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Sample records for prazosin

  1. Effect of adrenergic blockers, carvedilol, prazosin, metoprolol and combination of prazosin and metoprolol on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zubairi, Maysaa B; Ahmed, Jawad H; Al-Haroon, Sawsan S

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate hepatoprotective potential of carvedilol, prazosin, metoprolol and prazosin plus metoprolol in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Thirty-six male rabbits were divided into six groups, six in each, group 1 received distilled water, group 2 were treated with paracetamol (1 g/kg/day, orally), group 3, 4,5 and 6 were treated at a dose in (mg/kg/day) of the following: Carvedilol (10 mg), prazosin (0.5 mg), metoprolol (10 mg), and a combination of metoprolol (10 mg) and prazosin (0.5 mg) respectively 1 h before paracetamol treatment. All treatments were given for 9 days; animals were sacrificed at day 10. Liver function tests, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenates were estimated. Histopathological examinations of liver were performed. Histopathological changes of hepatotoxicity were found in all paracetamol-treated rabbits. The histopathological findings of paracetamol toxicity disappeared in five rabbits on prazosin, very mild in one. In carvedilol group paracetamol toxicity completely disappeared in three, while mild in three rabbits. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity was not changed by metoprolol. In metoprolol plus prazosin treated rabbits, moderate histopathological changes were observed. Serum liver function tests and MDA in serum and in liver homogenate were elevated; GSH was depleted after paracetamol treatment and returned back to the control value on prior treatment with prazosin. MDA in serum and liver homogenate, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin were significantly decreased after carvedilol and prazosin plus metoprolol treatments. Carvedilol and prazosin are hepatoprotective in paracetamol hepatotoxicity, combination of prazosin and metoprolol have moderate, and metoprolol has a little hepatoprotection.

  2. Effect of adrenergic blockers, carvedilol, prazosin, metoprolol and combination of prazosin and metoprolol on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Maysaa B.; Ahmed, Jawad H.; Al-Haroon, Sawsan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate hepatoprotective potential of carvedilol, prazosin, metoprolol and prazosin plus metoprolol in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male rabbits were divided into six groups, six in each, group 1 received distilled water, group 2 were treated with paracetamol (1 g/kg/day, orally), group 3, 4,5 and 6 were treated at a dose in (mg/kg/day) of the following: Carvedilol (10 mg), prazosin (0.5 mg), metoprolol (10 mg), and a combination of metoprolol (10 mg) and prazosin (0.5 mg) respectively 1 h before paracetamol treatment. All treatments were given for 9 days; animals were sacrificed at day 10. Liver function tests, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenates were estimated. Histopathological examinations of liver were performed. Results: Histopathological changes of hepatotoxicity were found in all paracetamol-treated rabbits. The histopathological findings of paracetamol toxicity disappeared in five rabbits on prazosin, very mild in one. In carvedilol group paracetamol toxicity completely disappeared in three, while mild in three rabbits. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity was not changed by metoprolol. In metoprolol plus prazosin treated rabbits, moderate histopathological changes were observed. Serum liver function tests and MDA in serum and in liver homogenate were elevated; GSH was depleted after paracetamol treatment and returned back to the control value on prior treatment with prazosin. MDA in serum and liver homogenate, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin were significantly decreased after carvedilol and prazosin plus metoprolol treatments. Conclusion: Carvedilol and prazosin are hepatoprotective in paracetamol hepatotoxicity, combination of prazosin and metoprolol have moderate, and metoprolol has a little hepatoprotection. PMID:25538338

  3. Investigation of the Atypical Glass Transition and Recrystallization Behavior of Amorphous Prazosin Salts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lokesh; Popat, Dharmesh; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript studied the effect of counterion on the glass transition and recrystallization behavior of amorphous salts of prazosin. Three amorphous salts of prazosin, namely, prazosin hydrochloride, prazosin mesylate and prazosin tosylate were prepared by spray drying, and characterized by optical-polarized microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the glass transition and recrystallization temperature of amorphous salts. Glass transition of amorphous salts followed the order: prazosin mesylate > prazosin tosylate ∼ prazosin hydrochloride. Amorphous prazosin mesylate and prazosin tosylate showed glass transition, followed by recrystallization. In contrast, amorphous prazosin hydrochloride showed glass transition and recrystallization simultaneously. Density Functional Theory, however, suggested the expected order of glass transition as prazosin hydrochloride > prazosin mesylate > prazosin tosylate. The counterintuitive observation of amorphous prazosin hydrochloride having lower glass transition was explained in terms of its lower activation energy (206.1 kJ/mol) for molecular mobility at Tg, compared to that for amorphous prazosin mesylate (448.5 kJ/mol) and prazosin tosylate (490.7 kJ/mol), and was further correlated to a difference in hydrogen bonding strength of the amorphous and the corresponding recrystallized salts. This study has implications in selection of an optimal amorphous salt form for pharmaceutical development. PMID:24310595

  4. Investigation of the atypical glass transition and recrystallization behavior of amorphous prazosin salts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokesh; Popat, Dharmesh; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-08-25

    This manuscript studied the effect of counterion on the glass transition and recrystallization behavior of amorphous salts of prazosin. Three amorphous salts of prazosin, namely, prazosin hydrochloride, prazosin mesylate and prazosin tosylate were prepared by spray drying, and characterized by optical-polarized microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the glass transition and recrystallization temperature of amorphous salts. Glass transition of amorphous salts followed the order: prazosin mesylate > prazosin tosylate ~ prazosin hydrochloride. Amorphous prazosin mesylate and prazosin tosylate showed glass transition, followed by recrystallization. In contrast, amorphous prazosin hydrochloride showed glass transition and recrystallization simultaneously. Density Functional Theory, however, suggested the expected order of glass transition as prazosin hydrochloride > prazosin mesylate > prazosin tosylate. The counterintuitive observation of amorphous prazosin hydrochloride having lower glass transition was explained in terms of its lower activation energy (206.1 kJ/mol) for molecular mobility at Tg, compared to that for amorphous prazosin mesylate (448.5 kJ/mol) and prazosin tosylate (490.7 kJ/mol), and was further correlated to a difference in hydrogen bonding strength of the amorphous and the corresponding recrystallized salts. This study has implications in selection of an optimal amorphous salt form for pharmaceutical development.

  5. High-dose prazosin for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Fawcett, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequently symptomatic despite being on medications currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for PTSD. There is evidence to support the notion that prazosin is effective for PTSD nightmares. However, PTSD-related nightmares often do not resolve completely on a low dose of prazosin. The capacity of prazosin to treat daytime symptoms of PTSD which are distressing to patients has not been well studied. Clinicians are reluctant to increase the dose of prazosin due to side effect concerns. To date, the highest reported dose of prazosin used for PTSD is 16 mg daily. We illustrate two case reports using high-dose (up to 30 and 45 mg) prazosin for PTSD with comorbid treatment-resistant mood disorders. We report that high-dose prazosin was safe, tolerable and effective for PTSD in adults. To our knowledge, this is the first case series to highlight the importance of using high-dose prazosin for the treatment of PTSD. In patients with partial response to currently available medications for PTSD, greater utilization of high-dose prazosin for the management of PTSD may lead to better outcomes. PMID:24490030

  6. Sleep Disturbances and Nightmares in a Patient Treated with Prazosin.

    PubMed

    Kosari, Sam; Naunton, Mark

    2016-04-15

    Prazosin is increasingly being used off-label to treat nightmares in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The literature about the psychiatric adverse effects of prazosin is very limited. We present a case in which low-dose prazosin was associated with nightmares and sleep disturbances in an elderly patient without previously diagnosed mental illness or coexisting environmental risk factors for nightmares. Insomnia and hallucinations are listed as some of the rare side effects of prazosin by the manufacturer. Prazosin could be associated with rare psychiatric adverse effects and sleep disturbances. Particular attention is required in identifying these adverse effects, which can be difficult to distinguish from other drug-related side effects in the elderly particularly because they are often using multiple medications. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Prazosin for treatment of nightmares related to posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Heather R; Freeman, Maisha Kelly; Cates, Marshall E

    2008-04-15

    The efficacy of prazosin for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related nightmares is reviewed. PTSD is an anxiety disorder that can occur after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event, such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, serious accidents, or violent personal assaults. The event that induced PTSD is often relived through nightmares or flashbacks. Sleep disturbances affect approximately 70% of patients with PTSD. Several medications have been evaluated for reducing PTSD-related nightmares, with limited success. Prazosin is a centrally and peripherally acting alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist whose mechanism of action, favorable adverse-effect profile, and low cost make it a promising agent for the treatment of PTSD. To date, two case reports, two chart reviews, three open-label trials, and two placebo-controlled trials have been published documenting the efficacy and safety of prazosin in the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares. Therapy with prazosin resulted in a reduction in nightmares in patients with both combat- and noncombat-related trauma. A therapeutic benefit occurred with prazosin dosages as low as 1 mg daily, and suppression of nightmare symptoms occurred within one week of prazosin initiation. The most frequently reported adverse event was orthostatic hypotension. The variability in the populations studied (e.g., combat, noncombat, recent traumatic experiences) leaves additional unanswered questions that must be addressed in large, randomized, controlled trials. Prazosin appears to be a promising and well-tolerated agent for the management of PTSD-related nightmares. Further well-designed trials are warranted to establish its place in the treatment of PTSD.

  8. Chronic prazosin attenuates the natriuretic response to a modest saline load in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Penner, S. B.; Smyth, D. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic prazosin pretreatment (3 days) on the ability to excrete a modest saline load (i.v. saline, 0.097 ml min-1) was studied in the anaesthetized rat. Three days before the experiment, the drinking water was replaced with 0.5% dextrose (control), 0.015 mg ml-1 prazosin in 0.5% dextrose (low dose) or 0.15 mg ml-1 prazosin in 0.5% dextrose (high dose). 2. The selectivity of the prazosin for alpha 1-adrenoceptors was evaluated in pithed rats. The pressor response to phenylephrine was partially attenuated by the low dose of prazosin and completely attenuated by the high dose of prazosin. The pressor response to clonidine was slightly decreased by the 3 day prazosin pretreatment indicating a selectivity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 3. In rats pretreated with the low dose of prazosin, there was a significant decrease in sodium and water, but not potassium excretion as compared to the control group. Captopril failed to alter these effects of the low dose of prazosin. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance were the same in both groups. In rats pretreated with the high dose of prazosin, there was a further decrease in sodium and water but not potassium excretion. However, this dose of prazosin also significantly decreased blood pressure and increased creatinine clearance. A decrease in renal perfusion pressure with an aortic clamp to the same level as that observed with the high prazosin dose also decreased sodium and water but not potassium excretion. The decrease in sodium and water excretion was not as great as that observed with the high dose of prazosin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2896036

  9. Two Case Reports on Use of Prazosin for Drug Dreams.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Popoola, Oluwole; Campbell, Austin; Nemetalla, Marina A

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse and dependence is estimated to cost roughly $700 billion annually including direct and indirect care in the United States. Drug dreams (DD), or using dreams, are a reportedly common phenomenon among patients with substance abuse, and have been postulated as triggers for relapse. Prazosin is an alpha-1 receptor antagonist originally approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypertension. Prazosin passes the blood brain barrier easily, contributing to central and cognitive effects. Prazosin's efficacy has been demonstrated in the management of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and associated nightmares. We present the cases of two patients with substance use disorder experiencing DD which resolved after the addition of prazosin during an acute psychiatric hospitalization. To our knowledge, this is the first time treatment of DD with prazosin has been reported in the literature. Both patients reported an alleviation of their DD after the medication was initiated. The effect was immediate and results were seen on the same night of the initial dose. The precise mechanism of this effect is unclear, but we hypothesize it is related to the decrease in noradrenaline effects at α-1 adrenoreceptors in the brain, similar to the effect on nightmares in PTSD. The key limitation is the low number of patients and lack of follow up presented in this report. No causal relationship can be established between the use of prazosin and resolution of DD in our patients.

  10. Prazosin during Threat Discrimination Boosts Memory of the Safe Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Philipp; Lin, Qi; Murrough, James W.; Soleimani, Laili; Bach, Dominik R.; Clem, Roger L.; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin has shown promise in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Here we administered prazosin or placebo prior to threat conditioning (day 1) and tested subsequent extinction (day 2) and reextinction (day 3) in healthy human…

  11. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist, prazosin, for reducing trauma nightmares and sleep...efficacy and tolerability of the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin compared to placebo for combat stress- related nightmares, sleep disturbance

  12. Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, N; Kjaergaard, B; Lauritsen, J G

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the acceptability of Prazosin as a male contraceptive pill. Acceptable antifertility drugs for men are proving difficult to produce, and the possibility of using pharmacological agents to block selectively or to inhibit normal sperm transport through the male genital tract is an interesting approach. Prazosin administered in doses up to 10 mg/day did not cause azoospermia following ejaculation. In conclusion, we have not been able to confirm either the efficacy or the acceptability of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist Prazosin as a male contraceptive drug. Homonnai et al. confirmed the fact that phenoxybenzamine blocks ejaculation, but it should be noted that although both drugs are alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking agents, they are not chemically identical.

  13. The effect of prazosin on skin microcirculation as assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, F; Struthers, A D; Spence, V A

    1988-01-01

    1. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used in six normal volunteers to record changes in fingertip skin blood flow after the administration of prazosin to block postsynaptic alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 2. Prazosin (0.5 mg orally) did not alter systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate. 3. Prazosin did significantly increase basal skin blood flow 2 h after its administration but this effect was no longer evident after contralateral hand warming. Prazosin markedly reduced the skin vasoconstrictor response to deep inspiration and to contralateral hand cooling. 4. This study suggests that postsynaptic alpha 1-adrenoceptors are involved in maintaining skin vasoconstrictor tone at rest and are also involved in the rapid skin vasoconstriction seen in response to a deep inspiration and to contralateral hand cooling. PMID:2846022

  14. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  15. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D.; Kincaid, Carrie L.; Froehlich, Janice C.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Methods Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Results Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Conclusion Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Short summary Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin

  16. Trial of Prazosin for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans.

    PubMed

    Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R; Chow, Bruce; Harris, Crystal; Davis-Karim, Anne; Holmes, Hollie A; Hart, Kimberly L; McFall, Miles; Mellman, Thomas A; Reist, Christopher; Romesser, Jennifer; Rosenheck, Robert; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Stein, Murray B; Swift, Robert; Gleason, Theresa; Lu, Ying; Huang, Grant D

    2018-02-08

    In randomized trials, prazosin, an α 1 -adrenoreceptor antagonist, has been effective in alleviating nightmares associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans. We recruited veterans from 13 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers who had chronic PTSD and reported frequent nightmares. Participants were randomly assigned to receive prazosin or placebo for 26 weeks; the drug or placebo was administered in escalating divided doses over the course of 5 weeks to a daily maximum of 20 mg in men and 12 mg in women. After week 10, participants continued to receive prazosin or placebo in a double-blind fashion for an additional 16 weeks. The three primary outcome measures were the change in score from baseline to 10 weeks on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) item B2 ("recurrent distressing dreams"; scores range from 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating more frequent and more distressing dreams); the change in score from baseline to 10 weeks on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; scores range from 0 to 21, with higher scores indicating worse sleep quality); and the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) score at 10 weeks (scores range from 1 to 7, with lower scores indicating greater improvement and a score of 4 indicating no change). A total of 304 participants underwent randomization; 152 were assigned to prazosin, and 152 to placebo. At 10 weeks, there were no significant differences between the prazosin group and the placebo group in the mean change from baseline in the CAPS item B2 score (between-group difference, 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.3 to 0.8; P=0.38), in the mean change in PSQI score (between-group difference, 0.1; 95% CI, -0.9 to 1.1; P=0.80), or in the CGIC score (between-group difference, 0; 95% CI, -0.3 to 0.3; P=0.96). There were no significant differences in these measures at 26 weeks (a secondary outcome) or in other secondary outcomes. At 10 weeks, the mean difference between the

  17. Use of prazosin in management of hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure and in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, J R; Bateman, F J

    1975-01-01

    Prazosin was used in combination with other antihypertensive drugs in the successful management of hypertension in seven patients with chronic renal failure and six renal transplant recipients, also with chronic renal failure. The addition of small doses of prazosin (mean 3 mg/day) to the antihypertensive regimen produced significant falls in systolic and diastolic blood pressures in both the lying and standing positions. The standing blood pressures were significantly lower than the lying blood pressures during prazosin treatment. Neither the mean blood urea concentrations nor the mean plasma creatinine concentrations changed significantly during prazosin administration. Chromium-51 edetic acid clearances did not change significantly during prazosin treatment in the seven patients in whom it was measured. Severe symptomatic postural hypotension occurred in one patient a week after starting prazosin 3 mg/day. This hypotensive episode was associated with a transient and reversible deterioration in renal function. Another patient developed a rash while on prazosin but it was probably related to propranolol rather than prazosin. Prazosin is thus an effective antihypertensive drug in patients with chronic renal failure, and it may be used with a variety of other drugs. It should be used cautiously, however, since patients with chronic renal failure may respond to small doses, and significant postural falls in blood pressure may result. There was no evidence that the use of prazosin resulted in progressive deterioration in the residual renal function of the patients with chronic renal failure. PMID:811312

  18. Use of prazosin in management of hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure and in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J R; Bateman, F J

    1975-11-22

    Prazosin was used in combination with other antihypertensive drugs in the successful management of hypertension in seven patients with chronic renal failure and six renal transplant recipients, also with chronic renal failure. The addition of small doses of prazosin (mean 3 mg/day) to the antihypertensive regimen produced significant falls in systolic and diastolic blood pressures in both the lying and standing positions. The standing blood pressures were significantly lower than the lying blood pressures during prazosin treatment. Neither the mean blood urea concentrations nor the mean plasma creatinine concentrations changed significantly during prazosin administration. Chromium-51 edetic acid clearances did not change significantly during prazosin treatment in the seven patients in whom it was measured. Severe symptomatic postural hypotension occurred in one patient a week after starting prazosin 3 mg/day. This hypotensive episode was associated with a transient and reversible deterioration in renal function. Another patient developed a rash while on prazosin but it was probably related to propranolol rather than prazosin. Prazosin is thus an effective antihypertensive drug in patients with chronic renal failure, and it may be used with a variety of other drugs. It should be used cautiously, however, since patients with chronic renal failure may respond to small doses, and significant postural falls in blood pressure may result. There was no evidence that the use of prazosin resulted in progressive deterioration in the residual renal function of the patients with chronic renal failure.

  19. The anti-hypertensive drug prazosin inhibits glioblastoma growth via the PKCδ-dependent inhibition of the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Assad Kahn, Suzana; Costa, Silvia Lima; Gholamin, Sharareh; Nitta, Ryan T; Dubois, Luiz Gustavo; Fève, Marie; Zeniou, Maria; Coelho, Paulo Lucas Cerqueira; El-Habr, Elias; Cadusseau, Josette; Varlet, Pascale; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Devaux, Bertrand; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Cheshier, Samuel H; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Haiech, Jacques; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé

    2016-05-01

    A variety of drugs targeting monoamine receptors are routinely used in human pharmacology. We assessed the effect of these drugs on the viability of tumor-initiating cells isolated from patients with glioblastoma. Among the drugs targeting monoamine receptors, we identified prazosin, an α1- and α2B-adrenergic receptor antagonist, as the most potent inducer of patient-derived glioblastoma-initiating cell death. Prazosin triggered apoptosis of glioblastoma-initiating cells and of their differentiated progeny, inhibited glioblastoma growth in orthotopic xenografts of patient-derived glioblastoma-initiating cells, and increased survival of glioblastoma-bearing mice. We found that prazosin acted in glioblastoma-initiating cells independently from adrenergic receptors. Its off-target activity occurred via a PKCδ-dependent inhibition of the AKT pathway, which resulted in caspase-3 activation. Blockade of PKCδ activation prevented all molecular changes observed in prazosin-treated glioblastoma-initiating cells, as well as prazosin-induced apoptosis. Based on these data, we conclude that prazosin, an FDA-approved drug for the control of hypertension, inhibits glioblastoma growth through a PKCδ-dependent mechanism. These findings open up promising prospects for the use of prazosin as an adjuvant therapy for glioblastoma patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders with the Alpha-1 Adrenergic Antagonist Prazosin.

    PubMed

    Simon, Philippe Yves Rémy; Rousseau, Pierre-François

    2017-03-01

    The present review aims to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of the α-1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin as primary pharmacologic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A systematic review was performed using keywords (i.e., prazosin, α-1-adrenergic antagonist, α-1-blocker, post-traumatic stress disorder) in the databases PubMed/Medline (1966-May 2016), Embase (1966-May 2016), ScienceDirect (1823-May 2016), OvidSP (1946-May 2016) and Nature (1845-May 2016). To be considered for inclusion, studies had to test the efficacy of prazosin either alone or added to ongoing treatment in adults with PTSD, use validated tools to assess and monitor the disorders, allow comparisons on the basis of univariate analyses (i.e., p-values of t-tests and effect sizes) and list the identified adverse reactions. 12 studies were included: 5 randomized controlled trials, 4 open-label prospective trials and 3 retrospective file reviews. The evaluation concerned 276 patients exposed to civilian trauma (19%) or war trauma (81%). Prazosin significantly decreases trauma nightmares, avoidance, hypervigilance and improves patient status in all studies. No significant difference of blood pressure was observed at the end of trials. Beyond the methodological and clinical biases of these studies, the present review not only confirms the effectiveness and good tolerability of prazosin, but also suggests its possible use as primary pharmacologic treatment for PTSD. Uncertainties remain, however, regarding the prescription modalities and dosages.

  1. A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Raskind, Murray A; Peterson, Kris; Williams, Tammy; Hoff, David J; Hart, Kimberly; Holmes, Hollie; Homas, Dallas; Hill, Jeffrey; Daniels, Colin; Calohan, Jess; Millard, Steven P; Rohde, Kirsten; O'Connell, James; Pritzl, Denise; Feiszli, Kevin; Petrie, Eric C; Gross, Christopher; Mayer, Cynthia L; Freed, Michael C; Engel, Charles; Peskind, Elaine R

    2013-09-01

    The authors conducted a 15-week randomized controlled trial of the alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin for combat trauma nightmares, sleep quality, global function, and overall symptoms in active-duty soldiers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) returned from combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Sixty-seven soldiers were randomly assigned to treatment with prazosin or placebo for 15 weeks. Drug was titrated based on nightmare response over 6 weeks to a possible maximum dose of 5 mg midmorning and 20 mg at bedtime for men and 2 mg midmorning and 10 mg at bedtime for women. Mean achieved bedtime doses were 15.6 mg of prazosin (SD=6.0) and 18.8 mg of placebo (SD=3.3) for men and 7.0 mg of prazosin (SD=3.5) and 10.0 mg of placebo (SD=0.0) for women. Mean achieved midmorning doses were 4.0 mg of prazosin (SD=1.4) and 4.8 mg of placebo (SD=0.8) for men and 1.7 mg of prazosin (SD=0.5) and 2.0 mg of placebo (SD=0.0) mg for women. Primary outcome measures were the nightmare item of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the change item of the Clinical Global Impressions Scale anchored to functioning. Secondary outcome measures were the 17-item CAPS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Quality of Life Index. Maintenance psychotropic medications and supportive psychotherapy were held constant. Prazosin was effective for trauma nightmares, sleep quality, global function, CAPS score, and the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. Prazosin was well tolerated, and blood pressure changes did not differ between groups. Prazosin is effective for combat-related PTSD with trauma nightmares in active-duty soldiers, and benefits are clinically meaningful. Substantial residual symptoms suggest that studies combining prazosin with effective psychotherapies might demonstrate further benefit.

  2. Prazosin for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Ismene L; Desai, Nitigna; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Arias, Albert; O'Brien, Erin; Jane, J Serrita; Sevarino, Kevin; Southwick, Steven; Ralevski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important and timely clinical issue particularly for combat veterans. Few pharmacologic options are available to treat PTSD, particularly among military personnel, and they are not based on rational neurobiology. The evidence for noradrenergic dysregulation in PTSD is strong, and the alpha-adrenergic agonist prazosin is one of the most promising medications to treat sleep disturbances associated with PTSD as well as PTSD symptoms among both veterans and civilians. Evidence also implicates noradrenergic dysregulation in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence (AD); prazosin also may have efficacy in treating this disorder. The use of prazosin represents a rational and compelling approach for the treatment of PTSD and comorbid AD. Given the high rates of comorbid AD in trauma survivors with PTSD, and the enormous impact that these comorbid disorders have on psychosocial function and well-being, finding effective treatments for this population is of high clinical importance. Ninety-six veterans with PTSD and comorbid AD were randomized to receive prazosin (16 mg) or placebo in an outpatient, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial for 13 weeks. Main outcomes included symptoms of PTSD, sleep disturbances, and alcohol use. Symptoms of PTSD improved over time, but contrary to the hypothesis, there was no medication effect on PTSD symptoms, or on sleep. Alcohol consumption also decreased over time, but there were no significant differences in outcomes between medication groups. Prazosin was not effective in treating PTSD symptoms, improving sleep, or reducing alcohol consumption overall in this dually diagnosed group. This does not support the use of prazosin in an actively drinking population and suggests that the presence of a comorbid condition affects the efficacy of this medication. This study highlights the importance of conducting clinical trials in "real-world" patients, as results may vary based on comorbid

  3. The alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin ameliorates combat trauma nightmares in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Raskind, M A; Dobie, D J; Kanter, E D; Petrie, E C; Thompson, C E; Peskind, E R

    2000-02-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) adrenergic hyperresponsiveness may be involved in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Two Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD prescribed the centrally active alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin for symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy unexpectedly reported elimination of combat trauma nightmares. This observation prompted an open-label feasibility trial of prazosin for combat trauma nightmares in chronic combat-induced PTSD. Four consecutively identified combat veterans with chronic DSM-IV PTSD and severe intractable combat trauma nightmares participated in an 8-week open trial of escalating-dose prazosin. Nightmare severity response was rated using the nightmare item of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the Clinical Global Impressions-Change scale. The 2 patients who achieved a daily prazosin dose of at least 5 mg were markedly improved, with complete elimination of trauma nightmares and resumption of normal dreaming. The 2 subjects limited to 2 mg of prazosin to avoid excessive blood pressure reduction were moderately improved with at least 50% reduction in nightmare severity. These clinical observations, together with neurobiological evidence for alpha1-adrenergic regulation of CNS neurobiological systems relevant to PTSD, provide rationale for placebo-controlled trials of prazosin for PTSD combat trauma nightmares.

  4. Time-Dependent Effects of Prazosin on the Development of Methamphetamine Conditioned Hyperactivity and Context-Specific Sensitization in Mice

    PubMed Central

    White, André O.; Rauhut, Anthony S.

    2014-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of prazosin, a selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the development of methamphetamine conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization. Mice received an injection of vehicle (distilled water) or prazosin (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to a second injection of vehicle (saline) or methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) during the conditioning sessions (Experiment 1). Following the conditioning sessions, mice were tested for conditioned hyperactivity and then tested for context-specific sensitization. In subsequent experiments, mice received an injection of vehicle (distilled water) or prazosin (2.0 mg/kg) immediately (Experiment 2) or 24 hours (Experiment 3) after the conditioning sessions and then tested for conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization. Prazosin dose-dependently blocked the development of methamphetamine conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization when administered prior to the methamphetamine during the conditioning phase; however nonspecific motor impairments also were observed (Experiment 1). Immediate (Experiment 2), but not the 24-hour delay (Experiment 3), post-session administration of prazosin attenuated the development of methamphetamine conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization. Nonspecific motor impairments were not observed in these latter experiments. Collectively, these results suggest that the α1-adrenergic receptor mediates the development of methamphetamine-conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization, perhaps by altering memory consolidation and/or reconsolidation processes. PMID:24487011

  5. Geographical diffusion of prazosin across Veterans Health Administration: Examination of regional variation in daily dosing and quality indicators among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Thad E; Lund, Brian C; Alexander, Bruce; Bernardy, Nancy C; Friedman, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a high-priority treatment area for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and dissemination patterns of innovative, efficacious therapies can inform areas for potential improvement of diffusion efforts and quality prescribing. In this study, we replicated a prior examination of the period prevalence of prazosin use as a function of distance from Puget Sound, Washington, where prazosin was first tested as an effective treatment for PTSD and where prazosin use was previously shown to be much greater than in other parts of the United States. We tested the following three hypotheses related to prazosin geographic diffusion: (1) a positive geographical correlation exists between the distance from Puget Sound and the proportion of users treated according to a guideline recommended minimum therapeutic target dose (>/=6 mg/d), (2) an inverse geographic correlation exists between prazosin and benzodiazepine use, and (3) no geographical correlation exists between prazosin use and serotonin reuptake inhibitor/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSRI/SNRI) use. Among a national sample of veterans with PTSD, overall prazosin utilization increased from 5.5 to 14.8% from 2006 to 2012. During this time period, rates at the Puget Sound VHA location declined from 34.4 to 29.9%, whereas utilization rates at locations a minimum of 2,500 miles away increased from 3.0 to 12.8%. Rates of minimum target dosing fell from 42.6 to 34.6% at the Puget Sound location. In contrast, at distances of at least 2,500 miles from Puget Sound, minimum threshold dosing rates remained stable (range, 18.6 to 17.7%). No discernible association was demonstrated between SSRI/SNRI or benzodiazepine utilization and the geographic distance from Puget Sound. Minimal threshold dosing of prazosin correlated positively with increased diffusion of prazosin use, but there was still a distance diffusion gradient. Although prazosin adoption has improved, geographic

  6. Prazosin Augmentation of Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders in Active Duty Soldiers with and without PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    future combat deployments. It is also important to avoid sedation, weight gain, decreased libido, and other adverse effects of psychotropic drugs that...ated, and blood pressure changes did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Prazosin is effective for combat- related PTSD with trauma night- mares in...combat- related trauma nightmares, sleep quality, and global status. Prazosin was also effective for overall PTSD symptoms even after the CAPS

  7. pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan for receptors stimulated by neuronally released transmitter in the epididymal portion of rat isolated vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D; Kengatharan, M

    1994-01-01

    1. A new method has been used to measure pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter in the epididymal portion of the rat isolated vas deferens. The most reproducible results were obtained with a prolonged antagonist equilibration time (1 h). 2. Under these conditions the pKI of prazosin was practically unaffected by addition of alpha, beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (10 microM) to desensitize purinoceptors. Addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI) (0.3 microM) produced a small, but statistically non-significant, reduction. 3. The same method has been used to measure the pKI of prazosin against exogenous noradrenaline. In the latter case addition of DMI (0.3 microM) and corticosterone (30 microM) together produced a statistically significant reduction in the apparent pKI of prazosin. 4. The new method for estimating pKI values shows that DMI itself acts either pseudo-irreversibly or non-competitively and may be reducing the apparent pKI of prazosin. 5. The pKI values obtained for prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter are in good agreement with those obtained by other workers for the actions of these drugs on alpha-adrenoceptors.

  8. Time-dependent effects of prazosin on the development of methamphetamine conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    White, André O; Rauhut, Anthony S

    2014-04-15

    The present experiments examined the effects of prazosin, a selective α₁-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the development of methamphetamine conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization. Mice received an injection of vehicle (distilled water) or prazosin (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg) 30 min prior to a second injection of vehicle (saline) or methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) during the conditioning sessions (Experiment 1). Following the conditioning sessions, mice were tested for conditioned hyperactivity and then tested for context-specific sensitization. In subsequent experiments, mice received an injection of vehicle (distilled water) or prazosin (2.0 mg/kg) immediately (Experiment 2) or 24 h (Experiment 3) after the conditioning sessions and then tested for conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization. Prazosin dose-dependently blocked the development of methamphetamine conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization when administered prior to the methamphetamine during the conditioning phase; however nonspecific motor impairments also were observed (Experiment 1). Immediate (Experiment 2), but not the 24-h delay (Experiment 3), post-session administration of prazosin attenuated the development of methamphetamine conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization. Nonspecific motor impairments were not observed in these latter experiments. Collectively, these results suggest that the α₁-adrenergic receptor mediates the development of methamphetamine-conditioned hyperactivity and context-specific sensitization, perhaps by altering memory consolidation and/or reconsolidation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prazosin Augmentation of Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders in Active Duty Soldiers with and without PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    and without PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Murray Raskind, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research...a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) of prazosin for AUD in 200 OIF/OEF soldiers both with and without comorbid PTSD enrolled in the Alcohol...efficacy for AUD in OIF/OEF soldiers participating in outpatient AUD treatment and 2) to determine if the presence of PTSD affects prazosin efficacy for AUD

  10. The efficacy of prazosin for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder nightmares in U.S. military veterans.

    PubMed

    Breen, Annamarie; Blankley, Kory; Fine, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Nightmares associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are a hallmark symptom among U.S. military veterans who have seen combat. Management of combat-related nightmares can be difficult and current pharmacologic options are limited and tend to have adverse side effects. The aim of this review is to explore recent literature regarding the efficacy of prazosin for the treatment of nightmare disorder in the veteran population. Recent literature consisting of three systematic reviews was reviewed, as well as current clinical guidelines published by The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and The Department of Defense (DoD) and the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Prazosin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of PTSD trauma-related nightmares. As a result of its low side effect profile and abilities to improve both sleep and reduce trauma nightmares, prazosin has been recommended as an adjunct therapy. Prazosin should be initiated as an adjunctive treatment to promote sleep in those suffering from PTSD nightmares. It should be initiated at 1 mg and then titrated upward until absence or desired reduction of nightmares is achieved, with a maximum dosage recommendation of 20 mg at bedtime and 5 mg midmorning. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Combining naltrexone and prazosin in a single oral medication decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett J; Rasmussen, Dennis D

    2013-10-01

    Naltrexone (NTX) is underutilized in clinical treatment settings because its efficacy is modest, and it is not effective for all alcoholics and, when it is effective, a significant number of alcoholics fail to maintain initial treatment gains and subsequently relapse to heavy drinking. This has slowed acceptance of NTX by the treatment community, and there is a clear need for additional treatments for alcoholism and alcohol use disorders. Given that NTX and prazosin can each reduce alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for alcohol preference and high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring "P" rats), we tested whether a combination of NTX + prazosin is more effective in decreasing alcohol drinking than is either drug alone. P rats were given access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for 2 hours daily. Rats were fed NTX and prazosin, alone or in combination, prior to onset of the daily 2-hour alcohol access period for 4 weeks and the effect of drug treatment on alcohol and water intake was assessed. During the first week of treatment, neither a low dose of NTX, nor prazosin, was effective in decreasing alcohol intake when each drug was administered alone, but combining the 2 drugs in a single medication significantly reduced alcohol intake. The combination was as effective as was a higher dose of NTX. Using a low dose of NTX in combination with prazosin may reduce the potential for undesirable side effects early in treatment which, in turn, may improve patient compliance and result in a more successful outcome when NTX is used for treating alcoholism and alcohol use disorders. Combining low-dose NTX and prazosin in a single medication may be more useful than is either drug alone for treating both inpatient and outpatient alcoholics and heavy drinkers early in the treatment process. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Single Prazosin Infusion in Prelimbic Cortex Fosters Extinction of Amphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.

    PubMed

    Latagliata, Emanuele C; Lo Iacono, Luisa; Chiacchierini, Giulia; Sancandi, Marco; Rava, Alessandro; Oliva, Valeria; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to drug-associated cues to induce extinction is a useful strategy to contrast cue-induced drug seeking. Norepinephrine (NE) transmission in medial prefrontal cortex has a role in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference induced by amphetamine. We have reported recently that NE in prelimbic cortex delays extinction of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). A potential involvement of α1-adrenergic receptors in the extinction of appetitive conditioned response has been also suggested, although their role in prelimbic cortex has not been yet fully investigated. Here, we investigated the effects of the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin infusion in the prelimbic cortex of C57BL/6J mice on expression and extinction of amphetamine-induced CPP. Acute prelimbic prazosin did not affect expression of amphetamine-induced CPP on the day of infusion, while in subsequent days it produced a clear-cut advance of extinction of preference for the compartment previously paired with amphetamine (Conditioned stimulus, CS). Moreover, prazosin-treated mice that had extinguished CS preference showed increased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) and post-synaptic density 95 ( PSD-95 ) in the nucleus accumbens shell or core, respectively, thus suggesting that prelimbic α1-adrenergic receptor blockade triggers neural adaptations in subcortical areas that could contribute to the extinction of cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. These results show that the pharmacological blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors in prelimbic cortex by a single infusion is able to induce extinction of amphetamine-induced CPP long before control (vehicle) animals, an effect depending on contingent exposure to retrieval, since if infused far from or after reactivation it did not affect preference. Moreover, they suggest strongly that the behavioral effects depend on post-treatment neuroplasticity changes in corticolimbic network

  13. Combining the α1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Prazosin, with the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Propranolol, Reduces Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Either Drug Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1- and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220

  14. Low-dose prazosin alone and in combination with propranolol or naltrexone: effects on ethanol and sucrose seeking and self-administration in the P rat.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Terril L; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the noradrenergic system mediates ethanol reinforcement. However, preclinical studies suggest that noradrenergic antagonists block other oral reinforcers indicating possible unwanted secondary medication effects. This study examined combinations of low-dose prazosin with propranolol or naltrexone using a behavioral paradigm that separately assesses reinforcer seeking and self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring (P) rats (n = 20/experiment) were trained to complete a response requirement (RR) resulting in access to 1 % sucrose (n = 10) or 10 % ethanol (n = 10) for 20 min. Rats received vehicle, prazosin alone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)), or prazosin in combination with propranolol (5 mg/kg (IP); Exp. 1) or in combination with naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously (SC); Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, prazosin alone effectively decreased sucrose seeking more than ethanol seeking, but decreased ethanol self-administration only. Propranolol alone effectively decreased ethanol seeking more than sucrose seeking and decreased ethanol intake only. At some dose combinations, there was a greater attenuation of ethanol and sucrose intake relative to either drug alone. For Exp. 2, prazosin alone and naltrexone alone were effective in decreasing ethanol seeking and intake only. Combination treatment was more effective than either drug alone at decreasing ethanol seeking and consumption and sucrose intake, but not sucrose seeking. Propranolol and naltrexone alone were specific to ethanol indicating that low doses of either medication may be beneficial in treating alcohol use disorders. Prazosin in combination with propranolol or naltrexone was more effective than either drug alone and also reduced sucrose-reinforced behaviors. These data suggest that the noradrenergic system is a viable target for developing treatment approaches for problem drinkers.

  15. Low-Dose Prazosin Alone and in Combination with Propranolol or Naltrexone: Effects on Ethanol- and Sucrose-Seeking and Self-Administration in the P Rat

    PubMed Central

    Verplaetse, Terril L.; Czachowski, Cristine L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Evidence suggests that the noradrenergic system mediates ethanol-reinforcement. However, preclinical studies suggest that noradrenergic antagonists block other oral reinforcers indicating possible unwanted secondary medication effects. Methods This study examined combinations of low-dose prazosin with propranolol or naltrexone using a behavioral paradigm that separately assesses reinforcer-seeking and self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring (P) rats (n=20/experiment) were trained to complete a response requirement (RR) resulting in access to 1% sucrose (n=10) or 10% ethanol (n=10) for 20min. Rats received vehicle, prazosin alone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneally (IP)) or prazosin in combination with propranolol (5 mg/kg (IP); Exp1) or in combination with naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg (subcutaneously (SC); Exp2). Results For Exp1, prazosin alone effectively decreased sucrose-seeking more than ethanol-seeking, but decreased ethanol self-administration only. Propranolol alone effectively decreased ethanol-seeking more than sucrose-seeking and decreased ethanol intake only. At some dose combinations, there was a greater attenuation of ethanol and sucrose intake relative to either drug alone. For Exp2, prazosin alone and naltrexone alone were effective in decreasing ethanol-seeking and intake only. Combination treatment was more effective than either drug alone at decreasing ethanol-seeking and consumption and sucrose intake, but not sucrose-seeking. Conclusions Propranolol and naltrexone alone were specific to ethanol indicating that low doses of either medication may be beneficial in treating alcohol use disorders. Prazosin in combination with propranolol or naltrexone was more effective than either drug alone, but also reduced sucrose-reinforced behaviors. These data suggest that the noradrenergic system is a viable target for developing treatment approaches for problem drinkers. PMID:25743758

  16. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine, and prazosin on xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats

    PubMed Central

    Murahata, Yusuke; Miki, Yuya; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine, and prazosin on xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats. Five cats were repeatedly used in each of the 9 groups. One group was not medicated. Cats in the other groups received 2 mg/kg BW xylazine intramuscularly, and saline (as the control); 160 μg/kg BW prazosin; or 40, 160, or 480 μg/kg BW atipamezole or yohimbine intravenously 0.5 h later. Urine and blood samples were collected 10 times over 8 h. Urine volume, pH, and specific gravity; plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentration; and creatinine, osmolality, and electrolyte values in both urine and plasma were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine antagonized xylazine-induced diuresis, but prazosin did not. The antidiuretic effect of atipamezole was more potent than that of yohimbine but not dose-dependent, in contrast to the effect of yohimbine at the tested doses. Both atipamezole and yohimbine reversed xylazine-induced decreases in both urine specific gravity and osmolality, and the increase in free water clearance. Glomerular filtration rate, osmolar clearance, and plasma electrolyte concentrations were not significantly altered. Antidiuresis of either atipamezole or yohimbine was not related to the area under the curve for AVP concentration, although the highest dose of both atipamezole and yohimbine increased plasma AVP concentration initially and temporarily, suggesting that this may in part influence antidiuretic effects of both agents. The diuretic effect of xylazine in cats may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors but not α1-adrenoceptors. Atipamezole and yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats. PMID:25356000

  17. Impairment of contextual conditioned fear extinction after microinjection of alpha-1-adrenergic blocker prazosin into the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Do-Monte, Fabrício H M; Allensworth, Melody; Carobrez, Antônio P

    2010-07-29

    Long-lasting memories of aversive or stressful events have been associated with the noradrenergic system activation. Alpha-1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin has successfully been used in the last years to treat anxiety disorders related to aversive memories recurrence in humans. Contextual conditioned fear extinction paradigm in rats has been used to better understand the mechanisms involved in the attenuation of defensive behaviour after a traumatic situation. Here we investigated the effects of systemic administration of prazosin in the fear extinction processes. Rats were previously paired in a contextual fear conditioning box (1 footshock, 1 mA, 2s duration), further returning to the same box during three consecutive days receiving an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or prazosin 30 min before (acquisition of extinction; 0.1 or 0.5mg/kg) or immediately after (consolidation of extinction, 0.5 or 1.5mg/kg) each extinction session (10 min). On the last day, all animals were re-exposed undrugged to the apparatus. Since the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been described as a key structure in the modulation of conditioned fear extinction, the effects of intra-mPFC microinjection (0.2 microl per side) of vehicle (PBS) or prazosin (0.75 or 2.5 nmol) in the acquisition of fear extinction (10 min before extinction session 1) were further evaluated. Subjects were drug-free re-exposed to the same box in the next day (extinction session 2). The percentage of freezing time was used as the memory retention parameter. The results showed that either systemic or intra-mPFC-alpha-1-adrenergic blockade increased the freezing time in the last extinction sessions, suggesting impairment of the extinction of contextual conditioned fear in rats. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delivery of prazosin hydrochloride from osmotic pump system prepared by coating the core tablet with an indentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longxiao; Wang, Jinchao; Zhu, Suyan

    2007-04-01

    The preparation of an osmotic pump tablet was simplified by elimination of laser drilling using prazosin hydrochloride as the model drug. The osmotic pump system was obtained by coating the indented core tablet compressed by the punch with a needle. A multiple regression equation was achieved with the experimental data of core tablet formulations, and then the formulation was optimized. The influences of the indentation size of the core tablet, environmental media, and agitation rate on drug release profile were investigated. The optimal osmotic pump tablet was found to deliver prazosin hydrochloride at an approximately constant rate up to 24 hr, and independent on both release media and agitation rate. Indentation size of core tablet hardly affected drug release in the range of 0.80-1.15 mm. The method that is simplified by elimination of laser drilling may be promising for preparation of an osmotic pump tablet.

