associations of pelagic species and on how the future distribution and abundance of pelagic species will likely change in response to climate or other ecological factors.

  9. Analysis of geodetic and legal documentation in the process of expropriation for roads. Krakow case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    ślający wartość nieruchomości, niejednokrotnie w odległym terminie od chwili utraty gruntów przez właściciela. Jedną z przyczyn przedłużających się postępowań odszkodowawczych jest kwestionowanie proponowanej kwoty odszkodowań, nieuregulowane stany prawne nieruchomości a także nieprecyzyjne przepisy prawne. Istotne znaczenie ma prawidłowe opracowywanie dokumentacji geodezyjno-prawnej dołączanej do wniosku o wydanie decyzji a także wykorzystywanej w postępowaniach odszkodowawczych. Praca została zrealizowana w ramach badań statutowych Katedry GIiB nr 11.11.150.00

  10. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Lydia S; Chen, Xinyu; Sobsey, Mark D

    2016-02-27

    The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs) and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI) between 4.7 (± 1.56) and 7.5 (± 0.02) log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (± 0.10) and 4.5 (± 1.04) log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities < 1 NTU, which meet turbidity standards of the US EPA and guidance by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to WHO health-based microbial removal targets for household water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions.

  11. The synthesis and characterization of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and the investigation of the fluorescence properties of its 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-chitosan films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningrum, Deana; Zulqarnaen, Muhammad; Suendo, Veinardi

    2014-03-01

    Chitosan fluorescent films containing 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7H4MC) have been successfully prepared. Used chitosan was obtained from chitin isolated from skin of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) through the deproteination, demineralization, and deacetylation process. The yields of chitin and chitosan are 10.66% and 23.83%, respectively. The chitosan has 55.00% degree of deacetylation based on FTIR spectroscopy. Average molecular mass of chitosan which was determined by Ostwald viscometry method is 8.55 × 106 g/mol. The 7H4MC was synthesized from resorcinol and ethyl acetoacetate using amberlyst-15 as catalyst based on Pechmann reaction with chemical yields of 90.01% and the melting point of 189-190°C. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopies confirmed the structure which corresponds to the structure of 7H4MC. The films of chitosan containing 7H4MC were prepared by solvent evaporation method in 2% (v/v) acetic acid. The 7H4MC content in each film was 0% (blank), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% (w/w). The UV-Vis spectrum of 7H4MC in methanol showed λmax at 235 and 337 nm. The observed fluorescence is the fluorescence color of cyan. The excitation wavelengths are 200, 235, 275, 337, and 365 nm. The highest intensity of cyan color fluorescence of chitosan containing 7H4MC films was obtained at the concentration of 0.2% of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin at the excitation wavelength of 275 nm.

  12. The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Fiona J.; Lopata, Andreas L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of GardasilTM against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilized in the near future. PMID:25076945

  13. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  14. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural

  15. Differences in chewing sounds of dry-crisp snacks by multivariate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Belie, N.; Sivertsvik, M.; De Baerdemaeker, J.

    2003-09-01

    Chewing sounds of different types of dry-crisp snacks (two types of potato chips, prawn crackers, cornflakes and low calorie snacks from extruded starch) were analysed to assess differences in sound emission patterns. The emitted sounds were recorded by a microphone placed over the ear canal. The first bite and the first subsequent chew were selected from the time signal and a fast Fourier transformation provided the power spectra. Different multivariate analysis techniques were used for classification of the snack groups. This included principal component analysis (PCA) and unfold partial least-squares (PLS) algorithms, as well as multi-way techniques such as three-way PLS, three-way PCA (Tucker3), and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) on the first bite and subsequent chew. The models were evaluated by calculating the classification errors and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for independent validation sets. It appeared that the logarithm of the power spectra obtained from the chewing sounds could be used successfully to distinguish the different snack groups. When different chewers were used, recalibration of the models was necessary. Multi-way models distinguished better between chewing sounds of different snack groups than PCA on bite or chew separately and than unfold PLS. From all three-way models applied, N-PLS with three components showed the best classification capabilities, resulting in classification errors of 14-18%. The major amount of incorrect classifications was due to one type of potato chips that had a very irregular shape, resulting in a wide variation of the emitted sounds.

  16. Effects of smoking and sun-drying on proximate, fatty and amino acids compositions of Southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis).

    PubMed

    Akintola, Shehu Latunji

    2015-05-01

    Traditional techniques of smoking and sun drying were investigated to understand their effects on nutritional qualities of Southern pink shrimp against present human dietary needs. Shrimps subjected to hot smoking at 71 °C and sun drying at ambient temperature of 31 °C treatments were compared to fresh samples. Proximate composition dry weight basis showed that smoked product were highest in protein and carbohydrate (P < 0.05) while fat was raised in sundried products (P < 0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs) were highest ranging from 35.87 to 40.35 % in all products. Oleic acid (18:1) had highest value of 24.26 % in the smoked. Eicosapentanoic acid (C20:5 n-3) was highest in the sundried while Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) predominated in the fresh. The shrimp protein had Glutamate as the most abundant amino acid in the three forms. Both preservation methods significantly (P < 0.01) raised the values of tyrosine, histidine and leucine. The Ω-3/Ω-6 ratios showed that prawn is rich in omega 3. The highest arginine/lysine ratio (1.54) was obtained in sundried. The EAA/NEAA ratios ranged from 0.72 to 0.80 while index of atherogenicity (IA) and index of thrombogenicity (IT) ranged from 0.71 to 0.82 and 0.21 to 0.30 respectively in all forms. All products forms showed different advantages with respect to quality and nutrition, smoked samples however, offered the best benefits. Information provided is the first detailed study on the impacts of smoking and sun-drying on the nutritional qualities of a shrimp with tremendous economic and nutritional importance.

  17. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake

    PubMed Central

    Malaquias, Manuel António E.

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  18. Genome-wide mining, characterization, and development of microsatellite markers in Marsupenaeus japonicus by genome survey sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Kong, Jie; Hu, Longyang; Mao, Yong; Zhong, Shengping

    2017-01-01

    The kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, is one of the most cultivated and consumed species of shrimp. However, very few molecular genetic/genomic resources are publically available for it. Thus, the characterization and distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) remains ambiguous and the use of SSR markers in genomic studies and marker-assisted selection is limited. The goal of this study is to characterize and develop genome-wide SSR markers in M. japonicus by genome survey sequencing for application in comparative genomics and breeding. A total of 326 945 perfect SSRs were identified, among which dinucleotide repeats were the most frequent class (44.08%), followed by mononucleotides (29.67%), trinucleotides (18.96%), tetranucleotides (5.66%), hexanucleotides (1.07%), and pentanucleotides (0.56%). In total, 151 541 SSR loci primers were successfully designed. A subset of 30 SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested in 42 individuals from a wild population, of which 27 loci (90.0%) were successfully amplified with specific products and 24 (80.0%) were polymorphic. For the amplified polymorphic loci, the alleles ranged from 5 to 17 (with an average of 9.63), and the average PIC value was 0.796. A total of 58 256 SSR-containing sequences had significant Gene Ontology annotation; these are good functional molecular marker candidates for association studies and comparative genomic analysis. The newly identified SSRs significantly contribute to the M. japonicus genomic resources and will facilitate a number of genetic and genomic studies, including high density linkage mapping, genome-wide association analysis, marker-aided selection, comparative genomics analysis, population genetics, and evolution.

  19. Molecular characterization and upregulation of cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase by imidazole derivative KK-42 in Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Wang, W F; Mu, L M; Wu, X S; Yang, H; Ning, Q J

    2016-08-29

    Imidazole derivative KK-42 is a well-known regulator of insect growth. KK-42 pretreatment has been shown to promote the survival of Macrobrachium nipponense infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, possibly via activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In this study, the cytMnSOD gene was cloned from the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The full-length cDNA of cytMnSOD was 1233 bp long, and the open reading frame was 858 bp long, encoding a 286-aa protein with a 60-aa leader sequence. The calculated molecular mass of the translated cytMnSOD protein was 31.33 kDa, with an estimated isoelectric point of 5.62. cytMnSOD contained two N-glycosylation sites, four conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese, and a manganese SOD domain (DVWEHAYY). Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that cytMnSOD was expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression observed in the hepatopancreas. Levels of the cytMnSOD transcript in the hepatopancreas were highest in stage C of the molting cycle. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that cytMnSOD expression increased significantly 3, 6, and 12 h after KK-42 treatment, with simultaneous increases in SOD activity from 6 to 12 h. Our results demonstrate that cytMnSOD expression and SOD activity may be induced by KK-42, which may represent one of the molecular mechanisms through which KK-42 promotes increased survival of prawns infected with A. hydrophila.