  19. Prazosin for Prophylaxis of Chronic Post Traumatic Headaches in OEF/OIF/OND Service Members and Veterans with Mild TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    compared to placebo on HA frequency, HA severity and duration, use of abortive /analgesic medications, and HA-related disability. Specific Aim 2: To...the effect of prazosin compared to placebo on post- traumatic HA frequency, severity, duration, use of abortive /analgesic medications, and HA-related

  20. Prazosin Augmentation of Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders in Active Duty Soldiers with and without PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) at Madigan Health Care System/Joint Base Lewis McChord. The aims of this trial are 1) to determine prazosin’s efficacy...Augmentation of Outpatient Treatment of AUD in Active Duty Soldiers with and without PTSD. Presented at Joint Army/NIH Substance Abuse IP – September 29...randomized controlled trial (RCT) of prazosin for AUD in active duty soldiers both with and without comorbid PTSD enrolled in the Alcohol and Substance

  1. Long-term effect of prazosin and losartan administration on blood pressure, heart, carotid artery, and acetylcholine induced dilation of cardiovascular system of young Wistar rats and SHR.

    PubMed

    Kristek, Frantisek; Malekova, Magdalena; Cacanyiova, Sona

    2013-06-01

    The long-term effects of prazosin and losartan administration on blood pressure, trophicity of the heart and carotid arteries, and responses of the cardiovascular system to acetylcholine, were studied in Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Four-week-old rats were treated with prazosin (10 mg/kg b.w./day in tap water) or losartan (20 mg/kg b.w./day in tap water) for 5-6 weeks. BP was measured by plethysmographic method. Ten animals of each group were subjected to in vivo studies and subsequent to morphological investigations. The right jugular vein was cannulated for administration of acetylcholine (0.1, 1, and 10 µg). After perfusion with a glutaraldehyde fixative (120 mmHg), the carotid arteries were embedded in Durcupan ACM, and the inner diameter (ID), wall thickness (WT) (tunica intima and media), cross sectional area (CSA) (tunica intima and media), and WT/ID ratio were calculated. In Wistar rats and SHRs, prazosin and losartan administration produced a decrease in the blood pressure and trophicity of the heart. In Wistar rats, both drugs decreased the WT, CSA, and the WT/ID ratio. In addition, these drugs increased the circumferential stress of the artery without affecting the ID. In contrast, in the SHRs, only losartan administration produced these effects. Importantly, both the drugs improved the responses to acetylcholine in SHRs.

  2. Effect of Prazosin and Naltrexone on Script Induced Alcohol Craving in Veterans with Alcohol Use Disorders with and without Co-occurring PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    status, moderate medication response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Alcohol Drinking, Drinking Behavior, Naltrexone, Prazosin, Adrenergic Agents, Adrenergice ...primates and humans express α1 adrenergic receptors. Given the interplay of the noradrenergic system with craving-related brain systems, blocking α1...Antagonists, Adrenergic alpha-1 receptor antagonists, Adrenergic alpha- antagonists, Antihypertensive agents, Narcotic antagonists, Therapeutic uses

  3. Prazosin for Prophylaxis of Chronic Post Traumatic Headaches in OEF/OIF/OND Service Members and Veterans with Mild TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE...comes from a large open-label case series in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with mTBI and posttraumatic headaches and data from a placebo- controlled trial...will be accomplished by conducting a randomized placebo- controlled double blind trial of prazosin vs placebo in 160 Iraq/Afghanistan active-duty

  4. Effect of Prazosin and Naltrexone on Script Induced Alcohol Craving in Veterans with Alcohol Use Disorders with and without Co-occurring PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    associated with continued problematic use and relapse is craving. Three different types of craving have been hypothesized, reward , relief, and obsessive...and each is postulated to be mediated by different neurological substrates. The neural networks postulated to subserve reward and relief craving...noradrenergic system with craving-related brain systems , blocking α1 receptors with the noradrenergic antagonist, prazosin, theoretically has the

  5. Effect of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (phentolamine, nicergoline and prazosin) on reperfusion arrhythmias and noradrenaline release in perfused rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Bralet, J.; Didier, J.; Moreau, D.; Opie, L. H.; Rochette, L.

    1985-01-01

    Rat isolated hearts were perfused through the left atrium with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution or mounted on a Langendorff perfusion system. The hearts were prelabelled with [3H]-noradrenaline [( 3H]-NA) and the left main coronary artery was ligated for 10 min after which reperfusion followed. The liberation of [3H]-NA and the development of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation were monitored throughout. During the occlusion period, ventricular arrhythmias did not occur and heart rate was not significantly altered in the control series. In contrast, reperfusion was followed by ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in all the hearts in the control series (Langendorff or 'working' models). The alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine (7.1 X 10(-6) M and 7.1 X 10(-5) M) and nicergoline (3.1 X 10(-6) M) diminished or prevented reperfusion arrhythmias. However, prazosin (5.2 X 10(-6) M) was not effective. The lower concentration of phentolamine did not alter the pattern of [3H]-NA release, whereas, high doses of phentolamine and nicergoline increased the release of [3H]-NA. Prazosin (5.2 X 10(-6) M) caused a very marked increase in release of [3H]-NA but was not antiarrhythmic. A 'membrane-stabilizing' effect seems the most appropriate explanation for these antiarrhythmic effects of alpha-antagonist agents. PMID:2858234

  6. Chronic treatment with prazosin or duloxetine lessens concurrent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake: evidence of disrupted noradrenergic signaling in anxiety-related alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, Mary J; Weiner, Jeff L

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders have been linked to increased anxiety, and enhanced central noradrenergic signaling may partly explain this relationship. Pharmacological interventions believed to reduce the excitatory effects of norepinephrine have proven effective in attenuating ethanol intake in alcoholics as well as in rodent models of ethanol dependence. However, most preclinical investigations into the effectiveness of these drugs in decreasing ethanol intake have been limited to acute observations, and none have concurrently assessed their anxiolytic effects. The purpose of these studies was to examine the long-term effectiveness of pharmacological interventions presumed to decrease norepinephrine signaling on concomitant ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats with relatively high levels of antecedent anxiety-like behavior. Methods Adult male Long-Evans rats self-administered ethanol on an intermittent access schedule for eight to ten weeks prior to being implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either an a1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (prazosin, 1.5 mg/kg/day), a β1/2-adrenoreceptor antagonist (propranolol, 2.5 mg/kg/day), a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (duloxetine, 1.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (10% dimethyl sulfoxide). These drugs were continuously delivered across four weeks, during which animals continued to have intermittent access to ethanol. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze before treatment and again near the end of the drug delivery period. Results Our results indicate that chronic treatment with a low dose of prazosin or duloxetine significantly decreases ethanol self-administration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this decrease in drinking is accompanied by significant reductions in the expression of anxiety-like behavior (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that chronic treatment with putative inhibitors of central noradrenergic signaling may attenuate ethanol intake via a

  7. Chronic treatment with prazosin or duloxetine lessens concurrent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake: evidence of disrupted noradrenergic signaling in anxiety-related alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Mary J; Weiner, Jeff L

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders have been linked to increased anxiety, and enhanced central noradrenergic signaling may partly explain this relationship. Pharmacological interventions believed to reduce the excitatory effects of norepinephrine have proven effective in attenuating ethanol intake in alcoholics as well as in rodent models of ethanol dependence. However, most preclinical investigations into the effectiveness of these drugs in decreasing ethanol intake have been limited to acute observations, and none have concurrently assessed their anxiolytic effects. The purpose of these studies was to examine the long-term effectiveness of pharmacological interventions presumed to decrease norepinephrine signaling on concomitant ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats with relatively high levels of antecedent anxiety-like behavior. Adult male Long-Evans rats self-administered ethanol on an intermittent access schedule for eight to ten weeks prior to being implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either an a1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (prazosin, 1.5 mg/kg/day), a β1/2-adrenoreceptor antagonist (propranolol, 2.5 mg/kg/day), a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (duloxetine, 1.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (10% dimethyl sulfoxide). These drugs were continuously delivered across four weeks, during which animals continued to have intermittent access to ethanol. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze before treatment and again near the end of the drug delivery period. Our results indicate that chronic treatment with a low dose of prazosin or duloxetine significantly decreases ethanol self-administration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this decrease in drinking is accompanied by significant reductions in the expression of anxiety-like behavior (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that chronic treatment with putative inhibitors of central noradrenergic signaling may attenuate ethanol intake via a reduction in anxiety-like behavior.

  8. Prazosin

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other problems. In addition to taking medication, making lifestyle changes will also help to control your ... This branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.

  9. Prazosin induced lysosomal tubulation interferes with cytokinesis and the endocytic sorting of the tumour antigen CD98hc.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Robert; Stracke, Anika; Holzmann, Viktoria; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Gerfried; Meier-Allard, Nathalie; Ebner, Nadine; Lassacher, Teresa Maria; Absenger-Novak, Markus; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Schittmayer, Matthias; Cano Crespo, Sara; Palacin, Manuel; Rinner, Beate; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth

    2018-06-15

    The quinazoline based drug prazosin (PRZ) is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human cancer cells. We recently reported that PRZ enters cells via endocytosis and induces tubulation of the endolysosomal system. In a proteomics approach aimed at identifying potential membrane proteins with binding affinity to quinazolines, we detected the oncoprotein CD98hc. We confirmed shuttling of CD98hc towards lysosomes and upregulation of CD98hc expression in PRZ treated cells. Gene knockout (KO) experiments revealed that endocytosis of PRZ still occurs in the absence of CD98hc - suggesting that PRZ does not enter the cell via CD98hc but misroutes the protein towards tubular lysosomes. Lysosomal tubulation interfered with completion of cytokinesis and provoked endoreplication. CD98hc KO cells showed reduced endoreplication capacity and lower sensitivity towards PRZ induced apoptosis than wild type cells. Thus, loss of CD98hc does not affect endocytosis of PRZ and lysosomal tubulation, but the ability for endoreplication and survival of cells. Furthermore, we found that glutamine, lysomototropic agents - namely chloroquine and NH 4 Cl - as well as inhibition of v-ATPase, interfere with the intracellular transport of CD98hc. In summary, our study further emphasizes lysosomes as target organelles to inhibit proliferation and to induce cell death in cancer. Most importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that the intracellular trafficking of CD98hc can be modulated by small molecules. Since CD98hc is considered as a potential drug target in several types of human malignancies, our study possesses translational significance suggesting, that old drugs are able to act on a novel target. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific binding of nicergoline on an alpha1-like adrenoreceptor in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Lograno, M D; Tricarico, D; Masciopinto, V; Scuderl, A C

    2000-02-01

    Systemic treatment with nicergoline, an ergoline derivative showing alpha1-antagonist properties, causes vasodilatation in the eye without apparent untoward cardiovascular effects. In the present work we investigated the ability of nicergoline to inhibit the binding of radiolabelled prazosin in the rat retina and cortex. We found that nicergoline inhibited [3H]prazosin binding in both tissues, being more potent than unlabelled prazosin in the retinal tissue. The competition curves of the ergoline derivative were well fitted by a one-site model in the cortical tissue, with an IC50 (concentration of the drugs needed to inhibit the binding of labelled prazosin by 50%) of 2.54 x 10(-8) M, and by a two-site model in the retinal tissue, with IC50 values of 7.08 x 10(-12) M and 1.82 x 10(-5) M. 2-(2,6 dimetoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane hydrochloride (WB4101) and phentolamine, selective ligands for the high-affinity binding site for prazosin, in particular the alpha1A-site, fully inhibited prazosin binding in the cortex but only partially inhibited prazosin binding in the retina, being less potent in this tissue than either nicergoline or prazosin. Our results suggest that a binding component of alpha1-adrenoreceptors is expressed to a lesser extent in the retina than the cortex, leading to a reduced response of the retinal tissue to prazosin, and more particularly to WB4101 and phentolamine. The selective binding of the nicergoline on this retinal adrenoreceptor may explain the peculiar efficacy of the drug in ocular pathophysiology.

  11. Does alpha 1-acid glycoprotein act as a non-functional receptor for alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists?

    PubMed

    Qin, M; Oie, S

    1994-11-01

    The ability of a variety of alpha 1-acid glycoproteins (AAG) to affect the intrinsic activity of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin was studied in rabbit aortic strip preparations. From these studies, the activity of AAG appears to be linked to their ability to bind the antagonist. However, a capability to bind prazosin was not the only requirement for this effect. The removal of sialic acid and partial removal of the galactose and mannose residues by periodate oxidation of human AAG all but eliminated the ability of AAG to affect the intrinsic pharmacologic activity of prazosin, although the binding of prazosin was not significantly affected. The presence of bovine AAG, a protein that has a low ability to bind prazosin, reduced the effect of human AAG on prazosin activity. Based upon these results, we propose that AAG is able to bind in the vicinity of the alpha 1-adrenoceptors, therefore extending the binding region for antagonists in such a way as to decrease the ability of the antagonist to interact with the receptor. The carbohydrate side-chains are important for the binding of AAG in the region of the adrenoceptor.

  12. The Temporal Relationship Between Intrafamilial Violence, Deployment, and Serious Mental Illness in US Army Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    PROPOXYPHENE (DARVON) - TRAMADOL (ULTRAM) ANTI SEIZURE MEDICATION (USED FOR CHRONIC PAIN ) - PHENYTOIN (DILANTIN) NSAIDS - ASPIRIN - IBUPROFEN...ESZOPICLONE) g. Prazosin - PRAZOSIN HCL (MINIPRESS) h. Other relevant Medications: Pain medications OPIODS - CODEINE - FENTANYL... pain : - AMITRIPTYLINE HCL/CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE (LIMBITROL) - AMITRIPTYLINE HCL/PERPHENAZINE (TRIAVIL, ETRAFON) - DESIPRAMINE HCL (PERTOFRANE, NORPRAMIN

  13. The pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7) in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla involves multiple peripheral mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rita C; Campagnole-Santos, Maria J; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the peripheral mechanism that mediates the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla was investigated. Angiotensin-(1-7) (25 pmol) was bilaterally microinjected in the rostral ventrolateral medulla near the ventral surface in urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats that were untreated or treated (intravenously) with effective doses of selective autonomic receptor antagonists (atenolol, prazosin, methyl-atropine, and hexamethonium) or a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5 -Tyr(Me)-AVP] given alone or in combination. Unexpectedly, the pressor response produced by angiotensin-(1-7) (16 ± 2 mmHg, n = 12), which was not associated with significant changes in heart rate, was not significantly altered by peripheral treatment with prazosin, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, hexamethonium or methyl-atropine. Similar results were obtained in experiments that tested the association of prazosin and atenolol; methyl-atropine and the vasopressin V1 antagonist or methyl-atropine and prazosin. Peripheral treatment with the combination of prazosin, atenolol and the vasopressin V1 antagonist abolished the pressor effect of glutamate; however, this treatment produced only a small decrease in the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7) at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The combination of hexamethonium with the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or the combination of prazosin, atenolol, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and methyl-atropine was effective in blocking the effect of angiotensin-(1-7) at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. These results indicate that angiotensin-(1-7) triggers a complex pressor response at the rostral ventrolateral medulla that involves an increase in sympathetic tonus, release of vasopressin and possibly the inhibition of a vasodilatory mechanism.

  14. Selective blockade by nicergoline of vascular responses elicited by stimulation of alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype in the rat.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Guerra, M; Bertholom, N; Garay, R P

    1999-01-01

    The alpha 1-adrenergic blocking activity of nicergoline was re-examined in rats, with a particular emphasis on alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes. In pithed rats, nicergoline and prazosin infused at a single small dose (0.5 microgram/kg/min i.v.) produced a substantial and identical shift to the right of the control dose pressor response curve to the specific alpha 1-agonist cirazoline (ED50 = 4.0 +/- 0.1, 4.0 +/- 0.1 and 0.9 +/- 0.01 microgram/kg i.v. for nicergoline, prazosin and vehicle respectively). In the isolated perfused mesenteric vascular bed, nicergoline strongly inhibited the pressor responses elicited by cirazoline, with approximately 40-fold higher potency (pA2 = 11.1 +/- 0.3) than prazosin (pA2 = 9.5 +/- 0.3). Conversely, nicergoline was 20-fold less potent than prazosin to antagonize the contractile effects of cirazoline in isolated endothelium-denuded aorta (pA2 = 8.6 +/- 0.2 and 9.9 +/- 0.2 for nicergoline and prazosin respectively). Pretreatment of mesenteric vascular beds with chloroethylclonidine did not significantly modify nicergoline antagonistic potency (pA2 = 10.6 +/- 0.2). Nicergoline displaced [3H]-prazosin bound to rat forebrain membranes pretreated with chloroethylclonidine (pKi = 9.9 +/- 0.2) at concentrations 60-fold lower than in rat liver membranes (pKi = 8.1 +/- 0.2). Finally, of the nicergoline metabolites studied, lumilysergol acted as a modest alpha 1 antagonist (bromonicotinic acid was devoid of alpha 1 antagonist activity). In conclusion, nicergoline is a potent and selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype antagonist, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype which is mainly represented in resistance arteries.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the guinea pig alpha(1a)-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    González-Espinosa, C; Romero-Avila, M T; Mora-Rodríguez, D M; González-Espinosa, D; García-Sáinz, J A

    2001-08-31

    In the present paper, the cloning and expression of the guinea pig alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor is presented. The nucleotide sequence had an open reading frame of 1401 bp that encoded a 466 amino-acid protein with an estimated molecular mass of approximately 51.5 kDa. When the clone was expressed in Cos-1 cells, specific high-affinity binding of [(3)H]prazosin and [(3)H]tamsulosin was observed. Chloroethylclonidine treatment of membranes slightly decreased the total binding with both radioligands. Binding competition experiments using [(3)H]tamsulosin showed the following potency order: (a) for agonists: oxymetazoline >epinephrine>norepinephrine>methoxamine, and (b) for antagonists: prazosin> or 5-methyl-urapidil=benoxathian>phentolamine>BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspiro[4,5]decane-7,9-dione). Photoaffinity labeling using [(125)I-aryl]azido-prazosin revealed a major broad band with a molecular mass between 70 and 80 kDa. The receptor was functional, as evidenced by an epinephrine-increased production of [(3)H]inositol phosphates that was blocked by prazosin.

  16. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    and due to the need for some methodology refinements. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, alcohol, ethanol, prazosin, noradrenergic, startle, anxiety, stress...behaviors in the differing experimental models used in these studies; we continue to evaluate whether prazosin treatment disproportionately decreases...intermittent alcohol access (IAA, 24 h/day free choice between 20% alcohol vs water on 3 non -consecutive days/week) to establish stable elevated

  17. SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Wexler, J.P.; Scharf, S.C.

    The effect of two antihypertensive agents (captopril and prazosin) and of digoxin on the efficiency of Tc-99m binding to RBCs was evaluated in the rat. RBCs were labeled with Tc-99m in vivo in six groups of rats: I-normotensive controls Wistar rat (WR), II-prazosin treated WR, III-spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), IV-prazosin-treated SHR, V-digoxin-treated WR, and VI-captopril-treated WR. The percentage of intravascular Tc-99m bound to RBC (%T) and the percentage of injected dose remaining intravascular 5 min after injection (%i.v.) were determined. Mean %T was 94.2, 83.8, 94.9, 86.1, 79.7, and 93.3 for groups I-VI respectively. Mean %I.V. was 96.4, 74.6, 94.9,more » 79.0, 74.4, and 87.4 for groups I-VI respectively. The findings demonstrate a significant reduction of RBC tagging with Tc-99m in rats treated with prazosin and digoxin but not with captopril. The data suggest a potential interference by patient medication with the performance of blood-pool studies.« less

  18. Choline+ is a low-affinity ligand for alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Unelius, L; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    1994-10-07

    The effect of choline+, a commonly used Na+ substitute, on ligand binding to alpha 1-adrenoceptors was investigated. It was found that replacement of 25% of the Na+ in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer with choline+ led to a 3-fold decrease in the apparent affinity of [3H]prazosin for its binding site (i.e. the alpha 1-receptor) in a membrane preparation from brown adipose tissue, while no decrease in the total number of binding sites was observed. Similar effects were seen in membrane preparations from liver and brain. In competition experiments, it was found that choline+ could inhibit [3H]prazosin binding; from the inhibition curve, an affinity (Ki) of 31 mM choline+ for the [3H]prazosin-binding site could be calculated. In fully choline(+)-substituted buffers, where the level of [3H]prazosin binding was substantially reduced, both phentolamine and norepinephrine could still compete with [3H]prazosin for its binding site, with virtually unaltered affinity; thus choline+ did not substantially affect the characteristics of those receptors to which it did not bind. Choline+ did not affect the binding characteristics of the beta 1/beta 2 radioligand [3H]CGP-12177; thus, the effect on alpha 1-receptors was not due to general, unspecific effects on the membrane preparations. It is concluded that choline+ possesses characteristics similar to those of a competitive ligand for the alpha 1-adrenoceptor; it has a low affinity but the competitive type of interaction of choline may nonetheless under experimental conditions interfere with agonist interaction with the alpha 1-receptor.

  19. Prazosin + naltrexone decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone in P rats with a protracted history of extensive voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and multiple withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prazosin (PRZ, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively-bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring, or “P”), and the combination of PRZ+NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. Since drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Methods Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/day access to food, water and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: 1) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 2) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 3) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and 4) post-deprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. Results The combination of PRZ+NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ+NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects or malaise. Conclusions Both daily and “as-needed” treatment with PRZ+NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent and post-deprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence and

  20. Symptom Presentation and Prescription of Sleep Medications for Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Mark A; Neylan, Thomas C; Rosen, Craig S

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether sleep medications prescribed to veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are being targeted to patients who report more severe insomnia or nightmares. Secondary analysis of survey and pharmacy data was conducted in samples of veterans from two periods: from 2006 to 2008 and from 2009 to 2013. Logistic regression tested associations between self-reported insomnia and nightmare severity, and being prescribed trazodone, prazosin, zolpidem, and benzodiazepines, controlling for PTSD severity and other covariates. In both samples, insomnia severity independently predicted trazodone receipt, and nightmare severity independently predicted prazosin receipt. In the later study, insomnia severity predicted receipt of zolpidem. Veterans in the later sample were more likely to receive trazodone, prazosin, and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and less likely to receive benzodiazepines than those in the earlier sample. Further research is needed to evaluate and optimize pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for sleep problems among veterans with PTSD.

  1. Interaction of mianserin and some hypotensive drugs in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Górska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Mianserin is thought to exert little effect on the cardiovascular system. In fact its safety in comparison with tricyclic drugs is high. Various experiments gave varying results as for the influence of the drug on arterial blood pressure in people and animals. Therefore, a study was undertaken in Wistar rats to evaluate interactions of mianserin administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, and for 21 days with 3 hypotensive drugs showing different mechanism of action (propranolol, enalapril, prazosine). The systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure was measured with a LETICA apparatus. The results of the study revealed that administration of mianserin in normotensive rats leads to a short-term decrease in blood pressure and significantly enhanced the hypotensive effect of prazosine. Repeated doses of mianserin lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure after 2 weeks of administration. Single and repeated administration of mianserin did not change the hypotensive effect of propranolol and enalapril. Three-week therapy with mianserin significantly enhanced the hypotensive effect of prazosine.

  2. 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced analgesia is blocked by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, T.; Danysz, W.; Jonsson, G.; Minor, B. G.; Post, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin, phentolamine and yohimbine upon 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT)-induced analgesia were tested in the hot-plate, tail-flick and shock-titration tests of nociception with rats. Intrathecally injected yohimbine and phentolamine blocked or attenuated the analgesia produced by systemic administration of 5-MeODMT in all three nociceptive tests. Intrathecally administered prazosin attenuated the analgesic effects of 5-MeODMT in the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, but not in the shock titration test. Intrathecal yohimbine showed a dose-related lowering of pain thresholds in saline and 5-MeODMT-treated animals. Phentolamine and prazosin produced normal dose-related curves in the hot-plate test and biphasic effects in the shock titration and tail-flick tests. These results demonstrate a functional interaction between alpha 2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT agonist-induced analgesia at a spinal level in rats. PMID:2877697

  3. Arteriolar vasomotor control and contractile performance during fatiguing tetanic contractions in rat skeletal muscle: role of sympathetic system.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Sonobe, Takashi; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Using a fatiguing stimulation protocol designed specifically to enhance sympathetically-mediated vasoconstrictor tone, we explored the temporal profile of the evoked vasoconstrictor response, evaluated the presence of sympatholysis, and assessed the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasoconstriction on muscle performance. Spinotrapezius muscles of Wistar rats were exteriorized and stimulated tetanically (100 Hz, 4-7 V, stimulus duration 700 ms) every 3 s for 2.5 min under control and prazosin (1 muM) superfused conditions. The extent and time course of diameter changes in arterioles (2 A) and venules (2 V) were determined after each of 10 discrete sets of muscle stimulation at 5-min intervals. A significant decrease of luminal diameter was observed in arterioles after tetanic contractions at 8-10 sets (8 sets: -34.4%, 9 sets: -39.4%, 10 sets: -38.6% vs pre-contraction at each set, p < 0.01). Prazosin significantly reduced but did not abolish the contraction-induced vasoconstriction. In both conditions, there was no reduction of venules diameter observed. Tetanic contractions force at the final 10th set was significantly decreased to 29.3 +/- 11.9% from pre-fatigue conditions, while tetanic contractions with prazosin force production was maintained at 70.4 +/- 14.2% at the 10th set. We conclude that in sequential bouts of contractions there was a progressively greater degree of arteriolar (but not venular) vasoconstriction which was attenuated substantially by prazosin.

  4. Losartan Attenuates Myocardial Endothelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats via Inhibiting TGF-β/Smad Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miao; Peng, Zhenyu; Zu, Changhao; Ma, Jing; Lu, Shijuan; Zhong, Jianghua; Zhang, Saidan

    2016-01-01

    Losartan plays an important role in the inhibition of myocardial fibrosis. But the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. Emerging evidences have indicated that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays a crucial role in cardiac fibrosis. Here the present study aims to first investigated the effect of Losartan on EndMT in cardiac fibrosis of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks, namely the SHR group (Group S), the Losartan-treated group (Group L) and the Prazosin-treated group (Group P). Wistar-Kyoto rats served as controls (Group W). The histological changes were evaluated by Masson's trichrome. Co-expression of CD31 and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) were used as the markers of EndMT through immunofluorescence. The expressions of FSP1, CD31, TGF-β, Smad were detected by Western blot analysis. It was identified that elevated blood pressure induced a significant increase in myocardial fibrosis and EndMT in SHRs, which was reversed by Losartan and Prazosin treatment. Furthermore, the activity of TGF-β/Smad signaling was detected in the four groups. TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated in SHRs and suppressed by Losartan or Prazosin treatment. Losartan exhibited more efficiently than Prazosin in inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling activation, EndMT and myocardial fibrosis. These results showed that EndMT played an important role in promoting hypertensive cardiac fibrosis, and that losartan could suppress cardiac fibrosis through the inhibition of EndMT via classical TGF-β/Smad pathway.

  5. Alpha 1-adrenergic blockade does not alter control of skin blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W L; Tankersley, C G; Newswanger, D L; Puhl, S M

    1991-03-01

    Human skin blood flow (SkBF) is controlled by both an alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor system and an active vasodilator system. During upright dynamic exercise, SkBF increases linearly with increasing body core temperature (Tc) until higher (i.e., greater than 38 degrees C) Tcs, beyond which little further increase in SkBF occurs. To examine the role of the two efferent control arms in this attenuated SkBF rise, we tested nine men (aged 25-53 yr) with and without (placebo) orally administered prazosin HCl (an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) during 1 h of moderate cycle exercise (100 W) in a warm (36 degrees C, 45% relative humidity) environment. Blockade of reflex vasoconstriction was verified via a cold challenge. During exercise, mean arterial pressure (MAP, brachial auscultation) was significantly lower (P less than 0.03) and heart rate significantly higher (P less than 0.02) during the prazosin trials; plasma catecholamine concentrations were unaffected. Neither esophageal temperature (Tes) nor mean skin temperature was affected by the drug during exercise. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from forearm blood flow (FBF, venous occlusion plethysmography) and MAP (FVC = FBF/MAP). FVC plotted as a function of time or Tes resulted in coincident response patterns for the placebo and prazosin treatments, reaching a plateau at a Tes of about 38 degrees C. The responses of the older men were not selectively altered by prazosin treatment, indicating that the lower FBF responses previously seen in older subjects during exercise in the heat does not appear to be the result of an increased alpha 1-adrenergic tone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Influence of mianserin on the activity of some hypotensive drugs in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Górska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz

    2003-01-01

    Mianserin might be an alternative drug in patients with depression accompanied by hypertension because of its effectiveness and lack of side effects in the circulatory system. However, a few studies reported in literature show influence of the drug on blood pressure. We investigate interactions between mianserin and commonly used hypotensive drugs (propranolol, enalapril and prazosin) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The experiments were performed in two experimental designs: a single administration of both mianserin and a hypotensive drug, and repeated administration of mianserin with a single administration of a hypotensive drug. Arterial blood pressure was measured by bloodless method with manometer made by LETICA. A single administration of mianserin caused a statistically significant decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in the 60th minute of observation and intensified hypotensive effect of prazosin. However, long-term administration of mianserin in SHR rats had no significant influence on arterial blood pressure. Chronic and single administration of mianserin with propranolol or enalapril did not influence the circulatory system. A long-term administration of mianserin intensified the hypotensive effect of prazosin. This interaction might suggest possibility of dangerous complications in the treatment of humans with this drug combination.

  7. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measuredmore » by autoradiography.« less

  8. Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems.

  9. Adrenergic receptors in frontal cortex in human brain.

    PubMed

    Cash, R; Raisman, R; Ruberg, M; Agid, Y

    1985-02-05

    The binding of three adrenergic ligands ([3H]prazosin, [3H]clonidine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol) was studied in the frontal cortex of human brain. alpha 1-Receptors, labeled by [3H]prazosin, predominated. [3H]Clonidine bound to two classes of sites, one of high affinity and one of low affinity. Guanosine triphosphate appeared to lower the affinity of [3H]clonidine for its receptor. [3H]Dihydroalprenolol bound to three classes of sites: the beta 1-receptor, the beta 2-receptor and a receptor with low affinity which represented about 40% of the total binding, but which was probably a non-specific site; the beta 1/beta 2 ratio was 1/2.

  10. Silodosin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Silodosin is in a class of medications called alpha-blockers. It relieves the symptoms of BPH by ... fluconazole (Diflucan); medications for high blood pressure;other alpha blockers such as doxazosin (Cardura), prazosin (Minipress), terazosin ( ...

  11. α1-Adrenergic receptor downregulates hepatic FGF21 production and circulating FGF21 levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2017-01-18

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is primarily secreted by the liver as an endocrine hormone and is suggested as a promising target for the treatment of metabolic diseases. FGF21 acts centrally to exert its effects on energy expenditure and body weight via the sympathetic nervous system in mice. Here we show that intraperitoneal injection of phentolamine (an α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 5mg/kg) significantly increased plasma FGF21 levels compared with the saline controls in C57BL6J mice, whereas alprenolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 6mg/kg) had no effect. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of prazosin (an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 5mg/kg) significantly increased plasma FGF21 levels compared with the controls, whereas yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 5mg/kg) had no effect. Moreover, the treatment with prazosin significantly increased the expression of hepatic FGF21, while having no effect on the expression of hepatic PPARα and PPARγ. After a 5-h fast, intraperitoneal injection of prazosin significantly increased plasma FGF21 levels and impaired glucose tolerance compared with controls. These findings suggest that α1-adrenergic receptor downregulates the expression of hepatic FGF21 and plasma FGF21 levels independently of feeding and hepatic PPARα and PPARγ expression in mice, and that the increases in circulating FGF21 levels might be related to impaired glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The 5-HT1A Receptor PET Radioligand 11C-CUMI-101 Has Significant Binding to α1-Adrenoceptors in Human Cerebellum, Limiting Its Use as a Reference Region.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Stal S; Liow, Jeih-San; Jenko, Kimberly; Ikawa, Masamichi; Zoghbi, Sami S; Innis, Robert B

    2016-12-01

    Prazosin, a potent and selective α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, displaces 25% of 11 C-CUMI-101 ([O-methyl- 11 C]2-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)dione) binding in monkey cerebellum. We sought to estimate the percentage contamination of 11 C-CUMI-101 binding to α 1 -adrenoceptors in human cerebellum under in vivo conditions. In vitro receptor-binding techniques were used to measure α 1 -adrenoceptor density and the affinity of CUMI-101 for these receptors in human, monkey, and rat cerebellum. Binding potential (maximum number of binding sites × affinity [(1/dissociation constant]) was determined using in vitro homogenate binding assays in human, monkey, and rat cerebellum. 3 H-prazosin was used to determine the maximum number of binding sites, as well as the dissociation constant of 3 H-prazosin and the inhibition constant of CUMI-101. α 1 -adrenoceptor density and the affinity of CUMI-101 for these receptors were similar across species. Cerebellar binding potentials were 3.7 for humans, 2.3 for monkeys, and 3.4 for rats. Reasoning by analogy, 25% of 11 C-CUMI-101 uptake in human cerebellum reflects binding to α 1 -adrenoceptors, suggesting that the cerebellum is of limited usefulness as a reference tissue for quantification in human studies. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. Non-adrenergic vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of guinea-pig aorta by β-phenylethylamine and amphetamine - Role of nitric oxide determined with L-NAME and NO scavengers.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Broadley, Harrison D

    2018-01-05

    Sympathomimetic and trace amines, including β-phenylethylamine (PEA) and amphetamine, increase blood pressure and constrict isolated blood vessels. By convention this is regarded as a sympathomimetic response, however, recent studies suggest trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) involvement. There is also uncertainty whether these amines also release nitric oxide (NO) causing opposing vasodilatation. These questions were addressed in guinea-pig isolated aorta, a species not previously examined. Guinea-pig aortic rings were set up to measure contractile tension. Cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for the reference α-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, PEA or d-amphetamine before and in the presence of vehicles, the α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (1µM), the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N ω -nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), or NO scavengers, curcumin and astaxanthin. Prazosin inhibited phenylephrine contractions with low affinity consistent with α 1L -adrenoceptors. However, PEA and amphetamine were not antagonised, indicating non-adrenergic responses probably via TAARs. L-NAME potentiated contractions to PEA both in the absence and presence of prazosin, indicating that PEA releases NO to cause underlying opposing vasodilatation, independent of α 1 -adrenoceptors. L-NAME also potentiated amphetamine and phenylephrine. PEA was potentiated by the NO scavenger astaxanthin but less effectively. Curcumin, an active component of turmeric, however, inhibited PEA. Trace amines therefore constrict blood vessels non-adrenergically with an underlying NO-mediated non-adrenergic vasodilatation. This has implications in the pressor actions of these amines when NO is compromised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alpha1-adrenergic drugs affect the development and expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andrezza Kyunmi; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    According to the incentive sensitization theory, addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems. After repeated ethanol administration, some animals develop psychomotor sensitization, a phenomenon which occurs simultaneously with the incentive sensitization. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of norepinephrine (NE) in drug addiction, with a critical role in the ethanol reinforcing properties. In this study we evaluated the influence of an agonist (phenylephrine) and an antagonist (prazosin) of alpha1-adrenergic receptors on the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. Male Swiss mice, previously treated with ethanol or saline, were challenged with the combined administration of ethanol (or saline) with alpha1-adrenergic drugs. Prazosin (0.1; 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) and phenylephrine (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) administration blocked the expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. In another set of experiments, mice treated with 0.5mg/kg of prazosin+ethanol did not present the development of behavioral sensitization. However, when challenged with ethanol alone, they showed the same sensitized levels of locomotor activity of those presented by mice previously treated with ethanol and saline. Phenylephrine (1.0 mg/kg) treatment did not affect the development of behavioral sensitization. Based on this data, we concluded that the alteration of alpha1-adrenergic receptors functioning, by the administration agonists or antagonists, affected the locomotor sensitization to the stimulant effect of ethanol, suggesting that the normal functioning of the noradrenergic system is essential to its development and expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SciTech Connect

    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parametersmore » of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.« less

  16. Trek2a regulates gnrh3 expression under control of melatonin receptor Mt1 and α2-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavinash; Moriya, Shogo; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2018-02-12

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression is associated with the two-pore domain potassium ion (K + ) channel-related K + (TREK) channel trek2a expression and melatonin levels. We aimed to investigate correlation of trek2a expression with gnrh3 expression, and regulatory mechanisms of trek2a expression by the melatonin receptor Mt1 and α 2 -adrenoceptor which are regulated by melatonin. trek2a specific siRNA, Mt1 antagonist luzindole and α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin were administered into the adult zebrafish brain and gene expressions were examined by real-time PCR. trek2a specific siRNA administration significantly reduced expression levels of trek2a, gnrh3 and mt1. Luzindole administration suppressed trek2a and gnrh3 expressions. Prazosin administration reduced trek2a and gnrh3 expressions. It is suggested that Trek2a regulates gnrh3 expression under the control of Mt1 and α 2 -adrenoceptor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Saw palmetto is an indirectly acting sympathomimetic in the rat-isolated prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nga; Haynes, John M; Ventura, Sabatino

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether saw palmetto that inhibits alpha1-adrenoceptor binding in vitro affects contractility of the rat prostate gland. The effects of a commercially available saw palmetto extract were examined on the contractility of rat-isolated prostate glands. The extract was tested in the presence and absence of phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium, cocaine, desipramine, nifedipine, guanethidine, atropine, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP to evaluate the mechanism of action. Isolated preparations of rat vas deferens and bladder were used for comparison. Unexpectedly, saw palmetto extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland that could be attenuated by prazosin, phentolamine, nifedipine, guanethidine, cocaine, and desipramine but not by any of the other pharmacological tools. Similar contractile effects were observed in rat-isolated vas deferens preparations but not in rat-isolated bladder preparations. In the rat prostate gland, saw palmetto extract causes indirect alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The Role of ABC Proteins in Drug Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    7] Morris DI, Greenberger LM, Bruggemann EP, Carda relli C, Gottesman MM, Pastan I and Seamon KB. (1994) Localization of the forskolin labeling...sites to both h alves of P-glycoprotein: similarity of the sites labeled by forskolin and prazosin. Mol Pharmacol. 46(2): 329-37. [8] Cooper RA

  19. Serotonin-induced hypophagia is mediated via α2 and β2 adrenergic receptors in neonatal layer-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, M; Sardari, F; Hassanpour, S; Rahnema, M; Adeli, A; Ghashghayi, E

    2017-06-01

    1. Serotoninergic and adrenergic systems play crucial roles in feed intake regulation in avians but there is no report on possible interactions among them. So, in this study, 5 experiments were designed to evaluate the interaction of central serotonergic and adrenergic systems on food intake regulation in 3 h food deprived (FD 3 ) neonatal layer-type chickens. 2. In Experiment 1, chickens received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), prazosin (α 1 receptor antagonist, 10 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus prazosin. In Experiment 2, control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), yohimbine (α 2 receptor antagonist, 13 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus yohimbine were used. In Experiment 3, the birds received control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), metoprolol (β 1 receptor antagonist, 24 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus metoprolol. In Experiment 4, injections were control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), ICI 118.551 (β 2 receptor antagonist, 5 nmol) and serotonin plus ICI 118.551. In Experiment 5, control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), SR59230R (β 3 receptor antagonist, 20 nmol) and co-administration of serotonin and SR59230R were injected. In all experiments the cumulative food intake was measured until 120 min post injection. 3. The results showed that ICV injection of serotonin alone decreased food intake in chickens. A combined injection of serotonin plus ICI 118.551 significantly attenuated serotonin-induced hypophagia. Also, co-administration of serotonin and yohimbine significantly amplified the hypophagic effect of serotonin. However, prazosin, metoprolol and SR59230R had no effect on serotonin-induced hypophagia in chickens. 4. These results suggest that serotonin-induced feeding behaviour is probably mediated via α 2 and β 2 adrenergic receptors in neonatal layer-type chicken.

  20. Effect of clonidine on ultrasonic vocalization in preweaning rats.

    PubMed

    Hård, E; Engel, J; Lindh, A S

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the noradrenergic neurotransmission system in the ultra sonic callings emitted by rat pups separated from their mother and exposed to cold stimulation. The investigation was primarily performed by help of agents selectively affecting the alpha-adrenoceptors: the alpha 2-agonist clonidine, the alpha 1-antagonist prazosin and the alpha 2-antagonist idazoxan. Clonidine dose-dependently stimulated the amount of ultra sonic vocalization, an effect not solely dependent upon the effect of clonidine on body temperature. In a developmental study it was found that clonidine uniformly stimulated crying at all ages from 4 days of age up to 18 days of age, that is during the whole preweaning period. Clonidine stimulated ultrasonic crying in rat pups, devoid of presynaptic catecholamine (CA) neurons by combined pretreatment with the monoamine depletor, reserpine, and the inhibitor of CA-synthesis, alpha-methyl-tyrosine. This finding suggested that the stimulating effect of clonidine on ultrasonic vocalization was mediated by postsynaptic adrenoceptors. In pups, 12 days of age, idazoxan blocked the effect of cold stimulation on ultra sonic crying, suggesting that alpha 2-adrenoceptors, presumably postsynaptic ones, mediated this kind of stimulation. Idazoxan also antagonized the effect of clonidine, but only at a dose effective also in control pups. Prazosin had no effect on cold-stimulated crying, but antagonized the effect of clonidine, suggesting that the effect of clonidine was also mediated by alpha 1-receptors. At 18 days of age, prazosin no longer antagonized the effect of clonidine, whereas the antagonizing action of idazoxan was reinforced. The age-dependent variation in responsiveness to the adrenergic drugs suggest maturational changes in the function of the CA-system occurring between 12-16 days of age.

  1. Multi-residue analysis method for analysis of pharmaceuticals using liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) in water sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qaim, Fouad Fadhil; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a developed method using solid - phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF/MS) was developed and validated for quantification and confirmation of eleven pharmaceuticals with different therapeutic classes in water samples, Malaysia. These compounds are caffeine (CAF), prazosin (PRZ), enalapril (ENL), carbamazepine (CBZ), nifedipine (NFD), levonorgestrel (LNG), simvastatin (SMV), hydrochlorothiazide (HYD), gliclazide (GLIC), diclofenac-Na (DIC-Na) and mefenamic acid (MEF). LC was performed on a Dionex Ultimate 3000/LC 09115047 (USA) system. Chromatography was performed on a Thermo Scientific C18 (250 mm × 2.1 mm, i.d.: 5μm) column. Several parameters were optimised such as; mobile phase, gradient elution, collision energy and solvent elution for extraction of compounds from water. The recoveries obtained ranged from 30-148 % in river water. Five pharmaceutical compounds were detected in the surface water samples: caffeine, prazosin, enalpril, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid. The developed method is precise and accepted recoveries were got. In addition, this method is suitable to identify and quantify trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface water.

  2. SciTech Connect

    Nomura, S.; Enna, S.J.

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have anticholinergic and ..cap alpha..-adrenergic blocking properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of amitriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine on inositol phosphate accumulation, a brain second messenger system associated with cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Whereas the TCAs were 28 to 400-fold weaker than atropine as inhibitors of /sup 3/H-QNB binding to brain cholinergic receptors, they were 600 to 2000-fold less active than atropine as inhibitors of carbachol-stimulated IP accumulation in brain. In contrast, the relative potencies of the TCAs and prazosin to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated IP accumulation and /sup 3/H-prazosin binding appeared to be similar inmore » the two assays. The results suggest pharmacological differences between the cholinergic receptors labeled in the ONB binding assay and those mediating the IP response, whereas the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors appear to be similar in the two systems. Since atropine is considered a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, it is possible that the TCAs may differentiate between cholinergic receptor subtypes, which may be an important component of their clinical response.« less

  3. Evaluation and performance of desorption electrospray ionization using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitation of pharmaceuticals in plasma.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Joseph H; Wiseman, Justin M

    2010-02-01

    The present work describes the methodology and investigates the performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) combined with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for the quantitation of small drug molecules in human plasma. Amoxepine, atenolol, carbamazepine, clozapine, prazosin, propranolol and verapamil were selected as target analytes while terfenadine was selected as the internal standard common to each of the analytes. Protein precipitation of human plasma using acetonitrile was utilized for all samples. Limits of detection were determined for all analytes in plasma and shown to be in the range 0.2-40 ng/mL. Quantitative analysis of amoxepine, prazosin and verapamil was performed over the range 20-7400 ng/mL and shown to be linear in all cases with R(2) >0.99. In most cases, the precision (relative standard deviation) and accuracy (relative error) of each method were less than or equal to 20%, respectively. The performance of the combined techniques made it possible to analyze each sample in 15 s illustrating DESI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as powerful tool for the quantitation of analytes in deproteinized human plasma. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Characterization of adrenergic receptors of the cat iris and nictitating membrane.

    PubMed

    Koss, M C; Hey, J A; Gherezghiher, T

    1990-01-01

    Graded pupillary dilations and nictitating membrane (NM) contractions were elicited in anesthetized cats by electrical stimulation of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve or by i.a. administration of norepinephrine (NE) or phenylephrine into the carotid artery. Pupil and NM responses were measured simultaneously from the same side. Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists were administered intravenously. All of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockers tested produced a dose-related reduction of NM responses to both neural and agonist activation; the potency rank order was prazosin greater than WB-4101 greater than phentolamine greater than phenoxybenzamine (PBZ). In contrast, responses of the iris dilator were antagonized only by WB-4101 and PBZ. The iris was almost totally refractory to doses of prazosin and phentolamine that blocked NM responses by more than 75% of control. Neither alpha 2- nor beta-adrenoceptor antagonism produced significant inhibition of neural or agonist activation of either organ (with the exception of high doses of yohimbine on the NM). These results suggest that the postjunctional adrenoceptors of the NM are exclusively of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype. In contrast, those of the iris dilator muscle cannot be easily classified pharmacologically as either alpha 1 or alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  5. A non-human primate model for investigating drug-induced risk of orthostatic hypotension and sympathetic dysfunction: Preclinical correlate to a clinical test.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Siddhartha; Foote, Stephen; Smith, Andrew; Butler, Paul; Steidl-Nichols, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced orthostatic hypotension (OH) is an important clinical concern and can be an unexpected hurdle during drug development. OH is defined as an abnormal decrease in blood pressure (BP) triggered by a rapid postural change. The sympathetic nervous system is critical for controlling normal cardiovascular function and compensatory responses to changes in posture. Thus, OH can also serve as a surrogate indicator of sympathetic dysfunction. However, preclinical conscious models for investigating risk of OH and/or sympathetic dysfunction are lacking. Herein, we describe a conscious nonhuman primate (NHP) model which mimics the widely used clinical tilt table test for OH. Male, Cynomolgus NHPs (n = 7-8) implanted with radio-telemetry transmitters were placed in modified tilt chairs in a supine position. Subsequently, a 90° head up tilt was performed for 3 min followed by return to the supine position. BP and heart rate were continuously monitored. Test compounds were administered either intravenously or via oral gavage in a crossover design, with blood samples collected at the end of the each tilt to assess total drug concentrations. Tilt responses were assessed following treatment with positive control compounds that cause sympathetic dysfunction; hexamethonium (ganglionic blocker) and prazosin (alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist). Both compounds induced marked OH as evidenced by robust and sustained BP reduction in response to a head up tilt (decrease of 25-35 mmHg for hexamethonium, decrease of 21-44 mmHg for prazosin). OH incidence rates increased in a dose-dependent manner. OH incidences following treatment with minoxidil (vasodilator) were markedly lower to those observed with hexamethonium and prazosin indicating the role of sympathetic dysfunction in causing OH. These data demonstrate that the NHP tilt test is a valuable model for investigating OH risk. This model fills an important preclinical gap for assessing such a safety concern and can be

  6. Modulation of haloperidol-induced patterns of the transcription factor Nur77 and Nor-1 expression by serotonergic and adrenergic drugs in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Maheux, Jérôme; Vuillier, Laura; Mahfouz, Mylène; Rouillard, Claude; Lévesque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Different patterns of expression of the transcription factors of Nur77 and Nor-1 are induced following acute administration of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. The pharmacological profile of atypical antipsychotics suggests that serotonergic and/or adrenergic receptors might contribute to these reported differences. In order to test this possibility, we examined the abilities of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C, and α1- and α2-adrenergic receptor drugs to modify the pattern of Nur77 (NR4A1) and Nor-1 (NR4A3) mRNA expression induced by haloperidol. Various groups of mice were treated with either saline, DOI, a 5-HT2A/2C agonist, MDL11939, a 5-HT2A antagonist, 8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT1A agonist, prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist and idazoxan, an α2-adrenergic antagonist, alone or in combination with haloperidol. The 5-HT2A/2C agonist DOI alone significantly increased Nur77 expression in the medial striatum and nucleus accumbens. DOI reduced Nor-1 expression, while MDL11939 increased the expression of this transcript in the cortex. Prazosin reduced Nur77 expression in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, 8-OH-DPAT and MDL11939 partially prevented haloperidol-induced Nur77 up-regulation, while MDL11939 completely abolished Nor-1 expression in the striatum. In addition, MDL11939 decreased haloperidol-induced Nur77 and Nor-1 mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. On the contrary, idazoxan (α2 antagonist) consistently potentiated haloperidol-induced Nur77, but not Nor-1 mRNA levels in the striatum, whereas prazosin (α1 antagonist) remained without effect. Taken together, these results show the ability of a 5-HT1A agonist or a 5-HT2A antagonist to reduce haloperidol-induced Nur77 and Nor-1 striatal expression, suggesting that these serotonin receptor subtypes participate in the differential pattern of gene expression induced by typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21524335

  7. Multixenobiotic resistance in Mytilus edulis: Molecular and functional characterization of an ABCG2- type transporter in hemocytes and gills.

    PubMed

    Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Xuereb, Benoit; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Le Foll, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Among the cellular protection arsenal, ABC transporters play an important role in xenobiotic efflux in marine organisms. Two pumps belonging to B and C subfamily has been identified in Mytilus edulis. In this study, we investigated the presence of the third major subtype ABCG2/BCRP protein in mussel tissues. Transcript was expressed in hemocytes and with higher level in gills. Molecular characterization revealed that mussel ABCG2 transporter shares the sequence and organizational structure with mammalian and molluscan orthologs. Overall identity of the predicted amino acid sequence with corresponding homologs from other organisms was between 49% and 98%. Moreover, protein efflux activity was demonstrated using a combination of fluorescent allocrites and specific inhibitors. The accumulation of bodipy prazosin and pheophorbide A was heterogeneous in gills and hemocytes. Most of the used blockers enhanced probe accumulation at different levels, most significantly for bodipy prazosin. Moreover, Mrp classical blocker MK571 showed a polyspecificity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that several ABC transporters contribute to MXR phenotype in the blue mussel including ABCG2 that forms an active pump in hemocytes and gills. Efforts are needed to distinguish between the different members and to explore their single function and specificity towards allocrites and chemosensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Ocular hypotensive effect of alpha-adrenoceptor agonist and antagonist in the conscious pigmented rabbit].

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Y; Iizuka, T; Nakamura, A; Nakata, K; Masaoka, Y; Ueda, T; Koide, R; Inatomi, M; Fukado, Y; Uchida, E

    1992-02-01

    It has been reported that some of the topically-used antiglaucomatics have a central ocular hypotensive effect. In this study, the influence of topical and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of phenylephrine, clonidine, guanfacine, prazosin, yohimbine on the intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated in the rabbit. Male pigmented rabbits were used throughout the experiments. For measurement of IOP, an applanation pneumatonograph was used. By unilateral topical administration of phenylephrine, an increase in IOP in the eye in which instillation was performed was observed. On the other hand, a slight decrease in IOP was observed by similar treatment of prazosin and yohimbine. No significant change of IOP in the contralateral eye was observed with these drugs. On the contrary, unilateral topical administration of clonidine or guanfacine decreased the IOP of both eyes. Furthermore, the decrease of IOP was more remarkable in the contralateral eye compared to the eye which received instillation. The IOP of both eyes was decreased in a dose-related fashion by i.c.v. administration of clonidine or guanfacine. The ocular hypotensive effects of clonidine were diminished by the pretreatment by i.c.v. administration with yohimbine. These results suggest that the ocular hypotensive effect of clonidine and guanfacine is due to their alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulation in the central nervous system.

  9. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical and Clinical Research REPORT DATE: August 2013 TYPE OF REPORT: Revised Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research Seattle, WA 98108-1597 9...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick

  10. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    sleep disturbance, and other hyperarousal symptoms typical of PTSD (11). Specific stimulation of CNS alpha-1 adreno- receptors disrupts REM sleep (36...result from excessive brain responsiveness to released norepinephrine disrupting rapid eye movement ( REM ) and other sleep stages (Mellman, Kumar, Kulick...in 2006, sought help for distressing combat trauma night- mares, sleep disruption, and daytime intrusive ruminations about previous combat events. He

  11. Prazosin for Treatment of Patients With PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    treat individuals with comorbid AD and TSD. The use of an alpha-! adrenergic receptor antagonist represents a novel approach to treatment that may... adrenergic ~ceptor antagonist that has been used successfully in the treatment of trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with TSD, and...stressor, presented randomly. Outcome measures include self-reported measures of alcohol craving and anxiety . Subjects are subsequently randomized

  12. Involvement of histaminergic and noradrenergic receptors in the oxytocin-induced food intake in neonatal meat-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Mirnaghizadeh, Seyed Vahid; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab

    2017-03-01

    Oxytocin neurons have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Several studies have shown that central histaminergic and adrenergic systems synapse on oxytocin neurons but there is no information for their interaction on food intake regulation in birds. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH, histidine decarboxylase inhibitor), chlorpheniramine (histamine H1 receptors antagonist), famotidine (histamine H2 receptors antagonist), thioperamide (histamine H3 receptors antagonist), prazosin (α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (α2 receptor antagonist), metoprolol (β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist) and SR59230R (β3 adrenergic receptor antagonist) on oxytocin-induced hypophagia in 3-h food-deprived (FD 3 ) neonatal broiler chicken. In Experiment 1, 3 h-fasted chicks were given an ICV injection of saline, α-FMH (250 nmol), oxytocin (10 μg) and co-injection of α-FMH + oxytocin. Experiments 2-9 were similar to experiment 1 except birds were injected with chlorpheniramine (300 nmol), famotidine (82 nmol), thioperamide (300 nmol), prazosin (10 nmol), yohimbine (13 nmol), metoprolol (24 nmol), ICI 118,551(5 nmol) and SR59230R (20 nmol) instead of α-FMH, respectively. After injection cumulative food intake was measured until 120 min post injection. According to the results, ICV injection of oxytocin significantly decreased food intake in broiler chickens (P < 0.001). ICV injection of α-FMH significantly attenuated hypophagic effect of oxytocin (P < 0.001). Also, co-injection of chlorpheniramine plus oxytocin significantly decreased the effect of oxytocin on food intake (P < 0.001). Co-administration of thioperamide and oxytocin significantly amplified hypophagic effect of oxytocin in chickens (P < 0.001). In addition, ICI 118,551 attenuated hypophagic effect of oxytocin (P < 0.001); while

  13. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

  14. Muscarinic and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics of saw palmetto extract in rat lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Oki, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Tomomi; Umegaki, Keizo; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the in vitro and ex vivo effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on autonomic receptors in the rat lower urinary tract. The in vitro binding affinities for alpha 1-adrenergic, muscarinic, and purinergic receptors in the rat prostate and bladder were measured by radioligand binding assays. Rats received vehicle or SPE (0.6 to 60 mg/kg/day) orally for 4 weeks, and alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor binding in tissues of these rats were measured. Saw palmetto extract inhibited specific binding of [3H]prazosin and [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS) but not alpha, beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate [2,8-(3)H]tetrasodium salt in the rat prostate and bladder. The binding activity of SPE for muscarinic receptors was four times greater than that for alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Scatchard analysis revealed that SPE significantly reduced the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for each radioligand in the prostate and bladder under in vitro condition. Repeated oral administration of SPE to rats brought about significant alteration in Bmax for prostatic [3H]prazosin binding and for bladder [3H]NMS binding. Such alteration by SPE was selective to the receptors in the lower urinary tract. Saw palmetto extract exerts significant binding activity on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  15. Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Chemical-Disease Relationships using Readily Available Chemical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    C15H13N3O4S Potassium Bromide 0119000100 BrK Potassium Permanganate 0158030400 MnO4K Prazosin 0383410801 C19H21N5O4 Propranolol-HCl 0259350302...chemicals and correctly match it to a single disease category. Potassium permanganate and ethylene glycol can both be correctly linked to disease group...chemical is linked to the same disease, the network is unable to predict the same disease for the multiple chemicals. Potassium permanganate and

  16. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  17. Role of the α1 Blocker Doxazosin in Alcoholism: a Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, George A.; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Brickley, Michael B.; Swift, Robert M.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests the norepinephrine system represents an important treatment target for alcohol dependence (AD) and the α1-blocker prazosin may reduce alcohol drinking in rodents and alcoholic patients. The α1-blocker doxazosin demonstrates a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than prazosin but has never been studied for AD. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in AD individuals seeking outpatient treatment. Doxazosin or matched placebo was titrated to 16-mg/day (or maximum tolerable dose). Drinks per week (DPW) and heavy drinking days (HDD) per week were primary outcomes. Family history density of alcoholism (FHDA), severity of AD, and gender were a priori moderators. Results Forty-one AD individuals were randomized, 30 (doxazosin = 15) completed the treatment phase, and 28 (doxazosin = 14) also completed the follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups on DPW and HDD per week. With FHDA as a moderator, there were significant FHDA x medication interactions for both DPW [pcorrected = .001, d = 1.18] and HDD [pcorrected = .00009, d = 1.30]. Post-hoc analyses revealed that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol drinking in AD patients with high FHDA and by contrast increased drinking in those with low FHDA. Conclusions Doxazosin may be effective selectively in AD patients with high FHDA. This study provides preliminary evidence for personalized medicine using α1-blockade to treat AD. However, confirmatory studies are required. PMID:26037245

  18. Reducing the harm of stress: medications to rescue the prefrontal cortex and overcome bad habits: the science of stress: focus on the brain, breaking bad habits, and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu E

    2011-12-01

    Our brain is sensitive to stress. Both acute and chronic stress cause cognitive deficits and induce chronic disorders such as drug addiction. In a June 2011 conference at Yale entitled "The Science of Stress: Focus on the Brain, Breaking Bad Habits, and Chronic Disease," Drs. Amy Arnsten and Sherry Mckee discussed the roles of prefrontal cortex in the treatment of stress impairments and addiction. Medications to strengthen the prefrontal function, such as prazosin and guanfacine, may reduce the harm of stress and help overcome smoking and alcohol abuse.

  19. Rational design, synthesis, biologic evaluation, and structure-activity relationship studies of novel 1-indanone alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Minyong; Xia, Lin

    2007-11-01

    In the present report, a novel series of 1-indanone alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists were designed and synthesized based on 3D-pharmacophore model. Their in vitro alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonistic assay showed that three compounds (2a, 2m, and 2o) had similar or improved alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonistic activities relative to the positive control prazosin. Based on these results, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study was performed using a Self-Organizing Molecular Field Analysis method to provide insight for the future development of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists.

  20. Impaired flexibility in decision making in rats after administration of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Andrea L; Haack, Andrew K; Taha, Sharif A

    2014-10-01

    Stress-induced disruption of decision making has been hypothesized to contribute to drug-seeking behaviors and addiction. Noradrenergic signaling plays a central role in mediating stress responses. However, the effects of acute stress on decision making, and the role of noradrenergic signaling in regulating these effects, have not been well characterized. To characterize changes in decision making caused by acute pharmacological stress, the effects of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic antagonist) were examined in a delay discounting task. Noradrenergic contributions to decision making were further characterized by examining the effects of propranolol (a β antagonist), prazosin (an α1 antagonist), and guanfacine (an α2 agonist). Sprague-Dawley rats were administered drugs prior to performance on a delay discounting task, in which the delay preceding the large reward increased within each session (ascending delays). To dissociate drug-induced changes in delay sensitivity from behavioral inflexibility, drug effects were subsequently tested in a modified version of the discounting task, in which the delay preceding the large reward decreased within each session (descending delays). Yohimbine increased choice of the large reward when tested with ascending delays but decreased choice of the same large reward when tested with descending delays, suggesting that drug effects could be attributed to perseverative choice of the lever preferred at the beginning of the session. Propranolol increased choice of the large reward when tested with ascending delays. Prazosin and guanfacine had no effect on reward choice. The stress-like effects of yohimbine administration may impair decision making by causing inflexible, perseverative behavior.

  1. Antidepressant-like activity of anthocyanidins from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers in tail suspension test and forced swim test

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Pallavi B.; Patil, Rupali A.; Hiray, Yogesh A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn (Malvaceae) popularly known as “China-rose flowers” contain flavonoids. Flavonoids have been found to have antidepressant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidepressant activity of flavonoids in H. rosa-sinensis flowers with possible involvement of monoamines. Materials and Methods: Anti-depressant activity of methanol extract containing anthocyanins (MHR) (30 and 100 mg/kg) and anthocyanidins (AHR) (30 and 100 mg/ kg) of H. rosa-sinensis flowers were evaluated in mice using behavioral tests such as tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The mechanism of action involved in antidepressant activity was investigated by observing the effect of extract after pre-treatment with low dose haloperidol, prazosin and para-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA). Results: Present study exhibited significant decrease in immobility time in TST and FST, similar to that of imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) which served as a positive control. The extract significantly attenuated the duration of immobility induced by Haloperidol (50 μg/ kg, i.p., a classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist), Prazosin (62.5 μg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg, i.p., × 3 days; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) in both TST and FST. Conclusion: It can be concluded that MHR and AHR possess potential antidepressant activity (through dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms) and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of CNS disorders and provides evidence at least at preclinical levels. PMID:23087504

  2. α1-Adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus involved in learning-dependent long-term potentiation during active-avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Zhan, Su-Yang; Li, Guang-Xie; Wang, Dan; Li, Ying-Shun; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2016-11-09

    The hippocampus is the key structure for learning and memory in mammals and long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important cellular mechanism responsible for learning and memory. The influences of norepinephrine (NE) on the modulation of learning and memory, as well as LTP, through β-adrenoceptors are well documented, whereas the role of α1-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP is not yet clear. In the present study, we measured extracellular concentrations of NE in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region using an in-vivo brain microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques during the acquisition and extinction of active-avoidance behavior in freely moving conscious rats. Next, the effects of prazosin (an antagonist of α1-adrenoceptor) and phenylephrine (an agonist of the α1-adrenoceptor) on amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during the active-avoidance behavior. Our results showed that the extracellular concentration of NE in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active-avoidance behavior and gradually returned to the baseline level following extinction training. A local microinjection of prazosin into the DG significantly accelerated the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior, whereas a local microinjection of phenylephrine retarded the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude were accompanied by corresponding changes in active-avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that NE activation of α1-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal DG inhibits active-avoidance learning by modulation of synaptic efficiency in rats.

  3. Evaluation for the interaction between intrathecal melatonin and clonidine or neostigmine on formalin-induced nociception.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Myung Ha; Park, Heon Chang; Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Kim, Yeo Ok; Huang, Lan Ji

    2008-12-19

    We examined the nature of pharmacological interaction after coadministration of melatonin with clonidine or neostigmine on formalin-induced nociception at the spinal level. Further, the role of melatonin receptor subtypes in melatonin-induced antinociception was clarified. Catheters were inserted into the intrathecal space of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pain was assessed using the formalin test (induced by a subcutaneous injection of 50 microl of a 5% formalin solution to the hindpaw). Isobolographic analysis was used for the evaluation of drug interaction between melatonin and clonidine or neostigmine. Non-selective MT1/MT2 receptors antagonist (luzindole), MT2 receptor antagonist (4-P-PDOT), and MT3 receptor/alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist (prazosin) were intrathecally given to verify the involvement of the melatonin receptor subtypes in the antinociception of melatonin. Furthermore, the effect of intrathecal MT3 receptor ligand (GR 135531) was observed. Intrathecal melatonin, clonidine, and neostigmine dose-dependently suppressed the flinching response during phase 1 and phase 2 in the formalin test. Isobolographic analysis showed additivity between melatonin and clonidine or neostigmine in both phases. The antinociceptive effect of melatonin was antagonized by luzindole, 4-P-PDOT, and prazosin in the spinal cord. Intrathecal GR 135531 was ineffective against the formalin-induced flinching response. These results suggest that melatonin interacts additively with clonidine and neostigmine in the formalin-induced nociception at the spinal level. Furthermore, the antinociception of melatonin is mediated through the MT2 receptor, but not the MT3 receptor. However, it seems that alpha-1 adrenoceptor plays in the effect of melatonin.

  4. Beta-adrenoreceptor blockade abolishes atomoxetine-induced risk taking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan Nils; Pan, Jing Samantha; Li, Xinwang

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that patients with exaggerated risk-taking tendencies have high baseline levels of norepinephrine. In this work, we systemically manipulated norepinephrine levels in rats and studied their behavioral changes in a probabilistic discounting task, which is a paradigm for gauging risk taking. This study aims to explore the effects of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (atomoxetine at doses of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.8 mg/kg), and receptor selective antagonists (propranolol at a single dose of 1.0/kg, and prazosin at a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg), on risk taking using a probabilistic discounting task. In this task, there were two levers available to rats: pressing the 'small/certain' lever guaranteed a single food pellet, and pressing the 'large/risky' lever yielded either four pellets or none. The probability of receiving four food pellets decreased across the four experimental blocks from 100% to 12.5%. Atomoxetine increased the tendency to choose the large/risky lever. It significantly reduced the lose-shift effect (i.e. pressing a different lever after losing a trial), but did not affect the win-stay effect (i.e. pressing the same lever after winning a trial). Furthermore, co-administration of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist, propranolol, eliminated the effects of atomoxetine on risk taking and the lose-shift effect; but co-administration of alpha1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin, did not. Atomoxetine boosted NE levels and increased risk taking. This was because atomoxetine decreased rats' sensitivity to losses. These effects were likely mediated by beta-adrenoreceptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Autonomic contribution to the blood pressure and heart rate variability changes in early experimental hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Safa-Tisseront, V; Ponchon, P; Laude, D; Elghozi, J L

    1998-12-01

    To study the interaction between autonomic nervous activity and thyroid hormones in the control of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Thyrotoxicosis was produced by injections of L-thyroxine (0.5 mg/kg/day for five days). Blockers were atropine (0.5 mg/kg), atenolol (1 mg/kg) or prazosin (1 mg/kg). Eight animals were studied in each group. Spectral analyses was performed using continuous BP time series obtained in conscious rats. Thyroxine treatment was sufficient to induce a significant degree of tachycardia (423+/-6 vs 353+/-4 bpm, P < 0.001, unpaired Student's t test), systolic BP elevation (142+/-3 vs 127+/-2 mmHg, P < 0.001) and cardiac hypertrophy (1.165+/-0.017 vs 1.006+/-0.012 g, P < 0.001). The intrinsic HR was markedly increased after treatment with thyroxine (497+/-16 vs 373+/-10 bpm, P < 0.05). Vagal tone was positively linearly related to intrinsic HR (r = 0.84, P< 0.01). Atenolol neither modified HR nor BP variability in rats with hyperthyroidism. The thyrotoxicosis was associated with a reduction of the 0.4 Hz component of BP variability (modulus 1.10+/-0.07 vs 1.41+/-0.06 mmHg, P < 0.01). Prazosin was without effect on this 0.4 Hz component in hyperthyroid animals. These data show a functional diminution of the vascular and cardiac sympathetic tone in early experimental hyperthyroidism. The marked rise in the intrinsic HR could be the main determinant of tachycardia. The BP elevation may reflexly induce vagal activation and sympathetic (vascular and cardiac) inhibition.

  6. Neural mechanisms and delayed gastric emptying of liquid induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-02-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1 mA/10 s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  7. NMDA receptors mediate lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior produced by the stress of predator exposure--implications for anxiety associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Adamec, R E; Burton, P; Shallow, T; Budgell, J

    It has been proposed that NMDA-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of limbic system circuits controlling defensive behavior underlies stressor-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior (ALB). Findings in cats given the stress-inducing beta-carboline, FG-7142, support this hypothesis. An animal model of lasting affective change following traumatic stress has recently been developed. In this model, lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior (ALB) assessed in the elevated plus maze are produced by a single 5-min exposure of a rat to a cat. Rats become more anxious in the plus maze for up to 3 weeks after the exposure. The present study demonstrates that blockade of NMDA receptors in rats with MK-801, AP7, or CPP, given 30 min prior to exposure to a cat, prevents the increase in ALB assessed 1 week later. MK-801 or AP7, given 30 min after exposure to a cat, do not prevent the increase in ALB seen 1 week later, however. MK-801, but not CPP or AP7, promotes approaches to cats during exposure. This "fearlessness" may reflect some anxiolytic action of MK-801. Approach to cats following injection of MK-801 was eliminated by prior injection of Prazosin. Prazosin did not interfere with the block of increases in ALB following cat exposure, however. These findings are consistent with the view that NMDA receptors are involved in initiation, but not maintenance of neural changes mediating lasting increases in anxiety following severe stress. The significance of these findings for PTSD are discussed.

  8. Role of the α1 blocker doxazosin in alcoholism: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Zywiak, William H; Edwards, Steven M; Brickley, Michael B; Swift, Robert M; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that the norepinephrine system represents an important treatment target for alcohol dependence (AD) and the α1 -blocker prazosin may reduce alcohol drinking in rodents and alcoholic patients. The α1 -blocker doxazosin demonstrates a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than prazosin, but has never been studied for AD. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in AD individuals seeking outpatient treatment. Doxazosin or matched placebo was titrated to 16 mg/day (or maximum tolerable dose). Drinks per week (DPW) and heavy drinking days (HDD) per week were the primary outcomes. Family history density of alcoholism (FHDA), severity of AD and gender were a priori moderators. Forty-one AD individuals were randomized, 30 (doxazosin = 15) completed the treatment phase and 28 (doxazosin = 14) also completed the follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups on DPW and HDD per week. With FHDA as a moderator, there were significant FHDA × medication interactions for both DPW (pcorrected  = 0.001, d = 1.18) and HDD (pcorrected  = 0.00009, d = 1.30). Post hoc analyses revealed that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol drinking in AD patients with high FHDA and by contrast increased drinking in those with low FHDA. Doxazosin may be effective selectively in AD patients with high FHDA. This study provides preliminary evidence for personalized medicine using α1 -blockade to treat AD. However, confirmatory studies are required. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Evaluation of the alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated effects of a series of dimethoxy-substituted tolazoline derivatives in the cardiovascular system of the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, R R; Messick, K

    1985-01-01

    The alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated effects of a series of dimethoxy-substituted tolazoline derivatives were investigated in the cardiovascular system of the pithed rat. The 2,5- and 3,5-dimethoxy-substituted tolazoline derivatives produced vasopressor responses that were inhibited by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.1 mg/kg i.v.), and were not affected by the alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (1 mg/kg i.v.), suggesting that these derivatives selectively activate postsynaptic vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptors. The 2,5- and 3,5-dimethoxy-substituted derivatives of tolazoline did not produce an alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neurogenic tachycardia in cord-stimulated pithed rats and were therefore presumed to be devoid of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist activity. In contrast, 2,3-dimethoxytolazoline produced a vasopressor effect that was inhibited by yohimbine but not by prazosin, suggesting selective activation of postsynaptic vascular alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Consistent with this observation is the fact that 2,3-dimethoxytolazoline elicited a dose-dependent, alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neurogenic tachycardia in cord-stimulated pithed rat. 3,4-Dimethoxytolazoline was a weak alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist in the vasculature of the pithed rat and was devoid of agonist activity at alpha-2 adrenoceptors. However, 3,4-dimethoxytolazoline was found to be an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist of similar potency as yohimbine. The results of the present study indicate that dimethoxy-substituted derivatives of tolazoline possess different activities and selectivities at alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors depending upon the positions of substitution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Role of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Tavares, Rodrigo Fiacadori; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2014-07-01

    Restraint stress (RS) is an experimental model to study stress-related cardiovascular responses, characterized by sustained pressor and tachycardiac responses. We used pharmacologic and surgical procedures to investigate the role played by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) in the mediation of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. Ganglionic blockade with pentolinium significantly reduced RS-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses. Intravenous treatment with homatropine methyl bromide did not affect the pressor response but increased tachycardia. Pretreatment with prazosin reduced the pressor and increased the tachycardiac response. Pretreatment with atenolol did not affect the pressor response but reduced tachycardia. The combined treatment with atenolol and prazosin reduced both pressor and tachycardiac responses. Adrenal demedullation reduced the pressor response without affecting tachycardia. Sinoaortic denervation increased pressor and tachycardiac responses. The results indicate that: (1) the RS-evoked cardiovascular response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system without an important involvement of humoral factors; (2) hypertension results primarily from sympathovascular and sympathoadrenal activation, without a significant involvement of the cardiac sympathetic component (CSNS); (3) the abrupt initial peak in the hypertensive response to restraint is sympathovascular-mediated, whereas the less intense but sustained hypertensive response observed throughout the remaining restraint session is mainly mediated by sympathoadrenal activation and epinephrine release; (4) tachycardia results from CSNS activation, and not from PSNS inhibition; (5) RS evokes simultaneous CSNS and PSNS activation, and heart rate changes are a vector of both influences; (6) the baroreflex is functional during restraint, and modulates both the vascular and cardiac responses to restraint.

  11. Contribution of α-adrenoceptor stimulation by phenylephrine to basal nitric oxide production in the isolated mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    van Langen, Johanna T H; Van Hove, Cor E; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Fransen, Paul; Bult, Hidde

    2013-04-01

    In the mouse aorta, contractions evoked by the α(1)-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine are strongly suppressed by the continuous production of nitric oxide (NO). We investigated whether phenylephrine itself stimulated NO production by activating endothelial α(2)-adrenoceptors. On a prostaglandin F(2α) contraction, the α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-quinoxalinamine (UK14304) induced 29.3 ± 7.4% relaxation, which was inhibited by 0.1 μM 2-[(4,5-Dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole (BRL44408) with a pKB' corresponding to α(2)-antagonism. In the presence of NO synthase blockers, UK14304 elicited small contractions above 1 μM that were inhibited by 0.1 μM prazosin, but not influenced by 0.1 μM rauwolscine. At 3 μM or higher concentrations, phenylephrine caused only modest relaxation (up to 7.4 ± 2.3%) of segments constricted with prostaglandin F(2α) in the presence of prazosin, which was abolished with 0.1 μM BRL44408. Furthermore, BRL44408 did not increase contractions induced with 1 μM phenylephrine. These results confirm that α(1)- but not α(2)-adrenoceptors are expressed on aortic smooth muscle cells, whereas endothelial cells only express α(2)-adrenoceptors. Moreover, phenylephrine exerted a very modest relaxing effect through nonspecific stimulation of α(2)-adrenoceptors, but only at concentrations higher than 1 μM. It is concluded that the high basal output of NO in the isolated mouse aorta is not due to stimulation of α-adrenoceptors.

  12. alpha-Adrenoceptor and opioid receptor modulation of clonidine-induced antinociception.

    PubMed Central

    Sierralta, F.; Naquira, D.; Pinardi, G.; Miranda, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antinociceptive action of clonidine (Clon) and the interactions with alpha 1, alpha 2 adrenoceptor and opioid receptor antagonists was evaluated in mice by use of chemical algesiometric test (acetic acid writhing test). 2. Clon produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive action and the ED50 for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was lower than for intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (1 ng kg-1 vs 300 ng kg-1). The parallelism of the dose-response curves indicates activation of a common receptor subtype. 3. Systemic administration of prazosin and terazosin displayed antinociceptive activity. Pretreatment with prazosin produced a dual action: i.c.v. Clon effect did not change, and i.p. Clon effect was enhanced. Yohimbine i.c.v. or i.p. did not induce antinonciception, but antagonized Clon-induced activity. These results suggest that alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, either located at the pre- and/or post-synaptic level, are involved in the control of spinal antinociception. 4. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) induced antinociceptive effects at low doses (microgram kg-1 range) and a lower antinociceptive effect at higher doses (mg kg-1 range). Low doses of NX or NTX antagonized Clon antinociception, possibly in relation to a preferential mu opioid receptor antagonism. In contrast, high doses of NX or NTX increased the antinociceptive activity of Clon, which could be due to an enhanced inhibition of the release of substance P. 5. The results obtained in the present work suggest the involvement of alpha 1-, alpha 2-adrenoceptor and opioid receptors in the modulation of the antinociceptive activity of clonidine, which seems to be exerted either at spinal and/or supraspinal level. PMID:8894177

  13. alpha-Adrenoceptor and opioid receptor modulation of clonidine-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, F; Naquira, D; Pinardi, G; Miranda, H F

    1996-10-01

    1. The antinociceptive action of clonidine (Clon) and the interactions with alpha 1, alpha 2 adrenoceptor and opioid receptor antagonists was evaluated in mice by use of chemical algesiometric test (acetic acid writhing test). 2. Clon produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive action and the ED50 for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was lower than for intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (1 ng kg-1 vs 300 ng kg-1). The parallelism of the dose-response curves indicates activation of a common receptor subtype. 3. Systemic administration of prazosin and terazosin displayed antinociceptive activity. Pretreatment with prazosin produced a dual action: i.c.v. Clon effect did not change, and i.p. Clon effect was enhanced. Yohimbine i.c.v. or i.p. did not induce antinonciception, but antagonized Clon-induced activity. These results suggest that alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, either located at the pre- and/or post-synaptic level, are involved in the control of spinal antinociception. 4. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) induced antinociceptive effects at low doses (microgram kg-1 range) and a lower antinociceptive effect at higher doses (mg kg-1 range). Low doses of NX or NTX antagonized Clon antinociception, possibly in relation to a preferential mu opioid receptor antagonism. In contrast, high doses of NX or NTX increased the antinociceptive activity of Clon, which could be due to an enhanced inhibition of the release of substance P. 5. The results obtained in the present work suggest the involvement of alpha 1-, alpha 2-adrenoceptor and opioid receptors in the modulation of the antinociceptive activity of clonidine, which seems to be exerted either at spinal and/or supraspinal level.

  14. Impact of sympathetic nervous system activity on post-exercise flow-mediated dilatation in humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Lewis, Nia C S; Carter, Howard H; Thijssen, Dick H J; Ainslie, Philip N; Green, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Transient reduction in vascular function following systemic large muscle group exercise has previously been reported in humans. The mechanisms responsible are currently unknown. We hypothesised that sympathetic nervous system activation, induced by cycle ergometer exercise, would contribute to post-exercise reductions in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Ten healthy male subjects (28 ± 5 years) undertook two 30 min sessions of cycle exercise at 75% HR(max). Prior to exercise, individuals ingested either a placebo or an α1-adrenoreceptor blocker (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg(-1)). Central haemodynamics, brachial artery shear rate (SR) and blood flow profiles were assessed throughout each exercise bout and in response to brachial artery FMD, measured prior to, immediately after and 60 min after exercise. Cycle exercise increased both mean and antegrade SR (P < 0.001) with retrograde SR also elevated under both conditions (P < 0.001). Pre-exercise FMD was similar on both occasions, and was significantly reduced (27%) immediately following exercise in the placebo condition (t-test, P = 0.03). In contrast, FMD increased (37%) immediately following exercise in the prazosin condition (t-test, P = 0.004, interaction effect P = 0.01). Post-exercise FMD remained different between conditions after correction for baseline diameters preceding cuff deflation and also post-deflation SR. No differences in FMD or other variables were evident 60 min following recovery. Our results indicate that sympathetic vasoconstriction competes with endothelium-dependent dilator activity to determine post-exercise arterial function. These findings have implications for understanding the chronic impacts of interventions, such as exercise training, which affect both sympathetic activity and arterial shear stress. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. SciTech Connect

    Raulli, R.; Crews, F.T.

    The potency of various alpha adrenergic compounds on stimulation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis was determined using (/sup 3/H)-inositol labelled cerebral cortical slices. Norepinephrine-induced PI hydrolysis was inhibited by the alpha/sub 1/ selective antagonist prazosin (1 ..mu..M) but not the beta receptor antagonist propranolol (1 ..mu..M). Tramazoline, (-)-ephedrine, and (+/-)-phenylpropanolamine were all found to be partial agonists at 1 mM concentrations. Clonidine, naphazoline, trazodone, and the novel antidepressant mianserin at concentrations of 100 ..mu..M to 1 mM produced no significant increase in PI hydrolysis above control levels. The relationship between responses and receptor binding will be discussed.

  16. In-Home Sleep Recordings in Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reveal Less REM and Deep Sleep <1 Hz.

    PubMed

    Onton, Julie A; Matthews, Scott C; Kang, Dae Y; Coleman, Todd P

    2018-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA) and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm. For this study, 71 control subjects and 60 military-related PTSD subjects were analyzed for percentage of time spent in Light, Hi Deep (1-3 Hz), Lo Deep (<1 Hz), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages, as well as sleep efficiency and fragmentation. The results showed a significant tendency for PTSD sleepers to spend a smaller percentage of the night in REM ( p < 0.0001) and Lo Deep ( p = 0.001) sleep, while spending a larger percentage of the night in Hi Deep ( p < 0.0001) sleep. The percentage of combined Hi+Lo Deep sleep did not differ between groups. All sleepers usually showed EDA peaks during Lo, but not Hi, Deep sleep; however, PTSD sleepers were more likely to lack EDA peaks altogether, which usually coincided with a lack of Lo Deep sleep. Linear regressions with all subjects showed that a decreased percentage of REM sleep in PTSD sleepers was accounted for by age, prazosin, SSRIs and SNRIs ( p < 0.02), while decreased Lo Deep and increased Hi Deep in the PTSD group could not be accounted for by any factor in this study ( p < 0.005). Linear regression models with only the PTSD group showed that decreased REM correlated with self-reported depression, as measured with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; p < 0.00001). DASS anxiety was associated with increased REM time ( p < 0.0001). This study shows altered sleep patterns in sleepers with PTSD that can be partially accounted

  17. In-Home Sleep Recordings in Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reveal Less REM and Deep Sleep <1 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Onton, Julie A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Kang, Dae Y.; Coleman, Todd P.

    2018-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA) and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm. For this study, 71 control subjects and 60 military-related PTSD subjects were analyzed for percentage of time spent in Light, Hi Deep (1–3 Hz), Lo Deep (<1 Hz), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages, as well as sleep efficiency and fragmentation. The results showed a significant tendency for PTSD sleepers to spend a smaller percentage of the night in REM (p < 0.0001) and Lo Deep (p = 0.001) sleep, while spending a larger percentage of the night in Hi Deep (p < 0.0001) sleep. The percentage of combined Hi+Lo Deep sleep did not differ between groups. All sleepers usually showed EDA peaks during Lo, but not Hi, Deep sleep; however, PTSD sleepers were more likely to lack EDA peaks altogether, which usually coincided with a lack of Lo Deep sleep. Linear regressions with all subjects showed that a decreased percentage of REM sleep in PTSD sleepers was accounted for by age, prazosin, SSRIs and SNRIs (p < 0.02), while decreased Lo Deep and increased Hi Deep in the PTSD group could not be accounted for by any factor in this study (p < 0.005). Linear regression models with only the PTSD group showed that decreased REM correlated with self-reported depression, as measured with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; p < 0.00001). DASS anxiety was associated with increased REM time (p < 0.0001). This study shows altered sleep patterns in sleepers with PTSD that can be partially accounted for by

  18. Rifampicin and anti-hypertensive drugs in chronic kidney disease: Pharmacokinetic interactions and their clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, A.; Agarwal, S. K.; Kaleekal, T.; Gupta, Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients on dialysis have an increased incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Rifampicin, a first-line antitubercular therapy (ATT) drug, is a potent inducer of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP). There is potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between rifampicin and anti-hypertensives that are CYP substrates: amlodipine and metoprolol. Therefore, hypertensive patients receiving rifampicin-based ATT are at risk for worsening of hypertension. However, this hypothesis has not yet been systematically studied. In this prospective study, hypertensive CKD 5D patients with TB were followed after rifampicin initiation. Blood pressure (BP) was ≤140/90 mmHg with stable anti-HT requirement at inclusion. Serum amlodipine, metoprolol, and prazosin levels were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after rifampicin initiation. BP and anti-HT requirement were monitored for 2 weeks or until stabilization. All 24 patients in the study had worsening of hypertension after rifampicin and 83.3% required increase in drugs to maintain BP <140/90 mmHg. Serial amlodipine levels were estimated in 16 patients; metoprolol and prazosin in four patients each. Drug levels declined by >50% in all patients and became undetectable in 50-75%. Drug requirement increased from 4.5 ± 3.6 to 8.5 ± 6.4 units (P < 0.0001). Mean time to first increase in dose was 6.5 ± 3.6 days. Eleven (46%) patients experienced a hypertensive crisis at 9.1 ± 3.8 days. Three of them had a hypertensive emergency with acute pulmonary edema. In two patients, rifampicin had to be discontinued to achieve BP control. In conclusion, rifampicin caused a significant decrease in blood levels of commonly used anti hypertensives. This decrease in levels correlated well with worsening of hypertension. Thus, we suggest very close BP monitoring in CKD patients after rifampicin initiation. PMID:27795624

  19. Identification of trace-amine-associated receptors (TAAR) in the rat aorta and their role in vasoconstriction by β-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Fehler, Martina; Broadley, Kenneth J; Ford, William R; Kidd, Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Trace amines including tyramine and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) increase blood pressure and cause vasoconstriction which is attributed to indirect sympathomimetic actions. However, there is evidence that they may also have non-sympathomimetic mechanisms. This study examined whether β-PEA causes vasoconstriction of rat aorta by a sympathomimetic action or through the recently described trace-amine-associated receptors (TAAR). Concentration-response curves (CRCs) for β-PEA were constructed either cumulatively or non-cumulatively in rat isolated aortic rings. TAAR-1 and TAAR-4 protein expression was determined in rat aorta by Western blotting and TAAR-1 mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). β-PEA caused concentration-related constriction of rat aorta. The contractions were unaffected by endothelium removal or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM) or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 μM). Non-cumulative CRCs showed greater contractions and sensitivity to β-PEA than cumulative. The α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, failed to inhibit either curve. The β-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol, the adrenergic neuronal transport inhibitor, cocaine, and the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline, also failed to alter the CRC. In the combined presence of prazosin, cocaine, pargyline, and the selective β(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI-118,551, the trace amine contractile potency order was tryptamine > β-PEA > octopamine > D: -amphetamine > tyramine. Western blotting and RT-PCR revealed the presence of TAAR-1 in rat aorta, but TAAR-4 was poorly expressed. Vasoconstriction of rat aorta by β-PEA appears not to be an indirect sympathomimetic action. The presence of TAAR-1 suggests that vasoconstriction may be via these receptors; however, the potency order differed from that reported for transfected cells expressing rat TAAR-1.