  20. Genome anatomy of the gastrointestinal pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus of crustacean origin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important human pathogen, is associated with gastroenteritis and transmitted through partially cooked seafood. It has become a major concern in the production and trade of marine food products. The prevalence of potentially virulent and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw seafood is of public health significance. Here we describe the genome sequence of a V. parahaemolyticus isolate of crustacean origin which was cultured from prawns in 2008 in Selangor, Malaysia (isolate PCV08-7). The next generation sequencing and analysis revealed that the genome of isolate PCV08-7 has closest similarity to that of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633. However, there are certain unique features of the PCV08-7 genome such as the absence of TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), and the presence of HU-alpha insertion. The genome of isolate PCV08-7 encodes a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), an important virulence factor that classifies PCV08-7 isolate to be a serovariant of O3:K6 strain. Apart from these, we observed that there is certain pattern of genetic rearrangements that makes V. parahaemolyticus PCV08-7 a non-pandemic clone. We present detailed genome statistics and important genetic features of this bacterium and discuss how its survival, adaptation and virulence in marine and terrestrial hosts can be understood through the genomic blueprint and that the availability of genome sequence entailing this important Malaysian isolate would likely enhance our understanding of the epidemiology, evolution and transmission of foodborne Vibrios in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:24330647

  1. Impact of a major cyclone on a southeast African estuarine lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, A. T.; Cyrus, D. P.

    The St Lucia lake and estuarine system in northern Natal, South Africa was struck by Cyclone Domoina on 31 January 1984. This is the only cyclone known to have traversed part of South Africa. The ensuing flood levels in the St Lucia system (which have been exceeded perhaps only one other time in recorded history) provided an opportunity to assess the effect of a major disturbance on a subtropical estuarine system. Major geomorphological changes occurred in the mouth area where all man-made structures were obliterated. The two river channels were scoured from 2-3 m to 10-14 m in depth and widened by up to 300 m, while the shoreline between the two channels retreated in places up to 100 m. An estimated 16∗10 6 m 3 of sediment were removed from the lower reaches of the system including areas of mangrove and Phragmites australis swamp. One-metre tall mangrove saplings died following inundation lasting days to weeks. Effects on the fauna included redistribution of the tanaid Apseudes digitalis, the mysid Mesopodopsis africana, the copepod Pseudodiaptomus stuhlmanni, the polychaete Scololepis squamata and the bivalve Solen cylindraceus, all typical lake species which appeared in the tidal channel linking the lake with the sea. Responses of other species such as the penaeid prawns, the crab Scylla serrata and the sole Solea bleekeri suggested that physiological tolerance, extended larval or juvenile recruitment periods and prey switching minimized long-term flood effects. No large-scale mortalities were noted, and the absence of a temperature shock is considered to be a significant feature.

  2. Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2010-07-01

    Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

  3. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of Planctomycetes from Anaerobic, Sulfide- and Sulfur-Rich Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma▿

    PubMed Central

    Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Youssef, Noha H.; Luo, Qingwei; Najar, Fares Z.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sisk, Tracy M.; Bühring, Solveig I.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic capabilities of members of the phylum Planctomycetes in the anaerobic, sulfide-saturated sediments of a mesophilic spring (Zodletone Spring) in southwestern Oklahoma. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences generated using Planctomycetes-biased primer pairs suggested that an extremely diverse community of Planctomycetes is present at the spring. Although sequences that are phylogenetically affiliated with cultured heterotrophic Planctomycetes were identified, the majority of the sequences belonged to several globally distributed, as-yet-uncultured Planctomycetes lineages. Using complex organic media (aqueous extracts of the spring sediments and rumen fluid), we isolated two novel strains that belonged to the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade within the Planctomycetes. The two strains had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, and their closest relatives were isolates from Kiel Fjord (Germany), Keauhou Beach (HI), a marine aquarium, and tissues of marine organisms (Aplysina sp. sponges and postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon). The closest recognized cultured relative of strain Zi62 was Blastopirellula marina (93.9% sequence similarity). Detailed characterization of strain Zi62 revealed its ability to reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide under anaerobic conditions, as well as its ability to produce acids from sugars; both characteristics may potentially allow strain Zi62 to survive and grow in the anaerobic, sulfide- and sulfur-rich environment at the spring source. Overall, this work indicates that anaerobic metabolic abilities are widely distributed among all major Planctomycetes lineages and suggests carbohydrate fermentation and sulfur reduction as possible mechanisms employed by heterotrophic Planctomycetes for growth and survival under anaerobic conditions. PMID:17545322

  4. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    PubMed

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture.

  5. Production of recombinant insulin-like androgenic gland hormones from three decapod species: In vitro testicular phosphorylation and activation of a newly identified tyrosine kinase receptor from the Eastern spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Joseph; Chandler, Jennifer C; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Sagi, Amir; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail; Ventura, Tomer

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) is responsible for male sexual differentiation. To date, the biochemical pathways through which IAG exerts its effects are poorly understood and could be elucidated through the production of a functional recombinant IAG (rIAG). We have successfully expressed glycosylated, biologically active IAG using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. We co-expressed recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of the B and A chains (the mature hormone) tethered by a flexible linker, producing rIAGs of the following commercially important species: Eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi (Sv), redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq) and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). We then tested the biological activity of each, through the ability to increase phosphorylation in the testis; both Sv and Cq rIAGs significantly elevated phosphorylation specific to their species, and in a dose-dependent manner. Mr rIAG was tested on Macrobrachium australiense (Ma), eliciting a similar response. Moreover, using bioinformatics analyses of the de novo assembled spiny lobster transcriptome, we identified a spiny lobster tyrosine kinase insulin receptor (Sv-TKIR). We validated this discovery with a receptor activation assay in COS-7 cells expressing Sv-TKIR, using a reporter SRE-LUC system designed for RTKs, with each of the rIAG proteins acting as the activation ligand. Using recombinant proteins, we aim to develop specific tools to control sexual development through the administration of IAG within the critical sexual differentiation time window. The biologically active rIAGs generated might facilitate commercially feasible solutions for the long sought techniques for sex-change induction and monosex population culture in crustaceans and shed new light on the physiological mode of action of IAG in crustaceans.

  6. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis--a neglected disease with escalating importance.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, P

    2014-12-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a food-borne zoonotic parasite, has been recognized as the primary pathogen associated with human eosinophilic meningitis or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This neurotropic nematode has a definitive rodent host and a molluscan intermediate host. The adult worms live in the pulmonary arteries of rats. Human is a non-permissive, accidental host. Transmission to humans is by eating of infected raw or undercooked snails, poorly cleaned contaminated vegetables or other infected paratenic hosts such as freshwater prawns, crabs, frogs or monitor lizards. Thousands of diagnosed cases of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis have been reported worldwide. Angiostrongyliasis is of increasing public health importance as globalization contributes to the geographical spread and more international travelers encounter the disease. The parasite is on the move. It has spread from its traditional endemic areas of Asia and the Pacific Basin to the American continent including the USA, Brazil and Caribbean islands. Recently, the incidence of human infections has increased rapidly. Most reports of the disease are from Thailand and Taiwan with increasing reports from mainland China. The rapid global spread of the parasite and the emerging occurrence of the infection pose challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and in epidemiology and basic biology. Enhanced understanding of the epidemiology of angiostrongyliasis, increased public awareness about the risks associated with eating raw or undercooked food, and enhanced food safety measures are needed. Therefore, current knowledge on various aspects of the parasite and the disease it causes, as well as recent epidemiological status together with significant progress in laboratory investigation of A. cantonensis infection, are overviewed to promote understanding and awareness of this emerging neglected disease.

  7. Lateral flow assay for rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a phage-displayed peptide as bio-recognition probe.

    PubMed

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-03-27

    White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a major socio-economic impact on shrimp farming in India. It has been realized that a field-usable diagnostic capable of rapid detection of WSSV can prevent huge economic losses in disease outbreaks. In this work, we explored the possibility of using a peptide as bio-recognition probe in a field-usable device for the detection of WSSV from infected shrimps and prawns. A commercially available random phage-display library was screened against rVP28 (a major structural protein of WSSV, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli). A bacteriophage clone VP28-4L was obtained, and its binding to purified rVP28 protein as well as WSSV from infected shrimp Litopaeneus vannamei tissue was confirmed by ELISA and western blot. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd,app) was calculated to be 810 nM. VP28-4L did not show cross-reactivity with any other shrimp viruses. A 12-mer peptide (pep28, with the sequence 'TFQAFDLSPFPS') displayed on the VP28-4L was synthesized, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated in a lateral flow assay (LFA). Visual detection of WSSV could be achieved using biotinylated-pep28 and streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. In LFA, 12.5 μg/mL of the virus could be detected from L. vannamei gill tissue homogenate within 20 min. Pep28 thus becomes an attractive candidate in bio-recognition of WSSV in field-usable diagnostic platforms benefitting the aquaculture sector.

  8. Effect of temperature on the standard metabolic rates of juvenile and adult Exopalaemon carinicauda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengsong; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-03-01

    Ridgetail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) are of significant economic importance in China where they are widely cultured. However, there is little information on the basic biology of this species. We evaluated the effect of temperature (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C) on the standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda in the laboratory under static conditions. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonia-N excretion rate (AER), and atomic ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen consumed (O:N ratio) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda were significantly influenced by temperature ( P < 0.05). Both the OCR and AER of juveniles increased significantly with increasing temperature from 16 to 34°C, but the maximum OCR for adults was at 31°C. Juvenile shrimp exhibited a higher OCR than the adults from 19 to 34°C. There was no significant difference between the AERs of the two life-stages from 16 to 31°C ( P >0.05). The O:N ratio in juveniles was significantly higher than that in the adults over the entire temperature range ( P <0.05). The temperature coefficient ( Q 10) of OCR and AER ranged from 5.03 to 0.86 and 6.30 to 0.85 for the adults, respectively, and from 6.09-1.03 and 3.66-1.80 for the juveniles, respectively. The optimal temperature range for growth of the juvenile and adult shrimp was from 28 to 31°C, based on Q 10 and SMR values. Results from the present study may be used to guide pond culture production of E. carinicauda.

  9. Why semicarbazide (SEM) is not an appropriate marker for the usage of nitrofurazone on agricultural animals.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Richard H; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Seefelder, Walburga; Racault, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive global database on semicarbazide (SEM) in foodstuffs and food ingredients is presented, with over 4000 data collected in foods such as seafood (crustaceans, fish powders), meat (beef, chicken powders), dairy products (e.g. raw milk, milk powders, whey, sweet buttermilk powder, caseinate, yoghurt, cheese), honey and other ingredients. The results provide evidence that the presence of SEM in certain dairy ingredients (whey, milk protein concentrates) is a by-product of chemical reactions taking place during the manufacturing process. Of the dairy ingredients tested (c. 2000 samples), 5.3% showed traces of SEM > 0.5 µg/kg. The highest incidence of SEM-positive samples in the dairy category were whey (powders, liquid) and milk protein concentrates (35% positive), with up to 13 µg/kg measured in a whey powder. Sweet buttermilk powder and caseinate followed, with 27% and 9.3% positives, respectively. SEM was not detected in raw milk, or in yoghurt or cheese. Of the crustacean products (shrimp and prawn powders) tested, 44% were positive for SEM, the highest value measured at 284 µg/kg. Fish powders revealed an unexpectedly high incidence of positive samples (25%); in this case, fraudulent addition of shellfish shells or carry-over during processing cannot be excluded. Overall, the data provide new insights into the occurrence of SEM (for dairy products and fish powders), substantially strengthening the arguments that SEM in certain food categories is not a conclusive marker of the use of the illegal antibiotic nitrofurazone.

  10. Does ‘You Are What You Eat’ Apply to Mangrove Grapsid Crabs?

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thi Hong Hanh; Lee, Shing Yip

    2014-01-01

    In tropical mangroves, brachyuran crabs have been observed to consume high percentages of leaf litter production. However, questions concerning their ability to assimilate this low-quality food remain, as stable isotope analysis of C and N does not seem to support assimilation. Individuals of the common eastern Australian mangrove grapsid Parasesarma erythodactyla feeding on a mangrove leaf litter or mangrove+microphytobenthos diet developed a significantly higher hepatosomatic index than those with access to only sediment. Lipid biomarker analysis and feeding experiments using 13C and 15N-enriched mangrove leaf litter confirmed rapid assimilation of mangrove C and N by P. erythodactyla. Eight-week feeding experiments utilizing three food types (mangrove leaf litter, microphytobenthos and prawn muscle) established different food-specific trophic discrimination values (Δδ13C and Δδ15N) that are significantly different from those commonly applied to mixing model calculations. The mean Δδ13C(crab-mangrove) of +5.45‰ was close to the mean and median literature values for grapsid-mangrove pairs in 29 past studies (+5.2±1.8‰ and +5.6‰, respectively), suggesting that this large discrimination may generally be characteristic of detritivorous grapsid crabs. Solutions from the IsoConc mixing model using our determined trophic discrimination values suggest significantly higher and dominant contributions of mangrove C to the diet than those based on the global mean trophic discrimination values. Our results reaffirm the physiological capacity for and important mediating role of grapsid crabs in processing low-quality mangrove C in tropical estuaries, and caution against the use of global trophic discrimination values in stable isotope analysis of food-web data, especially those involving detritivores. While recent studies have questioned the trophic significance of mangrove detritus in coastal food chains, the contribution of this productive carbon source needs to

  11. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes in sediments and biota from three tropical marine food webs: Application to chemical bioaccumulation assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Teng, Yun; Doan, Tra Thi Thanh; Yat, Yun Wei; Chan, Sheot Harn; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-03-16

    Studies of trophodynamics and contaminant bioaccumulation in tropical marine ecosystems are limited. This study employed stable isotope and trace contaminant analysis to assess sources of primary productivity, trophic interactions and chemical bioaccumulation behavior in two mangrove food webs and one offshore coastal marine food web in Singapore. Samples of sediment, phytoplankton, mangrove leaves, clams, snails, crabs, worms, prawns, and fishes were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values, as well as concentrations of persistent organic pollutants. In the mangrove food webs, consumers exhibited similar δ(13) C values, likely due to the well-mixed nature of these systems. However, the two primary consumers (common nerite and rodong snail) exhibited distinct δ(13) C values (-21.6 ‰ vs -17.7 ‰), indicating different carbon sources. Fish from Singapore Strait exhibited similar δ(13) C values, indicating common carbon sources in this offshore marine food web. The highest trophic level (TL) was determined as glass perchlet (TL = 3.3) and tilapia (TL = 3.4) in the two mangrove food webs and grunter (TL = 3.7) in the Singapore Strait food web. PCB 153 and p, p'-DDE concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 84.6 ng/g lipid wt and from < 0.2 to 267.4 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. The trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of PCB 153 and p, p'-DDE ranged were between 1.63 and 4.62, indicating biomagnification in these tropical marine food webs. The findings provide important information that will aid future chemical bioaccumulation assessment initiatives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  13. Molecular cloning of doublesex genes of four cladocera (water flea) species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gene doublesex (dsx) is known as a key factor regulating genetic sex determination in many organisms. We previously identified two dsx genes (DapmaDsx1 and DapmaDsx2) from a freshwater branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia magna, which are expressed in males but not in females. D. magna produces males by parthenogenesis in response to environmental cues (environmental sex determination) and we showed that DapmaDsx1 expression during embryonic stages is responsible for the male trait development. The D. magna dsx genes are thought to have arisen by a cladoceran-specific duplication; therefore, to investigate evolutionary conservation of sex specific expression of dsx genes and to further assess their functions in the environmental sex determination, we searched for dsx homologs in four closely related cladoceran species. Results We identified homologs of both dsx genes from, D. pulex, D. galeata, and Ceriodaphnia dubia, yet only a single dsx gene was found from Moina macrocopa. The deduced amino acid sequences of all 9 dsx homologs contained the DM and oligomerization domains, which are characteristic for all arthropod DSX family members. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggested that the dsx gene duplication likely occurred prior to the divergence of these cladoceran species, because that of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon is rooted ancestrally to both DSX1 and DSX2 of cladocerans. Therefore, this result also suggested that M. macrocopa lost dsx2 gene secondarily. Furthermore, all dsx genes identified in this study showed male-biased expression levels, yet only half of the putative 5’ upstream regulatory elements are preserved in D. magna and D. pulex. Conclusions The all dsx genes of five cladoceran species examined had similar amino acid structure containing highly conserved DM and oligomerization domains, and exhibited sexually dimorphic expression patterns, suggesting that these genes may have similar functions for environmental sex

  14. Neural mechanism of optimal limb coordination in crustacean swimming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Calvin; Guy, Robert D; Mulloney, Brian; Zhang, Qinghai; Lewis, Timothy J

    2014-09-23

    A fundamental challenge in neuroscience is to understand how biologically salient motor behaviors emerge from properties of the underlying neural circuits. Crayfish, krill, prawns, lobsters, and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving limbs called swimmerets. Over the entire biological range of animal size and paddling frequency, movements of adjacent swimmerets maintain an approximate quarter-period phase difference with the more posterior limbs leading the cycle. We use a computational fluid dynamics model to show that this frequency-invariant stroke pattern is the most effective and mechanically efficient paddling rhythm across the full range of biologically relevant Reynolds numbers in crustacean swimming. We then show that the organization of the neural circuit underlying swimmeret coordination provides a robust mechanism for generating this stroke pattern. Specifically, the wave-like limb coordination emerges robustly from a combination of the half-center structure of the local central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) that drive the movements of each limb, the asymmetric network topology of the connections between local CPGs, and the phase response properties of the local CPGs, which we measure experimentally. Thus, the crustacean swimmeret system serves as a concrete example in which the architecture of a neural circuit leads to optimal behavior in a robust manner. Furthermore, we consider all possible connection topologies between local CPGs and show that the natural connectivity pattern generates the biomechanically optimal stroke pattern most robustly. Given the high metabolic cost of crustacean swimming, our results suggest that natural selection has pushed the swimmeret neural circuit toward a connection topology that produces optimal behavior.

  15. One precursor, three apolipoproteins: the relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein.

    PubMed

    Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.