  20. Eye and heart morphogenesis are dependent on melatonin signaling in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Renato C; Sampaio, Lucia de Fatima S

    2017-10-15

    Calmodulin is vital for chick embryos morphogenesis in the incubation time 48-66 h when the rudimentary C-shaped heart attains an S-shaped pattern and the optic vesicles develop into optic cups. Melatonin is in the extraembryonic yolk sac of the avian egg; melatonin binds calmodulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of melatonin in the formation of the chick embryo optic cups and S-shaped heart, by pharmacological methods and immunoassays. Mel1a melatonin receptor immunofluorescence was distributed in the optic cups and rudimentary hearts. We separated embryonated chicken eggs at 48 h of incubation into basal, control and drug-treated groups, with treatment applied in the egg air sac. At 66 h of incubation, embryos were excised from the eggs and analyzed. Embryos from the basal, control (distilled water), melatonin and 6-chloromelatonin (melatonin receptor agonist) groups had regular optic cups and an S-shaped heart, while those from the calmidazolium (calmodulin inhibitor) group did not. Embryos from the luzindole (melatonin receptor antagonist) and prazosin (Mel1c melatonin receptor antagonist) groups did not have regular optic cups. Embryos from the 4-P-PDOT (Mel1b melatonin receptor antagonist) group did not have an S-shaped heart. Previous application of the melatonin, 6-chloromelatonin or forskolin (adenylate cyclase enhancer) prevented the abnormal appearance of chick embryos from the calmidazolium, luzindole, prazosin and 4-P-PDOT groups. However, 6-chloromelatonin and forskolin only partially prevented the development of defective eye cups in embryos from the calmidazolium group. The results suggested that melatonin modulates chick embryo morphogenesis via calmodulin and membrane receptors. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Kumar, Vaibhav

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium sativum L. (Family: Lilliaceae), commonly known as garlic, on depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of garlic (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally for 14 successive days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex and antidepressant-like activity was evaluated employing tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The efficacy of the extract was compared with standard antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine and imipramine. The mechanism of action of the extract was investigated by co-administration of prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), baclofen (GABAB agonist) and p-CPA (serotonin antagonist) separately with the extract and by studying the effect of the extract on brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels. Results: Garlic extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy of the extract was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o.) and imipramine (15 mg/kg p.o.) in both TST and FST. The extract did not show any significant effect on the locomotor activity of the mice. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Garlic extract (100 mg/kg) administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Garlic extract showed significant antidepressant-like activity probably by inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B levels and through interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:20040952

  2. Neuropeptide AF induces anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Tanaka, Masaru; Bagosi, Zsolt; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the action of neuropeptide AF (NPAF) on anxiety and depression. Only our previous study provides evidence that NPAF induces anxiety-like behavior in rats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of NPAF on depression-like behavior and the underlying neurotransmissions in mice. In order to determine whether there are species differences between rats and mice, we have investigated the action of NPAF on anxiety-like behavior in mice as well. A modified forced swimming test (mFST) and an elevated plus maze test (EPMT) were used to investigate the depression and anxiety-related behaviors, respectively. Mice were treated with NPAF 30min prior to the tests. In the mFST, the animals were pretreated with a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a D2/D3/D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin or a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol 30min before the NPAF administration. In the mFST, NPAF decreased the immobility time and increased the climbing and swimming times. This action was reversed completely by methysergide and partially by atropine, whereas cyproheptadine, haloperidol, prazosin and propranolol were ineffective. In the EPMT, NPAF decreased the time spent in the arms (open/open+closed). Our results demonstrate that NPAF induces anti-depressant-like behavior in mice, which is mediated, at least in part, through 5HT2-serotonergic and muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmissions. In addition, the NPAF-induced anxiety is species-independent, since it develops also in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Atypical sympathomimetic drug lerimazoline mediates contractile effects in rat aorta predominantly by 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Rizvić, Eldina; Janković, Goran; Kostić-Rajačić, Slađana; Savić, Miroslav M

    2017-08-20

    Lerimazoline is a sympathomimetic drug that belongs to the imidazoline class of compounds, and is used as a nasal decongestant. Studies on lerimazoline are rare, and its pharmacological profile is not completely understood. Here, we analyzed the affinity of lerimazoline for dopamine receptor D2, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors and α1-adrenoceptor, and investigated lerimazoline contractile effects in isolated rat thoracic aorta. We also determined the effect of several antagonists on the contractile response to lerimazoline, including prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), RX 821002 and rauwolscine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonists), JP 1302 (α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist), methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist), SB 224289 (5-HT1B receptor antagonist), BRL 15572 (5-HT1D receptor antagonist), and ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist). Lerimazoline displayed high affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor (Ki = 162.5 nM), similar to the previously reported affinity for the 5-HT1D receptor. Binding affinity estimates (Ki) for α1, 5-HT2A, and D2 receptors were 6656, 4202 and 3437.5 nM, respectively (the literature reported Ki for 5-HT1B receptor is 3480 nM). Lerimazoline caused concentration-dependent contractions in 70% of preparations, varying in the range between 40% and 55% of the maximal contraction elicited by phenylephrine. While prazosin reduced the maximum contractile response to lerimazoline, rauwolscine showed a non-significant trend in reduction of the response. Both ketanserin (10 nM and 1 µM) and methiothepin strongly suppressed the maximum response to lerimazoline. Overall, our results suggest that 5-HT2A and, less distinctly, α1-adrenergic receptors are involved in the lerimazoline-induced contractions, which makes lerimazoline an "atypical" decongestant.

  4. Noradrenaline induces peripheral antinociception by endogenous opioid release.

    PubMed

    Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima; Soares Santos, Raquel Rodrigues; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Petrocchi, Júlia Alvarenga; Guzzo, Luciana Souza; Klein, Andre; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate this involvement in not inflammatory model of pain and which opioid receptor subtype mediates noradrenaline-induced peripheral antinociception. NA is involved in the intrinsic control of pain-inducing pro-nociceptive effects in the primary afferent nociceptors. However, inflammation can induce various plastic changes in the central and peripheral noradrenergic system that, upon interaction with the immune system, may contribute, in part, to peripheral antinociception. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 , 2 μg) into the plantar surface of the right hind paw and the paw pressure test to evaluated the hyperalgesia was used. Noradrenaline (NA) was administered locally into right hind paw of Wistar rat (160-200 g) alone and after either agents, α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, μ-opioid antagonist clocinnamox, δ-opioid antagonist naltrindole and κ-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorfimina. In addition, the enkephalinase inhibitor bestatin was administered prior to NA low dose. Intraplantar injection of NA induced peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE 2 . This effect was reversed, in dose dependent manner, by intraplantar injection of yohimbine, prazosin, propranolol, clocinnamox and naltrindole. However, injection of nor-binaltorfimina did not alter antinociception of NA after PGE 2 hyperalgesia. Bestatin intensified the antinociceptive effects of low-dose of NA. Besides the α 2 -adrenoceptor, the present data provide evidence that, in absence of inflammation, NA activating α 1 and β-adrenoceptor induce endogenous opioid release to produce peripheral antinociceptive effect by μ and δ opioid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulation of intracellular Ca2+ via L-type calcium channels in heart cells by the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of the alpha1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Bkaily, Ghassan; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Bui, Michel; Sukarieh, Rami; Jacques, Danielle; Fu, Michael L X

    2003-03-01

    The effects of methoxamine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist, and the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoceptors were studied on intracellular free Ca2+ levels using confocal microscopy and ionic currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in single cells of 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old fetal human hearts. We observed that like methoxamine, the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoreceptors significantly increased the L-type calcium current (I(Ca(L))) but had no effect on the T-type calcium current (I(Ca(T))), the delayed outward potassium current, or the fast sodium current. This effect of the autoantibody was prevented by a prestimulation of the receptors with methoxamine and vice versa. Moreover, treating the cells with prazosin, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist blocked the methoxamine and the autoantibody-induced increase in I(Ca(L)), respectively. In absence of prazosin, both methoxamine and the autoantibody showed a substantial enhancement in the frequency of cell contraction and that of the concomitant cytosolic and nuclear free Ca2+ variations. The subsequent addition of nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, reversed not only the methoxamine or the autoantibody-induced effect but also completely abolished cell contraction. These results demonstrated that functional alpha1-adrenoceptors exist in both 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old human fetal hearts and that the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of this type of receptors plays an important role in stimulating their activity via activation of L-type calcium channels. This loop seems to have a functional significance by being the target of alpha1-receptor agonists like methoxamine.

  6. Initiation of pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder among veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan: a dimensional, symptom cluster approach

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheck, Robert; Mohamed, Somaia; Pietrzak, Robert; Hoff, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background The pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is extremely challenging, as no specific agent has been developed exclusively to treat this disorder. Thus, there are growing concerns among the public, providers and consumers associated with its use as the efficacy of some agents is still in question. Aims We applied a dimensional and symptom cluster-based approach to better understand how the heterogeneous phenotypic presentation of PTSD may relate to the initiation of pharmacotherapy for PTSD initial episode. Method US veterans who served in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and received an initial PTSD diagnosis at the US Veterans Health Administration between 2008 and 2011 were included in this study. Veterans were followed for 365 days from initial PTSD diagnosis to identify initiation for antidepressants, anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics, antipsychotics and prazosin. Multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between the severity of unique PTSD symptom clusters and receiving prescriptions from each medication class, as well as the time from diagnosis to first prescription. Results Increased severity of emotional numbing symptoms was independently associated with the prescription of antidepressants, and they were prescribed after a substantially shorter period of time than other medications. Anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics prescription was associated with heightened re-experiencing symptoms and sleep difficulties. Antipsychotics were associated with elevated re-experiencing and numbing symptoms and prazosin with reported nightmares. Conclusions Prescribing practices for military-related PTSD appear to follow US VA/DoD clinical guidelines. Results of this study suggest that a novel dimensional and symptom cluster-based approach to classifying the phenotypic presentation of military-related PTSD symptoms may help inform prescribing patterns for PTSD. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The

  7. Molecular genetic basis for fluoroquinolone-induced retinal degeneration in cats.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Christina J; Minch, Jonathan D; Gay, John M; Lahmers, Sunshine M; Guerra, Dan J; Haldorson, Gary J; Schneider, Terri; Mealey, Katrina L

    2011-02-01

    Distribution of fluoroquinolones to the retina is normally restricted by ABCG2 at the blood-retinal barrier. As the cat develops a species-specific adverse reaction to photoreactive fluoroquinolones, our goal was to investigate ABCG2 as a candidate gene for fluoroquinolone-induced retinal degeneration and blindness in cats. Feline ABCG2 was sequenced and the consensus amino acid sequence was compared with that of 10 other mammalian species. Expression of ABCG2 in feline retina was assessed by immunoblot. cDNA constructs for feline and human ABCG2 were constructed in a pcDNA3 expression vector and expressed in HEK-293 cells, and ABCG2 expression was analyzed by western blot and immunofluorescence. Mitoxantrone and BODIPY-prazosin efflux measured by flow cytometry and a phototoxicity assay were used to assess feline and human ABCG2 function. Four feline-specific (compared with 10 other mammalian species) amino acid changes in conserved regions of ABCG2 were identified. Expression of ABCG2 on plasma membranes was confirmed in feline retina and in cells transfected with human and feline ABCG2, although some intracellular expression of feline ABCG2 was detected by immunofluorescence. Function of feline ABCG2, compared with human ABCG2, was found to be deficient as determined by flow cytometric measurement of mitoxantrone and BODIPY-prazosin efflux and enrofloxacin-induced phototoxicity assays. Feline-specific amino acid changes in ABCG2 cause a functional defect of the transport protein in cats. This functional defect may be owing, in part, to defective cellular localization of feline ABCG2. Regardless, dysfunction of ABCG2 at the blood-retinal barrier likely results in accumulation of photoreactive fluoroquinolones in feline retina. Exposure of the retina to light would then generate reactive oxygen species that would cause the characteristic retinal degeneration and blindness documented in some cats receiving high doses of some fluoroquinolones. Pharmacological

  8. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  9. Involvement of opioid and other systems in ethanol abstinence audiogenic seizures in the rat?

    PubMed

    Kotlińska, J; Langwiński, R

    1985-01-01

    The action of opiate receptor agonists: (D-Ala2)-methionine enkephalinamide (D-MEA), morphine, heroin, etorphine, and antagonists: naloxone and diprenorphine on audiogenic seizures was tested during ethanol abstinence. The action of diazepam and clonidine was also tested Morphine (5 and 20 mg/kg), but not heroin and etorphine, given intraperitoneally inhibited the seizures, similarly as intraventricularly administered D-MEA did. However, morphine given by this route was ineffective. Diazepam and clonidine inhibited audiogenic seizures: the action of clonidine was counteracted by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. The results may be considered as supporting the hypothesis on the participation of opioid system in ethanol abstinence. However, the participation of gabergic and noradrenergic systems cannot be ruled out: these systems may possibly interact with the opioid system in evoking the symptoms of ethanol abstinence.

  10. Arterial hypertension and hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy associated with aortic valvular endocarditis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vulgamott, J C; Clark, R G

    1980-08-01

    A 5-year-old spayed female Doberman Pinscher was referred for clinical evaluation following two acute episodes of lameness, lethargy, and respiratory dyspnea. The femoral pulse had a bounding "water-hammer" quality. Arterial blood pressures were 280 mm of Hg to greater than 300 mm of Hg during systole and approximately 40 mm of Hg during diastole. Systolic blood pressure was lowered to 210 mm of Hg, using prazosin. Radiography revealed extensive pulmonary interstitial markings and smooth subperiosteal expansions of the long bones indicative of hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy. Despite symptomatic treatment, the dog's health gradually deteriorated, and it died 9 days after referral. Necropsy revealed vegetative endocarditis of the aortic valve. Insufficiency of the aortic valve was believed to be responsible for the systolic hypertension and the hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy.

  11. Adrenergic receptors in human fetal liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Falkay, G.; Kovacs, L.

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptor binding capacities in human fetal and adult livers were measured to investigate the mechanism of the reduced alpha-1 adrenoreceptor response of the liver associated with a reciprocal increase in beta-adrenoreceptor activity in a number of conditions. Alpha-1 and beta-adrenoreceptor density were determined using {sup 3}H-prazosin and {sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol, respectively, as radioligand. Heterogeneous populations of beta-adrenoreceptors were found in fetal liver contrast to adult. Decreased alpha-1 and increased beta-receptor density were found which may relate to a decreased level in cellular differentiation. These findings may be important for the investigation of perinatal hypoglycemia of newborns after treatment ofmore » premature labor with beta-mimetics. This is the first demonstration of differences in the ratio of alpha-1 and beta-adrenoceptors in human fetal liver.« less

  12. The modulation effects of d-amphetamine and procaine on the spontaneously generated action potentials in the central neuron of snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2005-05-01

    The modulation effects of d-amphetamine and procaine on the spontaneously generated action potentials were studied on the RP1 central neuron of giant African snails (Achatina fulica Ferussac). Extra-cellular application of d-amphetamine or procaine reversibly elicited bursts of potential (BoP). Prazosin, propranolol, atropine or d-tubocurarine did not alter the BoP elicited by either d-amphetamine or procaine. KT-5720 or H89 (protein kinase A inhibitors) blocked d-amphetamine-elicited BoP, whereas they did not block the procaine-elicited BoP. U73122, neomycin (phospholipase C inhibitors) blocked the procaine-elicited BoP, whereas they did not block the d-amphetamine-elicited BoP in the same neuron. These results suggest that BoP elicited by d-amphetamine or procaine were associated with protein kinase A and phospholipase C activity in the neuron.

  13. Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1996-06-01

    The herb Scoparia dulcis L. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat bronchitis, gastric disorders, haemorrhoids, insect bites and skin wounds, and in oriental medicine to treat hypertension. A previous study has shown that extracts of S. dulcis have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; in this work the sympathomimetic activity of an ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis L. has been investigated in rodent preparations in-vivo and in-vitro. Administration of the extract (0.5-2 mg kg-1, i.v.) to anaesthetized rats produced dose-related hypertension blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg kg-1). Partition of the extract in chloroform-water yielded an aqueous phase 20 times more potent than the extract; this produced hypertension in either reserpine-treated or pithed rats. In untreated and reserpine-treated rats the same fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) produced concentration-dependent contractions of the vas deferens musculature parallel to those obtained with noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4)M). Prazosin (10(-7)M) reduced the maximum contractile effect of the aqueous fraction, and shifted the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline to the right. The aqueous fraction (25 and 50 micrograms mL-1) increased the inotropism of electrically driven left atria of rats, the effect being blocked by propranolol (0.4 microgram mL-1). In preparations of guinea-pig tracheal rings the aqueous fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) relaxed the muscle contraction induced by histamine (10(-4) M) in proportion to the concentration. The effect was antagonized competitively by propranolol (1.5 microM). High-performance liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aqueous fraction revealed the presence of both noradrenaline and adrenaline in the plant extract. The results indicated that both catecholamines may account for the hypertensive and inotropic effects obtained after parenteral administration of S. dulcis extracts. This sympathomimetic activity is

  14. A Role for Adrenergic Receptors in the Uterotonic Effects of Ergometrine in Isolated Human Term Nonlaboring Myometrium.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Rebecca A; Sheehan, Florike; Leyden, Claire; Duffy, Niamh; Iglesias-Martinez, Luis F; Carey, Michael F; Campion, Deirdre P; O'Connor, John J

    2017-05-01

    Ergometrine is a uterotonic agent that is recommended in the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage. Despite its long-standing use, the mechanism by which it acts in humans has never been elucidated fully. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of adrenoreceptors in ergometrine's mechanism of action in human myometrium. The study examined the hypothesis that α-adrenoreceptor antagonism would result in the reversal of the uterotonic effects of ergometrine. Myometrial samples were obtained from women undergoing elective cesarean delivery. The samples were then dissected into strips and mounted in organ bath chambers. After the generation of an ergometrine concentration-response curve (10 to 10 M), strips were treated with increasing concentrations of ergometrine (10 to 10 M) alone and ergometrine (10 to 10 M) in the presence of phentolamine (10 M), prazosin (10 M), propranolol (10 M), or yohimbine (10 M). The effects of adding ergometrine and the effect of drug combinations were analyzed using linear mixed effects models with measures of amplitude (g), frequency (contractions/10 min), and motility index (g×contractions/10 min). A total of 157 experiments were completed on samples obtained from 33 women. There was a significant increase in the motility index (adding 0.342 g × counts/10 min/μM; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.253-0.431, P < .001), amplitude (0.078 g/μM; 95% CI, 0.0344-0.121, P = 5e-04), and frequency (0.051 counts/10 min/μM; 95% CI, 0.038-0.063, P < .001) in the presence of ergometrine. The α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine and the more selective α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin inhibited the ergometrine mediated increase in motility index, amplitude, and frequency (-1.63 g × counts/10 min/μM and -16.70 g × counts/10 min/μM for motility index, respectively). These results provide novel evidence for a role for α-adrenergic signaling mechanisms in the action of ergometrine on human myometrial smooth muscle in

  15. Effect of Withania somnifera on forced swimming test induced immobility in mice and its interaction with various drugs.

    PubMed

    Shah, P C; Trivedi, N A; Bhatt, J D; Hemavathi, K G

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant action of Withania somnifera (WS) as well as its interaction with the conventional antidepressant drugs and to delineate the possible mechanism of its antidepressant action using forced swimming model in mice. Effect of different doses of WS, fluoxetine and imipramine were studied on forced swimming test induced mean immobility time (MIT). Moreover effect of WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. was observed at different time intervals. Effect produced by combination of sub therapeutic doses of WS with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were also observed. Effect of WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were observed in mice pretreated with reserpine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and clonidine (0.15 mg/kg, i.p.). Effects of prazosin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment were also observed on WS induced decrease in MIT. WS produced dose dependent decrease in MIT. Maximum effect in MIT was observed after 30 min of treatment with WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. Combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced significant decrease in the MIT. Clonidine and reserpine induced increase in MIT, was significantly reversed by treatment with WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with prazosin but not haloperidol, significantly antagonized the WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) induced decrease in MIT. It is concluded that, WS produced significant decrease in MIT in mice which could be mediated partly through a adrenoceptor as well as alteration in the level of central biogenic amines.

  16. The role of nitric oxide synthase in reduced vasocontractile responsiveness induced by prolonged α1-adrenergic receptor stimulation in rat thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Gürdal, Hakan; Can, Alp; Uğur, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (6–12 h) of rat aorta to alpha1-adrenergic receptor (α1AR) agonist phenylephrine (Phe) leads to a decrease in α1AR-mediated vasoconstriction. This reduced responsiveness to α1AR stimulation was strongly dependent on the intactness of the endothelium. We examined the effect of Phe on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity by measuring the conversion of [3H]L-arginine to [3H]L-citrulline in rat aorta or in endothelial cells isolated from rat aorta. Phe stimulation increased NOS activity in control aortas. This response was antagonized by prazosin. However, Phe increased neither the activity of NOS nor intracellular Ca2+ in the isolated endothelial cells from the control aortas, whereas acetylcholine (Ach) was able to stimulate both responses in these cells. This result suggests that Phe stimulates α1AR on vascular smooth muscle cells and has an indirect influence on endothelial cells to increase NOS activity. In Phe-exposed aortic rings, basal NOS activity was found to have increased compared to vehicle-exposed control rings. Stimulation with Phe or Ach caused a small increase over basal NOS activity in these preparations. Prolonged exposure to Phe also caused an enhancement of Ach-mediated vasorelaxation in rat aorta. Immunoblot and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that prolonged exposure of rat aorta to Phe resulted in an increased expression of eNOS, but not iNOS. This increase was antagonized by nonselective antagonist prazosin. Immunohistochemical staining experiments also showed that expression of eNOS increased in endothelial cells after Phe exposure of the aortas. These results, all together, showed that prolonged exposure of rat aorta to α1AR agonist Phe enhanced the expression of eNOS and basal NOS activity, which probably causes a decreased vasocontractile response to Phe or to other agonists such as 5HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) in rat aorta. This phenomenon can be considered more as a functional

  17. Autonomic control of ultradian and circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Oosting, J; Struijker-Boudier, H A; Janssen, B J

    1997-04-01

    To examine the influence of the autonomic nervous system on ultradian and circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate and baroreflex sensitivity of heart rate (BRS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure, heart rate and BRS in SHR were recorded continuously for 24 h using a computerized system and compared with those in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Furthermore, 24 h recordings were performed in SHR during cardiac autonomic blockade by metoprolol and methyl-atropine, vascular autonomic blockade by prazosin, ganglionic blockade by hexamethonium and vagal stimulation by a low dose of scopolamine. The magnitudes of the ultradian fluctuations in blood pressure, heart rate and BRS were assessed by wide-band spectral analysis techniques. The BRS was lower in SHR than it was in WKY rats throughout the 24 h cycle. In both strains high values were found during the light, resting period, whereas low values were found during the first hours of the dark, active period. The circadian rhythmicity of the blood pressure in SHR was abolished completely during the infusions of prazosin and hexamethonium. In contrast, the circadian rhythmicities of the blood pressure and heart rate were not altered by infusions of metoprolol, methyl-atropine and the low dose of scopolamine. Power spectra of the blood pressure and heart rate lacked predominant peaks at ultradian frequencies and showed 1/f characteristics. In the absence of autonomic tone, the ultradian fluctuations in heart rate, but not in blood pressure, were decreased. The ultradian BRS spectra had no 1/f shape, but showed a major peak at approximately equal to 20 min for 71% of the WKY rats and 42% of the SHR. The influence of the autonomic nervous system on the blood pressure and heart rats in SHR is frequency-dependent. The circadian, but not ultradian, blood pressure rhythmicity is controlled by vascular autonomic activity. Conversely, the circadian, but not ultradian, heart rate

  18. [Autonomic contribution to the blood pressure and heart rate variability changes in early experimental hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Safa-Tisseront, V; Ponchon, P; Blanc, J; Elghozi, J L

    1998-08-01

    A great deal of uncertainty persists regarding the exact nature of the interaction between autonomic nervous activity and thyroid hormones in the control of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Thyrotoxicosis was produced by a daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of L-thyroxine (0.5 mg/kg body wt in 1 ml of 5 mM NaOH for 5 days). Control rats received i.p. daily injections of the thyroxine solvant. Autonomic blockers were administered intravenously: atropine (0.5 mg/kg), atenolol (1 mg/kg), atenolol + atropine or prazosin (1 mg/kg). Eight animals were studied in each group. Thyroxine treatment was sufficient to induce a significant degree of tachycardia (423 +/- 6 vs 353 +/- 4 bpm; p < 0.001, unpaired Student's tests), systolic BP elevation (142 +/- 3 vs 127 +/- 2 mmHg; p < 0.001), pulse pressure increase (51 +/- 2 vs 41 +/- 2 mmHg, p < 0.01), cardiac hypertrophy (1.165 +/- 0.017 vs 1.006 +/- 0.012 g, p < 0.001), weight loss (-21 +/- 2 g; p < 0.001) and hyperthermia (37.8 +/- 0.1 vs 37.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C, p < 0.001). The intrinsic HR observed after double blockade (atenolol + atropine) was markedly increased after treatment with thyroxine (497 +/- 16 vs 373 +/- 10 bpm, p < 0.05). Vagal tone (difference between HR obtained after atenolol and intrinsic HR) was positively linearly related to intrinsic HR (r = 0.84; p < 0.01). Atenolol neither modified HR nor BP variability in rats with hyperthyrodism. The thyrotoxicosis was associated with a reduction of the 0.4 Hz component of BP variability (analyses on 102.4 sec segments, modulus 1.10 +/- 0.07 vs 1.41 +/- 0.06 mmHg; p < 0.01). Prazosin was without effect on this 0.4 Hz component in these animals. These data show a functional diminution of the vascular and cardiac sympathetic tone in experimental hyperthyroidism. Increased intrinsic HR resulting from the direct effect of thyroid hormone on the sinoatrial node is the main determinant of a tachycardia leading to a subsequent rise in cardiac output. The

  19. Contribution of the autonomic nervous system to blood pressure and heart rate variability changes in early experimental hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Safa-Tisseront, V; Ponchon, P; Laude, D; Elghozi, J L

    1998-07-10

    A great deal of uncertainty persists regarding the exact nature of the interaction between autonomic nervous system activity and thyroid hormones in the control of heart rate and blood pressure. We now report on thyrotoxicosis produced by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of L-thyroxine (0.5 mg/kg body wt. in 1 ml of 5 mM NaOH for 5 days). Control rats received i.p. daily injections of the thyroxine solvent. In order to estimate the degree of autonomic activation in hyperthyroidism, specific blockers were administered intravenously: atropine (0.5 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg), atenolol (1 mg/kg) or the combination of atenolol and atropine. A jet of air was administered in other animals to induce sympathoactivation. Eight animals were studied in each group. The dose and duration of L-thyroxine treatment was sufficient to induce a significant degree of hyperthyroidism with accompanying tachycardia, systolic blood pressure elevation, increased pulse pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, weight loss, tachypnea and hyperthermia. In addition, the intrinsic heart period observed after double blockade (atenolol + atropine) was markedly decreased after treatment with L-thyroxine (121.5+/-3.6 ms vs. 141.2+/-3.7 ms, P < 0.01). Of the autonomic indices, vagal tone (difference between heart period obtained after atenolol and intrinsic heart period) was negatively linearly related to intrinsic heart period (r = 0.71, P < 0.05). Atenolol modified neither the heart period nor blood pressure variability in rats with hyperthyroidism and in these rats the jet of air did not significantly affect the heart period level. The thyrotoxicosis was associated with a reduction of the 0.4 Hz component of blood pressure variability (analyses on 102.4 s segments, modulus 1.10+/-0.07 vs. 1.41+/-0.06 mm Hg, P < 0.01) and prazosin was without effect on this 0.4 Hz component in these animals. These data show a functional diminution of the vascular and cardiac sympathetic tone in early experimental

  20. The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide on catecholamine release in the pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Montpetit, C J; McKendry, J; Perry, S F

    2001-08-01

    The interaction between homologous C-type natriuretic peptide (dfCNP) and catecholamine release in cardiovascular control was assessed in the marine dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This was accomplished by evaluation of the dynamics of the dfCNP-elicited secretion of catecholamines in situ and in vivo. With an in situ saline-perfused postcardinal sinus preparation, it was demonstrated that perfusion with saline containing dfCNP (10(-9) mol x L(-1)) did not affect the secretion of either noradrenaline or adrenaline. However, the presence of dfCNP in the perfusate significantly enhanced carbachol-evoked secretion of noradrenaline. In vivo, intravascular injection of dfCNP (10(-9) mol x kg(-1)) caused a biphasic pressor-depressor response consisting of a brief increase in caudal artery blood pressure (P(CA)) followed by a prolonged reduction in P(CA). Furthermore, although systemic resistance initially increased, it was subsequently maintained at baseline values in the face of persistent decreases in both P(CA) and cardiac output. Bolus injection of dfCNP elicited significant increases in plasma noradrenaline levels that peaked within 10 min; plasma adrenaline levels were unaffected. The release of noradrenaline elicited by dfCNP was unaffected by prior blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril) or by pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor blocker hexamethonium. The delayed decrease in P(CA) was not observed in the hexamethonium-treated fish. Prior blockade of beta-adrenoreceptors (with sotalol) or alpha-adrenoreceptors (with prazosin) either significantly reduced (sotalol) or abolished (prazosin) the increase in plasma noradrenaline levels after dfCNP injection. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the elevation of plasma noradrenaline levels observed in vivo following dfCNP injection is not caused by a direct effect of dfCNP on catecholamine secretion from axillary body chromaffin cells

  1. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  2. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Ishola, Ismail O; Okoro, Uzodinma

    2013-01-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea. To investigate the antidiarrhoeal action of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP). Normal intestinal transit, castor oil-induced intestinal transit, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastric emptying and enteropooling models in rodents were used to investigate antidiarrhoeal effect. The possible mechanism of antidiarrhoeal activity was investigated using prazosin (1 mg/kg, s.c; α1, adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, s.c; α2 adrenoceptor antagonist), propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.p; α- adrenoceptor non-selective antagonist), atropine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic antagonist), pilocarpine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic agonist), and isosorbide dinitrate (IDN) (150 mg/kg, p.o; nitric oxide donor). BP (25-100 mg/kg, p.o) produced dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) decrease in intestinal propulsion in normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit models in comparison to distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o.) treated control. This antidiarrhoeal effect was inhibited by propranolol pretreatment but yohimbine, prazosin, or atropine pretreatment failed to block this effect. BP treatment reduced the increased peristaltic activity induced by pilocarpine, however, co-treatment with IDN significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the antidiarrhoeal effect of the extract. In castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, the extract produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) increase in onset of diarrhoea, decreased diarrhoea score, the number and weight of wet stools when compared to control. The in vivo antidiarrhoeal index (ADI(in) vivo)) of 53.52 produced by the extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to 76.28 ADI(in vivo) produced by morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.). The extract produced dose- dependent and significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.001) decrease in the weight and volume of intestinal content in the intestinal fluid accumulation

  3. Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder: going beyond the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    This article discusses the study of Harpaz-Rotem and associates, who examined patterns of medication use in first-diagnosed veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It considers the difference between practice guidelines and actual prescribing; selectively identifies issues with antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and prazosin; and reviews the possible impact of new medications in the pipeline. In the past 36 months, J.D. has received compensation for consulting with Edgemont, Turing and Tonix Pharmaceuticals; royalties in connection with publications by Springer, Guilford and McFarland Publishers and use of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Davidson Trauma Scale, Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and Mini-SPIN; service on the INTRuST Data Safety and Monitoring Board, University of California, San Diego. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  4. Molecular Modulation of Prefrontal Cortex: Rational Development of Treatments for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gamo, Nao J.; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2011-01-01

    Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a central feature of many psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thus, understanding molecular influences on PFC function through basic research in animals is essential to rational drug development. In this review, we discuss the molecular signaling events initiated by norepinephrine and dopamine that strengthen working memory function mediated by the dorsolateral PFC under optimal conditions, and weaken working memory function during uncontrollable stress. We also discuss how these intracellular mechanisms can be compromised in psychiatric disorders, and how novel treatments based on these findings may restore a molecular environment conducive to PFC regulation of behavior, thought and emotion. Examples of successful translation from animals to humans include guanfacine for the treatment of ADHD and related PFC disorders, and prazosin for the treatment of PTSD. PMID:21480691

  5. Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder: going beyond the guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary This article discusses the study of Harpaz-Rotem and associates, who examined patterns of medication use in first-diagnosed veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It considers the difference between practice guidelines and actual prescribing; selectively identifies issues with antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and prazosin; and reviews the possible impact of new medications in the pipeline. Declaration of interests In the past 36 months, J.D. has received compensation for consulting with Edgemont, Turing and Tonix Pharmaceuticals; royalties in connection with publications by Springer, Guilford and McFarland Publishers and use of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Davidson Trauma Scale, Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and Mini-SPIN; service on the INTRuST Data Safety and Monitoring Board, University of California, San Diego. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:29018563

  6. Trauma associated sleep disorder: a proposed parasomnia encompassing disruptive nocturnal behaviors, nightmares, and REM without atonia in trauma survivors.

    PubMed

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; O'Reilly, Brian; Polchinski, Jason; Kwon, Herbert P; Germain, Anne; Roth, Bernard J

    2014-10-15

    To characterize the clinical, polysomnographic and treatment responses of patients with disruptive nocturnal behaviors (DNB) and nightmares following traumatic experiences. A case series of four young male, active duty U.S. Army Soldiers who presented with DNB and trauma related nightmares. Patients underwent a clinical evaluation in a sleep medicine clinic, attended overnight polysomnogram (PSG) and received treatment. We report pertinent clinical and PSG findings from our patients and review prior literature on sleep disturbances in trauma survivors. DNB ranged from vocalizations, somnambulism to combative behaviors that injured bed partners. Nightmares were replays of the patient's traumatic experiences. All patients had REM without atonia during polysomnography; one patient had DNB and a nightmare captured during REM sleep. Prazosin improved DNB and nightmares in all patients. We propose Trauma associated Sleep Disorder (TSD) as a unique sleep disorder encompassing the clinical features, PSG findings, and treatment responses of patients with DNB, nightmares, and REM without atonia after trauma.

  7. Synthesis and Antihypertensive Screening of New Derivatives of Quinazolines Linked with Isoxazole

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mujeeb Ur; Rathore, Ankita; Siddiqui, Anees A.; Parveen, Gazala; Shahar Yar, M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of 7-substituted-3-(4-(3-(4-substitutedphenyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2-substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1–30) have been synthesized by the cyclization of (E)-3-(4-(3-substitutedphenyl)acrylolyl)phenyl)-2-(substitutedphenyl)-7-substituted quinazolin-4-(3H)-one with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The synthesized compounds were examined for their in vivo antihypertensive activity using albino rats. All the titled compounds exhibited good to moderate antihypertensive activity. Compounds 7-Chloro-3-(4-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5- dihydroisoxazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2-p-tolylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (23) and 7-Chloro-3-(4-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (24) exhibited potent antihypertensive activity through their anticipated α 1-adrenergic receptor blocking property similar to its clinically used analogue, prazosin, without affecting heart rate with prolonged duration of action when tested in adrenaline induced hypertension in anaesthetized rats. PMID:25013797

  8. Effects of isradipine and other calcium antagonists on arteriovenous-shunt flow in anesthetized rabbits and cats

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, R.P.

    The effects of vasodilators on arteriovenous (AV)-shunt flow was investigated in anesthetized cats and rabbits, using the tracer microsphere method. In cats, the calcium antagonist isradipine reduced AV-shunt flow; verapamil showed a similar tendency and nicardipine was without effect. Dihydralazine strongly increased, but nitroglycerin and dipyridamole decreased AV-shunt flow. In rabbits, the effects of isradipine and verapamil were similar to those seen in cats. Sodium nitroprusside had no effect, whereas prazosin, minoxidil, and the potassium-channel activator cromakalim increased AV-shunt flow. The contrasting effects of drugs sharing the same mechanism of action suggest that target-tissue selectivity is more important than themore » mechanism of action. An increase of AV-shunt flow is unlikely to be beneficial but could be associated with a number of undesirable side effects. It might negatively affect migraine sufferers and, if AV-shunt dilatation shows no tolerance development, it represents an unnecessary hemodynamic burden for the heart.« less

  9. Therapeutic Symptomatic Strategies in the Parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Manni, Raffaele; Toscano, Gianpaolo; Terzaghi, Michele

    2018-06-05

    The purpose of this review was to discuss the currently available pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment options for parasomnias. Recent pathophysiological findings about sleep structure in parasomnias helped understanding several drug mechanisms of action. Serotoninergic theory accounts for the effect of serotoninergic drugs. Study about spectral analysis of sleep showed the effect of clonazepam on spectral bands. Cannabinoids proved to be effective in some of parasomnias, as in many other neurological disorders. A series of therapeutic strategies were analyzed and compared. Benzodiazepines, antidepressant drugs, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan may be beneficial in DOA. SSRI and topiramate are effective in SRED. RBD responds to clonazepam, melatonin, and to a lesser extent to dopaminergic and anticholinergic agents. Prazosin and cannabinoids are effective in nightmare disorder. Sleep paralysis may respond to antidepressant agents. Tricyclic antidepressant may be effective in sleep-related hallucinations and exploding head syndrome. Sleep enuresis may be successfully treated with desmopressin, anticholinergic drugs, and imipramine.

  10. Pheochromocytoma in a Pregnant Woman With Prior Traumatic Aortic Injury.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Ann Kinga; Maxwell, Cynthia; Sermer, Mathew; Rubin, Barry; Gandhi, Shital; Silversides, Candice K

    2015-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma, a catecholamine-producing tumor seldom encountered in pregnancy, is often heralded by nonspecific symptoms and undue mortality with delayed diagnosis. The presence of an aortic pseudoaneurysm poses a management challenge given the risk of aortic rupture amplified by hypertensive events. A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 1, presented at 23 6/7 weeks of gestation with vomiting, chest pain, and severe hypertension. Investigation revealed adrenal pheochromocytoma and pseudoaneurysm at the site of a previous aortic injury. Prazosin and phenoxybenzamine achieved α-blockade with subsequent addition of labetalol for β-blockade. Concerns for aortic dissection led to endovascular aortic repair at 30 2/7 weeks of gestation. A female neonate was delivered by urgent cesarean delivery for persistent postprocedure fetal bradycardia. An adrenalectomy followed with near-immediate symptom resolution. Mother and neonate remain well. The case underscores the necessity of a meticulous approach to hypertension management and the pivotal role of diligent multidisciplinary collaboration to achieve a safe outcome.

  11. Antidepressant-like deliverables from the sea: evidence on the efficacy of three different brown seaweeds via involvement of monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Pirzada Jamal Ahmed; Khan, Adnan; Uddin, Nizam; Khaliq, Saima; Rasheed, Munawwer; Nawaz, Shazia; Hanif, Muhammad; Dar, Ahsana

    2017-07-01

    Brown seaweeds exhibit several health benefits in treating and managing wide array of ailments. In this study, the antidepressant-like effect of methaolic extracts from Sargassum swartzii (SS), Stoechospermum marginatum (SM), and Nizamuddinia zanardinii (NZ) was examined in forced swimming test (FST), in rats. Oral administration of SS, SM, and NZ extract (30-60 mg/kg) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in FST by reducing immobility time as compared to control group, without inducing significant change in ambulatory behavior in open field test. In order to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic system, rats were pretreated with the inhibitor of brain serotonin stores p-chlorophenylalanin (PCPA), dopamine (SCH23390 and sulpiride), and adrenoceptor (prazosin and propranolol) antagonists. Rats receiving treatment for 28 days were decapitated and brains were analyzed for monoamine levels. It may be concluded that the extracts of SS, SM, and NZ produces antidepressant-like activity via modulation of brain monoaminergic system in a rat model.

  12. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 interactions with adrenergic and dopaminergic systems in mucosal protection in stress.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mazul, B; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Jurina, L; Konjevoda, P; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Separović, J; Ljubanović, D; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Miklić, P; Sumajstorcić, J

    1997-03-01

    Since superior protection against different gastrointestinal and liver lesions and antiinflammatory and analgesic activities were noted for pentadecapeptide BPC (an essential fragment of an organoprotective gastric juice protein named BPC), the beneficial mechanism of BPC 157 and its likely interactions with other systems were studied. Hence its beneficial effects would be abolished by adrenal gland medullectomy, the influence of different agents affecting alpha, beta, and dopamine receptors on BPC 157 gastroprotection in 48 h restraint stress was further investigated. Animals were pretreated (1 hr before stress) with saline (controls) or BPC 157 (dissolved in saline) (10 microg or 10 ng/kg body wt intraperitoneally or intragastrically) applied either alone to establish basal conditions or, when manipulating the adrenergic or dopaminergic system, a simultaneous administration was carried out with various agents with specific effects on adrenergic or dopaminergic receptors [given in milligrams per kilogram intraperitoneally except for atenolol, which was given subcutaneously] phentolamine (10.0), prazosin (0.5), yohimbine (5.0), clonidine (0.1) (alpha-adrenergic domain), propranolol (1.0), atenolol (20.0) (beta-adrenergic domain), domperidone (5.0), and haloperidol (5.0) (peripheral/central dopamine system). Alternatively, agents stimulating adrenergic or dopaminergic systems--adrenaline (5.0) or bromocriptine (10.0)--were applied. A strong protection, noted following intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of BPC 157, was fully abolished by coadministration of phentolamine, clonidine, and haloperidol, and consistently not affected by prazosin, yohimbine, or domperidone. Atenolol abolished only intraperitoneal BPC 157 protection, whereas propranolol affected specifically intragastric BPC 157 protection. Interestingly, the severe course of lesion development obtained in basal conditions, unlike BPC 157 gastroprotection, was not influenced by the application of

  13. (3H)WB4101 labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor subtype in rat brain. Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Creese, I.

    1985-12-01

    In the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask, (/sup 3/H)-2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane ((/sup 3/H)WB4101) can selectively label 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. Serotonin exhibits high affinity (Ki = 2.5 nM) and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H) WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. We have found a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between the affinities of a number of serotonergic and nonserotonergic compounds at (/sup 3/H)WB4101-binding sites in the presence of 30 nM prazosin and (/sup 3/H) lysergic acid diethylamide ((/sup 3/H)LSD)-labeled 5-HT1 serotonin receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Despite similar pharmacological profiles, distribution studies indicate that, in the presence of 5more » mM MgSO4, the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 is significantly lower than the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)LSD in various brain regions. WB4101 competition for (/sup 3/H) LSD-labeled 5-HT1 receptors fits best to a computer-derived model assuming two binding sites, with the KH for WB4101 being similar to the KD of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding derived from saturation experiments. This suggests that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 labels only one of the subtypes of the 5-HT1 serotonin receptors labeled by (/sup 3/H)LSD. The selective 5-HT1A serotonin receptor antagonist, spiperone, and the selective 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline, exhibit high affinity and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H)WB4101 but compete for multiple (/sup 3/H)LSD 5-HT1 binding sites. These data indicate that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 selectively labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, whereas (/sup 3/H) LSD appears to label both the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT1B serotonin receptor subtypes. The divalent cations, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were found to markedly increase the affinity and Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. Conversely, the guanine nucleotides guanylylimidodiphosphate and GTP, but not the adenosine nucleotide ATP, markedly reduce the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding.« less

  14. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha1A1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork; Pickering, Darryl S; Kristensen, Torsten

    2008-10-31

    Antipsychotic drugs often cause orthostatic hypotension, probably through antagonist action on resistance vessel alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. Here we have tested this possibility directly using cells transfected with a relevant human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor splice variant. To determine a splice variant which was relevant, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine the prevalence in human subcutaneous small arteries of three of the five splice variants ADRA1A_v1-5, which encode functional protein: alpha(1A1)-, alpha(1A3)-, alpha(1A4)-adrenoceptors. Our statistical analysis showed higher transcription levels of alpha(1A1)- than of alpha(1A3)- and alpha(1A4)-adrenoceptors (1.6 and 5.8 times, respectively). We therefore chose to study the alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor, and the cDNA encoding it was transfected into the Flp-In-293 (modified from HEK-293) cell line to produce a cell line stably expressing a functional form of this splice variant. The expression of recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor subtype was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis, and its functionality demonstrated using a Fura-2 assay by a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) when challenged with phenylephrine (EC(50)=1.61x10(-8) M). From Schild analysis, prazosin, sertindole, risperidone, and haloperidol caused a concentration-dependent, rightward shift of the cumulative concentration-response curves for phenylephrine in cells expressing human recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors to yield pK(B) values of 8.40, 8.05, 8.26 and 7.38, respectively. In [7-methoxy-(3)H]-prazosin binding experiments, high expression was seen (B(max)=48.5+/-16.7 pmol/mg protein, +/-S.E.M.) along with high affinity binding to a single site (K(d)=0.210+/-0.034 nM). The pharmacological profiles of recombinant human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In

  15. Involvement of adrenal hormones in tissue respiration of sub-tropical hibernating and non-hibernating species of frogs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B B; Mahanta, A

    1997-03-01

    Effects of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EP), corticosterone and cortisol were studied both in vivo and in vitro on the rate of oxygen consumption of tissues (liver, skeletal muscle and kidney) of sub-tropical Indian frogs Rana limnocharis (a hibernating species) and Rana cyanophlyctis (a non-hibernating species) exposed to natural climatic conditions during winter and summer/rainy seasons. Further, the effects of NE and EP were also studied in vitro in the presence of specific beta- and alpha-adrenergic antagonists (propranolol and prazosin). NE, EP and corticosterone, when administered in vivo or in vitro, significantly stimulated the respiratory rate of the tissues of both the species irrespective of the seasons/temperature. Results suggest that NE, EP and corticosterone are directly involved in regulation of the energy metabolism of both hibernating and non-hibernating species of sub-tropical frogs. The calorigenic action of NE and EP seems to be mediated by both beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors. However, the temporal involvement of beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors seems to be tissue-dependent.

  16. Involvement of CYP 3A5 In the Interaction Between Tacrolimus and Nicardipine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mouna B; Gaies, Emna; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and secondarily by CYP3A5. Several drugs can modify tacrolimus blood levels as calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Interaction with nicardipine was reported in some cases. A man with a history of malignant arterial hypertension treated with nicardipine, underwent kidney transplantation. After transplantation, he was treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticoids. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus was done regularly showing a mean trough concentration (C0) of 24.39 ng/mL with some concentrations reaching 52 ng/mL. After changing nicardipine by prazosine, the first tacrolimus C0 after stopping nicardipine was 3.2 ng/mL. Increase of tacrolimus trough concentrations is due to the inhibition of CYP3A4. Very high levels of tacrolimus suggest the non expression of CYP3A5. Thus, because of the possible lack of the secondary pathway, therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus is highly recommended at the introduction of CCBs and also at its stopping.

  17. Anti-inflammatory actions of clonidine, guanfacine and B-HT 920 against various inflammagen-induced acute paw oedema in rats.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S K; Mehta, A K; Kunchandy, J

    1986-02-01

    Clonidine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-, formalin-, 5-HT- and histamine-induced paw oedema in rats. Similarly, other two alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, guanfacine and B-HT 920, also displayed an anti-inflammatory action in these models. The anti-inflammatory effect of all the three alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists was reversed by yohimbine. However, prazosin failed to block the anti-inflammatory effect of clonidine. Intracerebroventricularly administered clonidine had a delayed onset of anti-inflammatory action, starting only from 60 min post carrageenan administration. This was in contrast to the systemically administered clonidine which was effective against both phases of carrageenan-induced oedema. On the other hand, irrespective of the route of administration, i.e. peripheral or central, guanfacine and B-HT 920 were effective against the early as well as against the delayed phases of the inflammatory reaction. The studies suggest that it is not the imidazoline moiety but the activation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors which is essential for the anti-inflammatory action of these agents.

  18. How Do Antihypertensive Drugs Work? Insights from Studies of the Renal Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Digne-Malcolm, Holly; Frise, Matthew C.; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2016-01-01

    Though antihypertensive drugs have been in use for many decades, the mechanisms by which they act chronically to reduce blood pressure remain unclear. Over long periods, mean arterial blood pressure must match the perfusion pressure necessary for the kidney to achieve its role in eliminating the daily intake of salt and water. It follows that the kidney is the most likely target for the action of most effective antihypertensive agents used chronically in clinical practice today. Here we review the long-term renal actions of antihypertensive agents in human studies and find three different mechanisms of action for the drugs investigated. (i) Selective vasodilatation of the renal afferent arteriole (prazosin, indoramin, clonidine, moxonidine, α-methyldopa, some Ca++-channel blockers, angiotensin-receptor blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, labetolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and furosemide). (ii) Inhibition of tubular solute reabsorption (propranolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, and indapamide). (iii) A combination of these first two mechanisms (amlodipine, nifedipine and ACE-inhibitors). These findings provide insights into the actions of antihypertensive drugs, and challenge misconceptions about the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of many of the agents. PMID:27524972

  19. Modification of certain pharmacological effects of ethanol by lipophilic alpha-1 adrenergic agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.K.; Dinovo, E.C.; Haddox, V.G.

    The influence of four centrally-acting alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonists, namely, 2(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethylphenylimino) imidazolidine (St 587), cirazoline, (-) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-methoxy-5-methylthio-2-naphthalenamine ((-)SKF 89748A) and 2-(2-methylindazol-4-imino)imidazolidine (Sgd 101/75) on the pharmacological effects of ethanol was investigated. All four drugs reduced the duration of ethanol-induced hypnosis in C57B1/6 mice, this effect being proportional to their relative potencies to exert central alpha-1 agonism. In prazosin-pretreated mice, St 587 failed to reduce the hypnotic effect of ethanol, which provided strong evidence for the role of alpha-1 agonism for the hypnosis reducing effect of St 587. Hyperactivity induced in C57B1/6 mice by a subhypnotic dose of ethanol and St 587more » was reported earlier. In the present study, St 587, cirazoline and (-)SKF 89748A produced similar response, but no correlation between this effect and ethanol hypnosis blockade could be established. 19 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.« less

  20. Expression of nuclear proto-oncogenes in isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Brand, T; Sharma, H S; Schaper, W

    1993-11-01

    Rat hearts infused with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol were examined for the expression of several nuclear proto-oncogenes (c-fos, fosB, c-jun, junB, and junD) and the immediate early gene Egr-1. During the first 24 h after the start of infusion, a strong but transient expression of c-fos was observed. Expression of c-jun and junD were not elevated whereas junB was. By using specific antagonists to the alpha- (prazosin) and beta-adrenergic receptor (propranolol), a beta-adrenoceptor-specific blockade of the isoproterenol-mediated nuclear response was demonstrated. In situ hybridization localized c-fos expression to cardiac myocytes. Labelling was distributed focally in the left and right ventricles, and was strong and homogeneous in the atria. In contrast to beta-adrenergic stimulation, alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation with phenylephrine and norepinephrine caused the induction of c-jun and Egr-1 in addition to the proto-oncogenes induced by isoproterenol. Thus distinct programs of early response gene expression were expressed in response to alpha- versus beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  1. Guinea pig hepatocyte alpha 1A-adrenoceptors: characterization, signal transduction and regulation.

    PubMed

    García-Sáinz, J A; Romero-Avila, T; Olivares-Reyes, J A; Macías-Silva, M

    1992-11-02

    Activation of guinea pig hepatocyte alpha 1-adrenoceptors increases phosphatidylinositol (PI) labeling, [3H]inositol phosphate production and phosphorylase activity. These adrenergic actions were not altered by pretreatment with chlorethylclonidine but were blocked by 5-methyl urapidil and prazosin (the former being 3- to 10-fold more potent than the latter), indicating that alpha 1A-adrenoceptors were involved. When the cells were incubated in buffer without calcium and containing EGTA, the alpha 1A-adrenergic stimulation of PI labeling was diminished but not abolished and that of phosphorylase was not affected. The alpha 1A-adrenergic effects were insensitive to pertussis toxin treatment. Phorbol myristate acetate inhibited the alpha 1A-adrenergic actions, although at relatively large concentrations, and also those of other agents such as angiotensin II and NaF. Our data clearly indicate that guinea pig hepatocytes express alpha 1A-adrenoceptors whose activation stimulates phosphoinositide turnover, via a pertussis toxin-insensitive process; the alpha 1A-adrenergic effects were at least partially independent of extracellular calcium.

  2. Neuro-muscular transmission in blood vessels: phasic and tonic components. An in-vitro study of mesenteric arteries of the rat.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom-Widfeldt, N

    1990-01-01

    For many years noradrenaline was considered to be the exclusive transmitter released from sympathetic nerves. However, during recent years both ATP and NPY have been suggested to be co-transmitters to noradrenaline in these nerves. The present study aimed to investigate the functional relationship between these suggested transmitters during nerve stimulation with different frequencies and in different extracellular calcium concentrations. Also the importance of the pattern of nerve stimulation and the potentiation of the neurogenic response after a period of high-frequency nerve stimulation were investigated. Contractions caused by nerve stimulation and applied agonists were investigated in segments of small mesenteric arteries from rat. The biophysical, electrophysiological, and pharmacological properties of these vessels are well characterized in previous studies. The rapid contraction caused by a single nerve stimulus, the "single twitch", and the initial, phasic contraction caused by high-frequency nerve stimulation were only slightly affected by alpha-adrenoceptor blockade with prazosin, whereas the tonic response to high-frequency stimulation was markedly reduced. The phasic responses and those to low-frequency nerve stimulation thus appear to be due mainly to a non-adrenergic transmitter. After inhibiting the response to exogenous ATP by alpha beta-methylene ATP, the response to single impulses and to low-frequency nerve stimulation were markedly reduced, while those to high-frequency stimulation were unaffected. This suggests that ATP acts as a true transmitter in sympathetic nerves, being responsible mainly for rapid responses to low-frequency stimulation, and for the initial part of responses to high-frequency stimulation. When alpha beta-methylene ATP and prazosin were given in combination, no contraction was obtained during nerve stimulation at any frequency. However, if in this situation a contraction was induced by e.g. exogenous vasopressin, field

  3. Medical Approach to the Management of Traumatized Refugees.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, J David

    2016-03-01

    Refugees are a highly traumatized and culturally diverse group of patients who present many clinical challenges. Refugees have a high prevalence of traumas from torture, ethnic cleansing, and the effects of long civil wars. The most common diagnoses associated with the effects of such traumas are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or PTSD with comorbid depression; however, psychosis and neurocognitive disorders are also common. For those with PTSD, a suggested treatment approach is long-term supportive psychotherapy with drug treatment directed at reducing the most disruptive symptoms, such as insomnia, nightmares, and irritability or psychosis. The author recommends a sedative tricyclic antidepressant, clonidine or prazosin, and aripiprazole as a useful combination of medications to provide rapid relief. In addition to PTSD, long-term studies indicate a high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in traumatized refugees. It is therefore important to perform a thorough evaluation for these disorders that includes the measurement of blood pressure and a blood test for diabetes. When managed with such a medical approach, refugees are generally accepting of psychiatric treatment and can obtain relief from the symptoms associated with the massive trauma and losses they have experienced.

  4. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation of phospholipase A2 and of adenylate cyclase in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Halenda, S.P.; Bylund, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    The effect of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor activation on adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor gene is biphasic. At lower concentrations of epinephrine forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is inhibited, but at higher concentrations the inhibition is reversed. Both of these effects are blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin attenuates inhibition at lower concentrations of epinephrine and greatly potentiates forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production at higher concentrations of epinephrine. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation also causes arachidonic acid mobilization, presumably via phospholipasemore » A2. This effect is blocked by yohimbine, quinacrine, removal of extracellular Ca2+, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. Quinacrine and removal of extracellular Ca2+, in contrast, have no effect on the enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Thus, it appears that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in these cells can simultaneously activate distinct signal transduction systems; inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phospholipase A2, both via G1, and potentiation of cyclic AMP production by a different (pertussis toxin-insensitive) mechanism.« less

  5. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction

    PubMed Central

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick. PMID:26456007

  6. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction.

    PubMed

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-10-12

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick.

  7. Desipramine Inhibits Histamine H1 Receptor-Induced Ca2+ Signaling in Rat Hypothalamic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Min; Cho, Sukhee; Seo, Jinsoo; Hur, Eun-Mi; Park, Chul-Seung; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Choi, Se-Young

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamus in the brain is the main center for appetite control and integrates signals from adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. Antidepressants are known to modulate the activities of hypothalamic neurons and affect food intake, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antidepressants modulate hypothalamic function remain unclear. Here we have investigated how hypothalamic neurons respond to treatment with antidepressants, including desipramine and sibutramine. In primary cultured rat hypothalamic cells, desipramine markedly suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ evoked by histamine H1 receptor activation. Desipramine also inhibited the histamine-induced Ca2+ increase and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic GT1-1 cells. The effect of desipramine was not affected by pretreatment with prazosin or propranolol, excluding catecholamine reuptake activity of desipramine as an underlying mechanism. Sibutramine which is also an antidepressant but decreases food intake, had little effect on the histamine-induced Ca2+ increase or AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Our results reveal that desipramine and sibutramine have different effects on histamine H1 receptor signaling in hypothalamic cells and suggest that distinct regulation of hypothalamic histamine signaling might underlie the differential regulation of food intake between antidepressants. PMID:22563449

  8. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized bymore » atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.« less

  9. Is elevated norepinephrine an etiological factor in some cases of epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) has anticonvulsant properties. However, NE may also have proconvulsant properties under some conditions, both in animal epilepsy models and in humans. This paper examines the hypothesis that this neurotransmitter has proconvulsant properties, where much of the pharmaceutical evidence comes from rodent models. In assessing the elevated NE epilepsy hypothesis, the following seven lines of evidence are examined that include studies of: (1) antidepressants that raise the level of NE; (2) clonidine and other alpha 2 adrenergic agonist drugs that lower the level of NE; (3) prazosin and other drugs that affect alpha adrenoceptors; (4) propranolol and other drugs that affect beta adrenoceptors; (5) pheochromocytoma, which is a rare cancer of the adrenal glands that can boost NE levels; (6) comorbidity of epilepsy with bipolar disorder, hypertension, and obesity, where all four conditions may involve elevated NE; and (7) psychological stress, which is associated with increased release of NE. The body of evidence supporting the NE proconvulsant hypothesis is consistent with the notion that elevated, endogenous noradrenergic transmission is an etiological factor in some cases of epilepsy. 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine increases alpha-1-adrenergic receptor sensitivity and density in DDT1-MF2 smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Schachter, J B; Wolfe, B B

    1995-01-01

    The effect of chronic exposure of DDT1-MF2 smooth muscle cells to the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) was investigated with regard to the dynamics of alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. After 48 hr of exposure to 750 microM IBMX, the magnitude of the maximal phospholipase C response to norepinephrine was increased approximately 2-fold and the potency of norepinephrine was increased almost 3-fold. Similar effects were noted for the response to ATP. The density of alpha-1-adrenergic receptors, as defined by [3H]-prazosin binding to membranes was increased 2-fold. In addition, chronic treatment with IBMX prevented agonist-induced desensitization of alpha-1-adrenergic receptors and enhanced the rate of receptor resensitization subsequent to desensitization by a combination of agonist and phorbol ester. These effects appear to be regulated by a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. Thus, chronic exposure of smooth muscle cells to phosphodiesterase inhibition may activate compensatory mechanisms that lead to enhanced sensitivity to contractile stimuli. The potential importance of such compensatory mechanisms in the treatment and etiology of smooth muscle dysfunction is briefly discussed.

  11. Effect of Prazosin and Naltrexone on Script Induced Alcohol Craving in Veterans with Alcohol Use Disorders with and without Co-Occurring PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    various local  studies for the past three years.  SIBCR can provide an employment confirmation  letter if required.  o Task 3: Research  pharmacist  Amy Shen...procures bulk medications for us. The  medications are compounded by  pharmacist  Roland Lopez at Kelley‐Ross  compounding pharmacy.  o Task 4: Included...with this report you will find email confirmation that our research  pharmacist , Amy Shen, is keeping our randomization logs and dispensing study

  12. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    PubMed Central

    Fehri, Badreddine; Ahmed, Mueen K.K.; Aiache, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10−5 M). Results: It was found that ASBAE induced a dose-dependent relaxation with recorded EC 50 values of 71.87 ± 5.90 µg/mL (n = 7). Pretreatments with mepyramine (10−7 M), methysergide (10−7 M), caffeine (10−6 M), theophylline (10−6 M), nifedipine (10−6 M), and dipyridamole (10−6 M) did not alter ASBAE concentration-response curves. In turn, concentration-response curves to ASBAE were significantly shifted toward right in the presence of aspirin (3.10−3 M), indomethacin (10−6 M), prazosin (10−6 M), and propranolol (10−7 M). Conclusion: It is suggested that the recorded relaxation results are due to the release of prostaglandins E 1 and E 2 consecutively to α- and β-adrenoreceptor stimulation. PMID:21472073

  13. Pharmacological treatment of comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder: recent progress.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Rosenheck, Robert; Petrakis, Ismene

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has identified a strong association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), necessitating the development of treatments that address both conditions. Some pharmacotherapies are effective for the treatment of PTSD and SUD alone, however; no medications have been proven to be effective for the combination of these conditions. We review the recent advances in pharmacological treatment of comorbid PTSD and SUD. A randomized clinical trial of sertraline, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), did not show overall efficacy for comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD), although it may have efficacy among light drinkers. Another clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of both disulfiram and naltrexone for the treatment of AD in individuals with PTSD. A more recent clinical trial suggested that norepinephrine uptake inhibitors may also have efficacy for the treatment of comorbid PTSD and AD. In animal and preliminary human studies, brain norepinephrine and glutamate/GABA have emerged as potential treatment targets for comorbid PTSD and SUD. Noradrenergic medications that are promising for comorbid PTSD and SUD include prazosin, guanfacine, and atomoxetine. Promising glutamate/GABA medications include topiramate, memantine, acamprosate, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and ketamine. The safety and efficacy of these medications for the treatment of PTSD and SUD need to be tested in controlled clinical trials. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Pharmacology for sleep disturbance in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Gosia; Baldwin, David S; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2016-03-01

    Symptoms of sleep disturbance, particularly nightmares and insomnia, are a central feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emerging evidence suggests that specific treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbance improves other symptoms of the disorder, which in turn suggests that such disturbance may be fundamental to development and maintenance of the disorder. This mini-review focuses on pharmacological treatment of sleep disturbance in adult PTSD (specifically, studies testing the efficacy of antidepressants, adrenergic inhibiting agents, antipsychotics and benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics). We conclude that only prazosin, an adrenergic inhibiting agent, has had its efficacy established by multiple randomised controlled trials. There is also high-level evidence supporting use of eszopiclone, as well as risperidone and olanzapine as adjunct therapy. Antidepressants such as sertraline, venlafaxine and mirtazapine, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam and clonazepam and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics such as zolpidem appear ineffective in treating PTSD-related sleep disturbance. Most studies that report reduced frequency of nightmares and insomnia also report decreases in overall symptom severity. Such findings suggest that (i) sleep disruption is central to PTSD; (ii) treating sleep disruption may be an effective way to address other symptoms of the disorder and (iii) PTSD symptoms tend to cluster together in predictable ways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of midodrine on chlorpromazine-induced orthostatic hypotension in rabbits: comparison with amezinium, etilefrine and droxidopa.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, J; Takata, Y; Suzuki, S; Okubo, Y; Kato, H

    2000-12-01

    Orthostatic hypotension was produced in urethane-anesthetized rabbit by a combination of chlorpromazine (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) and 45 degrees head-up tilt. The effect of midodrine (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.d.) was investigated in comparison with amezinium (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.d.), etilefrine (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.d.) and droxidopa (30 and 100 mg/kg, i.d.). The higher doses of each drug significantly mitigated the chlorpromazine-induced orthostatic hypotension, while none of the lower doses caused a significant effect. The effect of midodrine developed most rapidly; a significant effect was observed 25 min after administration. The order of onset time was midodrine < etilefrine < amezinium < droxidopa. The effect of droxidopa was significant only at 130 to 160 min after administration. The amplitude of effect was in the following order; midodrine = droxidopa > or = etilefrine > amezinium. Midodrine (3 mg/kg, i.d.) mitigated orthostatic hypotension induced by prazosin (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.), but not by pentolinium (0.6 mg/kg, i.v.). It is suggested that midodrine competes with chlorpromazine at alpha1-adrenoceptors and subsequently recovers reflex vasoconstriction. Midodrine may be useful to protect patients with impaired baroreflex activity from accidental orthostatic hypotension during treatment with neuroleptics.

  16. The noradrenaline precursor L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine exhibits antinociceptive activity via central alpha-adrenoceptors in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, A.; Kasamatsu, K.; Umeda, N.; Takagi, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. Systemic (s.c. or p.o.) administration of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (droxidopa, L-threo-DOPS; L-DOPS), a noradrenaline precursor, at a dose-range of 100-800 mg kg-1, produced naloxone-resistant antinociception in a dose-dependent manner in the mouse, as assessed by the tail flick test, kaolin-induced writhing test and formalin-induced nociception test. 2. Antinociception elicited by L-DOPS (400 mg kg-1, s.c.) was not affected by s.c. injection of benserazide, a peripherally preferential L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, but was suppressed by its intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. 3. I.c.v. or intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the non-selective alpha-blocker, phentolamine, significantly reduced L-DOPS-induced antinociception. 4. I.c.v. administration of the alpha 1-blocker, prazosin, but not the alpha 2-blocker, yohimbine, abolished the antinociceptive effects of L-DOPS. In contrast, both blockers, when administered i.t., exhibited significant inhibitory effects. 5. These results suggest that systemic L-DOPS produces opioid-independent antinociception, mediated by supraspinal alpha 1-adrenoceptors and by spinal alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors and may predict additional therapeutic applications of L-DOPS as an analgesic. PMID:7911717

  17. Advancements in the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Antonsdottir, Inga M; Smith, Jessica; Keltz, Melanie; Porsteinsson, Anton P

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with significant negative outcomes for patients and their caregivers. Agitation, one of the most distressing NPS, lacks well-established long-term interventions that are both effective and safe. While non-pharmacological interventions are the suggested first-line treatment, it isn't effective in managing symptoms for every patient. In such cases, clinicians turn to the use of pharmacological interventions. Traditionally, these interventions consist of off-label use of antipsychotics, sedative/hypnotics, anxiolytics, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and antidepressants, where the efficacy doesn't necessarily outweigh the associated risks. Gains made in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying agitation have fueled several recent clinical trials. A comprehensive literature search for published articles evaluating pharmacologic interventions for agitation in AD was done. A review of some of these clinical trials was completed: dextromethorphan/quinidine, scyllo-inositol, brexpiprazole, prazosin, cannabinoids, dronabinol and citalopram show promise in treating agitation. Neurobiological findings and enhanced trial designs have re-ignited the area of pharmacological treatment of NPS. Although further research is needed to fully determine the safety, tolerability and efficacy of these treatments, the mission to finding effective treatments for NPS such as agitation in patients with dementia is well underway.

  18. Norepinephrine signaling through β-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Schank, Jesse R.; Liles, L. Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine’s rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. Methods In this study we evaluated the performance of dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. Results We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/−) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. Dbh −/− mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM, but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/− mice following administration of disulfiram, a DBH inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/− and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the α1 antagonist prazosin and the α2 antagonist yohimbine had no effect. Conclusions These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via β-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice. PMID:18083142

  19. Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Schank, Jesse R; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-06-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine's rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. In this study, we evaluated the performance of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/-) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. The Dbh -/- mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/- mice following administration of disulfiram, a dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/- and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the alpha(1) antagonist prazosin and the alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine had no effect. These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via beta-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice.

  20. Brain death provokes very acute alteration in myocardial morphology detected by echocardiography: preventive effect of beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, René; Hadour, Guylaine; Tamion, Fabienne; Henry, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Paul; Richard, Vincent; Thuillez, Christian; Ovize, Michel; Derumeaux, Geneviève

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate immediate acute changes in myocardial function during the autonomic storm of brain death (BD). Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8/group): controls without any treatment, β-blocker (Esmolol®, 10 mg/kg), calcium channel blocker (Diltiazem®, 10 mg/kg), or alpha-blocker (Prazosin®, 0.3 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intravenously 5 min before BD induction. Echocardiography (ATL-5000, 8 MHz) was performed to measure left ventricular (LV) dimensions and fractional shortening at baseline, during BD induction and 5 min and 15 min after BD. In controls, BD was immediately associated with an increase in wall thickness and a decrease in LV cavity dimension. This myocardial wall hypertrophy was completely prevented by β-blockers, but not with calcium- and alpha-blockers. Extensive myocardial interstitial edema was found in all groups, except in the β-blocker group. Myocardial wall hypertrophy was also prevented during a longer follow-up of 180 min after BD in β-blocker group as opposed to controls. In conclusion, BD is associated with an immediate and severe myocardial damage related to an important interstitial edema which is prevented by β-blockers. © 2010 The Authors. Transplant International © 2010 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  1. Adrenergic factors involved in the control of crypt cell proliferation in jejunum and descending colon of mouse.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    The mitotic rates in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the proximal jejunum and descending colon of mouse, following different treatments, were measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Regression coefficients, representing mitotic rates, were then calculated by the method of least squares. Treatment with adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, phentolamine, and yohimbine all resulted in decreased mitotic rate of jejunal and colonic crypt cells. Chemical sympathectomy and cryosympathectomy had a similar effect, and chemical sympathectomy was followed by a supersensitivity to clonidine. Intraperitoneal injection of metaraminol, clonidine, propranolol, prazosin, labetolol and simultaneous injection of propranolol and adrenaline all resulted in an increased rate of crypt cell proliferation in both jejunum and colon. A significant increase in mitotic rate was observed in both tissues at night. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was decreased in both jejunum and colon following chemical sympathectomy. In addition, the amplitude of this variation in jejunum was decreased after treatment with yohimbine or phentolamine. The results of the study suggest that the sympathetic nervous system stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in both the small and large intestine and that this effect is mediated by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor. By contrast, stimulation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors is inhibitory to cell proliferation in these tissues.

  2. [Nightmares and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Parmigiani, Giovanna; Gentili, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are long frightening dreams, quite common in psychiatric and general population; they may cause psychological distress and social or occupational dysfunction and are the most common form of parasomnia. They can be divided into post-traumatic nightmares, which are part of post-traumatic stress reaction, idiopathic and stress-induced. This article is a review of studies evaluating the relationship between nightmares and psychopathology, especially in regard to their intensity and content. For example, prepsychotic patients often report nightmares, particularly of body fragmentation and death of the dreamer. Nightmares have been repeatedly associated with the general level of psychopathology and with the personality factor "neuroticism". Nightmare distress, the impact on daily functioning caused by nightmares, may function as a mediating variable. Several studies in the last years have shown that nightmares can be treated with several cognitive-behavioral techniques. Have been also reported promising effects of pharmacological agents, especially prazosin, but they need to be evaluated in larger placebo-controlled trials. In summary, many findings on nightmares are preliminary and this field needs to be further investigated. Nevertheless psychiatry and general medicine need to pay more attention to nightmares; they are not merely a nightly symptom of anxiety, but a separate sleep disorder that should receive specific treatment.

  3. Possible involvement of opioid receptors in moclobemide-induced hypothermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Ginawi, O T

    2003-09-01

    Effect of moclobemide, a selective monoamine oxidase-type A enzyme inhibitor, was investigated on the body temperature of male mice. Moclobemide (15-30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) produced significant reductions of body temperature in both normal and yeast-induced hyperthermic male mice. The hypothermic effect of moclobemide was moderate and short-lasting. Moclobemide-induced hypothermia was not antagonized by previous administration of prazosin (10 and 20 mg kg(-1), s.c.), propranolol (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1), s.c.), haloperidol (2 and 10 mg kg(-1), s.c.), atropine (10 and 20 mg kg(-1), s.c.), mepyramine (25 and 50 mg kg(-1), s.c.), or methysergide (0.5, 1, and 2 mg kg(-1), s.c.). Pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone (10 mg kg(-1), s.c.), however, was able to reverse the hypothermic effect of moclobemide (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) in both normal and yeast-induced hyperthermic mice. The present results indicate a possible role for central opioid receptors in the hypothermic effect of moclobemide. Also, a peripheral component for this effect of moclobemide at the mitochondria of peripheral tissues is suspected. The peripheral tissue mitochondria could be considered a common target for moclobemide and opioids actions on body temperature.

  4. Trauma Associated Sleep Disorder: A Proposed Parasomnia Encompassing Disruptive Nocturnal Behaviors, Nightmares, and REM without Atonia in Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; O'Reilly, Brian; Polchinski, Jason; Kwon, Herbert P.; Germain, Anne; Roth, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize the clinical, polysomnographic and treatment responses of patients with disruptive nocturnal behaviors (DNB) and nightmares following traumatic experiences. Methods: A case series of four young male, active duty U.S. Army Soldiers who presented with DNB and trauma related nightmares. Patients underwent a clinical evaluation in a sleep medicine clinic, attended overnight polysomnogram (PSG) and received treatment. We report pertinent clinical and PSG findings from our patients and review prior literature on sleep disturbances in trauma survivors. Results: DNB ranged from vocalizations, somnambulism to combative behaviors that injured bed partners. Nightmares were replays of the patient's traumatic experiences. All patients had REM without atonia during polysomnography; one patient had DNB and a nightmare captured during REM sleep. Prazosin improved DNB and nightmares in all patients. Conclusions: We propose Trauma associated Sleep Disorder (TSD) as a unique sleep disorder encompassing the clinical features, PSG findings, and treatment responses of patients with DNB, nightmares, and REM without atonia after trauma. Citation: Mysliwiec V, O'Reilly B, Polchinski J, Kwon HP, Germain A, Roth BJ. Trauma associated sleep disorder: a proposed parasomnia encompassing disruptive nocturnal behaviors, nightmares, and REM without atonia in trauma survivors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1143-1148. PMID:25317096

  5. Vinpocetine and piracetam exert antinociceptive effect in visceral pain model in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, Omar M E

    2006-01-01

    The effect of vinpocetine or piracetam on thermal and visceral pain was studied in mice. In the hot plate test, vinpocetine (0.9 and 1.8 mg/kg), but not piracetam, produced a reduction in nociceptive response. Vinpocetine (0.45-1.8 mg/kg, ip) or piracetam (75-300 mg/kg, ip) caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by ip injection of acetic acid. The effect of vinpocetine or piracetam was markedly potentiated by co-administration of propranolol, guanethidine, atropine, naloxone, yohimbine or prazosin. The marked potentiation of antinociception occurred upon a co-administration of vinpocetine and baclofen (5 or 10 mg/kg). In contrast, piracetam antagonized antinociception caused by the low (5 mg/kg), but not the high (10 mg/kg) dose of baclofen. The antinociception caused by vinpocetine was reduced by sulpiride; while that of piracetam was enhanced by haloperidol or sulpiride. Either vinpocetine or piracetam enhanced antinociception caused by imipramine. The antinociceptive effects of vinpocetine or piracetam were blocked by prior administration of theophylline. Low doses of either vinpocetine or piracetam reduced immobility time in the Porsolt's forced-swimming test. This study indicates that vinpocetine and piracetam possess visceral antinociceptive properties. This effect depends on activation of adenosine receptors. Piracetam in addition inhibits GABA-mediated antinociception.

  6. The subtype of alpha-adrenoceptor involved in the neural control of renal tubular sodium reabsorption in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, I F; Johns, E J

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken in pentobarbitone anaesthetized rabbits, undergoing a saline diuresis, to determine the subtype of alpha-adrenoceptor mediating renal tubular sodium reabsorption. Stimulation of the renal nerves at low rates, to cause an 11% fall in renal blood flow, did not change glomerular filtration rate but significantly reduced urine flow rate, and absolute and fractional sodium excretions by approximately 40%. These responses were reproducible in different groups of animals and with time. Renal nerve stimulation during an intra-renal arterial infusion of prazosin, to block alpha 1-adrenoceptors, had no effect on the renal haemodynamic response but completely abolished the reductions in urine flow rate, and absolute and fractional sodium excretion. During intra-renal arterial infusion of yohimbine, to block renal alpha 2-adrenoceptors, stimulation of the renal nerves to cause similar renal haemodynamic changes resulted in significantly larger reductions in urine flow rate, and absolute and fractional sodium excretion of about 52-58%. These results indicate that in the rabbit alpha 1-adrenoceptors are present on the renal tubules, which mediate the increase in sodium reabsorption caused by renal nerve stimulation. They further suggest the presence of presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors on those nerves innervating the renal tubules. PMID:6086915

  7. Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Aurora, R Nisha; Zak, Rochelle S; Auerbach, Sanford H; Casey, Kenneth R; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Karippot, Anoop; Maganti, Rama K; Ramar, Kannan; Kristo, David A; Bista, Sabin R; Lamm, Carin I; Morgenthaler, Timothy I

    2010-08-15

    Prazosin is recommended for treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-associated nightmares. Level A. Image Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) is recommended for treatment of nightmare disorder. Level A. Systematic Desensitization and Progressive Deep Muscle Relaxation training are suggested for treatment of idiopathic nightmares. Level B. Venlafaxine is not suggested for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level B. Clonidine may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level C. The following medications may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares, but the data are low grade and sparse: trazodone, atypical antipsychotic medications, topiramate, low dose cortisol, fluvoxamine, triazolam and nitrazepam, phenelzine, gabapentin, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants. Nefazodone is not recommended as first line therapy for nightmare disorder because of the increased risk of hepatotoxicity. Level C. The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares based on low-grade evidence: Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy (ERRT); Sleep Dynamic Therapy; Hypnosis; Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR); and the Testimony Method. Level C. The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of nightmare disorder based on low-grade evidence: Lucid Dreaming Therapy and Self-Exposure Therapy. Level C No recommendation is made regarding clonazepam and individual psychotherapy because of sparse data.

  8. The effect of α1 -adrenergic blockade on post-exercise brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation at sea level and high altitude.

    PubMed

    Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Hansen, Alex B; Howe, Connor A; Willie, Chris K; Stembridge, Mike; Green, Daniel J; Hoiland, Ryan L; Subedi, Prajan; Anholm, James D; Ainslie, Philip N

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α 1 -adrenergic blockade. Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise. At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α 1 -adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and administration of α 1 -adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow-mediated dilatation. Our data indicate that post-exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high-altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate-intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α 1 -adrenergic pathway. In a double-blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo-controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal-exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi-recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α 1 -adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg  -1 ). These experiments were completed at both sea-level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m). Blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography

  9. The effect of α1‐adrenergic blockade on post‐exercise brachial artery flow‐mediated dilatation at sea level and high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Joshua C.; Hansen, Alex B.; Howe, Connor A.; Willie, Chris K.; Stembridge, Mike; Green, Daniel J.; Hoiland, Ryan L.; Subedi, Prajan; Anholm, James D.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow‐mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate‐intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α1‐adrenergic blockade.Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise.At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate‐intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α1‐adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate‐intensity exercise, and administration of α1‐adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow‐mediated dilatation.Our data indicate that post‐exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high‐altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. Abstract We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate‐intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α1‐adrenergic pathway. In a double‐blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo‐controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal‐exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi‐recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α1‐adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg −1). These experiments were completed at both sea‐level (344 m) and high altitude (3800

  10. SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renalmore » denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.« less

  11. Identification and characterization of (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine binding to alpha2-adrenoceptors in the canine saphenous vein

    SciTech Connect

    Gout, B.

    1988-01-01

    The biochemical exploration of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors was investigated in the canine saphenous vein using the highly selective alpha2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine as a tritiated ligand. Following an enzymatic digestive pretreatment, the authors isolated a purified smooth muscle cell membranes fraction from saphenous veins in quantity sufficient to permit them to study the venous alpha2-adrenoreceptor content. The binding of tritiated rauwolscine was rapid, specific, saturable and reversible. The presence of high affinity sites with a density of binding Bmax of 125.2 /+ -/ 43.1 fmol/mg protein was demonstrated on a unique class of non interacting sites. The kinetically derived Kd wasmore » 1.28 nM, in good agreement with the value obtained from saturation isotherms. The pharmacological profile of these sites was assessed by the comparison of the potency of alpha-adrenergic agonists and antagonists to inhibit 1 nM (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine. Their efficacy was respectively: rauwolscine > phentolamine > RX 781094 > clonidine >> prazosin > (-)-phenylephrine > (-)-noradrenaline. The results showed that (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine bound specifically to sites in their membranal preparation, which had the pharmacological characteristics of the alpha2-adrenoceptors. The correlation between biochemical and pharmacological data revealed the usefulness of binding methods in the further study of adrenergic mechanisms in the canine saphenous vein.« less

  12. Suppressive Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats: Mediation by Spinal α2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiho; Jeon, Changhoon; Jang, Jo Ung; Quan, Fu Shi; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Woojin

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor. Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament. BVA (1 mg/kg, ST36) relieved this mechanical hyperalgesia for at least two hours, and suppressed the hyperexcitation in spinal wide dynamic range neurons evoked by press or pinch stimulation. Both melittin (0.5 mg/kg, ST36) and phospholipase A2 (0.12 mg/kg, ST36) were shown to play an important part in this analgesic effect of the BVA, as they significantly attenuated the pain. Intrathecal pretreatment with the α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (idazoxan, 50 µg), but not α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin, 30 µg), blocked the analgesic effect of BVA. These results suggest that BVA has potent suppressive effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, which were mediated by spinal α2-adrenergic receptor. PMID:29088102

  13. Design of tablets for the delayed and complete release of poorly water-soluble weak base drugs using SBE7M-β-CD as a solubilizing agent.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venkatramana M; Zannou, Erika A; Stella, Valentino J

    2011-04-01

    The challenge of designing a delayed-release oral dosage form is significantly increased when the drug substance is poorly water soluble. This manuscript describes the design and characterization of a novel controlled-release film-coated tablet for the pH-triggered delayed and complete release of poorly water-soluble weak base drugs. Delivery of weak bases is specifically highlighted with the use of dipyridamole and prazosin as model compounds. Tailored delayed release is achieved with a combination of an insoluble but semipermeable polymer and an enteric polymer, such as cellulose acetate and hydroxypropyl cellulose phthalate, respectively, as coatings. The extent of the time lag prior to complete release depends on the film-coating composition and thickness. Complete release is achieved by the addition of a cyclodextrin, namely SBE7M-β-CD with or without a pH modifier added to the tablet core to ensure complete solubilization and release of the drug substance. The film-coating properties allow the complex formation/solubilization to occur in situ. Additionally, the drug release rate can be modulated on the basis of the cyclodextrin to drug molar ratio. This approach offers a platform technology for delayed release of potent but poorly soluble drugs and the release can be modulated by adjusting the film-coating composition and thickness and/or the cyclodextrin and pH modifier, if necessary. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8more » fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.« less

  15. Effect and mechanism of action of resveratrol: a novel melanolytic compound from the peanut skin of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Galgut, Jyoti M; Ali, Sharique A

    2011-10-01

    The present work was carried out to determine the effects of ethanolic extracts of Arachis hypogaea and its active ingredient resveratrol on the isolated tail melanophores of the Bufo melanostictus to find the mechanism of skin lightening at the cellular level. The tail melanophores of the tadpole B. melanostictus were assayed using the mean melanophore size index and their responses were recorded in presence of various concentrations of the plant extract and its active ingredient along with specific antagonists and potentiator. Significant skin lightening activity of the extract of A. hypogaea and its active ingredient resveratrol was observed on the tail melanophores of tadpole. The pigment cells responded by distinct aggregation leading to skin lightening, this effect was reversible, as re-immersion in physiological saline made the melanophores return to their normal intermediate state. These melanin aggregating effects were completely blocked by propanolol (beta blocker) and partially blocked by prazosin (alpha blocker) and were also found to be highly potentiated by reserpine. These studies suggest that the active ingredient of A. hypogaea such as resveratrol can act as a sympathomimetic compound and induce aggregation of melanophores of tadpole B. melanostictus via the induction of beta type of the adrenoceptors. The present study opens new vistas for the use of A. hypogaea and its active ingredient, resveratrol for its clinical application as a nontoxic melanolytic compound for the treatment of hyperpigmentation.

  16. Sequential drug treatment algorithm for agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's and mixed dementia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon Jc; Burhan, Amer M; Kim, Donna; Gerretsen, Philip; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Woo, Vincent L; Kumar, Sanjeev; Colman, Sarah; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2018-05-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include agitation and aggression in people with dementia. BPSD is common on inpatient psychogeriatric units and may prevent individuals from living at home or in residential/nursing home settings. Several drugs and non-pharmacological treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Algorithmic treatment may address the challenge of synthesizing this evidence-based knowledge. A multidisciplinary team created evidence-based algorithms for the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. We present drug treatment algorithms for agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer's and mixed Alzheimer's/vascular dementia. Drugs were appraised by psychiatrists based on strength of evidence of efficacy, time to onset of clinical effect, tolerability, ease of use, and efficacy for indications other than behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. After baseline assessment and discontinuation of potentially exacerbating medications, sequential trials are recommended with risperidone, aripiprazole or quetiapine, carbamazepine, citalopram, gabapentin, and prazosin. Titration schedules are proposed, with adjustments for frailty. Additional guidance is given on use of electroconvulsive therapy, optimization of existing cholinesterase inhibitors/memantine, and use of pro re nata medications. This algorithm-based approach for drug treatment of agitation/aggression in Alzheimer's/mixed dementia has been implemented in several Canadian Hospital Inpatient Units. Impact should be assessed in future research.