  16. Study on seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and its potential use for freshness evaluation by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke; Luo, Lin; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-05

    Seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases are various and can be used for freshness evaluation during storage. It is imperative to obtain the full volatile information prior to the further study of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage. Also, the efficient data-processing method is another important factor for the interpretation of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and related potential volatile markers. In this work, a new analytical strategy, including the efficient sampling technique, sensitive detection and suitable data-processing method, for seafood freshness evaluation was developed based on the volatile profile characteristics during storage. First, the study of volatiles of seafood samples including razor clam, redspot swimming crab and prawn at different storage phases were conducted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Then, seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases were statistically interpreted by a combination data-processing method including normalization, principle component analysis (PCA) and common model strategy. The different seafood volatile profile characteristics and potential volatile markers were attempted to be distilled. The results tentatively suggested that the different seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage could reflect the transitional changing seafood freshness and provide more precise warning information for seafood spoilage during storage than any single chemical markers. This work developed an analytical method for study of seafood volatile profile characteristics and tentatively proposed a new idea of using seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage for the freshness evaluation from the point of view of analytical chemistry.

  17. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  18. The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone in crustaceans: From a single gene silencing to a wide array of sexual manipulation-based biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Due to the over-harvesting and deterioration of wild populations, the ever-growing crustacean market is increasingly reliant on aquaculture, driving the need for better management techniques. Since most cultured crustacean species exhibit sexually dimorphic growth patterns, the culture of monosex populations (either all-male or all-female) is a preferred approach for gaining higher yields, with the ecological benefit of reducing the risk of invasion by the cultured species. Sexual manipulations may also render sustainable solutions to the environmental problems caused by the presence of invasive crustacean species with detrimental impacts ranging from aggressive competition with native species for food and shelter, to affecting aquaculture facilities and harvests and causing structural damage to river banks. Recent discoveries of androgenic gland (AG)-specific insulin-like peptides (IAGs) in crustaceans and the ability to manipulate them and their encoding transcripts (IAGs) have raised the possibility of sexually manipulating crustacean populations. Sexual manipulation is already a part of sustainable solutions in fish aquaculture and in the bio-control of insect pest species, and attempts are also being made to implement it with crustaceans. As recently exemplified in a commercially important prawn species, IAG silencing, a temporal, non-genetically modifying and non-transmissible intervention, has enabled the production of non-breeding all-male monosex populations that are the progeny of sexually reversed males ('neo-females'). IAG manipulations-based biotechnologies therefore have the potential to radically transform the entire industry. We review here how this proof of concept could be broadened to meet both aquacultural and environmental needs. We include the major cultured decapod crustacean groups and suggest a sustainable solution for the management of invasive and pest crustacean species. We also review the key considerations for devising a

  19. An outbreak of gastroenteritis linked to a buffet lunch served at a Canberra restaurant.

    PubMed

    Sloan-Gardner, Timothy S; Glynn-Robinson, Anna-Jane; Roberts-Witteveen, April; Krsteski, Radomir; Rogers, Keith; Kaye, Andrew; Moffatt, Cameron R M

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred following a buffet lunch at a restaurant in Canberra. An investigation was conducted to identify the cause of illness and to implement appropriate public health measures to prevent further disease. We conducted a retrospective cohort study via telephone interviews, using a structured questionnaire developed from the restaurant buffet menu. A case was defined as someone who ate the buffet lunch at the restaurant on the implicated date and developed any symptoms of gastrointestinal illness (such as diarrhoea, abdominal pain and nausea) following the consumption of food. A total of 74% (225/303) of known attendees were interviewed, of whom 56% (125/225) had become ill. The median incubation period and duration of illness were 13 and 19 hours respectively. The most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (94%, 118/125) and abdominal pain (82%, 103/125). A toxin-mediated gastrointestinal illness was suspected based on the incubation period, duration of illness and the symptoms. The environmental health investigation identified a lack of designated hand washing facilities in the kitchen, an absence of thermometers for measuring food temperatures and several maintenance and minor cleaning issues. A number of food samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Multivariable analysis showed that illness was significantly associated with consuming curried prawns (OR 18.4, 95% CI 8.6-39.3, P < 0.001) and Caesar salad (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.8-7.5, P 0.001). Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus were identified in leftover samples of cooked buffet food, but this food was not epidemiologically implicated. The investigation suggested that a breakdown in cleanliness, temperature control and food handling practices may have resulted in contamination of the buffet food. In order to prevent such outbreaks in the future, caterers and restaurateurs need to ensure they have the appropriate facilities and

  20. Facing up to sea rise.

    PubMed

    Pernetta, J

    1994-01-01

    A milder and less extreme climate, abundance of fish and mollusks, transport and communication, and fertile land at low altitudes have drawn humans to coastal areas and river valleys for centuries. More than 60% of the world's population occupy the 150 km closest to the coast. Millions of tourists come to coastlines and small tropical islands for recreation. About 80% of the global fish supply originates from the 19 km closest to the shore. Fish are the only protein source for the rapidly growing populations in many developing countries. Global climate change is increasing the sea level so much that by 2050, the mean increase will be about 38 cm (24-52 cm). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes that the effects of sea level rise will differ from place to place. Direct effects are flooding of low-lying coastal areas and increased erosion rates. An indirect effect includes higher water tables and intrusion of saline water into aquifers, resulting in loss of fresh ground water resources. These effects may make coastal areas less suitable for settlement and agriculture. Coral sand settled on top of coral reefs makes up the unstable, small atoll islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. People on these islands depend almost entirely on the sea for their livelihood and on the small amount of fresh water with which they grow root crops and drink. Rising sea levels also threaten low lying countries, e.g., Bangladesh, and densely populated deltas, e.g., the Nile. Changes in the frequency and severity of flooding will increase Bangladesh's dependence on foreign aid. IPCC sees 3 possible responses to the rising sea level: defense, retreat, and accommodation. Accommodation is the only practical choice for many developing countries. A switch from rice cultivation to mariculture of prawns and fish is an example of accommodation. We need to more completely understand the natural processes in coastal environments to be better prepared for climate change.

  1. Strong anion exchange liquid chromatographic separation of protein amino acids for natural 13C-abundance determination by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abaye, Daniel A; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom

    2011-02-15

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and the analysis of their (13)C abundances is greatly simplified by the use of liquid chromatography (LC) systems coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) compared with gas chromatography (GC)-based methods. To date, various cation exchange chromatography columns have been employed for amino acid separation. Here, we report strong anion exchange chromatography (SAX) coupled to IRMS with a Liquiface interface for amino acid δ(13)C determination. Mixtures of underivatised amino acids (0.1-0.5 mM) and hydrolysates of representative proteins (prawns and bovine serum albumin) were resolved by LC/IRMS using a SAX column and inorganic eluents. Background inorganic carbon content was minimised through careful preparation of alkaline reagents and use of a pre-injector on-line carbonate removal device. SAX chromatography completely resolved 11 of the 16 expected protein amino acids following acid hydrolysis in underivatised form. Basic and neutral amino acids were resolved with 35 mM NaOH in isocratic mode. Elution of the aromatic and acidic amino acids required a higher hydroxide concentration (180 mM) and a counterion (NO 3-, 5-25 mM). The total run time was 70 min. The average δ(13)C precision of baseline-resolved peaks was 0.75‰ (range 0.04 to 1.06‰). SAX is a viable alternative to cation chromatography, especially where analysis of basic amino acids is important. The technology shows promise for (13)C amino acid analysis in ecology, archaeology, forensic science, nutrition and protein metabolism.

  2. Long-term environmental changes and the responses of the ecosystems in the Bohai Sea during 1960-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xiuren; Lin, Chuanlan; Su, Jilan; Liu, Chenggang; Hao, Qiang; Le, Fengfeng; Tang, Qisheng

    2010-06-01

    The Bohai Sea (BHS), located at the western boundary of the NW Pacific, is a shallow semienclosed sea with an area of about 77×10 3 km 2 and average depth of 18 m, surrounded by fast-developing economic zones and populous lands. Through the Bohai Strait, the BHS connects to the Yellow Sea, one of the 50 large marine ecosystems in the world ocean. The hydrographic conditions there are substantially influenced by river discharges, wind-tide-thermohaline circulation, stratification in summer, and mixing in winter. During the period of 1960-1996, temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the N:P ratio increased from 0.005 to 0.013 °C year -1, 0.04 to 0.13 year -1, 0.45 to 0.61 μmol L -1 year -1, and 1.27 to 1.40 year -1, respectively; while dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, silicon, and the Si:N ratio decreased from -1.59 to -2.30 μmol L -1 year -1, -0.007 to -0.011 μmol L -1 year -1, -0.385 to -0.602 μmol L -1 year -1, and -0.064 to -0.324 year -1, respectively. These changes were primarily caused by a reduced freshwater inflow. Since 1985, the concentrations of P and Si, and the Si:N ratio, have dropped to near-critical levels for diatom growth, while the N:P ratio has been below the Redfield ratio. These changes not only have had an influence on phytoplankton production, but also can decrease recruitment of the Penaeid prawn ( Penaeus chinensis) and change fish community structure and diversity.

  3. Tracking the virus-like particles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in insect cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanapi, Ummi Fairuz; Yong, Chean Yeah; Goh, Zee Hong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2017-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc) produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells. Through fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation, the MrNvc was shown to enter Sf9 cells, and eventually arrived at the nucleus. The presence of MrNvc within the cytoplasm and nucleus of Sf9 cells was further confirmed by the Z-stack imaging. The presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chlorpromazine (CPZ) inhibited the entry of MrNvc into Sf9 cells, but cytochalasin D did not inhibit this process. This suggests that the internalisation of MrNvc VLPs is facilitated by caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The whole internalisation process of MrNvc VLPs into a Sf9 cell was recorded with live cell imaging. We have also identified a potential nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of MrNvc through deletion mutagenesis and verified by classical-NLS mapping. Overall, this study provides an insight into the journey of MrNvc VLPs in insect cells. PMID:28194311

  4. Crystal structure of a crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor suggests structural variety in the C-terminal regions of CHH superfamily members.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Fumio; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is one of the major hormones in crustaceans, and peptides belonging to the CHH superfamily have been found in diverse ecdysozoans. Although the basic function of CHH is to control energy metabolism, it also plays various roles in crustacean species, such as in molting and vitellogenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of Pej-SGP-I-Gly, a partially active precursor of CHH from the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, which has an additional Gly residue in place of the C-terminal amide group of the mature Pej-SGP-I. The 1.6-angstrom crystal structure showed not only the common CHH superfamily scaffold comprising three α-helices, three disulfide bridges, and a hydrophobic core but also revealed that the C-terminal part has a variant backbone fold that is specific to Pej-SGP-I-Gly. The α-helix 4 of Pej-SGP-I-Gly was much longer than that of molt-inhibiting hormone (Pej-MIH) from the same species, and as a result, the following C-terminal helix, corresponding to α-helix 5 in MIH, was not formed. Unlike monomeric Pej-MIH, Pej-SGP-I-Gly forms a homodimer in the crystal structure via its unique α-helix 4. The unexpected dissimilar folds between Pej-SGP-I-Gly and Pej-MIH appear to be the result of their distinct C-terminal amino acid sequences. Variations in amino acid sequences and lengths and the resulting variety of backbone folds allow the C-terminal and sterically adjoining regions to confer different hormonal activities in diverse CHH superfamily members.

  5. Determination of essential elements (copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk and nutritional assessment and mercury-selenium balance.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Hernández, A F; Pla, A; Femia, P; Navas-Acien, A; Gil, F

    2013-12-01

    Fish and shellfish are an important source not only of toxic heavy metals, but also of essential elements in the diet. In this study, levels of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for essential elements content. The potential human health risks for the consumers and the nutritional value of the products analyzed were assessed. Furthermore, the mercury-selenium ratios and the selenium health benefit value (Se-HBVs) were calculated. The highest concentrations of Cu were found in crustaceans species (shrimp and prawn) as they have hemocyanin (a copper-containing protein) that functions as an oxygen-transport molecule. Mn levels were higher in canned bivalve molluscs, such as cockle and clam, and in fresh common sole. Concerning Se, two fresh predatory fish species (tuna and swordfish) presented the most remarkable concentrations of this element. The highest concentration of the essential metals analysed was found for Zn, especially in fresh and canned mussels. All the species analyzed showed beneficial Hg:Se ratios and Se-HBVs, except for the shark species (blue shark and cat shark) and gilt-head bream because of their high Hg levels and low Se content, respectively. Nevertheless, the biomagnification usually observed in hazardous metals such as Hg would not occur for the essential elements measured in predatory species. The estimated daily intakes of the elements studied represented very low percentages of their reference values, ranging from 0.1% (Se) to 3.9% (Cu) for person weighting 60 kg, so the intake of these elements through fish and shellfish would not pose any risk for the average consumer. Moreover, the contribution of fish and shellfish products to the recommended daily allowances and adequate intakes of these mineral elements ranges from 2.5% (Mn) to 25.4% (Se).

  6. The synthesis and characterization of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and the investigation of the fluorescence properties of its 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-chitosan films

    SciTech Connect

    Wahyuningrum, Deana; Zulqarnaen, Muhammad; Suendo, Veinardi

    2014-03-24

    Chitosan fluorescent films containing 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7H4MC) have been successfully prepared. Used chitosan was obtained from chitin isolated from skin of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) through the deproteination, demineralization, and deacetylation process. The yields of chitin and chitosan are 10.66% and 23.83%, respectively. The chitosan has 55.00% degree of deacetylation based on FTIR spectroscopy. Average molecular mass of chitosan which was determined by Ostwald viscometry method is 8.55 × 10{sup 6} g/mol. The 7H4MC was synthesized from resorcinol and ethyl acetoacetate using amberlyst-15 as catalyst based on Pechmann reaction with chemical yields of 90.01% and the melting point of 189–190°C. The FTIR, {sup 1}H–NMR, and {sup 13}C–NMR spectroscopies confirmed the structure which corresponds to the structure of 7H4MC. The films of chitosan containing 7H4MC were prepared by solvent evaporation method in 2% (v/v) acetic acid. The 7H4MC content in each film was 0% (blank), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% (w/w). The UV-Vis spectrum of 7H4MC in methanol showed λ{sub max} at 235 and 337 nm. The observed fluorescence is the fluorescence color of cyan. The excitation wavelengths are 200, 235, 275, 337, and 365 nm. The highest intensity of cyan color fluorescence of chitosan containing 7H4MC films was obtained at the concentration of 0.2% of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin at the excitation wavelength of 275 nm.

  7. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. Reconciling the role of organic matter pathways in aquatic food webs by measuring multiple tracers in individuals.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; Woods, Ryan; Marshall, Jonathan; Fawcetr, James; Lobegeiger, Jaye; Valdez, Dominic; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    Few studies measure multiple ecological tracers in individual organisms, thus limiting our ability to differentiate among organic matter source pathways and understand consequences of dietary variation and the use of external subsidies in complex food webs. We combined two tracers, stable isotope (SI) ratios and fatty acids (FA), to investigate linkages among ecological compartments (water column, benthos, riparian zone) in food webs in waterholes of a dryland river network, the Border Rivers in southwestern Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive analyses of sources (plankton, periphyton, leaf litter, riparian grasses) and animals (benthic insects, mollusks, large crustaceans, fishes) for SI and FA showed that all three zones contribute to animal biomass, depending on species and life stage. Large fishes derived a subsidy from the riparian/floodplain zone, likely through the consumption of terrestrial and semi-aquatic insects and prawns that fed on detritivorous insects. Importantly, post-larval bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) and golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) were tightly connected to the water column, as evidenced by 13C-depleted, 15N-enriched isotope ratios and a high content of plankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:53] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6003]). These observations were consistent with expectations from nutritional requirements of fish early life stages and habitat changes associated with maturity. These results highlight the importance of high-quality foods during early development of fishes, and show that attempting to attribute food-web production to a single source pathway overlooks important but often subtle subsidies that maintain viable populations. A complete understanding of food-web dynamics must consider both quantity and quality of different available organic matter sources. This understanding can be achieved with a combined SI and FA approach, but more controlled dietary studies are needed to

  9. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Lydia S.; Chen, Xinyu; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs) and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI) between 4.7 (±1.56) and 7.5 (±0.02) log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (±0.10) and 4.5 (±1.04) log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities < 1 NTU, which meet turbidity standards of the US EPA and guidance by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to WHO health-based microbial removal targets for household water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions. PMID:26927152

  10. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L−1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L−1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L−1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  11. Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and

  12. Molecular characterization of a cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D X; Chen, L Q; Qin, J G; Qin, C J; Zhang, H; Wu, P; Li, E C

    2014-11-11

    A cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Es-cMnSOD) was cloned from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of Es-cMnSOD is 867 bp in length and encodes a 288-amino acid protein without a signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the translated protein of Es-cMnSOD is 31.43 kDa, with an estimated isoelectric point of 6.30. The deduced amino acid sequence of Es-cMnSOD has similarities of 90, 89, 84, 87, and 81% to those of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei MnSOD, black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon MnSOD, giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii MnSOD, blue crab Callinectes sapidus MnSOD, and red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii MnSOD, respectively. Es-cMnSOD contains a manganese superoxide dismutase domain (DVWEHAYY) and 4 conserved amino acids responsible for binding manganese. Es-cMnSOD was expressed in the hemocytes, eyestalk, muscle, intestine, gill, and hepatopancreas. Es-cMnSOD transcripts in hemocytes of E. sinensis increased at 1.5 and 48 h after injection of Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that the induction of the SOD system response occurred within a short period of time. This study suggests that MnSOD may play a critical role in crab immunity, allowing efficient activation of an early innate immune response in the crab.

  13. Does 'you are what you eat' apply to mangrove grapsid crabs?

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Hong Hanh; Lee, Shing Yip

    2014-01-01

    In tropical mangroves, brachyuran crabs have been observed to consume high percentages of leaf litter production. However, questions concerning their ability to assimilate this low-quality food remain, as stable isotope analysis of C and N does not seem to support assimilation. Individuals of the common eastern Australian mangrove grapsid Parasesarma erythodactyla feeding on a mangrove leaf litter or mangrove+microphytobenthos diet developed a significantly higher hepatosomatic index than those with access to only sediment. Lipid biomarker analysis and feeding experiments using (13)C and (15)N-enriched mangrove leaf litter confirmed rapid assimilation of mangrove C and N by P. erythodactyla. Eight-week feeding experiments utilizing three food types (mangrove leaf litter, microphytobenthos and prawn muscle) established different food-specific trophic discrimination values (Δδ(13)C and Δδ(15)N) that are significantly different from those commonly applied to mixing model calculations. The mean Δδ(13)C(crab-mangrove) of +5.45‰ was close to the mean and median literature values for grapsid-mangrove pairs in 29 past studies (+5.2 ± 1.8‰ and +5.6‰, respectively), suggesting that this large discrimination may generally be characteristic of detritivorous grapsid crabs. Solutions from the IsoConc mixing model using our determined trophic discrimination values suggest significantly higher and dominant contributions of mangrove C to the diet than those based on the global mean trophic discrimination values. Our results reaffirm the physiological capacity for and important mediating role of grapsid crabs in processing low-quality mangrove C in tropical estuaries, and caution against the use of global trophic discrimination values in stable isotope analysis of food-web data, especially those involving detritivores. While recent studies have questioned the trophic significance of mangrove detritus in coastal food chains, the contribution of this productive carbon

  14. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available.