  17. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), amore » ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.« less

  18. Alpha 2-adrenoceptors and endothelium-dependent relaxation in canine large arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Angus, J. A.; Cocks, T. M.; Satoh, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ring preparations from the carotid, coronary, renal, mesenteric and femoral arteries of the dog were precontracted with the thromboxane mimetic U46619, after ensuring that the resting conditions were comparable from the Laplace relationship. In the presence of prazosin (1 microM) and propranolol (3 microM), noradrenaline (NA) relaxed the arteries in the order coronary greater than carotid greater than femoral greater than renal = mesenteric. When maximum relaxation to nitroglycerin (10 microM) was taken to be 100% the maximum relaxation to noradrenaline in each artery was: coronary 70%; carotid 34%; femoral 19%; renal 7% and mesenteric 2%. In endothelium-intact arteries UK14304 mimicked the relaxation responses to NA and idazoxan shifted the curves to both agonists to the right, consistent with an alpha 2-adrenoceptor classification. Substance P relaxed the arteries in the same order as for NA but showed higher efficacy i.e.: coronary 100%; carotid 80%; femoral 71% renal 49%; and mesenteric 41%. Removal of the endothelium abolished the relaxation to NA. We conclude that endothelium-dependent relaxation to NA and substance P varies greatly across 5 large arteries of the dog. This may indicate that endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) release is site-dependent or that the efficacy of EDRF on smooth muscle varies; being greatest in the coronary and weakest in the renal and mesenteric arteries. PMID:2427147

  19. Effects of procaine on a central neuron of the snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2005-02-18

    Effects of procaine on a central neuron (RP1) of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac) were studied pharmacologically. The RP1 neuron showed spontaneous firing of action potential. Extra-cellular application of procaine (10 mM) reversibly elicited bursts of potential. The bursts of potential elicited by procaine were not blocked after administration of (1) prazosin, propranolol, atropine, d-tubocurarine, (2) calcium-free solution, (3) ryanodine (4) pretreatment with KT-5720 or chelerythrine. The bursts of potential elicited by procaine were blocked by adding U73122 (10 microM) and the bursts of potential were decreased if physiological sodium ion was replaced with lithium ion or incubated with either neomycin (3.5 mM) or high magnesium solution (30 mM). Preatment with U73122 (10 microM) blocked the initiation of bursts of potential. Ruthenium red (100 microM) or caffeine (10 mM) facilitated the procaine-elicited bursts of potential. It is concluded that procaine reversibly elicits bursts of potential in the central snail neuron. This effect was not directly related to (1) the extra-cellular calcium ion fluxes, (2) the ryanodine sensitive calcium channels in the neuron, or (3) the PKC or PKA related messenger systems. The procaine-elicited bursts of potential were associated with the phospholipase activity and the calcium mobilization in the neuron.

  20. Characterization of the hypothermic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 in the rat. Relation to the adrenergic system and endogenous pyrogens.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, H; Wohlman, A; Mechoulam, R; Weidenfeld, J

    1995-02-01

    In the present study we have characterized the hypothermic effect of the psychoactive cannabinoid HU-210, by investigating its interaction with the endogenous pyrogens, IL-1 and PGE2. We also studied the involvement of the adrenergic system in mediation of this hypothermic effect. Injection of HU-210 directly into the preoptic area caused a dose dependent reduction of rectal temperature from 37 to 32.1 degrees C. Injection of the non-psychoactive analog, HU-211 which does not bind to brain cannabinoid receptor, did not affect body temperature. Injection of the adrenergic agonists, CGP-12177 and clonidine (beta, and alpha adrenergic agonists, respectively) abrogated the hypothermia induced by HU-210. Injection of the adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1) and propranolol (beta) enhanced the hypothermic effect of HU-210. Intracerebral administration of IL-1 or PGE2 to rats pretreated with HU-210 caused a transient inhibition of the hypothermia. The ex vivo rate of basal or bacterial endotoxin-induced synthesis of PGE2 by different brain regions, including the preoptic area was not affected by HU-210 administration. These results suggest that the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 acts in the preoptic area, probably via the brain cannabinoid receptor to induce hypothermia. The hypothermic effect can be antagonized by adrenergic agonists and enhanced by adrenergic antagonists. HU-210 does not interfere with the pyrogenic effect of IL-1 or PGE2.

  1. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Alawi, Khadija M; Aubdool, Aisah A; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D; Keeble, Julie E

    2015-10-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders. © FASEB.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Euikyung; Lee, Seunghwan; Kim, Jong-Shu; Yoon, Won Duk; Lim, Donghyun; Hart, Andrew J; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2006-12-15

    Over the past few years, populations of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) have increased dramatically in the waters of China, Korea, and Japan without any definitive reason. This has resulted in severe damage to fisheries in the areas. During a pilot study, we observed that the venom of N. nomurai produced a functional cardiac depression in mice. However, the mechanism of action was not examined. In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of nematocyst-derived venom from N. nomurai in anesthetized rats. Venom (0.1-2.4 mg protein/kg, i.v.) produced dose-dependent hypotension (65+/-12% of initial at a cumulative dose of 3 mg/kg) and bradycardia (80+/-5% of initial at a cumulative dose of 3 mg/kg). At the highest dose, this was characterized by a transient decrease in blood pressure (phase 1) followed by a return to basal level and then a slower decrease in blood pressure (phase 2). Venom also produced a decrease in rate and force of contraction in the rat isolated atria. Interestingly, venom induced a contraction of isolated aortic rings which was blocked by felodipine but not by prazosin, suggesting the contraction is mediated by calcium channel activation. These results suggest that the negative inotropic and chronotropic effects of the venom of N. nomurai may be due to a direct effect on the heart.

  3. Neuronally mediated contraction responses of guinea-pig stomach smooth muscle preparations: modification by benzamide derivatives does not reflect a dopamine antagonist action.

    PubMed

    Costall, B; Naylor, R J; Tan, C C

    1984-06-15

    The actions of the substituted benzamide derivatives metoclopramide, clebopride, YM-09151-2, tiapride, (+)- and (-)-sulpiride and (+)- and (-)-sultopride, and the dopamine antagonists haloperidol and domperidone, were studied on the responses to field stimulation (0.125-10 Hz) of smooth muscle strips taken from cardia, fundus, body and antral regions of the longitudinal and circular muscle of guinea-pig stomach. Field stimulation of the longitudinal strips caused contraction responses which were antagonised by atropine (but not by prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol or methysergide) to indicate a muscarinic cholinergic involvement. Antagonism of the contractions revealed or enhanced relaxation responses mediated via unidentified mechanisms (resistant to cholinergic and adrenergic antagonists). Metoclopramide enhanced the field stimulation-induced contractions of the stomach smooth muscle preparations via atropine sensitive mechanisms but failed to attenuate the field stimulation-induced relaxation responses. Clebopride's action closely followed that of metoclopramide but YM-09151-2 only enhanced the contraction responses of the longitudinal muscle preparations. Other dopamine antagonists, (+)- and (-)-sulpiride, (+)- and (-)-sultopride, tiapride, haloperidol and domperidone failed to facilitate contraction to field stimulation of any stomach tissue. Thus, the actions of metoclopramide, clebopride and YM-09151-2 to facilitate contraction to field stimulation of stomach smooth muscle are mediated via a muscarinic cholinergic mechanism and are not the consequence of an antagonism at any recognisable dopamine receptor.

  4. Study of the effects of the casein derived bitter tastant on the melanophores in milieu with the melatonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Mubashshir, Md; Ahmed, Fraz; Ovais, Mohd

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the casein derived bitter tastant Cyclo (Leu-Trp) [CLT] has an affinity or not for the particular receptors of the pineal hormone, melatonin, on the melanophores of a major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.). The bitter tastant CLT, in the dose range of 3.34×10(-16) M to 3.34×10(-4) M, has induced an aggregatory effect but not in a dose dependent manner. Binding of CLT with the receptors may vary at different concentrations. Denervation of the melanophores has shown a complete inhibition of the CLT mediated aggregation. Prazosin has partially inhibited the aggregatory effect of CLT. Moreover, the bitter tastant's response is mediated through the α2 adrenoceptors only at particular dose ranges. The MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole and the MT2 specific antagonist K185 have perfectly blocked the aggregatory effects of CLT. We have found that the CLT mediated aggregatory effect is dependent upon the release of neurotransmitters and the two subtypes of melatonin (MT) receptors (MT1 and MT2) possess a perfect affinity towards the bitter tastant CLT. Our study demands a need to further make a clinical research on the effects of bitter tastants on the physiology of the biological rhythm maintaining hormone melatonin.

  5. Effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on long posterior ciliary artery blood flow in cats.

    PubMed

    Koss, Michael C

    2002-04-01

    A new technique using ultrasonic flowmetry was developed in order to directly measure blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) of anesthetized cats. Basal LPCA blood flow averaged about 0.6 ml/min and was stable over the experimental period. Electrical stimulation of the cervical preganglionic cervical sympathetic nerve produced frequency-dependent anterior segment ocular vasoconstrictor responses. Ipsilateral nictitating membrane contractions were simultaneously measured as a well-established index of neural sympathetic activation. LPCA frequency-response relationships were shifted to the right in comparison with those for the nictitating membrane. When elicited at two min intervals, submaximal evoked responses of both systems were stable for more than 90 min. Ocular vasoconstrictor and nictitating membrane responses were blocked in a dose-dependent fashion by intravenous treatment with the non-selective a-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine (0.3-3.0 mg/kg), as well as with the selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (3-30 microg/kg). In contrast, neither evoked response was further antagonized by subsequent administration of the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (500 microg/kg). These results demonstrate the usefulness of ultrasonic flowmetry to study mechanisms controlling ocular anterior segment circulation and suggest that, as previously established for the nictitating membrane and anterior choroid, adrenergic neurogenic vasoconstriction in tissues perfused by the LPCA is mediated predominantly by alpha1-adrenoceptors.

  6. 6-[N,S-dimethyl-N'-cyanothioureidomethyl]-6,11-dihydro-5H- dibenz[b,e]azepine hydrochloride (Fran 12): a histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist with pressor properties.

    PubMed

    Law, S C; Guyett, F J; King, R G; Boura, A L; Jackson, W R; Hodgson, W C

    1992-01-01

    We have synthesized and examined some of the pharmacological properties of 6-[N,S-dimethyl-N'-cyanoisothioureidomethyl]-6,11-dihydro-5H- dibenz(b,e)azepine hydrochloride (Fran 12), a derivative of 6-methylaminomethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H- dibenz[b,e,]azepine. In the guinea-pig isolated ileum, Fran 12 (10(-7)-10(-5) M) caused parallel rightward shifts of the concentration-response curves to histamine. A Schild plot gave a pA2 of 7.48, with a slope not significantly different from -1.0. In the rat stomach fundus strip and in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, Fran 12 inhibited contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine in a non-competitive manner. In both chloralose-anaesthetized and pithed rats, it inhibited pressor responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine. It had no effect on depressor responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine in anaesthetized rats. In pithed rats, Fran 12 (0.25-2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced dose-dependent increases in blood pressure. These were not inhibited by i.v. phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, methysergide, pentolinium or atropine but were inhibited by verapamil. These results indicate that Fran 12 is a histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist which also exerts pressor effects via a peripheral action. The pressor action does not appear to be mediated via effects on alpha 1- or alpha 2-adrenoceptors, muscarinic or nicotinic cholinoceptors or 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, although calcium channel activation may play a role.

  7. Rubus occidentalis analgesic effect in a rat model of incisional pain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Kwon, Ji Wung; Kim, Beom Gyu; Choi, Yoo Shin; Cha, Young Joo; Ko, Jin Soo

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of Rubus occidentalis extract (ROE) in a rat model of incisional pain. The involved mechanisms and proinflammatory cytokine response were also examined. To investigate the analgesic effect, rats were intraperitoneally administered with normal saline or various doses of ROE before or after a plantar incision. To evaluate the involved mechanism, rats were intraperitoneally administered yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, naloxone, atropine, or mecamylamine after a plantar incision; ROE was then administered intraperitoneally. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was tested with von Frey filaments at various time points. To determine the inflammatory response, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6 were measured. The MWTs significantly increased at 15 min after postincisional administration of 300 mg/kg ROE when compared with those in the control group. This elevation was observed for up to 45 min. Overall, MWTs increased in proportion to ROE dosage; however, ROEs administered before the incision produced no significant change in the MWT. The analgesic effect of ROE was significantly antagonized by mecamylamine, naloxone, and yohimbine, and agonized by dexmedetomidine. Administration of ROE inhibited the postincisional increase in serum IL-1β and IL-6. Intraperitoneal administration of ROE after surgery induces antinociceptive effects in a rat model of postoperative pain, and its effects on mechanical hyperalgesia may be associated with α 2 -adrenergic, nicotinic cholinergic, and opioid receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoaffinity labelling of MSH receptors on Anolis melanophores: effects of catecholamines, calcium and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Eberle, A N; Girard, J

    1985-01-01

    Photoaffinity labelling of MSH receptors on Anolis melanophores was used as a tool for studying the effects of catecholamines, calcium and forskolin on hormone-receptor interaction and receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling. Covalent attachment of photoreactive alpha-MSH to its receptor was suppressed in calcium-free buffer but was hardly influenced by catecholamines or forskolin. The longlasting signal generated by the covalent MSH-receptor complex was readily and reversibly abolished by adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine or clonidine or by the absence of calcium. The suppression of pigment dispersion by catecholamines was blocked by the simultaneous presence of yohimbine but not prazosin, indicating that the catecholamines antagonize the alpha-MSH signal by inhibitory action on the adenylate cyclase system through an alpha-2 receptor. Forskolin, which stimulates melanophores by direct action on the catalytic unit of the adenylate cyclase and at about the same speed as alpha-MSH, produced a slower and weaker response in the presence of noradrenaline. If MSH receptors were covalently labelled and then exposed to noradrenaline, the characteristics of the forskolin-induced response were identical to those of unlabelled cells that had not been exposed to noradrenaline. This may point to a partial restoration of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling by forskolin. The results show that the longlasting stimulation of Anolis melanophores by photoaffinity labelling proceeds via a permanently stimulated adenylate-cyclase system whose coupling to the receptor depends on calcium and is abolished by alpha-2 receptor agonists. Calcium is also essential for hormone-receptor binding.

  9. SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, R.A.; Abdel-Latif, A.A.

    Muscarinic cholinergic and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic agonists provoke hydrolysis of PIP/sub 2/ into diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) in a wide variety of tissue. Recently, IP/sub 3/ has been shown to mobilize Ca/sup 2 +/ from ER in several permeabilized tissue preparations. Although rabbit cornea is enriched in ACh and NE, the physiological function of these neurotransmitters is unclear. The present studies were initiated to determine the effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists on PIP/sub 2/ turnover in the cornea. Addition of ACh or NE (50 ..mu..M each) to the /sup 32/P-labeled corneas for 10 min decreased themore » radioactivity in PIP/sub 2/ by 33 and 36%, and increased the radioactivity in phosphatidic acid by 72 and 52%, respectively. When the corneas were labeled with myo-(/sup 3/H)inositol, ACh and NE increased the accumulation of IP/sub 3/ by 92 and 48%, respectively. The effects of ACh and NE on phospholipid labeling and IP/sub 3/ accumulation were specifically inhibited by atropine (10 ..mu..M) and prazosin (10 ..mu..M), respectively. The data suggest the presence of muscarinic cholinergic and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors in the rabbit cornea. Furthermore, activation of these receptors leads to cleavage of PIP/sub 2/ into DG and IP/sub 3/ which may function as second messengers in this tissue.« less

  10. Coupling to protein kinases A and C of adenosine A2B receptors involved in the facilitation of noradrenaline release in the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Glória; Quintas, Clara; Talaia, Carlos; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2004-08-01

    In the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens, the non-selective adenosine receptor agonist NECA (0.1-30 microM), but not the A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 (0.001-10 microM), caused a facilitation of electrically evoked noradrenaline release (up to 43 +/- 4%), when inhibitory adenosine A(1) receptors were blocked. NECA-elicited facilitation of noradrenaline release was prevented by the A(2B) receptor-antagonist MRS 1754, enhanced by preventing cyclic-AMP degradation with rolipram, abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitors H-89, KT 5720 and cyclic-AMPS-Rp and attenuated by the protein kinase C inhibitors Ro 32-0432 and calphostin C. The adenosine uptake inhibitor NBTI also elicited a facilitation of noradrenaline release; an effect that was abolished by adenosine deaminase and attenuated by MRS 1754, by inhibitors of the extracellular nucleotide metabolism and by blockade of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors and P2X receptors with prazosin and NF023, respectively. It was concluded that adenosine A(2B) receptors are involved in a facilitation of noradrenaline release in the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens that can be activated by adenosine formed by extracellular catabolism of nucleotides. The receptors seem to be coupled to the adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A pathway but activation of the protein kinase C by protein kinase A, may also contribute to the adenosine A(2B) receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release.

  11. Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Nightmares at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Mark B.; Pagadala, Bhuvaneshwar; Candelario, Joseph; Boyle, Jennifer S.; Detweiler, Jonna G.; Lutgens, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of medications for PTSD in general has been well studied, but the effectiveness of medicatio.ns prescribed specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nightmares is less well known. This retrospective chart review examined the efficacy of various medications used in actual treatment of PTSD nightmares at one Veteran Affairs Hospital. Records at the Salem, VA Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were examined from 2009 to 2013 to check for the efficacy of actual treatments used in comparis.on with treatments suggested in three main review articles. The final sample consisted of 327 patients and 478 separate medication trials involving 21 individual medications plus 13 different medication combinations. The three most frequently utilized medications were prazosin (107 trials), risperidone (81 trials), and quetiapine (72 trials). Five medications had 20 or more trials with successful results (partial to full nightmare cessation) in >50% of trials: risperidone (77%, 1.0–6.0 mg), clonidine (63%, 0.1–2.0 mg), quetiapine (50%, 12.5–800.0 mg), mirtazapine (50%; 7.5–30.0 mg), and terazosin (64%, 50.0–300.0 mg). Notably, olanzapine (2.5–10.0) was successful (full remission) in all five prescription trials in five separate patients. Based on the clinical results, the use of risperidone, clonidine, terazosin, and olanzapine warrants additional investigation in clinically controlled trials as medications prescribed specifically for PTSD nightmares. PMID:27999253

  12. Involvement of the α1-adrenoceptor in sleep-waking and sleep loss-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Subhashini, N; Sharma, S; Mallick, B N

    2013-08-15

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon in vertebrates, and its loss affects various behaviors. Independent studies have reported that sleep loss increases anxiety; however, the detailed mechanism is unknown. Because sleep deprivation increases noradrenalin (NA), which modulates many behaviors and induces patho-physiological changes, this study utilized zebrafish as a model to investigate whether sleep loss-induced increased anxiety is modulated by NA. Continuous behavioral quiescence for at least 6s was considered to represent sleep in zebrafish; although some authors termed it as a sleep-like state, in this study we have termed it as sleep. The activity of fish that signified sleep-waking was recorded in light-dark, during continuous dark and light; the latter induced sleep loss in fish. The latency, number of entries, time spent and distance travelled in the light chamber were assessed in a light-dark box test to estimate the anxiety behavior of normal, sleep-deprived and prazosin (PRZ)-treated fish. Zebrafish showed increased waking during light and complete loss of sleep upon continuous exposure to light for 24h. PRZ significantly increased sleep in normal fish. Sleep-deprived fish showed an increased preference for dark (expression of increased anxiety), and this effect was prevented by PRZ, which increased sleep as well. Our findings suggest that sleep loss-induced anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish is likely to be mediated by NA's action on the α1-adrenoceptor. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kadoguchi, Naoto; Okabe, Shinji; Yamamura, Yukio; Shono, Misaki; Fukano, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Akie; Yokoyama, Hironori; Kasahara, Jiro

    2014-06-25

    Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), shows multiple pharmacological actions such as inhibiting presynaptic α2 noradrenaline receptor (NAR) and selectively activating 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor (5-HT1AR). Mirtazapine was also reported to increase dopamine release in the cortical neurons with 5-HT dependent manner. To examine whether mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in Parkinson's disease (PD), we examined this compound in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice model of PD. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MPTP treatment to establish a PD model. Mirtazapine was administered once a day for 3 days after MPTP treatment. MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, assessed by beam-walking and rota-rod tests, was significantly improved by administration of mirtazapine. Biochemical examinations by high performance liquid chromatography and western blot analysis suggested mirtazapine facilitated utilization of dopamine by increasing turnover and protein expression of transporters, without affecting on neurodegenerative process by MPTP. These therapeutic effects of mirtazapine were reduced by administration of WAY100635, an inhibitor for 5HT1AR, or of clonidine, a selective agonist for α2-NAR, or of prazosin, an inhibitor for α1-NAR, respectively. Our results showed mirtazapine had a therapeutic potency against PD in a mouse model. Because PD patients sometimes show depression together, it will be a useful drug for a future PD treatment.

  14. Mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), shows multiple pharmacological actions such as inhibiting presynaptic α2 noradrenaline receptor (NAR) and selectively activating 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor (5-HT1AR). Mirtazapine was also reported to increase dopamine release in the cortical neurons with 5-HT dependent manner. To examine whether mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in Parkinson’s disease (PD), we examined this compound in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice model of PD. Results Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MPTP treatment to establish a PD model. Mirtazapine was administered once a day for 3 days after MPTP treatment. MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, assessed by beam-walking and rota-rod tests, was significantly improved by administration of mirtazapine. Biochemical examinations by high performance liquid chromatography and western blot analysis suggested mirtazapine facilitated utilization of dopamine by increasing turnover and protein expression of transporters, without affecting on neurodegenerative process by MPTP. These therapeutic effects of mirtazapine were reduced by administration of WAY100635, an inhibitor for 5HT1AR, or of clonidine, a selective agonist for α2-NAR, or of prazosin, an inhibitor for α1-NAR, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed mirtazapine had a therapeutic potency against PD in a mouse model. Because PD patients sometimes show depression together, it will be a useful drug for a future PD treatment. PMID:24965042

  15. Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of alpha2D-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Abu-Basha, E A; Yibchok-Anun, S; Hopper, D L; Hsu, W H

    1999-11-01

    The study purpose was to investigate the direct effect of amitraz, a formamidine insecticide/acaricide, and its active metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Amitraz and BTS 27271 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) inhibited insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Amitraz increased glucagon secretion at 10 micromol/L, whereas BTS 27271 increased glucagon secretion at 1 and 10 micromol/L. Amitraz- and BTS 27271-induced decreases in insulin secretion and increases in glucagon secretion were not abolished during the 10-minute washout period. During the arginine treatment, both amitraz and BTS 27271 groups (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) had lower insulin secretion and higher glucagon secretion than the control group. Idazoxan, an alpha2A/2D-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effect of amitraz on insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, but prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2B/2C-AR antagonist, failed to antagonize the effect of amitraz. These results demonstrate that (1) amitraz and BTS 27271 inhibit insulin and stimulate glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, (2) amitraz inhibits insulin secretion by activation of alpha2D-ARs, since rats have alpha2D- but not alpha2A-ARs, and (3) amitraz and BTS 27271 may have a high binding affinity to the alpha2D-ARs of pancreatic islets.

  16. Evidence of changes in alpha-1/AT1 receptor function generated by diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Esther; Tufiño, Cecilia; Querejeta, Enrique; Bracho-Valdes, Ismael; Bobadilla-Lugo, Rosa A

    2017-11-01

    To study whether hypercaloric diet-induced obesity deteriorates vascular contractility of rat aorta through functional changes in α 1 adrenergic and/or AT1 Angiotensin II receptors. Angiotensin II- or phenylephrine-induced contraction was tested on isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from female Wistar rats fed for 7 weeks with hypercaloric diet or standard diet. Vascular expression of Angiotensin II Receptor type 1 (AT1R), Angiotensin II Receptor type 2 (AT2R), Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), as well as blood pressure, glucose, insulin and angiotensin II blood levels were measured. Diet-induced obesity did not significantly change agonist-induced contractions (Emax and pD 2 hypercaloric diet vs standard diet n.s.d.) of both intact (e+) or endothelium free (e-) vessels but significantly decrease both phenylephrine and angiotensin II contraction (Emax p < 0.01 hypercaloric diet vs standard diet) in the presence of both prazosin and losartan but only in endothelium-intact vessels. Diet-induced obesity did not change angiotensin II AT1, AT2 receptor proteins expression but reduced COX-1 and NOS2 ( p < 0.05 vs standard diet). Seven-week hypercaloric diet-induced obesity produces alterations in vascular adrenergic and angiotensin II receptor dynamics that suggest an endothelium-dependent adrenergic/angiotensin II crosstalk. These changes reflect early-stage vascular responses to obesity.

  17. Sympathetic nerve stimulation induces local endothelial Ca2+ signals to oppose vasoconstriction of mouse mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Nausch, Lydia W. M.; Bonev, Adrian D.; Heppner, Thomas J.; Tallini, Yvonne; Kotlikoff, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the endothelium regulates vascular tone independent of the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the activation of sympathetic nerves engages the endothelium to oppose vasoconstriction. Local inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ signals (“pulsars”) in or near endothelial projections to vascular smooth muscle (VSM) were measured in an en face mouse mesenteric artery preparation. Electrical field stimulation of sympathetic nerves induced an increase in endothelial cell (EC) Ca2+ pulsars, recruiting new pulsar sites without affecting activity at existing sites. This increase in Ca2+ pulsars was blocked by bath application of the α-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin or by TTX but was unaffected by directly picospritzing the α-adrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine onto the vascular endothelium, indicating that nerve-derived norepinephrine acted through α-adrenergic receptors on smooth muscle cells. Moreover, EC Ca2+ signaling was not blocked by inhibitors of purinergic receptors, ryanodine receptors, or voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, suggesting a role for IP3, rather than Ca2+, in VSM-to-endothelium communication. Block of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels, which have been shown to colocalize with IP3 receptors in endothelial projections to VSM, enhanced nerve-evoked constriction. Collectively, our results support the concept of a transcellular negative feedback module whereby sympathetic nerve stimulation elevates EC Ca2+ signals to oppose vasoconstriction. PMID:22140050

  18. Role of α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the effects of methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) on body temperature in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bexis, S; Docherty, J R

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have investigated the ability of α1-adrenoceptor antagonists to affect the hyperthermia produced by methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) in conscious mice. Experimental approach: Mice were implanted with temperature probes under ether anaesthesia and allowed 2 weeks recovery. MDMA (20 mg kg−1) was administered subcutaneously 30 min after vehicle or test antagonist or combination of antagonists and effects on body temperature monitored. Key results: Following vehicle, MDMA produced a hyperthermia, reaching a maximum increase of 1.8 °C at 140 min. Prazosin (0.1 mg kg−1) revealed an early significant hypothermia to MDMA of −1.94 °C. The α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist RS 100329 (0.1 mg kg−1), or the α1D-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 (0.5 mg kg−1) given alone, did not reveal a hypothermia to MDMA, but the combination of the two antagonists revealed a significant hypothermia to MDMA. The putative α1B-adrenoceptor anatagonist cyclazosin (1 mg kg−1) also revealed a significant hypothermia to MDMA, but actions of cyclazosin at the other α1-adrenoceptor subtypes cannot be excluded. Conclusions and implications: More than one subtype of α1-adrenoceptor is involved in a component of the hyperthermic response to MDMA in mouse, probably both α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptors, and removal of this α1-adrenoceptor-mediated component reveals an initial hypothermia. PMID:18037913

  19. Effects of saw palmetto extract on micturition reflex of rats and its autonomic receptor binding activity.

    PubMed

    Oki, Tomomi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Akio; Umegaki, Keizo; Yamada, Shizuo

    2005-04-01

    We examined the effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on the rat micturition reflex and on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract. The effect of SPE was examined on cystometrograms of anesthetized rats induced by intravesical infusion of saline or 0.1% acetic acid. SHR/NDmc-cp (cp/cp) rats received repeat oral administration of SPE and nighttime urodynamic function was determined. The autonomic receptor binding activity of SPE in the rat bladder and prostate was examined by radioligand binding assay. Intraduodenal administration of SPE (60 mg/kg) in anesthetized rat cystometry caused a significant increase in the micturition interval, micturition volume and bladder capacity during intravesical saline infusion. Also, similar administration of SPE at doses of 12 and 20 mg/kg significantly reversed the shortened micturition interval as well as the decreased micturition volume and bladder capacity due to 0.1% acetic acid infusion in a dose dependent manner. In conscious SHR/NDmc-cp (cp/cp) rats repeat oral administration of SPE (6 mg/kg daily) constantly increased the micturition interval and concomitantly decreased voiding frequency. SPE inhibited specific binding of [H]NMS ([N-methyl-H]scopolamine methyl chloride) (bladder) and [H]prazosin (prostate) with IC50 values of 46.1 and 183 microg/ml, respectively. SPE significantly alleviates urodynamic symptoms in hyperactive rat bladders by increasing bladder capacity and subsequently prolonging the micturition interval. Our data may support the clinical efficacy of SPE for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms.

  20. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Goepel, M; Hecker, U; Krege, S; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    1999-02-15

    We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained from several pharmaceutical companies. They were tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]tamsulosin binding to human prostatic alpha1-adrenoceptors and [3H]prazosin binding to cloned human alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate formation by cloned receptors was also investigated. Up to the highest concentration which could be tested, preparations of beta-sitosterol, stinging nettle, and medicinal pumpkin were without consistent inhibitory effect in all assays. In contrast, all tested saw palmetto extracts inhibited radioligand binding to human alpha1-adrenoceptors and agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate formation. Saturation binding experiments in the presence of a single saw palmetto extract concentration indicated a noncompetitive antagonism. The relationship between active concentrations in vitro and recommended therapeutic doses for the saw palmetto extracts was slightly lower than that for several chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Saw palmetto extracts have alpha1-adrenoceptor-inhibitory properties. If bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic properties of these ingredients are similar to those of the chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism might be involved in the therapeutic effects of these extracts in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction.

  1. Study of the mechanism of the relaxant action of (+)-glaucine in rat vas deferens.

    PubMed Central

    Orallo, F.; Fernández Alzueta, A.; Loza, M. I.; Vivas, N.; Badía, A.; Campos, M.; Honrubia, M. A.; Cadavid, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    1. Effects of the aporphinoid alkaloid, (+)-glaucine, on rat vas deferens were investigated. 2. (+)-Glaucine (2-18 microM) competitively inhibited contractions induced by noradrenaline and methoxamine with a pA2 value of about 6. 3. (+)-Glaucine (2 and 18 microM) did not change the accumulation of tritium during incubation of the vas deferens with [3H]-noradrenaline. 4. (+)-Glaucine (0.3 nM-0.1 mM) inhibited specific [3H]-prazosin binding to membranes from rat vas deferens with a pKi value of 6.63, which is close to the pA2 value obtained against noradrenaline and methoxamine in functional studies. 5. In electrically-stimulated rat vas deferens, (+)-glaucine (0.3-10 microM) enhanced twitch contractions and competitively antagonized the inhibitory effect of clonidine with a pA2 value of 5.91. 6. In tissues incubated in depolarizing calcium-free high-potassium medium, (+)-glaucine (30-80 microM) inhibited Ca(2+)-induced contractions with depression of the maximal response at higher doses and with a pD'2 value of 3.65. Furthermore, (+)-glaucine (50 microM) did not modify basal 45Ca uptake but strongly inhibited the influx of 45Ca induced by K+. 7. These results suggest that (+)-glaucine has non-selective alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking properties. At higher doses, (+)-glaucine shows calcium antagonist activity which may be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition of the contractions induced by Ca2+ in calcium-free high-potassium medium. PMID:8298818

  2. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general. PMID:24151426

  3. Noradrenergic dysregulation in the pathophysiology of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Rebecca C; Raskind, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    A central role for noradrenergic dysregulation in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly suggested by both clinical and basic neuroscience research. Here, we integrate recent findings from clinical and animal research with the earlier literature. We first review the evidence for net upregulation of the noradrenergic system and its responsivity to stress in individuals with PTSD. Next, we trace the evidence that the α 1 noradrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin decreases many of the symptoms of PTSD from initial clinical observations, to case series, to randomized controlled trials. Finally, we review the basic science work that has begun to explain the mechanism for this efficacy, as well as to explore its possible limitations and areas for further advancement. We suggest a view of the noradrenergic system as a central, modifiable link in a network of interconnected stress-response systems, which also includes the amygdala and its modulation by medial prefrontal cortex. Particular attention is paid to the evidence for bidirectional signaling between noradrenaline and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in coordinating these interconnected systems. The multiple different ways in which the sensitivity and reactivity of the noradrenergic system may be altered in PTSD are highlighted, as is the evidence for possible heterogeneity in the pathophysiology of PTSD between different individuals who appear clinically similar. We conclude by noting the importance moving forward of improved measures of noradrenergic functioning in clinical populations, which will allow better recognition of clinical heterogeneity and further assessment of the functional implications of different aspects of noradrenergic dysregulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Ipser, Jonathan C; Stein, Dan J

    2012-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and disabling disorder. Recognition of neurobiological abnormalities associated with this condition suggests the potential efficacy of medication in its treatment. Nevertheless, questions regarding the efficacy of medications remain, despite general endorsement by clinical practice guidelines of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as first-line agents in treating PTSD. This paper reviews evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the efficacy of acute and long-term pharmacotherapy for PTSD, including the treatment of refractory PTSD. In addition, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of different medications in treating PTSD. The effects of methodological study features (including year of publication, duration, number of centres) and sample characteristics (proportion of combat veterans, gender composition) were also tested. The largest body of evidence for short- and long-term efficacy of medication currently exists for SSRIs, with promising initial findings for the selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine and the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. Treatment effect was predicted by number of centres and recency of the study, with little evidence that sample characteristics predicted response. Evidence for the effectiveness of benzodiazepines is lacking, despite their continued use in clinical practice. Finally, the α1 antagonist prazosin and the atypical antipsychotics show some efficacy in treatment-resistant PTSD. Adequately powered trials that are designed in accordance with best-practice guidelines are required to provide conclusive evidence of clinically relevant differences in efficacy between agents in treating PTSD, and to help estimate clinical and methodological predictors of treatment response.

  5. α2-adrenergic blockade mimics the enhancing effect of chronic stress on breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Sung, Ha Yeon; Yang, Gyu Sik; David, John M.; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in preclinical mouse models of breast cancer have shown that chronic restraint stress can enhance disease progression by increasing catecholamine levels and subsequent signaling of β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines also signal α-adrenergic receptors, and greater α-adrenergic signaling has been shown to promote breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, antagonism of α-adrenergic receptors can result in elevated catecholamine levels, which may increase β-adrenergic signaling, because pre-synaptic α2-adrenergic receptors mediate an autoinhibition of sympathetic transmission. Given these findings, we examined the effect of α-adrenergic blockade on breast cancer progression under non-stress and stress conditions (chronic restraint) in an orthotopic mouse model with MDA-MB-231HM cells. Chronic restraint increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to distant tissues as expected, and non-selective α-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine significantly inhibited those effects. However, under non-stress conditions, phentolamine increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis. Sympatho-neural gene expression for catecholamine biosynthesis enzymes was elevated by phentolamine under non-stress conditions, and the non-selective β-blocker propranolol inhibited the effect of phentolamine on breast cancer progression. Selective α2-adrenergic blockade by efaroxan also increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis under non-stress conditions, but selective α1-adrenergic blockade by prazosin did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that α2-adrenergic signaling can act through an autoreceptor mechanism to inhibit sympathetic catecholamine release and, thus, modulate established effects of β-adrenergic signaling on tumor progression-relevant biology. PMID:25462899

  6. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-timemore » for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.« less

  7. Dwarfism and insulin resistance in male offspring caused by α1-adrenergic antagonism during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oelkrug, Rebecca; Herrmann, Beate; Geissler, Cathleen; Harder, Lisbeth; Koch, Christiane; Lehnert, Hendrik; Oster, Henrik; Kirchner, Henriette; Mittag, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Maternal and environmental factors control the epigenetic fetal programming of the embryo, thereby defining the susceptibility for metabolic or endocrine disorders in the offspring. Pharmacological interventions required as a consequence of gestational problems, e.g. hypertension, can potentially interfere with correct fetal programming. As epigenetic alterations are usually only revealed later in life and not detected in studies focusing on early perinatal outcomes, little is known about the long-term epigenetic effects of gestational drug treatments. We sought to test the consequences of maternal α1-adrenergic antagonism during pregnancy, which can occur e.g. during hypertension treatment, for the endocrine and metabolic phenotype of the offspring. We treated C57BL/6NCrl female mice with the α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin during pregnancy and analyzed the male and female offspring for endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Our data revealed that maternal α1-adrenergic blockade caused dwarfism, elevated body temperature, and insulin resistance in male offspring, accompanied by reduced IGF-1 serum concentrations as the result of reduced hepatic growth hormone receptor (Ghr) expression. We subsequently identified increased CpG DNA methylation at the transcriptional start site of the alternative Ghr promotor caused by the maternal treatment, which showed a strong inverse correlation to hepatic Ghr expression. Our results demonstrate that maternal α1-adrenergic blockade can constitute an epigenetic cause for dwarfism and insulin resistance. The findings are of immediate clinical relevance as combined α/β-adrenergic blockers are first-line treatment of maternal hypertension. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Alawi, Khadija M.; Aubdool, Aisah A.; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D.; Keeble, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.—Alawi, K. M., Aubdool, A. A., Liang, L., Wilde, E., Vepa, A., Psefteli, M.-P., Brain, S. D., Keeble, J. E. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature. PMID:26136480

  9. Amyloid is essential but insufficient for Alzheimer causation: addition of subcellular cofactors is required for dementia.

    PubMed

    Fessel, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the hypotheses stating the importance of amyloid or of its oligomers in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Published studies were examined. The importance of amyloid in the pathogenesis of AD is well established, yet accepting it as the main cause for AD is problematic, because amyloid-centric treatments have provided no clinical benefit and about one-third of cognitively normal, older persons have cerebral amyloid plaques. Also problematic is the alternative hypothesis that, instead of amyloid plaques, it is oligomers of amyloid precursor protein that cause AD.Evidence is presented suggesting amyloid/oligomers as necessary but insufficient causes of the dementia and that, for dementia to develop, requires the addition of cofactors known to be associated with AD. Those cofactors include several subcellular processes: mitochondrial impairments; the Wnt signaling system; the unfolded protein response; the ubiquitin proteasome system; the Notch signaling system; and tau, calcium, and oxidative damage. A modified amyloid/oligomer hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AD is that activation of one or more of the aforementioned cofactors creates a burden of functional impairments that, in conjunction with amyloid/oligomers, now crosses a threshold of dysfunction that results in clinical dementia. Of considerable importance, several treatments that might reverse the activation of some of the subcellular processes are available, for example, lithium, pioglitazone, erythropoietin, and prazosin; they should be given in combination in a clinical trial to test their safety and efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Noradrenaline transmission reducing drugs may protect against a broad range of diseases.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, P J

    2015-04-01

    1 A growing body of evidence suggests that the signalling molecule, noradrenaline (NA), plays a pathophysiological role in a broad range of psychiatric, neurological and peripheral disorders. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest that elevated NA signalling may be involved in the aetiology of major diseases such as depression, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus. 2 The molecular pathways by which NA may cause the manifestation of disease remain poorly understood, although they may include G protein-coupled receptor modulation of the Ras/MAP kinase, Stat3 and PI3K pathways, among others. In both individual animals and humans, NA tone may be elevated largely due to genetics, but also because of the exposure to marked psychological stress or trauma, or other environmental factors. 3 As NA is involved in the 'fight or flight' response by the sympathetic nervous system, this transmitter may be elevated in a large number of organisms due to evolutionary selection of enhancing responses to immediate environmental dangers. Likewise, acetylcholine signalling by the parasympathetic ('rest and digest') nervous system may be relatively diminished. This putative autonomic imbalance may result in diminished engagement in homeostatic processes, resulting in the emergence and progression of a number of diseases throughout the body. 4 In this scenario, a large number of individuals may benefit from chronic use of pharmacological agents - such as clonidine, guanfacine, propranolol or prazosin - that diminish NA signalling throughout the body. If so, NA transmission lowering drugs may protect against a wide range of diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Adrenergic manipulation inhibits pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pasquariello, Kyle Z; Han, Marina; Unal, Cagla; Meyer, Paul J

    2018-02-26

    Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well. Thus, in order to investigate the influence of norepinephrine in Pavlovian conditioned approach, we administered three adrenergic drugs while rats learned that a food cue (an illuminated, retractable lever) preceded the delivery of banana-flavored food pellets into a food-cup. We found that pre-session injections of disulfiram (a dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor) inhibited the development of sign-tracking, but goal-tracking was only affected at the high dose. In one experiment, post-session injections of disulfiram blocked the development of sign-tracking, although this effect was not replicated in a separate set of rats. Post-session injections of prazosin (an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) also blocked the development of sign-tracking but not goal-tracking. Taken together, these results suggest that adrenergic transmission mediates the acquisition of sign-tracking but not goal-tracking, and thus plays a selective role in the attribution of incentive salience food cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Participation of MT3 melatonin receptors in the synergistic effect of melatonin on cytotoxic and apoptotic actions evoked by chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pariente, Roberto; Bejarano, Ignacio; Espino, Javier; Rodríguez, Ana B; Pariente, José A

    2017-11-01

    Melatonin has antitumor activity via several mechanisms including its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in addition to its potent antioxidant actions. Therefore, melatonin may be useful in the treatment of tumors in association with chemotherapy drugs. This study was performed to study the role of melatonin receptors on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in two tumor cell lines, such as human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells. We found that both melatonin and the two chemotherapeutic agents tested induced a decrease in HT-29 and HeLa cell viability. Furthermore, melatonin significantly increased the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents, particularly, in 5-fluorouracil-challenged cells. Stimulation of cells with either of the two chemotherapeutic agents in the presence of melatonin further increased caspase-3 activation. Concomitant treatments with melatonin and chemotherapeutic agents augmented the population of apoptotic cells compared to the treatments with chemotherapeutics alone. Blockade of MT1 and/or MT2 receptors with luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was unable to reverse the enhancing effects of melatonin on both cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activation and the amount of apoptotic cells evoked by the chemotherapeutic agents, whereas when MT3 receptors were blocked with prazosin, the synergistic effect of melatonin with chemotherapy on cytotoxicity and apoptosis was reversed. Our findings provided evidence that in vitro melatonin strongly enhances chemotherapeutic-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in two tumor cell lines, namely HT-29 and HeLa cells and, this potentiating effect of melatonin is mediated by MT3 receptor stimulation.

  13. REM Sleep–like Atonia of Hypoglossal (XII) Motoneurons Is Caused by Loss of Noradrenergic and Serotonergic Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Fenik, Victor B.; Davies, Richard O.; Kubin, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Studies of hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons that innervate the genioglossus muscle, an upper airway dilator, suggested that the suppression of upper airway motor tone during REM sleep is caused by withdrawal of excitation mediated by norepinephrine and serotonin. Objectives Our objectives were to determine whether antagonism of aminergic receptors located in the XII nucleus region can abolish the REM sleep–like atonia of XII motoneurons, and whether both serotonergic and noradrenergic antagonists are required to achieve this effect. Methods REM sleep–like episodes were elicited in anesthetized rats by pontine carbachol injections before and at various times after microinjection of prazosin and methysergide combined, or of only one of the drugs, into the XII nucleus. Measurements and Main Results Spontaneous XII nerve activity was significantly reduced, by 35 to 81%, by each antagonist alone and in combination, indicating that XII motoneurons were under both noradrenergic and serotonergic endogenous excitatory drives. During the 32 to 81 min after microinjections of both antagonists, pontine carbachol caused no depression of XII nerve activity, whereas other characteristic effects (activation of the hippocampal and cortical EEG, and slowing of the respiratory rate) remained intact. A partial recovery of the depressant effect of carbachol then occurred parallel to the recovery of spontaneous XII nerve activity from the depressant effect of the antagonists. Microinjections of either antagonist alone did not eliminate the depressant effect of carbachol. Conclusions The REM sleep–like depression of XII motoneuronal activity induced by pontine carbachol can be fully accounted for by the combined withdrawal of noradrenergic and serotonergic effects on XII motoneurons. PMID:16100007

  14. Central venous pressure and mean circulatory filling pressure in the dogfish Squalus acanthias: adrenergic control and role of the pericardium.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Axelsson, Michael; Farrell, Anthony P

    2006-11-01

    Subambient central venous pressure (Pven) and modulation of venous return through cardiac suction (vis a fronte) characterizes the venous circulation in sharks. Venous capacitance was estimated in the dogfish Squalus acanthias by measuring the mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) during transient occlusion of cardiac outflow. We tested the hypothesis that venous return and cardiac preload can be altered additionally through adrenergic changes of venous capacitance. The experiments involved the surgical opening of the pericardium to place a perivascular occluder around the conus arteriosus. Another control group was identically instrumented, but lacked the occluder, and was subjected to the same pharmacological protocol to evaluate how pericardioectomy affected cardiovascular status. Routine Pven was negative (-0.08+/-0.02 kPa) in control fish but positive (0.09+/-0.01 kPa) in the pericardioectomized group. Injections of 5 microg/kg body mass (Mb) of epinephrine and phenylephrine (100 microg/kg Mb) increased Pven and MCFP, whereas isoproterenol (1 microg/kg Mb) decreased both variables. Thus, constriction and relaxation of the venous vasculature were mediated through the respective stimulation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Alpha-adrenergic blockade with prazosin (1 mg/kg Mb) attenuated the responses to phenylephrine and decreased resting Pven in pericardioectomized animals. Our results provide convincing evidence for adrenergic control of the venous vasculature in elasmobranchs, although the pericardium is clearly an important component in the modulation of venous function. Thus active changes in venous capacitance have previously been underestimated as an important means of modulating venous return and cardiac performance in this group.