  15. Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community.

    PubMed

    Dunham, A; Pegg, J R; Carolsfeld, W; Davies, S; Murfitt, I; Boutillier, J

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effects of submarine power transmission cable installation and operation on glass sponge reef condition and associated megafauna. Video and still imagery were collected using a Remotely Operated Vehicle twice a year for 4 years following cable installation. The effects of cables on glass sponges were assessed by comparing sponge cover along fixed transects and at marked index sites. Megafauna counts along transects were used to explore the effects on associated community. We found no evidence of cable movement across the sponge reef surface. Live sponge cover was found to be consistently lower along cable transects and at cable index sites compared to controls. Live sponge cover was the lowest (55 ± 1.1% decrease) at cable index sites 1.5 years after installation and recovered to 85 ± 30.6% of the original size over the following 2 years. Our data suggest 100% glass sponge mortality along the direct cable footprint and 15% mortality in the surrounding 1.5 m corridor 3.5 years after cable installation. Growth rate of a new glass sponge was 1 and 3 cm/year in first and second year, respectively, and appeared to be seasonal. We observed a diverse megafaunal community with representatives from 7 phyla and 14 classes. Total megafauna, spot prawn, and other Arthropoda abundances were slightly lower along cable transects although the effect of cable presence was not statistically significant. The following measures could be taken to reduce the amount of damage to glass sponge reefs and associated fauna: routing the cable around reefs, whenever possible, minimizing cable movement across the surface of the reef at installation and routine operation, and assessing potential damage to glass sponges prior to decommissioning.

  16. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  17. Expression profile of ribosomal protein L10a throughout gonadal development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Makkapan, Walaiporn; Yoshizaki, Goro; Tashiro, Masami; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2014-08-01

    Ribosomal protein L10a (RpL10A) has been previously established as a stimulator during the early stages of ovarian development in both the banana prawn and the fruit fly. In order to develop a greater understanding of the role of this protein in vertebrates, the present study aimed to characterize the expression profile of rpl10a during gonadal development in fish. It was determined that the expression of rpl10a within genital ridges increased during embryonic development. Although rpl10a expression was observed in both gonadal somatic cells and primordial germ cells, higher levels of both transcript and protein expression were detected in somatic cells. rpl10a transcripts were observed in all of the adult tissues examined. Cellular level expression of rpl10a was subsequently characterized across various maturational stages using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of both testes and ovaries. Analysis of tissue derived from the testis showed high levels of rpl10a expression within spermatogonia and the Sertoli cells attached to them. In ovarian tissue, rpl10a was strongly expressed in chromatin-nucleolus-stage and peri-nucleolus-stage oocytes. The relationship between rpl10a expression and regulation of gonadal development was confirmed using real-time PCR, which was performed in order to analyze rpl10a expression in testicular and ovarian tissues subsequent to incubation with salmon pituitary extract and various sex steroids for 24 h. Among them, 11-ketotestosterone at 100 ng/mL effectively up-regulated expression of rpl10a in testicular tissues, while 17β-estradiol down-regulated rpl10a expression in ovarian tissues. These results suggested that rpl10a played a role in the regulation of gonadal development in fish.

  18. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  19. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Charles L; Robinson, Tamara B; Lange, Louise; Mead, Angela

    2010-08-02

    Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of just over 1 million km(2). Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System) data center (which stores data from a wider African region). A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy) and demersal (hake) sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well-conserved coastline

  20. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara; Litulo, Carlos; Macia, Adriano; Mrabu, Elisha J.; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was based on experimental data collected mainly in Chinese mangrove systems, which proved that mangrove soils were efficient in absorbing nutrients. Moreover, sewage loading seemed harmless to both plants and benthic communities in these systems. However, before promoting the use of natural mangroves as pollution buffers, or constructed mangrove wetlands as sewage treatment facilities, more data are needed on their overall tolerance to organic loading. Differences in macrobenthos patterns were thus investigated between peri-urban mangroves and sites not affected by sewage disposal in East Africa. We assessed differences in epifaunal assemblages, comprising crabs and molluscs, employing multivariate ACI unbalanced analyses to compare peri-urban mangrove swamps with those characteristic of non-urban mangroves with similar ecological traits. The sampling design was spatially nested, replicates being assessed at equatorial (southern Kenya) and subtropical (southern Mozambique) sites. The results manifested a consistent increase in crab biomass at the peri-urban sites in both Kenya and Mozambique. Moreover, the peri-urban systems were richer than the non-urban mangroves, both in terms of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp.) which feed on benthic microalgae and bacteria, and sesarmids, such as Perisesarma guttatum and Neosarmatium meinerti, which feed on both substratum and leaf litter. The abundance of gastropods, in contrast, decreased significantly, especially in Kenya, mainly due to the disappearance of the mud whelk Terebralia palustris. The results thus indicate that

  1. Monitoring marine heavy metal contamination via the chemical analysis of foraminifera and growth increments in bivalves - a pilot study from a Pb and Zn mining region in western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, C.; Asmund, G.; Elberling, B.; Frei, D.; Knudsen, C.; Rasmussen, P.

    2011-12-01

    Annual monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in the fjords (sea water, seaweed, lichens, blue mussels, shorthorn sculpin and Northern prawn) adjacent to the Black Angel lead-zinc mine (active 1973-1990) at Maarmorilik, western Greenland was initiated during operation of the mine and continues through to today. This pilot study tests whether the calcareous shells of bivalves and foraminifera register these known variations in heavy metal concentrations. Live individuals of Mytilus edulis were collected through a transect of monitoring stations in 2009 and PB-Zn concentrations were measured at multiple points within the yearly increments using LA-ICP-MS. Individuals aged between 12 and 28 years were measured and demonstrated a clear signal of mine closure even at 40 km distance from the plant. Foraminifera (Melonis barleeanus) from a sediment core dating from 1880 AD to present have previously been shown to display a greater percentage of deformities during the period of mining activity (Elberling et al. 2003) possibly suggesting a correlation between heavy metal concentrations in sea water and morphological development. LA-ICP-MS analysis of individual foraminifera confirms an increase in Pb-Zn uptake during mining operations. Although it could therefore be expected that Pb-Zn concentrations would be enhanced in the 'deformed' foraminifera relative to the 'non-deformed', no difference in Pb-Zn was concentrations was detected. This short pilot study (Jessen et al.2010) demonstrates the potential of calcareous material as indicators of environmental pollution and their applicability as a monitoring tool in remote regions. Jessen CA, Asmund G, Elberling B, Frei D, Knudsen C and Rasmussen P. 2010 Monitoring marine heavy metal contamination via the chemical analysis of growth increments in bivalves - a pilot study. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 2010/86. 1-20 Elberling, B., Knudsen, K. L., Kristensen, P. H., and Asmund, G. (2003) Applying

  2. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  3. A compendium of causative agents of occupational asthma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective is to provide an evidence-based compendium of allergenic and irritant agents that are known to cause occupational asthma in order to improve diagnostics and disease management. Methods Two previously published reviews from our group utilized database searches to identify studies which were then rated according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) grading system. The evidence level for each causative agent or worksite was graded using the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) three-star system. Results Approximately 3,000 relevant papers were identified, which covered 372 different causes of allergic and 184 different causes of irritant occupational asthma. The highest level achieved using the SIGN grading system was 2++, indicating a high quality study with a very low risk of confounding or bias and a high probability of a causal relationship. Using the modified RCGP three-star grading system, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent or worksite ('***') was found for exposure to laboratory animals. Associations with moderate evidence level (‘**’) were obtained for a) the allergenic agents or worksites: alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae, various enzymes from Bacillus subtilis, papain, bakeries, western red cedar, latex, psyllium, storage mites, rat, carmine, egg proteins, Atlantic salmon, fishmeal, Norway lobster, prawn, snow crab, seafood, trout and turbot, reactive dyes, b) the irritant agents or worksites: benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid, 1,2- anhydride [trimellitic anhydride], chlorine, cobalt, cement, environmental tobacco smoke, grain, welding fumes, construction work, swine confinement, World Trade Center disaster 2001, and c) agents or worksites causing allergic as well as irritant occupational asthma, included farming, poultry confinement, various isocyanates and platinum salts. A low evidence level (RCGP) was obtained for 84 agents or worksites (42 from each group

  4. Scavenger assemblages under differing trophic conditions: a case study in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janßen, Felix; Treude, Tina; Witte, Ursula

    Baited cameras and traps were deployed at four stations in the deep Arabian Sea to investigate the composition of the necrophagous fauna and to evaluate whether regional differences in trophic conditions are reflected by differing scavenger assemblages. The ophidiid fish Barathrites iris, the large lysianassoid amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, the aristeid prawn Plesiopenaeus armatus, and zoarcid fishes of the genus Pachycara were abundant at the bait at all stations. The ophidiid Holcomycteronus aequatorius, the liparid fish Paraliparis sp., and galatheid crabs of the genus Munidopsis occurred in considerable numbers at single sites. Trap catches further contained lysianassoid amphipods of the genera Paralicella, Abyssorchomene and Paracallisoma. In contrast to scavenger assemblages of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, macrourid fishes were virtually absent at the bait. E. gryllus and B. iris consumed the main proportion of the bait, while consumption was at most moderate in all other taxa. Feeding strategies of the respective taxa are inferred from their behavior at the bait and discussed with regard to the profit that can be drawn from food falls. Differences between stations were pronounced with respect to species dominating bait consumption. E. gryllus appeared in highest numbers at the bait in the productive northern and central Arabian Sea where a relatively high availability of food items is expected to sustain high population densities. High numbers of B. iris in the least productive southern part indicate their ability to persist under food-poor conditions and may correspond to a high dependency on food falls. E. gryllus and B. iris both occurred in smaller numbers in the particularly productive western Arabian Sea. This may reflect a reduced dependency on food falls, due to an access to alternative food sources, rather than small population densities. Smaller numbers of E. gryllus and B. iris resulted in slower bait consumption and gave Pachycara spp. the

  5. Transcript profiles of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic manganese superoxide dismutases in Exopalaemon carinicauda under ammonia stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai; Li, Jian; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping; Liang, Zhongxiu; Wu, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the most important antioxidant defense enzymes, and is considered as the first line against oxidative stress. In this study, we cloned a mitochondrial manganese (Mn) SOD ( mMnSOD) cDNA from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA for mMnSOD was 1 014-bp long, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 37-bp, a 3'-UTR of 321-bp with a poly (A) tail, and included a 657-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 218 amino acids with a 16-amino-acid signal peptide. The protein had a calculated molecular weight of 23.87 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.75. The mMnSOD sequence included two putative N-glycosylation sites (NHT and NLS), the MnSOD signature sequence 180DVWEHAYY187, and four putative Mn binding sites (H48, H96, D180, and H184). Sequence comparison showed that the mMnSOD deduced amino acid sequence of E. carinicauda shared 97%, 95%, 89%, 84%, 82%, 72%, and 69% identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Macrobrachium nipponense, Fenneropeneaus chinensis, Callinectes sapidus, Perisesarma bidens, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, resectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that mMnSOD transcripts were present in all E. carinicauda tissues examined, with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas. During an ammonia stress treatment, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD were up-regulated at 12 h in hemocytes and at 24 h in the hepatopancreas. As the duration of the ammonia stress treatment extended to 72 h, the transcript levels of mMnSOD and cMnSOD significantly decreased both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. These findings indicate that the SOD system is induced to respond to acute ammonia stress, and may be involved in environmental stress responses in E. carinicauda.

  6. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  7. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates TNF production and haemocyte phagocytosis in the immune response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoqun; Yang, Bin; Jia, Yunke; Song, Xiaorui; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-29

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase firstly identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis. Recently, it has been proved to be a key regulator of the immune reaction. In the present study, a GSK3 homolog gene (designated as EsGSK3) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1824 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 607 amino acids. There was a conserved Serine/Threonine Kinase domain and a DNA binding domain found in EsGSK3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsGSK3 was firstly clustered with GSK3-β from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in the invertebrate branch, while GSK3s from vertebrates formed the other distinct branch. EsGSK3 mRNA transcripts could be detected in all tested tissues of the crab including haepatopancreas, eyestalk, muscle, gonad, haemocytes and haematopoietic tissue with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas. And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of EsGSK3 mRNA increased significantly at 6 h after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge (p < 0.05) in comparison with control group, and then gradually decreased to the initial level at 48 h (p > 0.05). The mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α factor (EsLITAF) was also induced by A. hydrophila challenge. However, the mRNA expression of EsLITAF and TNF-α production was significantly suppressed after EsGSK3 was blocked in vivo with specific inhibitor lithium, while the phagocytosis of crab haemocytes was significantly promoted. These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis.

  8. Total and inorganic arsenic in the fauna of the Guadalquivir estuary: environmental and human health implications.

    PubMed

    Suñer, M A; Devesa, V; Muñoz, O; López, F; Montoro, R; Arias, A M; Blasco, J

    1999-12-06

    To evaluate the impact on fauna of the release of toxic waste from the tailings dam operated by the Boliden Apirsa S.L company at Aznalcóllar, Seville (Spain) a study was carried out of total and inorganic arsenic contents in 164 samples from six different estuary species, including molluscs, crustaceans and fish, collected at six sampling stations distributed along the estuary and mouth of the River Guadalquivir. The contents found, expressed in micrograms per gram wet weight, were as follows. Total arsenic: Crassostrea angulata--giant cupped oyster (2.44 +/- 0.45); Scrobicularia plana--peppery furrow (2.50 +/- 0.73); Palaemon longirostris--delta prawn (1.33 +/- 0.54); Uca tangeri--AfroEuropean fiddler crab (1.76 +/- 0.08); Melicertus kerathurus--shrimp (3.60 +/- 1.92); and Liza ramada--mullet (0.65 +/- 0.38). Inorganic arsenic: C. angulata (0.09 +/- 0.02); S. plana (0.38 +/- 0.23); P. longirostris (0.04 +/- 0.01); U. tangeri (0.22 +/- 0.03); M. kerathurus (0.03 +/- 0.01); and L. ramada (0.03 +/- 0.03). The levels of total As are comparable to those obtained by other authors. With respect to inorganic arsenic, only S. plana and U. tangeri present high levels of inorganic arsenic. This may be due to the fact that these organisms live in estuary sediments, reservoirs of inorganic arsenic, and ingest particles of sediments during feeding. Because of the lack of information for this area concerning previous levels of total and inorganic arsenic in the species analysed, it was not possible to establish the impact on the fauna of the River Guadalquivir estuary of the toxic spill resulting from the failure of the mine tailings dam at Aznalcóllar. With respect to the implications to human health as a result of consumption of species from the Guadalquivir estuary, only with the species Scrobicularia plana, as a high consumption of this mollusc might, in some cases, exceed the maximum tolerable intake for inorganic arsenic indicated by the FAO/WHO. Consumption of the

  9. A second proPO present in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and expression of the proPOs during a Vibrio alginolyticus injection, molt stage, and oral sodium alginate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Yi; Liu, Chun-Hung; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Cheng, Winton

    2009-01-01

    Prophenoloxidase (proPO) is a melanin-synthesising enzyme that plays important roles in immune responses by crustaceans. Previously, we cloned and characterized proPO-I from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, a novel prophenoloxidase-II (proPO-II) cDNA was also cloned from haemocytes of L. vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by the rapid amplification of complementary (c)DNA end (RACE) method. The 2504-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2073 bp, an 84-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 347-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (691 amino acids) was 78.8 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.07. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp proPO-II is more closely related to the proPO of other penaeids than to that of crayfish, lobsters, crab, or a freshwater prawn, and is the ancestor type of known penaeid proPOs. proPO-I and proPO-II messenger (m)RNAs of shrimp were located on different loci, and were constitutively expressed mainly in haemocytes. The transcriptional regulation of these two proPOs in shrimp at different molt stages, those administered dietary sodium alginate, and those challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus were surveyed. The results showed that the proPOs may be directly involved in the acute-phase immune defence, and proPO-II may contribute earlier to immune defence in shrimp injected with V. alginolyticus, and it may be regulated by ecdysone. However, a similar effect was found by stimulating proPO-I and proPO-II mRNA expression in shrimp fed a sodium alginate-containing diet. Results of this study provide a basis for developing a comprehensive understanding of expression/function relationships of individual pro

  10. Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J.; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

  11. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  12. Marine Biodiversity in South Africa: An Evaluation of Current States of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Charles L.; Robinson, Tamara B.; Lange, Louise; Mead, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of just over 1 million km2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System) data center (which stores data from a wider African region). A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m—indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy) and demersal (hake) sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone—the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  13. Aeromonas jandaei (formerly genospecies DNA group 9 A. sobria), a new sucrose-negative species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, A; Fanning, G R; Joseph, S W

    1991-01-01

    . The esculin-, sucrose-, and cellobiose-negative and colistin-resistant profile distinguished A. jandaei from other Aeromonas species. These A. jandaei strains were isolated from blood (two strains), wounds (two strains), diarrheal stools (four strains), and a prawn (one strain). The blood and wound isolates, in particular, suggest that there is a possible clinical significance for this species and justify identification of and further research on this group of motile aeromonads. PMID:2037673