  15. Best Practice Guide for the Treatment of Nightmare Disorder in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Zak, Rochelle S.; Auerbach, Sanford H.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Karippot, Anoop; Maganti, Rama K.; Ramar, Kannan; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of Recommendations: Prazosin is recommended for treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-associated nightmares. Level A Image Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) is recommended for treatment of nightmare disorder. Level A Systematic Desensitization and Progressive Deep Muscle Relaxation training are suggested for treatment of idiopathic nightmares. Level B Venlafaxine is not suggested for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level B Clonidine may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level C The following medications may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares, but the data are low grade and sparse: trazodone, atypical antipsychotic medications, topiramate, low dose cortisol, fluvoxamine, triazolam and nitrazepam, phenelzine, gabapentin, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants. Nefazodone is not recommended as first line therapy for nightmare disorder because of the increased risk of hepatotoxicity. Level C The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares based on low-grade evidence: Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy (ERRT); Sleep Dynamic Therapy; Hypnosis; Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR); and the Testimony Method. Level C The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of nightmare disorder based on low-grade evidence: Lucid Dreaming Therapy and Self-Exposure Therapy. Level C No recommendation is made regarding clonazepam and individual psychotherapy because of sparse data. Citation: Aurora RN; Zak RS; Auerbach SH; Casey KR; Chowduri S; Krippot A; Maganti RK; Ramar K; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Lamm CI; Morgenthaler TI. Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(4):389-401. PMID:20726290

  16. Nicergoline, a drug used for age-dependent cognitive impairment, protects cultured neurons against beta-amyloid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Caraci, Filippo; Chisari, Mariangela; Frasca, Giuseppina; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Battaglia, Angelo; Calafiore, Marco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bosco, Paolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Copani, Agata; Sortino, Maria Angela

    2005-06-14

    Nicergoline, a drug used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, was tested for its ability to protect neurons against beta-amyloid toxicity. Pure cultures of rat cortical neurons were challenged with a toxic fragment of beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP(25-35)) and toxicity was assessed after 24 h. Micromolar concentrations of nicergoline or its metabolite, MDL, attenuated betaAP(25-35)-induced neuronal death, whereas MMDL (another metabolite of nicergoline), the alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, or the serotonin 5HT-2 receptor antagonist, methysergide, were inactive. Nicergoline increased the basal levels of Bcl-2 and reduced the increase in Bax levels induced by beta-amyloid, indicating that the drug inhibits the execution of an apoptotic program in cortical neurons. In mixed cultures of rat cortical cells containing both neurons and astrocytes, nicergoline and MDL were more efficacious than in pure neuronal cultures in reducing beta-amyloid neurotoxicity. Experiments carried out in pure cultures of astrocytes showed that a component of neuroprotection was mediated by a mechanism of glial-neuronal interaction. The conditioned medium of cultured astrocytes treated with nicergoline or MDL for 72-96 h (collected 24 h after drug withdrawal) was neuroprotective when transferred to pure neuronal cultures challenged with beta-amyloid. In cultured astrocytes, nicergoline increased the intracellular levels of transforming-growth factor-beta and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, two trophic factors that are known to protect neurons against beta-amyloid toxicity. These results raise the possibility that nicergoline reduces neurodegeneration in the Alzheimer's brain.

  17. Activated cranial cervical cord neurons affect left ventricular infarct size and the potential for sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Southerland, E. Marie; Gibbons, David D.; Smith, S. Brooks; Sipe, Adam; Williams, Carole Ann; Beaumont, Eric; Armour, J. Andrew; Foreman, Robert D.; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether cervical spinal neurons can influence cardiac indices and myocyte viability in the acutely ischemic heart, the hearts of anesthetized rabbits subjected to 30 min of LAD coronary arterial occlusion (CAO) were studied 3 hours after reperfusion. Control animals were compared to those exposed to pre-emptive high cervical cord stimulation (SCS; the dorsal aspect of the C1-C2 spinal cord was stimulated electrically at 50 Hz; 0.2 ms; 90% of motor threshold, starting 15 min prior to and continuing throughout CAO). Four groups of animals were so tested: 1) neuroaxis intact; 2) prior cervical vagotomy; 3) prior transection of the dorsal spinal columns at C6; and 4) following pharmacological treatment [muscarinic (atropine) or adrenergic (atenolol, prazosin or yohimbine) receptor blockade]. Infarct size (IS) was measured by tetrazolium, expressed as percentage of risk zone. C1-C2 SCS reduced acute ischemia induced IS by 43%, without changing the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). While SCS-induced reduction in IS was unaffected by vagotomy, it was no longer evident following transection of C6 dorsal columns or atropinization. Beta-adrenoceptor blockade eliminated ischemia induced SCD, while alpha-receptor blockade doubled its incidence. During SCS, myocardial ischemia induced SCD was eliminated following vagotomy while remaining unaffected by atropinization. These data indicate that, in contrast to thoracic spinal neurons, i) cranial cervical spinal neurons affect both adrenergic and cholinergic motor outflows to the heart such that ii) their activation modifies ventricular infarct size and lethal arrhythmogenesis. PMID:22502863

  18. From Bench to Bedside: Attempt to Evaluate Repositioning of Drugs in the Treatment of Metastatic Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Lohinai, Zoltan; Dome, Peter; Szilagyi, Zsuzsa; Ostoros, Gyula; Moldvay, Judit; Hegedus, Balazs

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Based on in vitro data and results of a recent drug repositioning study, some medications approved by the FDA for the treatment of various non-malignant disorders were demonstrated to have anti-SCLC activity in preclinical models. The aim of our study is to confirm whether use of these medications is associated with survival benefit. Methods Consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed, stage 4 SCLC were analyzed in this retrospective study. Patients that were prescribed statins, aspirin, clomipramine (tricyclic antidepressant; TCA), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), doxazosin or prazosin (α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists; ADRA1) were identified. Results There were a total of 876 patients. Aspirin, statins, SSRIs, ADRA1, and TCA were administered in 138, 72, 20, 28, and 5 cases, respectively. A statistically significant increase in median OS was observed only in statin-treated patients when compared to those not receiving any of the aforementioned medications (OS, 8.4 vs. 6.1 months, respectively; p = 0.002). The administration of SSRIs, aspirin, and ADRA1 did not result in a statistically significant OS benefit (median OS, 8.5, 6.8, and 6.0 months, respectively). The multivariate Cox model showed that, besides age and ECOG PS, radiotherapy was an independent survival predictor (Hazard Ratio, 2.151; 95% confidence interval, 1.828–2.525; p <0.001). Conclusions Results of drug repositioning studies using only preclinical data or small numbers of patients should be treated with caution before application in the clinic. Our data demonstrated that radiotherapy appears to be an independent survival predictor in stage 4 SCLC, therefore confirming the results of other prospective and retrospective studies. PMID:26735301

  19. Synthetic cannabinoids found in "spice" products alter body temperature and cardiovascular parameters in conscious male rats.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Gramling, Benjamin R; Justinova, Zuzana; Thorndike, Eric B; Baumann, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats. THC and the synthetic cannabinoids CP55,940, JWH-018, AM2201 and XLR-11 were injected s.c., and rats were placed into isolation cubicles for 3h. THC and synthetic cannabinoids produced dose-related decreases in body temperature that were most prominent in the final 2h of the session. The rank order of potency was CP55,940>AM2201=JWH-018>THC=XLR-11. The cannabinoid inverse agonist rimonabant antagonized the hypothermic effect of all compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids elevated BP in comparison to vehicle treatment during the first h of the session, while heart rate was unaffected. The rank order of potency for BP increases was similar to that seen for hypothermia. Hypertensive effects of CP55,940 and JWH-018 were not antagonized by rimonabant or the neutral antagonist AM4113. However, the BP responses to both drugs were antagonized by pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or the α 1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Our results show that synthetic cannabinoids produce hypothermia in rats by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors, while they increase BP by a mechanism independent of these sites. The hypertensive effect appears to involve central sympathetic outflow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A novel pre-clinical strategy for identifying cardiotoxic kinase inhibitors and mechanisms of cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui; Kari, Gabor; Dicker, Adam P; Rodeck, Ulrich; Koch, Walter J; Force, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Rationale 1) Despite intense interest in strategies to predict which kinase inhibitor (KI) cancer therapeutics may be associated with cardiotoxicity, current approaches are inadequate. 2) Sorafenib is a KI of concern since it inhibits growth factor receptors and Raf-1/B-Raf, kinases that are upstream of ERKs and signal cardiomyocyte survival in the setting of stress. Objectives 1) Explore the potential use of zebrafish as a pre-clinical model to predict cardiotoxicity. 2) Determine whether sorafenib has associated cardiotoxicity and, if so, define the mechanisms. Methods and Results We find that the zebrafish model is readily able to discriminate a KI with little or no cardiotoxicity (gefitinib) from one with demonstrated cardiotoxicity (sunitinib). Sorafenib, like sunitinib, leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis, a reduction in total myocyte number per heart, contractile dysfunction and ventricular dilatation in zebrafish. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, sorafenib induces cell death. This can be rescued by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of constitutively active MEK1 which restores ERK activity even in the presence of sorafenib. While growth factor-induced activation of ERKs requires Raf, α-adrenergic agonist-induced activation of ERKs does not. Consequently, activation of α-adrenergic signaling markedly decreases sorafenib-induced cell death. Consistent with these in vitro data, inhibition of α-adrenergic signaling with the receptor antagonist prazosin worsens sorafenib-induced cardiomyopathy in zebrafish. Conclusions 1) Zebrafish may be a valuable pre-clinical tool to predict cardiotoxicity. 2) The α-adrenergic signaling pathway is an important modulator of sorafenib cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo and appears to act via a here-to-fore unrecognized signaling pathway downstream of α-adrenergic activation that bypasses Raf to activate ERKs. PMID:21998323

  1. Inhibition of the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    High body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants and young children have led to increased concern over their potential impact on human development. PBDE exposure can alter the expression of genes involved in thyroid homeostasis, including those of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate cellular xenobiotic efflux. However, little information exists on how PBDEs interact with ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with P-gp and BCRP, using human MDR1- and BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles and stably transfected NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In P-gp membranes, BDE-47 did not affect P-gp activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited P-gp activity at low µM concentrations (IC50 = 11.7 µM). In BCRP membranes, BDE-47 inhibited BCRP activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 was a stronger inhibitor [IC50 = 45.9 µM (BDE-47) vs. IC50 = 9.4 µM (6-OH-BDE-47)]. Intracellular concentrations of known P-gp and BCRP substrates [(3H)-paclitaxel and (3H)-prazosin, respectively] were significantly higher (indicating less efflux) in NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells in the presence of 6-OH-BDE-47, but not BDE-47. Collectively, our results indicate that the BDE-47 metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP efflux activity.

  2. Autoradiographic distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in the human brain using [3H]mesulergine: comparison to other mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cora, Francisco J; Pazos, Angel

    2003-01-01

    The main aim of this investigation was to delineate the distribution of the 5-HT7 receptor in human brain. Autoradiographic studies in guinea-pig and rat brain were also carried out in order to revisit and compare the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in different mammalian species.Binding studies were performed in rat frontal cortex membranes using 10 nM [3H]mesulergine in the presence of raclopride (10 μM) and DOI (0.8 μM). Under these conditions, a binding site with pharmacological characteristics consistent with those of the 5-HT7 receptors was identified (rank order of binding affinity values: 5-CT>5-HT>5-MeOT>mesulergine ≈methiothepin>8-OH-DPAT=spiperone ≈(+)-butaclamol≫imipramine ≈(±)-pindolol≫ondansetron ≈clonidine ≈prazosin).The autoradiographic studies revealed that the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors throughout the human brain was heterogenous. High densities were found over the caudate and putamen nuclei, the pyramidal layer of the CA2 field of the hippocampus, the centromedial thalamic nucleus, and the dorsal raphe nucleus. The inner layer of the frontal cortex, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the subthalamic nucleus and superior colliculus, among others, presented intermediate concentrations of 5-HT7 receptors. A similar brain anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors was observed in all three mammalian species studied.By using [3H]mesulergine, we have mapped for the first time the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in the human brain, overcoming the limitations previously found in radiometric studies with other radioligands, and also revisiting the distribution in guinea-pig and rat brain. PMID:14656806

  3. Rubus occidentalis alleviates hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Kwon, Ji Wung

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) fruit extract (ROE) in a rat model of chronic muscle pain and examine the mechanisms involved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and chronic muscle pain was induced by two injections of acidic saline into one gastrocnemius muscle. For the first experiment, 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups. After the development of hyperalgesia, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9 % saline or ROE (10, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg). For the second experiment, 70 rats were randomly assigned to seven groups. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline, yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, atropine, mecamylamine, or naloxone after the development of hyperalgesia. Ten minutes later, ROE (300 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. For both experiments, the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was evaluated with von Frey filaments before the first acidic saline injection, 24 h after the second injection, and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min, 24 and 48 h after the drug administration. Compared with the control group, the MWT significantly increased up to 45 min after injection of ROE 100 mg/kg and up to 60 min after injection of ROE 300 mg/kg, respectively. Injection of ROE together with yohimbine or mecamylamine significantly decreased the MWT compared with the effect of ROE alone, while ROE together with dexmedetomidine significantly increased the MWT. ROE showed antinociceptive activity against induced chronic muscle pain, which may be mediated by α2-adrenergic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

  4. Can Screening and Confirmatory Testing in the Management of Patients with Primary Aldosteronism be Improved?

    PubMed

    Stowasser, Michael; Ahmed, Ashraf; Guo, Zeng; Wolley, Martin; Ungerer, Jacobus; McWhinney, Brett; Poglitsch, Marko; Gordon, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Widespread application of the plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) as a screening test has led to the recognition that primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common specifically treatable and potentially curable form of hypertension, accounting for 5-10% of patients. Maximal detection requires accurate diagnostic approaches and awareness and control of factors that confound results, including most antihypertensives, posture, time of day, dietary salt, and plasma potassium. Recent studies have revealed potential for false positives in patients on beta-adrenoceptor blockers, and, when direct renin concentration (but not plasma renin activity) is used to measure renin, in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or receiving estrogen-containing contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy. In addition to verapamil slow release, hydralazine and prazosin, moxonidine has minimal effects on the ARR and can be used to control hypertension during work-up. Fludrocortisone suppression testing, while probably the most reliable means of definitively confirming or excluding PA, is time consuming and expensive, requiring a five day inpatient stay. A novel approach, upright (seated) saline infusion suppression testing (SST), has shown excellent reliability with much greater sensitivity than conventional recumbent SST in a recent pilot study, and requires only a day visit. Accurate measurement of aldosterone is essential for each step of PA workup: introduction of new, highly reliable high-throughput mass spectrometric methods into clinical practice has represented a major advance. In response to concerns raised about accuracy of renin assays, new mass spectrometric methods for measuring angiotensin II are currently being assessed in the clinical setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Expression and Activity of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in Human Distal Lung Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Sabrina; Selo, Mohammed Ali; Fallack, Juliane; Clerkin, Caoimhe G; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) has previously been identified with high expression levels in human lung. The subcellular localisation and functional activity of the transporter in lung epithelia, however, remains poorly investigated. The aim of this project was to study BCRP expression and activity in freshly isolated human alveolar epithelial type 2 (AT2) and type 1-like (AT1-like) cells in primary culture, and to compare these findings with data obtained from the NCI-H441 cell line. BCRP expression levels in AT2 and AT1-like cells and in different passages of NCI-H441 cells were determined using q-PCR and immunoblot. Transporter localisation was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Efflux and transport studies using the BCRP substrate BODIPY FL prazosin and the inhibitor Ko143 were carried out to assess BCRP activity in the different cell models. BCRP expression decreased during transdifferentiation from AT2 to AT1-like phenotype. Culturing NCI-H441 cells at an air-liquid interface or submersed did not change BCRP abundance, however, BCRP levels increased with passage number. BCRP was localised to the apical membrane and cytosol in NCI-H441 cells. In primary cells, the protein was found predominantly in the nucleus. Functional studies were consistent with expression data. BCRP is differently expressed in AT2 and AT1-like cells with lower abundance and activity in the latter ones. Nuclear BCRP might play a transcriptional role in distal lung epithelium. In NCI-H441 cells, BCRP is expressed in apical cell membranes and its activity is consistent with the localisation pattern.

  6. Physiological and anatomical studies of the development of the sympathetic innervation to rat iris arterioles.

    PubMed

    Sandow; Hill

    1999-09-24

    The development of the sympathetic innervation to rat irideal arterioles has been investigated using histochemical and in vitro pharmacological and electrophysiological methods. A plexus of fibres and varicosities appeared over the surface of the vessels after the first postnatal week and increased to reach a maximum density during the fourth postnatal week. Transmural nerve stimulation produced small, consistent contractions that were first recorded in arterioles of 7-day old rats. Contractions became larger and faster, reaching the adult form during the fourth postnatal week. Contractions became more sensitive to the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin and naftopidil, and less sensitive to the alpha1A/D antagonist, WB4101 and alpha2 antagonist, yohimbine, during development. At both 10 and 21 days, contractile responses resulted from the release of intracellular calcium as they were abolished by caffeine (10(-3) M), thapsigargin (2 x 10(-6) M) and cyclopiazonic acid (3 x 10(-6) M), but not by nifedipine (10(-6) M). Intracellular recordings showed that nerve stimulation produced large, slow depolarizations at all ages tested. Time to peak potential decreased during development, while the amplitude of the depolarizations did not vary significantly. Results suggest that, throughout development, sympathetic nerves cause constriction of iris arterioles due to the release of noradrenaline and activation of alpha-adrenoceptors on the smooth muscle cells. Early responses involved both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors, while later responses were due to alpha1-adrenoceptors only. Irrespective of these changes in adrenoceptor subtypes, smooth muscle contraction resulted from the mobilization of intracellular calcium suggesting that both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors were coupled to pathways which accessed this source of calcium.

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-arthritic properties of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth (Rutaceae) in Rodents: possible mechanism of actions.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Olayemi, Sunday O; Oreagba, Ibrahim A; Ifeanyi, Chikaodili I; Popoola, Temidayo O

    2015-12-20

    The leaves of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth (Rutaceae) is used in Traditional African medicine for the treatment of various ailments including arthritis. The present study sought to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-arthritic properties of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clausena anisata (HeCA). HeCA (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before intraplantar injection of formalin 1%v/v in saline to evaluate antinociceptive effect. Moreover, its possible mechanism of antinociceptive action was investigated through pretreatment of mice with antagonists of receptors implicated in nociception. Anti¬inflammatory effect of the extract was investigated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis models in rats. HeCA (400 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the duration of paw licking/biting during both in the early (42.12%) and late (75.79%) phases of formalin-induced nociception. However, the antinociceptive effect elicited by HeCA was reverse by pretreatment of mice with naloxone, prazosin, yohimbine, ketanserin, L-arginine, and parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA). HeCA produced dose-dependent and time course decrease in carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Pre- and post-treatment of rats with HeCA ameliorated CFA-induced arthritis evidenced in the significant decrease in arthritic index comparatively similar to the effect of celecoxib. CFA- induced oxidative and nitrosative stress were attenuated by subchronic treatment with HeCA. Findings from this study shows that C. anisata possesses antinociceptive activity through possible interaction with opioidergic, noradrenergic, L-arginine-nitric oxide and serotonergic pathways as well as anti-arthritic property which could be attributed to its ability to prevent the release of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress.

  8. Renal and femoral venous blood flows are regulated by different mechanisms dependent on α-adrenergic receptor subtypes and nitric oxide in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, Alexandre C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Cafarchio, Eduardo M; Venancio, Daniel P; de Almeida, Roberto Lopes; Antonio, Bruno B; Sato, Monica A

    2017-12-01

    Venous and arterial walls are responsive to sympathetic system and circulating substances, nevertheless, very few is known about the venous blood flow regulation simultaneously to arterial vascular beds. In this study, we compared the venous and arterial blood flow regulation in visceral and muscular beds upon injection of different doses of vasoactive drugs which act in arterial vascular beds. Anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent to right femoral artery and vein cannulation for hemodynamic recordings and infusion of drugs. Doppler flow probes were placed around the left renal artery and vein, and left femoral artery and vein to evaluate the changes in flood flow. Phenylephrine (PHE) injection (α 1 -adrenergic receptor agonist) elicited vasoconstriction in all arteries and veins. Intravenous prazosin (PZS) (1mg/kg, α 1 -adrenergic receptor blocker) caused renal artery vasodilation, but not in the other beds. Vasoconstrictor effect of PHE was abolished by PZS in all vascular beds, except in femoral vein. Phentolamine (PTL) injection (1mg/kg, α 1 /α 2 -adrenergic receptor blocker) produced renal artery vasodilation with no change in other beds. After PTL, the vasoconstriction evoked by PHE was abolished in all vascular beds. Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor, elicited vasodilation in all beds, and after PTL but not post PZS injection, SNP enhanced the vasodilatory effect in femoral vein. Our findings suggest that the vasoconstriction in renal and femoral veins is mediated by different subtypes of α-adrenoceptors. The nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in femoral vein enhances when α 2 -adrenoceptors are not under stimulation, but not in the other vascular beds investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alpha1-adrenergic receptor blockade in the VTA modulates fear memories and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Wojciech B; Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Klasa, Adam; Pradel, Kamil; Dobrzański, Grzegorz; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2017-08-01

    Activity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its terminals has been implicated in the Pavlovian associative learning of both stressful and rewarding stimuli. However, the role of the VTA noradrenergic signaling in fear responses remains unclear. We aimed to examine how alpha 1 -adrenergic receptor (α 1 -AR) signaling in the VTA affects conditioned fear. The role of α 1 -AR was assessed using the micro-infusions into the VTA of the selective antagonists (0.1-1µg/0.5µl prazosin and 1µg/0.5µl terazosin) in acquisition and expression of fear memory. In addition, we performed control experiments with α 1 -AR blockade in the mammillary bodies (MB) - a brain region with α 1 -AR expression adjacent to the VTA. Intra-VTA but not intra-MB α 1 -AR blockade prevented formation and retrieval of fear memories. Importantly, local administration of α 1 -AR antagonists did not influence footshock sensitivity, locomotion or anxiety-like behaviors. Similarly, α 1 -AR blockade in the VTA had no effects on negative affect measured as number of 22kHz ultrasonic vocalizations during fear conditioning training. We propose that noradrenergic signaling in the VTA via α 1 -AR regulates formation and retrieval of fear memories but not other behavioral responses to stressful environmental stimuli. It enhances the encoding of environmental stimuli by the VTA to form and retrieve conditioned fear memories and to predict future behavioral outcomes. Our results provide novel insight into the role of the VTA α 1 -AR signaling in the regulation of stress responsiveness and fear memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mousavi, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicate that major deficiency in the levels of monoaminergic transmitters is a reason for severe depression. On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect of CT extract in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally (IP) treated with CT extract (100-400 mg/kg) 1 hr before the TST. To investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect, the mice were treated with receptor antagonists 15 min before CT extract treatment (400 mg/kg, IP) and 1 hr before the TST. Findings showed that CT extract (100-400 mg/kg, IP), dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect ( P <0.001), but it was not accompanied by alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, cyproheptadine, ketanserin and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of CT extract (400 mg/kg, IP), but not with prazosin and yohimbine. Co-administration of CT extract (100 mg/kg, IP) with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, IP) increased their antidepressant-like response. Our findings firstly showed that components (especially N-Hexadecanoic acid) of CT extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) systems. These findings validate the folk use of CT extract for the management of depression.

  11. Effects of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2008-01-01

    Major depression is frequently associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test. Metyrapone alone (50 mg/kg, but not 25 mg/kg) reduced the immobility time of rats in the forced swim test; moreover, both doses tested (25 and 50 mg/kg), dose-dependently decreased the stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentration. Joint administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine (10 mg/kg) and metyrapone (25 mg/kg - a dose inactive per se) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test in rats. WAY 100636 (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist), but not prazosin (an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist), used in doses ineffective in the forced swim test, inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone (25 mg/kg). Combined treatment of fluoxetine or tianeptine and metyrapone inhibited stress-induced corticosterone secretion to a similar extent as metyrapone alone. The obtained results indicate that metyrapone potentiates the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine or tianeptine and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in this effect. Moreover, metyrapone exerts a beneficial effect on the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. These findings suggest that the co-administration of metyrapone and an antidepressant drug may be useful for the treatment of drug-resistant depression and/or depression associated with a high cortisol level.

  12. Anti-hypertensive treatment in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current management and therapeutic features.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Alberto; Armigliato, Michela; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Schiavon, Laura; Montemurro, Domenico; Vescovo, Giorgio; Zuin, Marco; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Ravenni, Roberta; Opocher, Giuseppe; Colletti, Patrick M; Rubello, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PH) and paraganglioma (PG) are neuroendocrine neoplasms arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia, respectively. Although are unusual cause of hypertension (HT) accounting for at most 0.1-0.2 % of cases, they may lead to severe and potentially lethal hypertensive crisis due to the effects of the released catecholamines. However, both PH and PG may be asymptomatic as ~30 % of subjects are normotensive or have orthostatic hypotension and in these cases the 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is an important toll to diagnose and treat HT. HT treatment may be difficult when PH or PG occurs in pregnancy or in the elderly subjects and in these cases a multidisciplinary team is required. When surgical excision is mandatory the perioperative management requires the administration of selective α1-adrenergic blocking agents (i.e., doxazosin, prazosin or terazosin) followed by a β-adrenergic blockade (i.e., propranolol, atenolol). This latter should never be started first because blockade of vasodilatory peripheral β-adrenergic receptors with unopposed α-adrenergic receptor stimulation can lead to a further elevation of BP. Although labetalol is traditionally considered the ideal agent due to its α- and β-adrenergic antagonism, experimental studies do not support its use in this clinical setting. As second regimen, the administration of vasodilators as calcium channel blockers (i.e., nicardipine, nifedipine) may be required to control BP. Oral and sublingual short-acting nifedipine are potentially dangerous in patients with hypertensive emergencies and are not recommend. The latest evidences into the diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive crisis due to PH and PG are reviewed here.

  13. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in anxiolytic and antidepressive activities of the standardized extract of Cocos nucifera L.

    PubMed

    Lima, Eliane Brito Cortez; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Meneses, Lucas Nascimento; E Silva Pereira, Yuri Freitas; Matos, Natália Castelo Branco; de Freitas, Rayanne Brito; Lima, Nycole Brito Cortez; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Extracts from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in folk medicine, but their actions on the central nervous system have not been studied. Here, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of C. nucifera husk fiber (HECN) were evaluated. Male Swiss mice were treated with HECN (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 60 min before experiments involving the plus maze test, hole-board test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test (FST). HECN was administered orally (p.o.) in acute and repeated-dose treatments. The forced swimming test was performed with dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists, as well as a serotonin release inhibitor. Administration of HECN in the FST after intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment of mice with sulpiride (50 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg), or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg) caused the actions of these three agents to be reversed. However, this effect was not observed after pretreating the animals with SCH23390 (15 µg/kg, i.p.) or yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) The dose chosen for HECN was 100 mg/kg, p.o., which increased the number of entries as well as the permanence in the open arms of the maze after acute and repeated doses. In both the forced swimming and the tail suspension tests, the same dose decreased the time spent immobile but did not disturb locomotor activity in an open-field test. The anxiolytic effect of HECN appears to be related to the GABAergic system, while its antidepressant effect depends upon its interaction with the serotoninergic, noradrenergic (α1 receptors), and dopaminergic (D2 dopamine receptors) systems.

  14. Norepinephrine is coreleased with serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-12-03

    ATP and serotonin (5-HT) are neurotransmitters secreted from taste bud receptor (type II) and presynaptic (type III) cells, respectively. Norepinephrine (NE) has also been proposed to be a neurotransmitter or paracrine hormone in taste buds. Yet, to date, the specific stimulus for NE release in taste buds is not well understood, and the identity of the taste cells that secrete NE is not known. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with alpha(1A) adrenoceptors and loaded with fura-2 ("biosensors") to detect NE secreted from isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells. Biosensors responded to low concentrations of NE (>or=10 nm) with a reliable fura-2 signal. NE biosensors did not respond to stimulation with KCl or taste compounds. However, we recorded robust responses from NE biosensors when they were positioned against mouse circumvallate taste buds and the taste buds were stimulated with KCl (50 mm) or a mixture of taste compounds (cycloheximide, 10 microm; saccharin, 2 mm; denatonium, 1 mm; SC45647, 100 microm). NE biosensor responses evoked by stimulating taste buds were reversibly blocked by prazosin, an alpha(1A) receptor antagonist. Together, these findings indicate that taste bud cells secrete NE when they are stimulated. We isolated individual taste bud cells to identify the origin of NE release. NE was secreted only from presynaptic (type III) taste cells and not receptor (type II) cells. Stimulus-evoked NE release depended on Ca(2+) in the bathing medium. Using dual biosensors (sensitive to 5-HT and NE), we found all presynaptic cells secrete 5-HT and 33% corelease NE with 5-HT.

  15. Bladder pain induced by prolonged peripheral alpha 1A adrenoceptor stimulation involves the enhancement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activity and an increase of urothelial adenosine triphosphate release.

    PubMed

    Matos, R; Cordeiro, J M; Coelho, A; Ferreira, S; Silva, C; Igawa, Y; Cruz, F; Charrua, A

    2016-12-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic visceral pain (CVP) are unknown. This study explores the association between the sympathetic system and bladder nociceptors activity by testing the effect of a prolonged adrenergic stimulation on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activity and on urothelial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release. Female Wistar rats received saline, phenylephrine (PHE), PHE + silodosin, PHE + naftopidil or PHE + prazosin. TRPV1 knockout and wild-type mice received saline or PHE. Visceral pain behaviour tests were performed before and after treatment. Cystometry was performed, during saline and capsaicin infusion. Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in L6 spinal cord segment. Human urothelial ATP release induced by mechanical and thermal stimulation was evaluated. Subcutaneous, but not intrathecal, PHE administration induced pain, which was reversed by silodosin, a selective alpha 1A adrenoceptor antagonist, but not by naftopidil, a relatively selective antagonist for alpha 1D adrenoceptor. Silodosin also reversed PHE-induced bladder hyperactivity and L6 spinal cord Fos expression. Thus, in subsequent experiments, only silodosin was used. Wild-type, but not TRPV1 knockout, mice exhibited phenylephrine-induced pain. Capsaicin induced a greater increase in voiding contractions in PHE-treated rats than in control animals, and silodosin reversed this effect. When treated with PHE, ATP release from human urothelial cells was enhanced either by mechanical stimulation or by lowering the thermal threshold of urothelial TRPV1, which becomes abnormally responsive at body temperature. This study suggests that the activation of peripheral alpha 1A adrenoceptors induces CVP, probably through its interaction with TRPV1 and ATP release. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Noradrenergic mechanisms in cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Platt, Donna M; Rowlett, James K; Spealman, Roger D

    2007-08-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) uptake and NE receptor mechanisms play important modulating roles in the discriminative stimulus and stimulant effects of cocaine. The present study investigated the role of NE mechanisms in cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were trained to stability under a second-order fixed interval, fixed ratio schedule of drug self-administration in which operant responding was maintained jointly by i.v. cocaine injections and presentations of a cocaine-paired stimulus. Drug seeking was then extinguished by replacing cocaine with vehicle and eliminating the cocaine-paired stimulus. In test sessions during which the cocaine-paired stimulus was reintroduced but only vehicle was available for self-administration, priming with cocaine, the dopamine transport inhibitor 1-[2-[bis-(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR 12909), and the NE transport inhibitors nisoxetine and talsupram induced dose-dependent reinstatement of drug seeking. The maximum effect of the NE transport inhibitors was less than half that of cocaine. Both nisoxetine and talsupram augmented the priming effects of a low but not a high dose of cocaine. The priming effects of nisoxetine were blocked by the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine, and the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, but not by the dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol. The priming effects of cocaine were antagonized by clonidine and flupenthixol. Neither nisoxetine nor cocaine increased physiological (salivary cortisol) or behavioral (self-directed behaviors) markers of stress. These findings suggest that NE transporter inhibition and alpha2-adrenoceptor mechanisms play a significant role in cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking that is not secondary to activation of brain stress pathways.

  17. Microphysiometric analysis of human α1a-adrenoceptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Takanobu; Inagaki, Rika; Murata, Satoshi; Akiba, Isamu; Muramatsu, Ikunobu

    1999-01-01

    The human recombinant α1a-adrenoceptor (AR) has been stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Four stable clones, aH4, aH5, aH6 and aH7, expressing 30, 370, 940 and 2900 fmol AR mg−1 protein, respectively, have been employed to characterize this AR subtype using radioligand binding and microphysiometry to measure extracellular acidification rates.Noradrenaline (NA) gave concentration-dependent responses in microphysiometry with increasing extracellular acidification rates. The potency of NA increased as the receptor density increased; pEC50 values of NA for the clones aH4, aH5, aH6 and aH7 were 6.9, 7.5, 7.8 and 8.1, respectively. This increase of potency according to receptor density indicates the presence of spare receptor for NA. Methoxamine, phenylephrine, oxymetazoline and clonidine also gave concentration-dependent responses with various intrinsic activities.Antagonists shifted concentration-response curves for NA rightward in a concentration-dependent manner. Schild analysis revealed that the affinity profile of this AR subtype to antagonists in the clone aH7 had a typical pattern for the α1a-AR; high affinity for prazosin and WB 4101, and low affinity for BMY7378 (pA2=9.5, 9.8 and 7.3, respectively). This profile is similar in the case of the clone aH4. These affinities were in good agreement with those obtained in binding experiments.These results have demonstrated that (1) classical receptor theory can be applied in microphysiometry, and (2) microphysiometry is a useful tool to investigate the pharmacological characterization of α1a-AR. PMID:10433504

  18. Characterizations of the α1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contractions of the human internal anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Owaki, Hiroyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Takaki, Miyako

    2015-04-01

    Human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is contracted by α1-adrenoceptor stimulation and thus α1-adrenoceptor agonists may be useful in treating fecal incontinence. This study characterizes the contribution of α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in contraction of human IAS and to investigate the age-related risk of patients with fecal incontinence. IAS and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), as a predictor of systemic arterial pressure, were obtained from 11 patients. Both muscle strips were assessed by isometric-contraction experiments using phenylephrine, further in IAS, in the presence of various subtype selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Immunohistochemistry and gene expression studies were performed in the same samples. The mean pEC50 values with SEM of phenylephrine in IAS (6.30 ± 0.13) were higher than those of IMA (5.60 ± 0.10). Furthermore, the age-related pEC50 change of IAS was observed between age <70 and ≥70 (6.58 ± 0.13 and 6.07 ± 0.16, respectively (P < 0.05)). In IAS, rightward shift of the concentration-response curves of phenylephrine was observed with three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Each pKB value of silodosin, BMY-7378 and prazosin was 9.36 ± 0.53, 7.28 ± 0.20 and 8.89 ± 0.12, respectively. These pKB values and gene expression studies indicated that α1A-adrenoceptor subtypes predominantly contributed to human IAS contraction. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of uterotonic properties of Ananas comosus extracts.

    PubMed

    Monji, Faezeh; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Lau, Lang Chu; Bin Said, Baharudin; Gong, Yinhan; Tan, Huey Min; Choolani, Mahesh

    2016-12-04

    In folklore medicine Ananas comosus (pineapple) is reputed to act as an abortifacient and in expectant women as a means of inducing labor. Several reports have claimed abortifacient property of A. comosus fruit (ripe or unripe). Ripe fruit has been used orally as traditional medicine in inducing abortion in Kerala state of India while the juice of unripe fruit was used for abortion in Bangladesh. However, scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of pineapple extracts in inducing uterine contractions is clearly lacking. This study investigated the pharmacological effects of different fractions of pineapple extract with a range of maturities to identify the most potent uterotonic fraction. The ethanolic crude extracts of pineapple (edible part) were prepared and fractionated through a series of liquid-liquid partitions. Fractions were separately tested on isolated uterine muscle from pregnant SD rats and human pregnant myometrium, which were cut into strips along the longitudinal axis of uterus. The strips were mounted vertically in organ baths (37°C) and exposed to cumulative addition of fractions (0.1-10mgml -1 ), serotonin (0.05-5µM) and different inhibitors to delineate the mechanism of action of the active ingredients of the extract. Aqueous fraction (F4) possesses uterine stimulant property which was blocked by verapamil but unaffected by indomethacin, prazosin and atosiban. Notably, ketanserin (10µM) diminished the maximal contractile response induced by both F4 and 5HT by 74.3% and 92.1% respectively. These results may indicate the presence of 5HT or 5HT-like compound(s) and serotonergic pathways may contribute to the uterotonic activity of pineapple extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and MK 801 on the EEGq in the prefrontal cortex of conscious rats; antagonism by clozapine, and antagonists of AMPA-, alpha(1)- and 5-HT(2A)-receptors.

    PubMed

    Sebban, Claude; Tesolin-Decros, Brigitte; Ciprian-Ollivier, Jorge; Perret, Laurent; Spedding, Michael

    2002-01-01

    1. The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of the propsychotic agent phencyclidine (PCP), were studied in conscious rats using power spectra (0 - 30 Hz), from the prefrontal cortex or sensorimotor cortex. PCP (0.1 - 3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) caused a marked dose-dependent increase in EEG power in the frontal cortex at 1 - 3 Hz with decreases in power at higher frequencies (9 - 30 Hz). At high doses (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) the entire spectrum shifted to more positive values, indicating an increase in cortical synchronization. MK 801 (0.05 - 0.1 mg kg(-1) i.p.) caused similar effects but with lesser changes in power. 2. In contrast, the non-competitive AMPA antagonists GYKI 52466 and GYKI 53655 increased EEG power over the whole power spectrum (1 - 10 mg kg(-1) i.p.). The atypical antipsychotic clozapine (0.2 mg kg(-1) s.c.) synchronized the EEG (peak 8 Hz). The 5-HT(2A)-antagonist, M100907, specifically increased EEG power at 2 - 3 Hz at low doses (10 and 50 microg kg(-1) s.c.), whereas at higher doses (0.1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) the profile resembled that of clozapine. 3. Clozapine (0.2 mg kg(-1) s.c. ), GYKI 53655 (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), prazosin (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg(-1) i.p.), and M100907 (0.01 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) s.c.) antagonized the decrease in power between 5 and 30 Hz caused by PCP (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.), but not the increase in power at 1 - 3 Hz in prefrontal cortex.

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension at primary healthcare level in Malaysia: are they managed according to guidelines?

    PubMed

    Chan, G C

    2005-03-01

    A study was conducted at primary healthcare level in the Melaka Tengah district of Malaysia to determine whether hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were managed according to guidelines. A cross-sectional study involving 517 patients with diabetes mellitus from August to October 2003 was performed. All the subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus. 350 (67.7 percent) patients had hypertension and about 25.7 percent of them were associated with microalbuminuria. The Malay ethnic group form the majority (54.6 percent), followed by Chinese (37.7 percent) and Indian (7.4 percent). Only 11 (3.1 percent) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension achieved the target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mmHg. For those who had not achieved the target goal, 39.5 percent of them were not on any antihypertensive drugs. 38.6 percent were on monotherapy and only 21.8 percent were on two or more antihypertensive drugs. Metoprolol was the most commonly used antihypertensive drug (22.4 percent), followed by Nifedipine (16.2 percent) and Prazosin (13.5 percent). Only 18.3 percent of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension were prescribed with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and 0.3 percent with angiotensin receptor blockers. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and microalbuminuria, only 14.1 percent of them were prescribed with ACE inhibitors. A significant proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had associated hypertension but they were not managed optimally according to guidelines. More intensive management of hypertension among patients with diabetes is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality at primary healthcare level.

  2. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors potentiate the bronchoconstriction induced by substance P in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Subissi, A.; Guelfi, M.; Criscuoli, M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of intravenous captopril and enalaprilic acid on the increase in pulmonary inflation pressure induced by different bronchoconstrictor agents were evaluated in the anaesthetized guinea-pig. 2. Captopril and enalaprilic acid (1.6-200 micrograms kg-1) enhanced dose-dependently the bronchoconstriction (BC) induced by substance P. The threshold effective dose was 1.6 micrograms kg-1 and maximal potentiation over the control response was more than 400% for both agents. Enalaprilic acid was also assayed for serum and lung angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. This drug produced a dose-dependent inhibition of ACE in both tissues, with ED50 s of 7.6 and 9.4 micrograms kg-1, respectively: this inhibitory activity was positively correlated to substance P potentiation. 3. Captopril (8-1000 micrograms kg-1) enhanced dose-dependently the BC induced by capsaicin. The threshold effective dose was 40 micrograms kg-1 and maximal potentiation about 90%. 4. Captopril (200-1000 micrograms kg-1) did not affect BC induced by bradykinin. However, this response was markedly enhanced (about 200%) by captopril 200 micrograms kg-1 in propranolol-pretreated animals. 5. Captopril and enalaprilic acid (200-1000 micrograms kg-1) slightly (20-40%) but significantly enhanced the BC induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. However, this response was potentiated to the same extent by a dose of prazosin, which produced a degree of hypotension similar to that observed after administration of the ACE inhibitors. 6. In conclusion, ACE inhibitors potentiate the BC induced by substance P and, to a minor extent, that induced by capsaicin in the anaesthetized guinea-pig.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1697196

  3. Identification of Inhibitors of ABCG2 by a Bioluminescence Imaging-based High-throughput Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yimao; Byun, Youngjoo; Ren, Yunzhao R.; Liu, Jun O.; Laterra, John; Pomper, Martin G.