  14. Optimizing the sensory characteristics and acceptance of canned cat food: use of a human taste panel.

    PubMed

    Pickering, G J

    2009-02-01

    A methodology based on descriptive analysis techniques used in the evaluation of human food has been successfully refined to allow for a human taste panel to profile the flavour and texture of a range of cat food products (CFP) and their component parts. Included in this method is the development of evaluation protocols for homogeneous products and for binary samples containing both meat chunk (MC) and gravy/gel (GG) constituents. Using these techniques, 18 flavour attributes (sweet, sour/acid, tuna, herbal, spicy, soy, salty, cereal, caramel, chicken, methionine, vegetable, offaly, meaty, burnt flavour, prawn, rancid and bitter) and four texture dimensions (hardness, chewiness, grittiness and viscosity) were generated to describe the sensations elicited by 13 commercial pet food samples. These samples differed in intensity for 16 of the 18 flavour attributes, which allows for individual CFP flavour profiles to be developed. Principal components analysis (PCA) could successfully discriminate between samples within the PCA space and also reveal some groupings amongst them. While many flavour attributes were weakly correlated, a large number (describing both taste and retro-nasal aroma qualities) were required to adequately differentiate between samples, suggesting considerable complexity in the products assessed. For both MC and GG, differences between samples for each of the texture dimensions were also found. For MC, grittiness appears to be the most discriminating textural attribute, while for GG viscosity discriminates well between samples. Meat chunks and gravy/gels differed significantly from each other in both flavour and texture. Cat food products differed in their liking ratings, although no differences were found between homogeneous, MC and GG samples, and eight flavour attributes were correlated with overall liking scores. It is now necessary to determine the usefulness and limits of sensory data gathered from human panels in describing and predicting

  15. Biomonitoring of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in the Baluarte River basin associated to a mining area (NW Mexico).

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M

    2011-08-15

    With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 μg g ⁻¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 μg g⁻¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 μg g⁻¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 μg g⁻¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 μg g⁻¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 μg g⁻¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (p<0.025), Cr (p<0.10) and Hg (p<0.15) were significantly higher during the rainy season. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  16. Immune responses of prophenoloxidase and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus against a virus and bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ting; Chang, Chin-I; Hseu, Jinn-Rong; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Jyh-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Prophenoloxidase (proPO) and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD) play crucial roles in crustacean innate immunity. In the present study, both of the above genes were cloned from hemocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed that C. quadricarinatus proPO and cytMnSOD were more closely related to the proPO and cytMnSOD of other crayfish than to those of penaeids, crabs, lobsters, or freshwater prawns. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that proPO was primarily expressed in hemocytes, gills, and the heart, while cytMnSOD was detected in all tissues examined. All of the crayfish artificially infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) died within 4 days. According to a non-lethal dose, there was no mortality in crayfish when infected deliberately with Aeromonas hydrophila. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) had significantly decreased in crayfish at 48 and 72 h after infection with WSSV compared to the control group. In contrast, THCs of crayfish after A. hydrophila challenge had recovered by 48 and 72 h from a lower level at 24 h. There were similar responses in enzyme activities toward WSSV and A. hydrophila infection. Phenoloxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities per hemocyte significantly increased from 48 to 72 h compared to the control group. After WSSV challenge, expressions of proPO and cytMnSOD transcripts in hemocytes significantly decreased at 12h, then had respectively recovered and increased at 24 h. At 48-72 h, transcript levels were finally downregulated. No significant differences in the expression profiles of proPO and cytMnSOD were observed between the A. hydrophila-infected and control groups, besides the significant upregulation at 24h post-infection. These results implicate proPO and cytMnSOD in the immune response, and they presented similar expression patterns, although different defense mechanisms may exist for crayfish induced by WSSV and A

  17. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human–Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Human–tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger–human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. METHODS This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human–animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. RESULTS The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed

  18. Chitins and chitosans as immunoadjuvants and non-allergenic drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Muzzarelli, Riccardo A A

    2010-02-21

    amplified during many infections and diseases, the common feature of chitinase-like proteins and chitinase activity in all organisms appears to be the biochemical defense of the host. Unfortunately, conceptual and methodological errors are present in certain recent articles dealing with chitin and allergy, i.e., (1) omitted consideration of mammalian chitinase and/or chitotriosidase secretion, accompanied by inactive chitinase-like proteins, as an ancestral defensive means against invasion, capable to prevent the insurgence of allergy; (2) omitted consideration of the fact that the mammalian organism recognizes more promptly the secreted water soluble chitinase produced by a pathogen, rather than the insoluble and well protected chitin within the pathogen itself; (3) superficial and incomplete reports and investigations on chitin as an allergen, without mentioning the potent allergen from crustacean flesh, tropomyosine; (4) limited perception of the importance of the chemical/biochemical characteristics of the isolated chitin or chitosan for the replication of experiments and optimization of results; and (5) lack of interdisciplinarity. There is quite a large body of knowledge today on the use of chitosans as biomaterials, and more specifically as drug carriers for a variety of applications: the delivery routes being the same as those adopted for the immunological studies. Said articles, that devote attention to the safety and biocompatibility aspects, never reported intolerance or allergy in individuals and animals, even when the quantities of chitosan used in single experiments were quite large. Therefore, it is concluded that crab, shrimp, prawn and lobster chitins, as well as chitosans of all grades, once purified, should not be considered as "crustacean derivatives", because the isolation procedures have removed proteins, fats and other contaminants to such an extent as to allow them to be classified as chemicals regardless of their origin.

  19. Study Into Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Energetic Fuel / Badania Spalania OSADÓW ŚCIEKOWYCH Jako Paliwa Energetycznego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Środa, Katarzyna; Otwinowski, Henryk

    2013-12-01

    Along with the development of civilisation, it can be observed that the amount of waste of different type is growing and the preparation process for further usage of the waste or the utilization process differs. What is to be focused on is municipal sewage sludge which, due to its energetic properties, constitutes a valuable fuel. The problem of usage of municipal sewage sludge remains still unsolved, which stems both from the increasing amount of such waste, and from the lack of properly adjusted systems for thermal processing thereof. What is of an additional obstacle are the increasingly stricter legal regulations regarding disposal of sewage sludge after the year 2013; hence, it is necessary to consider various benefits resulting from thermal processing of such waste. This work presents an overview of methods of disposal of sewage sludge, taking into consideration, in particular, thermal methods including the process of combustion and co-combustion as a means of successful utilization. The research section of the work presents the results of study into the mechanism and kinetics of combustion of sewage sludge in various conditions of the process carried out in air flow. Combustion of sewage sludge has been compared against combustion of coal and biomass. Wraz z rozwojem cywilizacji zaobserwować można postępujące powstawanie różnego rodzaju odpadów różniących się, m.in. sposobem przygotowania do dalszego wykorzystania, czy procesem utylizacji. Na szczególną uwagę zasługują komunalne osady ściekowe, które z uwagi na właściwości energetyczne stanowią cenne paliwo. Problem wykorzystania komunalnych osadów ściekowych jest nadal otwarty, a wynika to zarówno z rosnącej produkcji tych odpadów, jak i braku odpowiednio przystosowanych instalacji do termicznego ich przekształcania. Dodatkowym utrudnieniem są zaostrzające się przepisy prawne dotyczące składowania osadów ściekowych po 2013 r. skłaniające tym samym do rozważań nad korzy

  20. Evaluation and Management of the Gas and Rock Outburst Hazard in the Light of International Legal Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, Norbert; Wierzbicki, Mirosław

    2014-12-01

    As part of the present article, the Authors analyzed relevant legal rules that are in force in countries where the gas and coal outburst hazard occurs (Australia, the Czech Republic, China, Germany, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine). Similarities and differences between particular solutions were highlighted. As the subject of the analysis were the original legal standards, the article incorporates the parameter symbols and units adopted in the discussed regulations. W ramach niniejszej pracy poddano analizie obowiązujące rozwiązania prawne z krajów, gdzie występuje zagrożenie wyrzutami gazu i węgla (Australia, Czechy, Chiny, Niemcy, Polska, Rosja, Ukraina). Zwrócono uwagę na podobieństwa i różnice w poszczególnych rozwiązaniach. Ze względu na analizę oryginalnych rozwiązań legislacyjnych w opracowaniu pozostawione zostały stosowane w odpowiednich przepisach oznaczenia parametrów oraz ich jednostki. Istnieje duże podobieństwo w obrębie przepisów w krajach europejskich. Podobieństwo to dotyczy zarówno ogólnej koncepcji przepisów, w których dąży się do maksymalnego sformalizowania nakładanych wymogów, łącznie ze wskazaniem konkretnych parametrów górniczych oraz ich wartości kryterialnych, na bazie których klasyfikowane są pokłady węglowe, bądź ich części, do poszczególnych klas zagrożenia wyrzutowego. Podobne podejście w ustawodawstwie w zakresie bezpieczeństwa w górnictwie reprezentują Chiny. W całkowitej opozycji do przepisów europejskich i chińskich znajdują się przepisy amerykańskie i australijskie. W przepisach tych wyraźnie zaakcentowany jest fakt, iż charakter ryzyka wyrzutowego jest bardzo lokalny, więc trudno go uogólniać nie tylko między kopalniami, ale również w poszczególnych wyrobiskach. Jedno, niezmienne podejście do zarządzania ryzykiem, zgodnie z przepisami australijskimi, jest więc niewłaściwe. Przepisy te nie podają szczegółowego opisu, w jaki sposób prowadzić zarz