    2009-01-01

    ABCG2 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters, the overexpression of which is associated with tumor resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. Accordingly, combining ABCG2 inhibitor(s) with chemotherapy has the potential to improve treatment outcome. To search for clinically useful ABCG2 inhibitors, a bioluminescence imaging (BLI)-based assay was developed to allow high-throughput compound screening. This assay exploits our finding that D-luciferin, the substrate of firefly luciferase (fLuc), is a specific substrate of ABCG2, and ABCG2 inhibitors block the export of D-luciferin and enhance bioluminescence signal by increasing intracellular D-luciferin concentrations. HEK293 cells, engineered to express ABCG2 and fLuc, were used to screen the Hopkins Drug Library that includes drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as drug candidates that have entered phase II clinical trials. Forty seven compounds demonstrated BLI enhancement, a measure of anti-ABCG2 activity, of five-fold or greater, the majority of which were not previously known as ABCG2 inhibitors. The assay was validated by its identification of known ABCG2 inhibitors and by confirming previously unknown ABCG2 inhibitors using established in vitro assays (e.g. mitoxantrone resensitization and BODIPY-prazosin assays). Glafenine, a potent new inhibitor, also inhibited ABCG2 activity in vivo. The BLI-based assay is an efficient method to identify new inhibitors of ABCG2. As they were derived from an FDA-approved compound library, many of the inhibitors uncovered in this study are ready for clinical testing. PMID:19567678

  4. A central site of action for benzamide facilitation of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Costall, B; Gunning, S J; Naylor, R J; Simpson, K H

    1983-07-22

    Gastric emptying of the fed guinea-pig was measured using a non-invasive X-ray fluoroscopic technique to determine passage from the stomach of polystyrene-coated barium sulphate spheroids. Peripherally administered metoclopramide (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p.), clebopride (1-10 mg/kg i.p.), (-)-sulpiride (40 mg/kg i.p.), haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) and domperidone (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) failed to modify gastric emptying. Stress inhibited emptying, and this was considered to explain the effects of eserine and high dose metoclopramide. Gastric emptying was decreased by peripherally administered atropine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) and apomorphine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg s.c.); the apomorphine response was antagonised by pretreatment with haloperidol, domperidone, (-)-sulpiride, metoclopramide and clebopride but not by prazosin + propranolol. Gastric emptying was facilitated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administrations of metoclopramide and clebopride (40, 100 and 200 micrograms) but not by i.c.v. domperidone, haloperidol, fluphenazine or (-)-sulpiride (100, 200 micrograms) and was inhibited by i.c.v. apomorphine (100, 200 micrograms); the response to i.c.v. apomorphine was antagonised by i.c.v. pretreatments with haloperidol, domperidone, (-)-sulpiride, metoclopramide and clebopride (40-50 micrograms). Facilitation of emptying by i.c.v. metoclopramide was prevented by peripheral pretreatment with atropine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.). It is concluded that the actions of apomorphine and metoclopramide/clebopride to respectively inhibit and facilitate gastric emptying may be mediated, at least in part, via central mechanisms. Whilst apomorphine's action may be mediated via dopamine receptor mechanisms, metoclopramide and clebopride act at additional unspecified sites, metoclopramide's action being expressed via cholinergic mechanisms.

  5. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine modulates vascular adrenergic responses by inhibition of pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camila A; Rodrigues, Fernanda L; Ruginsk, Silvia G; Zanotto, Camila Z; Rodrigues, José A; Duarte, Diego A; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Resstel, Leonardo B; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tostes, Rita C

    2017-04-05

    Fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has other effects in addition to blocking serotonin reuptake, including changes in the vasomotor tone. Whereas many studies focused on the acute effects of fluoxetine in the vasculature, its chronic effects are still limited. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment modulates adrenergic vascular responses by interfering with post- and pre-synaptic mechanisms. Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (water) or chronic fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured. Vascular reactivity was evaluated in perfused mesenteric arterial beds (MAB) and in mesenteric resistance arteries. Protein expression by western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry, β-arrestin recruitment by BRET and calcium influx by FLIPR assay. Fluoxetine treatment decreased phenylephrine (PE)-induced, but not electrical-field stimulation (EFS)-induced vasoconstriction. Fluoxetine-treated rats exhibited increased KCl-induced vasoconstriction, which was abolished by prazosin. Desipramine, an inhibitor of norepinephrine (NA) reuptake, increased EFS-induced vasoconstrictor response in vehicle-treated, but not in fluoxetine-treated rats. Chronic treatment did not alter vascular expression of α 1 adrenoceptor, phosphorylation of PKCα or ERK 1/2 and RhoA. On the other hand, vascular contractions to calcium (Ca 2+ ) as well as Ca 2+ influx in mesenteric arteries were increased, while intracellular Ca 2+ storage was decreased by the chronic treatment with fluoxetine. In vitro, fluoxetine decreased vascular contractions to PE, EFS and Ca 2+ , but did not change β-arrestin activity. In conclusion, chronic treatment with fluoxetine decreases sympathetic-mediated vascular responses by mechanisms that involve inhibition of NA release/reuptake and decreased Ca 2+ stores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The sigma-1 antagonist BMY-14802 inhibits L-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements by a WAY-100635-sensitive mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Melanie A.; Foley, Katherine; Brudney, Elizabeth G.; Meshul, Charles K.; Johnson, Steven W.; Berger, S. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Levodopa (L-DOPA), the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), eventually causes L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in up to 80% of patients. In the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD, L-DOPA induces a similar phenomenon, which has been termed abnormal involuntary movement (AIM). We previously demonstrated that BMY-14802 suppresses AIM expression in this model. Objectives Although BMY-14802 is widely used as a sigma-1 antagonist, it is also an agonist at serotonin (5-HT) 1A and adrenergic α-1 receptors. The current study was conducted to determine which of these mechanisms underlies BMY-14802's AIM-suppressing effect. This characterization included testing the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and multiple sigma agents. When these studies implicated a 5-HT1A mechanism, we subsequently undertook a pharmacological reversal study, evaluating whether the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 counteracted BMY-14802's AIM-suppressing effects. Results Buspirone dose-dependently suppressed AIM, supporting past findings. However, no AIM-suppressing effects were produced by drugs with effects at sigma receptors, including BD-1047, finasteride, SM-21, DTG, trans-dehydroandrosterone (DHEA), carbetapentane, and opipramol. Finally, we show for the first time that the AIM-suppressing effect of BMY-14802 was dose-dependently prevented by WAY-100635 but not by the α-1 antagonist prazosin. Conclusions BMY-14802 exerts its AIM-suppressing effects via a 5-HT1A agonist mechanism, similar to buspirone. Other 5-HT1A agonists have failed clinical trials, possibly due to submicromolar affinity at other receptors, including D2, which may exacerbate PD symptoms. BMY-14802 is a promising candidate for clinical trials due to its extremely low affinity for the D2 receptor and lack of extrapyramidal effects during prior clinical trials for schizophrenia. PMID:19283364

  7. Pharmacological mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of the "bath salt" constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C; Baumann, Michael H

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone with stimulatory cardiovascular effects that can lead to serious medical complications. Here, we examined the pharmacological mechanisms underlying these cardiovascular actions of MDPV in conscious rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had telemetry transmitters surgically implanted for the measurement of BP and heart rate (HR). On test days, rats were placed individually in standard isolation cubicles. Following drug treatment, cardiovascular parameters were monitored for 3 h sessions. Racemic MDPV (0.3-3.0 mg·kg -1 ) increased BP and HR in a dose-dependent manner. The S(+) enantiomer (0.3-3.0 mg·kg -1 ) of MDPV produced similar effects, while the R(-) enantiomer (0.3-3.0 mg·kg -1 ) had no effects. Neither of the hydroxylated phase I metabolites of MDPV altered cardiovascular parameters significantly from baseline. Pretreatment with the ganglionic blocker chlorisondamine (1 and 3 mg·kg -1 ) antagonized the increases in BP and HR produced by 1 mg·kg -1 MDPV. The α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.3 mg·kg -1 ) attenuated the increase in BP following MDPV, while the β-adrenoceptor antagonists propranolol (1 mg·kg -1 ) and atenolol (1 and 3 mg·kg -1 ) attenuated the HR increases. The S(+) enantiomer appeared to mediate the cardiovascular effects of MDPV, while the metabolites of MDPV did not alter BP or HR significantly; MDPV increased BP and HR through activation of central sympathetic outflow. Mixed-action α/β-adrenoceptor antagonists may be useful as treatments in counteracting the adverse cardiovascular effects of MDPV. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Estrogen alters the diurnal rhythm of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities in selected brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.

    Norepinephrine regulates the proestrous and estradiol-induced LH surge by binding to alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The density of alpha 1-receptors may be regulated by estradiol, photoperiod, and noradrenergic neuronal activity. We wished to determine whether alpha 1-receptors exhibit a diurnal rhythm in ovariectomized and/or estradiol-treated female rats, whether estradiol regulates alpha 1-receptors in those areas of brain involved with LH secretion and/or sexual behavior, and whether the concentrations of alpha-receptors vary inversely relative to previously reported norepinephrine turnover patterns. Young female rats, maintained on a 14:10 light-dark cycle were ovariectomized. One week later, half of them were outfitted sc with Silasticmore » capsules containing estradiol. Groups of animals were decapitated 2 days later at 0300, 1000, 1300, 1500, 1800, and 2300 h. Brains were removed, frozen, and sectioned at 20 micron. Sections were incubated with (/sup 3/H)prazosin in Tris-HCl buffer, washed, dried, and exposed to LKB Ultrofilm. The densities of alpha 1-receptors were quantitated using a computerized image analysis system. In ovariectomized rats, the density of alpha 1-receptors exhibited a diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and pineal gland. In SCN and MPN, receptor concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day and rose to peak levels at 1800 h. In the pineal gland, the density of alpha 1-receptors was lowest at middark phase, rose to peak levels before lights on, and remained elevated during the day. Estradiol suppressed the density of alpha 1 binding sites in the SCN, MPN, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus, and the pineal gland but had no effect on the lateral septum. Estrogen treatment altered the rhythm of receptor densities in MPN, median eminence, and the pineal gland.« less

  9. The three α1-adrenoceptor subtypes show different spatio-temporal mechanisms of internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Aso, M; Segura, V; Montó, F; Barettino, D; Noguera, M A; Milligan, G; D'Ocon, P

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the kinetic and spatial patterns characterizing activation of the MAP kinases ERK 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by the three α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) subtypes in HEK293 cells and the contribution of two different pathways to ERK1/2 phosphorylation: protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ERK1/2 activation and internalization-dependent ERK1/2 activation. The different pathways of phenylephrine induced ERK phosphorylation were determined by western blot, using the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8425, the receptor internalization inhibitor concanavalin A and the siRNA targeting β-arrestin 2. Receptor internalization properties were studied using CypHer5 technology and VSV-G epitope-tagged receptors. Activation of α1A- and α1B-ARs by phenylephrine elicited rapid ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was directed to the nucleus and inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Concomitant with phenylephrine induced receptor internalization α1A-AR, but not α1B-AR, produced a maintained and PKC-independent ERK phosphorylation, which was restricted to the cytosol and inhibited by β-arrestin 2 knockdown or concanavalin A treatment. α1D-AR displayed constitutive ERK phosphorylation, which was reduced by incubation with prazosin or the selective α1D antagonist BMY7378. Following activation by phenylephrine, α1D-AR elicited rapid, transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was restricted to the cytosol and not inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Internalization of the α1D-AR subtype was not observed via CypHer5 technology. The three α1-AR subtypes present different spatio-temporal patterns of receptor internalization, and only α1A-AR stimulation translates to a late, sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation that is restricted to the cytosol and dependent on β-arrestin 2 mediated internalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responses to tryptamine of rat-isolated perfused mesentery: comparison with tyramine and β-phenylethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, MA; Ford, WR; Broadley, KJ; Herbert, AA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tryptamine increases blood pressure by vasoconstriction, but little is known about its actions on the mesentery, in particular the resistance arteries. Tryptamine interacts with trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) and because of its structural similarity to 5-HT, it may also interact with 5-HT receptors. Our hypothesis is therefore that the rat mesenteric arterial bed will exhibit vasopressor and vasodepressor responses to tryptamine via both 5-HT and TAARs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Tryptamine-evoked responses were assayed from pressure changes of the rat-isolated mesenteric vasculature perfused at constant flow rate in the absence and presence of adrenoceptor and 5-HT receptor antagonists. KEY RESULTS Tryptamine caused dose-dependent vasoconstriction of the mesenteric arterial bed as increases in perfusion pressure. These were unaffected by the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, but were attenuated by the non-selective α-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine. The 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, ketanserin and ritanserin, abolished the tryptamine-induced pressure increases to reveal vasodilator responses in mesenteric beds preconstricted with phenylephrine. These tryptamine-induced vasodilator responses were unaffected by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB269970, but were eliminated by the NOS inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Tyramine and β-phenylethylamine also caused vasodilatation in pre-constricted vasculature, which was also abolished by L-NAME. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Tryptamine causes vasoconstriction of the mesenteric vasculature via 5-HT2A receptors, which when inhibited exposed vasorelaxant effects in pre-constricted tissues. The vasodilatation was independent of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors but like that for tyramine and β-phenylethylamine was due to NO release. Potency orders suggest TAAR involvement in the vasodilatation by these trace amines. PMID:21958009

  11. Dietary trace amine-dependent vasoconstriction in porcine coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, A A; Kidd, E J; Broadley, K J

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The dietary trace amines tyramine and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) can increase blood pressure. However, the mechanisms involved in the vascular effect of trace amines have not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether trace amine-dependent vasoconstriction was brought about by tyramine and β-PEA acting as indirect sympathomimetic agents, as previously assumed, or whether trace amine-dependent vasoconstriction could be mediated by recently discovered trace amine-associated (TAA) receptors. Experimental approach: The responses to p-tyramine and β-PEA were investigated in vitro in rings of the left anterior descending coronary arteries of pigs. Key results: p-Tyramine induced a concentration-dependent (0.1–3 mM) vasoconstriction. The maximum response and pD2 value for p-tyramine was unaffected by endothelium removal or pre-treatment with antagonists for adrenoceptors, histamine, dopamine or 5-HT receptors. β-PEA also produced a concentration-dependent (0.3–10 mM) vasoconstriction which was unaffected by endothelium removal, β-adrenoceptor or 5-HT receptor antagonists. A substantial, but reduced, response to β-PEA was obtained in the presence of prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), haloperidol (D2/D3 dopamine receptor antagonist) or mepyramine (H1 histamine receptor antagonist). The pD2 value for β-PEA was unaffected by any of the antagonists tested. Conclusions and implications: Vasoconstriction induced by p-tyramine does not involve an indirect sympathomimetic effect, although vasoconstriction caused by β-PEA may occur, in part, by this mechanism. We therefore propose that trace amine-dependent vasoconstriction is mediated by phenylethylamine-specific receptors, which are closely related to or identical to TAA receptors. These receptors could provide a target for new antihypertensive therapies. PMID:18604230

  12. Vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responses to tryptamine of rat-isolated perfused mesentery: comparison with tyramine and β-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M A; Ford, W R; Broadley, K J; Herbert, A A

    2012-04-01

    Tryptamine increases blood pressure by vasoconstriction, but little is known about its actions on the mesentery, in particular the resistance arteries. Tryptamine interacts with trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) and because of its structural similarity to 5-HT, it may also interact with 5-HT receptors. Our hypothesis is therefore that the rat mesenteric arterial bed will exhibit vasopressor and vasodepressor responses to tryptamine via both 5-HT and TAARs. Tryptamine-evoked responses were assayed from pressure changes of the rat-isolated mesenteric vasculature perfused at constant flow rate in the absence and presence of adrenoceptor and 5-HT receptor antagonists. Tryptamine caused dose-dependent vasoconstriction of the mesenteric arterial bed as increases in perfusion pressure. These were unaffected by the α(1) -adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, but were attenuated by the non-selective α-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine. The 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists, ketanserin and ritanserin, abolished the tryptamine-induced pressure increases to reveal vasodilator responses in mesenteric beds preconstricted with phenylephrine. These tryptamine-induced vasodilator responses were unaffected by the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, SB269970, but were eliminated by the NOS inhibitor, N(ω) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Tyramine and β-phenylethylamine also caused vasodilatation in pre-constricted vasculature, which was also abolished by L-NAME. Tryptamine causes vasoconstriction of the mesenteric vasculature via 5-HT(2A) receptors, which when inhibited exposed vasorelaxant effects in pre-constricted tissues. The vasodilatation was independent of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(7) receptors but like that for tyramine and β-phenylethylamine was due to NO release. Potency orders suggest TAAR involvement in the vasodilatation by these trace amines. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors in the retrotrapezoid nucleus differentially regulate breathing in anesthetized adult rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz M; Moreira, Thiago S; Kuo, Fu-Shan; Mulkey, Daniel K; Takakura, Ana C

    2016-09-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is a potent modulator of breathing that can increase/decrease respiratory activity by α1-/α2-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation, respectively. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is known to contribute to central chemoreception, inspiration, and active expiration. Here we investigate the sources of catecholaminergic inputs to the RTN and identify respiratory effects produced by activation of ARs in this region. By injecting the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the RTN, we identified back-labeled catecholaminergic neurons in the A7 region. In urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized, and artificially ventilated male Wistar rats unilateral injection of NE or moxonidine (α2-AR agonist) blunted diaphragm muscle activity (DiaEMG) frequency and amplitude, without changing abdominal muscle activity. Those inhibitory effects were reduced by preapplication of yohimbine (α2-AR antagonist) into the RTN. Conversely, unilateral RTN injection of phenylephrine (α1-AR agonist) increased DiaEMG amplitude and frequency and facilitated active expiration. This response was blocked by prior RTN injection of prazosin (α1-AR antagonist). Interestingly, RTN injection of propranolol (β-AR antagonist) had no effect on respiratory inhibition elicited by applications of NE into the RTN; however, the combined blockade of α2- and β-ARs (coapplication of propranolol and yohimbine) revealed an α1-AR-dependent excitatory response to NE that resulted in increase in DiaEMG frequency and facilitation of active expiration. However, blockade of α1-, α2-, or β-ARs in the RTN had minimal effect on baseline respiratory activity, on central or peripheral chemoreflexes. These results suggest that NE signaling can modulate RTN chemoreceptor function; however, endogenous NE signaling does not contribute to baseline breathing or the ventilatory response to central or peripheral chemoreceptor activity in urethane-anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Effects of lisdexamfetamine in a rat model of binge-eating.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Steven P; Hackett, David; Murray, Fraser; Hutson, Peter H; Heal, David J

    2015-12-01

    Binge-eating disorder is a common psychiatric disorder affecting ~2% of adults. Binge-eating was initiated in freely-fed, lean, adult, female rats by giving unpredictable, intermittent access to ground, milk chocolate over four weeks. The rats avidly consumed chocolate during 2 hr binge sessions, with compensatory reductions of normal chow intake in these sessions and the days thereafter. Bodyweights of binge-eating rats were normal. The model's predictive validity was explored using nalmefene (0.1-1.0mg/kg), R-baclofen (1.0-10mg/kg) and SB-334867 (3.0-30 mg/kg) (orexin-1 antagonist), which all selectively decreased chocolate bingeing without reducing chow intake. Sibutramine (0.3-5.0mg/kg) non-selectively reduced chocolate and chow consumption. Olanzapine (0.3-3.0mg/kg) was without effect and rolipram (1.0-10mg/kg) abolished all ingestive behaviour. The pro-drug, lisdexamfetamine (LDX; 0.1-1.5mg/kg), dose-dependently reduced chocolate bingeing by ⩽ 71% without significantly decreasing normal chow intake. Its metabolite, D-amphetamine (0.1-1.0mg/kg), dose-dependently and preferentially decreased chocolate bingeing ⩽ 56%. Using selective antagonists to characterize LDX's actions revealed the reduction of chocolate bingeing was partially blocked by prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor; 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg) and possibly by SCH-23390 (D1; 0.1mg/kg). RX821002 (α2-adrenoceptor; 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg) and raclopride (D2; 0.3 and 0.5mg/kg) were without effect. The results indicate that LDX, via its metabolite, d-amphetamine, reduces chocolate bingeing, partly by indirect activation of α1-adrenoceptors and perhaps D1 receptors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of the methanolic extract of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Ishola, I O; Akinyede, A A; Sholarin, A M

    2014-07-01

    The whole plant of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the management of depressive illness. Momordica charantia (MC) (50-400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before behavioural studies using the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) to investigate antidepressant-like effect while the anxiolytic-like effect was evaluated with elevated plus maze test (EPM), hole-board test (HBT), and light-dark test (LDT). Acute treatment with MC (50-400 mg/kg) significantly increased swimming time (86.51%) and reduced the duration of immobility (52.35%) in FST and TST with peak effects observed at 200 mg/kg, respectively, in comparison to control. The pretreatment of mice with either sulpiride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist), or metergoline (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), or cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), or prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), or yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist) 15 min before oral administration of MC (200 mg/kg) significantly blocked its anti-immobility effect. Similarly, MC (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced anxiety by increasing the open arm exploration (64.27%) in EPM, number of head-dips in HBT (34.38%), and time spent in light compartment (29.38%) in the LDT. However, pretreatment with flumazenil (GABAA receptor antagonist) 15 min before MC (200 mg/kg) significantly blocked (54.76%) its anxiolytic effect. The findings in this study showed that MC possesses antidepressant-like effect that is dependent on the serotonergic (5-HT2 receptor), noradrenergic (α1- and α2-adrenoceptors), dopaminergic (D2 receptor), and muscarinic cholinergic systems and an anxiolytic-like effect that might involve an action on benzodiazepine-type receptor. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Methanol fractionations of Catha edulis Frosk (Celastraceae) contracted Lewis rat aorta in vitro: a comparison between crimson and green leaves.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Samira Abdulla; Pavlovic, Dragan; Hoffmann, Ulrich

    2009-05-07

    The study investigated the effect of methanol extract and its fractionations obtained from Yemeni khat on the smooth muscle isometric tension in Lewis rat aortal ring preparations and compared the effects of the crimson and green leaves. Khat leaves were sorted into green (khat Light; KL) and crimson (khat Dark; KD) leaves, extracted with methanol, followed with solvent-solvent extraction (benzene, chloroform and ethylacetate). The contractile activity of the fractions was tested using aortal ring preparations. The control (phenylepherine contraction) methanol extracts contracted aortas at concentrations 250, 125 and 67.5 microg/ml buffer by 80.2%, 57.3%, 26.4% and 81.5%, 65.6%, 24.6% for KL and KD, respectively. Fractions of benzene (BF) and ethylacetate (EaF) contracted the aorta with 2 microgm, whereas, chloroform (ChF) with 1 microgm/1 ml buffer was less potent. The shape of contraction curve produced by EaF differed from that of ChF and BF of both (KL and KD). The EaF induced-contraction peaked after 3.3 +/- 0.94 mins, whereas those of BF and CHF peaked after 18.0 +/- 2.2, 19.7 +/- 0.94 mins, respectively. Pre-incubation with nifedipine (10(-6) M) insignificantly reduced the contraction induced by all fractionations, but prazosin (10(-6) M) reduced the contraction by 81.9%, 63.1%, 71.8% with p = 0.23, 0.09, 0.15 for BF, ChF and EaF of KL, respectively. It significantly reduced contraction of ChF, 64.1%; p = 0.02, and of EaF, 73.5%; p = 0.04 of KD, while the reduction in contraction of BF was 63.1%; p = 0.06. In conclusion, fractions of green and crimson Yemeni khat leaves contracted aortas of Lewis rats. Both leaves behave almost similarly. Contraction induced by chloroform fraction produced alpha-sympathetic activity.

  17. "Hyperglutamatergic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit" breaker drugs alleviate tics in a transgenic circuit model of Tourette׳s syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, Eric J; Bittner, Katie C; McGrath, Michael J; Parks, Clinton R; Burton, Frank H

    2015-12-10

    The brain circuits underlying tics in Tourette׳s syndrome (TS) are unknown but thought to involve cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop hyperactivity. We previously engineered a transgenic mouse "circuit model" of TS by expressing an artificial neuropotentiating transgene (encoding the cAMP-elevating, intracellular A1 subunit of cholera toxin) within a small population of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing somatosensory cortical and limbic neurons that hyperactivate cortico/amygdalostriatal glutamatergic output circuits thought to be hyperactive in TS and comorbid obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorders. As in TS, these D1CT-7 ("Ticcy") transgenic mice׳s tics were alleviated by the TS drugs clonidine and dopamine D2 receptor antagonists; and their chronic glutamate-excited striatal motor output was unbalanced toward hyperactivity of the motoric direct pathway and inactivity of the cataleptic indirect pathway. Here we have examined whether these mice׳s tics are countered by drugs that "break" sequential elements of their hyperactive cortical/amygdalar glutamatergic and efferent striatal circuit: anti-serotonoceptive and anti-noradrenoceptive corticostriatal glutamate output blockers (the serotonin 5-HT2a,c receptor antagonist ritanserin and the NE alpha-1 receptor antagonist prazosin); agmatinergic striatothalamic GABA output blockers (the presynaptic agmatine/imidazoline I1 receptor agonist moxonidine); and nigrostriatal dopamine output blockers (the presynaptic D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine). Each drug class alleviates tics in the Ticcy mice, suggesting a hyperglutamatergic CSTC "tic circuit" could exist in TS wherein cortical/amygdalar pyramidal projection neurons׳ glutamatergic overexcitation of both striatal output neurons and nigrostriatal dopaminergic modulatory neurons unbalances their circuit integration to excite striatothalamic output and create tics, and illuminating new TS drug strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  18. Putative Dopamine Agonist (KB220Z) Attenuates Lucid Nightmares in PTSD Patients: Role of Enhanced Brain Reward Functional Connectivity and Homeostasis Redeeming Joy

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Febo, Marcelo; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L.; Simpatico, Thomas; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lucid dreams are frequently pleasant and training techniques have been developed to teach dreamers to induce them. In addition, the induction of lucid dreams has also been used as a way to ameliorate nightmares. On the other hand, lucid dreams may be associated with psychiatric conditions, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Reward Deficiency Syndrome-associated diagnoses. In the latter conditions, lucid dreams can assume an unpleasant and frequently terrifying character. Case Presentations We present two cases of dramatic alleviation of terrifying lucid dreams in patients with PTSD. In the first case study, a 51-year-old, obese woman, diagnosed with PTSD and depression, had attempted suicide and experienced terrifying lucid nightmares linked to sexual/physical abuse from early childhood by family members including her alcoholic father. Her vivid “bad dreams” remained refractory in spite of 6 months of treatment with Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and standard pharmaceutical agents which included prazosin, clonidie and Adderall. The second 39-year-old PTSD woman patient had also suffered from lucid nightmares. Results The medication visit notes reveal changes in the frequency, intensity and nature of these dreams after the complex putative dopamine agonist KB220Z was added to the first patient’s regimen. The patient reported her first experience of an extended period of happy dreams. The second PTSD patient, who had suffered from lucid nightmares, was administered KB220Z to attenuate methadone withdrawal symptoms and incidentally reported dreams full of happiness and laughter. Conclusions These cases are discussed with reference to the known effects of KB220Z including enhanced dopamine homeostasis and functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in rodents and humans. Their understanding awaits intensive investigation involving large-population, double-blinded studies. PMID:26132915

  19. X-ray structural studies of quinone reductase 2 nanomolar range inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pegan, Scott D.; Sturdy, Megan; Ferry, Gilles

    Quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is one of two members comprising the mammalian quinone reductase family of enzymes responsible for performing FAD mediated reductions of quinone substrates. In contrast to quinone reductase 1 (QR1) which uses NAD(P)H as its co-substrate, QR2 utilizes a rare group of hydride donors, N-methyl or N-ribosyl nicotinamide. Several studies have linked QR2 to the generation of quinone free radicals, several neuronal degenerative diseases, and cancer. QR2 has been also identified as the third melatonin receptor (MT3) through in cellulo and in vitro inhibition of QR2 by traditional MT3 ligands, and through recent X-ray structures of humanmore » QR2 (hQR2) in complex with melatonin and 2-iodomelatonin. Several MT3 specific ligands have been developed that exhibit both potent in cellulo inhibition of hQR2 nanomolar, affinity for MT3. The potency of these ligands suggest their use as molecular probes for hQR2. However, no definitive correlation between traditionally obtained MT3 ligand affinity and hQR2 inhibition exists limiting our understanding of how these ligands are accommodated in the hQR2 active site. To obtain a clearer relationship between the structures of developed MT3 ligands and their inhibitory properties, in cellulo and in vitro IC{sub 50} values were determined for a representative set of MT3 ligands (MCA-NAT, 2-I-MCANAT, prazosin, S26695, S32797, and S29434). Furthermore, X-ray structures for each of these ligands in complex with hQR2 were determined allowing for a structural evaluation of the binding modes of these ligands in relation to the potency of MT3 ligands.« less

  20. Putative dopamine agonist (KB220Z) attenuates lucid nightmares in PTSD patients: role of enhanced brain reward functional connectivity and homeostasis redeeming joy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Febo, Marcelo; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L; Simpatico, Thomas; Gold, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Lucid dreams are frequently pleasant and training techniques have been developed to teach dreamers to induce them. In addition, the induction of lucid dreams has also been used as a way to ameliorate nightmares. On the other hand, lucid dreams may be associated with psychiatric conditions, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Reward Deficiency Syndrome-associated diagnoses. In the latter conditions, lucid dreams can assume an unpleasant and frequently terrifying character. We present two cases of dramatic alleviation of terrifying lucid dreams in patients with PTSD. In the first case study, a 51-year-old, obese woman, diagnosed with PTSD and depression, had attempted suicide and experienced terrifying lucid nightmares linked to sexual/physical abuse from early childhood by family members including her alcoholic father. Her vivid "bad dreams" remained refractory in spite of 6 months of treatment with Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and standard pharmaceutical agents which included prazosin, clonidie and Adderall. The second 39-year-old PTSD woman patient had also suffered from lucid nightmares. The medication visit notes reveal changes in the frequency, intensity and nature of these dreams after the complex putative dopamine agonist KB220Z was added to the first patient's regimen. The patient reported her first experience of an extended period of happy dreams. The second PTSD patient, who had suffered from lucid nightmares, was administered KB220Z to attenuate methadone withdrawal symptoms and incidentally reported dreams full of happiness and laughter. These cases are discussed with reference to the known effects of KB220Z including enhanced dopamine homeostasis and functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in rodents and humans. Their understanding awaits intensive investigation involving large-population, double-blinded studies.

  1. Adrenergic and cholinergic activity contributes to the cardiovascular effects of lionfish (Pterois volitans) venom.

    PubMed

    Church, Jarrod E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the cardiovascular activity of Pterois volitans crude venom. Venom (0.6-18 microg protein/ml) produced dose- and endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that was potentiated by atropine (10nM), but significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA; 0.1mM), by prior exposure of the tissue to stonefish antivenom (SFAV, 3 units/ml, 10 min), or by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In rat paced left atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced a decrease, followed by an increase, in contractile force. Atropine (0.5 microM) abolished the decrease in force and potentiated the increase. Propranolol (5 microM) did not affect the decrease in force but significantly attenuated the increase. In spontaneously beating right atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced an increase in rate that was significantly attenuated by propranolol (5 microM). Prior incubation with SFAV (0.3 units/microg protein, 10 min) abolished both the inotropic and chronotropic responses to venom. In the anaesthetised rat, venom (100 micro protein/kg, i.v.) produced a pressor response, followed by a sustained depressor response. Atropine (1mg/kg, i.v.) potentiated the pressor response. The further addition of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) restored the original response to venom. Prior administration of SFAV (100 units/kg, i.v., 10 min) significantly attenuated the in vivo response to venom. It is concluded that P. volitans venom produces its cardiovascular effects primarily by acting on muscarinic cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors. As SFAV neutralised many of the effects of P. volitans venom, we suggest that the two venoms share a similar component(s). Copright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Functional characterization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Abcg2a (Bcrp) transporter.

    PubMed

    Zaja, Roko; Popović, Marta; Lončar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko

    2016-12-01

    ABCG2 (BCRP - breast cancer resistance protein) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. It plays an important role in the disposition and elimination of xeno- and endobiotics and/or their metabolites in mammals. Likewise, the protective role of ABC transporters, including Abcg2, has been reported for aquatic organisms. In our previous study we have cloned the full gene sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Abcg2a and showed its high expression in liver and primary hepatocytes. Based on those insights, the main goal of this study was to perform a detailed functional characterization of trout Abcg2a using insect ovary cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) as a heterologous expression system. Membrane vesicles preparations from Sf9 cells were used for the ATPase assay determinations and basic biochemical properties of fish Abcg2a versus human ABCG2 have been compared. A series of 39 physiologically and/or environmentally relevant substances was then tested on interaction with trout Abcg2a and human ABCG2. Correlation analysis reveals highly similar pattern of activation and inhibition. Significant activation of trout Abcg2a ATPase was observed for prazosin, doxorubicine, sildenafil, furosemid, propranolol, fenofibrate and pheophorbide. Pesticides showed either a weak activation (malathione) or strong (endosulfan) to weak (chlorpyrifos, fenoxycarb, DDE) inhibition of trout Abcg2a ATPase while the highest activation was obtained for benzo(a)pyrene, curcumine and testosterone. In conclusion, data from this study offer the first characterization of fish Abcg2a, reveal potent interactors among physiologically or environmentally relevant substances and point to similarities regarding strengths and interactor preferences between human ABCG2 and fish Abcg2a. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adrenoceptor function and expression in bladder urothelium and lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Moro, Christian; Tajouri, Lotti; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the role of adrenoceptor subtypes in regulating the spontaneous contractile activity of the inner lining of the urinary bladder (urothelium/lamina propria). The responses of isolated strips of porcine urothelium/lamina propria to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, and isoprenaline were obtained in the absence and presence of receptor subtype-selective antagonists. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was undertaken to assess the expression of adrenoceptor genes. The tissues expressed all α1- and β-adrenoceptor subtypes, with the α1A-, α1B-, and β2-adrenoceptors the predominant receptors at the messenger RNA level. In the functional experiments, the rate of phasic contractions and the basal tension were increased by the α1-adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine (100 μM) and A61603 (10 μM). The rate and tension responses to phenylephrine were reduced by low concentrations of tamsulosin (3 nM) and RS100329 (10 nM) but were unaffected by BMY7378 (100 nM), prazosin (10 nM), and RS17053 (1 μM). In contrast, isoprenaline and salbutamol (both 1 μM) induced a relaxation of tissues and slowing of phasic contractions. The rate and tension responses to isoprenaline were inhibited by propranolol (100 nM) or a combination of CGP20712A (30 nM) and ICI118551 (70 nM). The rate responses were also significantly inhibited by ICI118551 alone (70 nM). Although all α1- and β-adrenoceptor subtypes were expressed in the pig urothelium/lamina propria, the α1A/L-adrenoceptor appeared to mediate increases in the contractile rate and tension. The β-adrenoceptor induced inhibition of spontaneous contractile activity appears to be predominately mediated by β2-adrenoceptors, with β1- and β2-adrenoceptors possibly involved in the tension responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intravital Förster resonance energy transfer imaging reveals elevated [Ca2+]i and enhanced sympathetic tone in femoral arteries of angiotensin II-infused hypertensive biosensor mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhua; Chen, Ling; Wier, W Gil; Zhang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Artery narrowing in hypertension can only result from structural remodelling of the artery, or increased smooth muscle contraction. The latter may occur with, or without, increases in [Ca2+]i. Here, we sought to measure, in living hypertensive mice, possible changes in artery dimensions and/or [Ca2+]i, and to determine some of the mechanisms involved. Ca2+/calmodulin biosensor (Förster resonance energy transfer-based) mice were made hypertensive by s.c. infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II, 400 ng kg−1 min−1, 2–3 weeks). Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to determine [Ca2+]i and outer diameter of surgically exposed, intact femoral artery (FA) of anaesthetized mice. Active contractile FA ‘tone’ was calculated from the basal-state diameter and the passive (i.e. Ca2+-free) diameter (PD). Compared to saline control, FAs of Ang II-infused mice had (1) ∼21% higher active tone and (2) ∼78 nm higher smooth muscle [Ca2+]i, but (3) the same PDs. The local Ang II receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan had negligible effect on tone or [Ca2+]i in control FAs, but reduced the basal tone by ∼9% in Ang II FAs. Both i.v. hexamethonium and locally applied prazosin abolished the difference in FA tone and [Ca2+]i, suggesting a dominant role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Changes in diameter and [Ca2+]i in response to locally applied phenylephrine, Ang II, arginine vasopressin, elevated [K+]o and acetylcholine were not altered. In summary, FAs of living Ang II hypertensive mice have higher [Ca2+]i, and are more constricted, due, primarily, to elevated SNA and some increased arterial AT1R activation. Evidence of altered artery reactivity or remodeling was not found. PMID:23981717

  5. Intravital Förster resonance energy transfer imaging reveals elevated [Ca2+]i and enhanced sympathetic tone in femoral arteries of angiotensin II-infused hypertensive biosensor mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhua; Chen, Ling; Wier, W Gil; Zhang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    Artery narrowing in hypertension can only result from structural remodelling of the artery, or increased smooth muscle contraction. The latter may occur with, or without, increases in [Ca(2+)]i. Here, we sought to measure, in living hypertensive mice, possible changes in artery dimensions and/or [Ca(2+)]i, and to determine some of the mechanisms involved. Ca(2+)/calmodulin biosensor (Förster resonance energy transfer-based) mice were made hypertensive by s.c. infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II, 400 ng kg(-1) min(-1), 2-3 weeks). Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to determine [Ca(2+)]i and outer diameter of surgically exposed, intact femoral artery (FA) of anaesthetized mice. Active contractile FA 'tone' was calculated from the basal-state diameter and the passive (i.e. Ca(2+)-free) diameter (PD). Compared to saline control, FAs of Ang II-infused mice had (1) ∼21% higher active tone and (2) ∼78 nm higher smooth muscle [Ca(2+)]i, but (3) the same PDs. The local Ang II receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan had negligible effect on tone or [Ca(2+)]i in control FAs, but reduced the basal tone by ∼9% in Ang II FAs. Both i.v. hexamethonium and locally applied prazosin abolished the difference in FA tone and [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting a dominant role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Changes in diameter and [Ca(2+)]i in response to locally applied phenylephrine, Ang II, arginine vasopressin, elevated [K(+)]o and acetylcholine were not altered. In summary, FAs of living Ang II hypertensive mice have higher [Ca(2+)]i, and are more constricted, due, primarily, to elevated SNA and some increased arterial AT1R activation. Evidence of altered artery reactivity or remodeling was not found.

  6. Antidepressant-like effect of the organoselenium compound ebselen in mice: evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Posser, Thaís; Kaster, Manuella P; Baraúna, Sara Cristiane; Rocha, João B T; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B

    2009-01-05

    Ebselen [2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one] is a seleno-organic compound which possesses a potent antioxidant activity and has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo in a variety of pro-oxidative insults. The present study investigates a possible antidepressant activity of ebselen using two predictive tests for antidepressant activity in rodents: the forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Additionally, the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effect of ebselen in mice were also assessed. Ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test. In contrast, the administration of ebselen (10-30 mg/kg) did not produce any effect in the tail suspension test. The anti-immobility effect of ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was not prevented by pre-treatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, 4 consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist). On the other hand, the pre-treatment of mice with prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidepressant-like effect of ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the forced swimming test. It may be concluded that ebselen produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test that seems to be dependent on its interaction with the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, but not with the serotonergic system.

  7. Antidepressant-like effect of the extract from leaves of Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniele G; Kaster, Manuella P; Binfaré, Ricardo W; Dias, Munique; Santos, Adair R S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2007-03-30

    Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae), among other uses, is popularly employed for the treatment of depression. In this study, the antidepressant-like effect of the hexanic extract from leaves of S. molle was investigated in the mouse tail suspension test (TST), a predictive model of depression. The immobility time in the TST was significantly reduced by the extract (dose range 30-600 mg/kg, p.o.), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in an open-field test. The efficacy of extract was found to be comparable to that of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.). The anti-immobility effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, for four consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist), MDL72222 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a D(2) receptor antagonist). It may be concluded that the hexanic extract of S. molle produces an antidepressant-like effect that seems to be dependent on its interaction with the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. These results provide evidence that the extract from S. molle shares with established antidepressants some pharmacological effects, at least at a preclinical level.

  8. Pharmacological studies of stonefish (Synanceja trachynis) venom.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, B J; Hodgson, W C; Sutherland, S K

    1994-10-01

    The present study was designed to examine some of the pharmacological properties of venom from the stonefish (Synanceja trachynis), with particular reference to the presence in the venom of pain-producing/enhancing substances. Stonefish venom (1-6 micrograms/ml) produced concentration-dependent contractile responses in guinea-pig isolated ileum. No tachyphylaxis, or reduction in responses with time, was observed to venom (3 micrograms/ml) in ileum. The response to venom (3 micrograms/ml) was not significantly affected by the histamine antagonist mepyramine (0.5 microM), or a preceding anaphylactic response. Mecamylamine, 5HT-desensitization or EXP3174 failed to have any significant effect on responses to venom (3 micrograms/ml). Responses to venom (3 micrograms/ml) were significantly inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 microM), the leukotriene D4 receptor antagonist FLP55712 (1 microM), the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist GR32191B (1 microM), the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (10 nM) and the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist CP96345 (0.1 microM). Venom (6 micrograms/ml) produced contractile responses in the rat isolated vas deferens which were abolished by the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.3 microM) and significantly potentiated by the neuronal uptake inhibitor DMI (1 microM). However, noradrenergic transmitter depletion with reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly inhibit responses to venom (6 micrograms/ml). Histamine fluorometric and phospholipase A2 assays failed to detect significant quantities of either substance in the venom. These results suggest that stonefish venom may cause the release of acetylcholine, substance P, and cyclooxygenase products, or contain components which act at these receptors. The venom also appears to contain a component which is a substrate for neuronal uptake and has a direct action at alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

  9. Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective inhibition of alpha1B-adrenergic receptor expression and function using a phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, P J; Iversen, P L; Liu, M F; Scofield, M A; Jeffries, W B

    1998-06-01

    To investigate alpha1B-adrenoceptor function, we developed a phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AO) to inhibit the expression of the alpha1B-adrenoceptor subtype in DDT1 MF2 cells. We measured the cellular uptake of the AO and its effect on alpha1B-adrenoceptor mRNA expression, protein density, and coupling to phospholipase C. Cells treated with either a control oligodeoxynucleotide (CO) or medium alone served as control groups. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that DDT1 MF2 cells internalized carboxyfluorescein-labeled (FAM) AO within 30 min. Analysis of cellular lysates showed that approximately 50% of the intracellular FAM-AO was present as an intact 18-mer for up to 48 hr. Incubation of cells with AO for 48 hr decreased alpha1B-adrenoceptor density ([3H]prazosin Bmax) versus control groups by 12% (1 microM AO) and 72% (10 microM AO). In time course experiments, AO (10 microM) reduced alpha1B-adrenoceptor density by 28, 64, and 68% versus controls after 24, 48, and 72 hr of exposure, respectively. alpha1B-Adrenoceptor mRNA concentration (measured by RT-PCR) was reduced by 25% in cells treated for 48 hr with 10 microM AO versus controls. AO pretreatment (10 microM, 48 hr) reduced the maximum response to agonist-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation. The maximal response of the full agonist norepinephrine was reduced by 30% after AO treatment, and by 73% for the partial agonist naphazoline. In contrast, AO did not affect histamine-stimulated total [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation. Thus, AO effectively reduced alpha1B-adrenoceptor subtype expression and function in vitro, suggesting a potential to selectively inhibit alpha1B-adrenoceptor function in vivo.

  11. Alpha1B-adrenoceptor signaling and cell motility: GTPase function of Gh/transglutaminase 2 inhibits cell migration through interaction with cytoplasmic tail of integrin alpha subunits.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung Koo; Yi, Kye Sook; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Uh-Hyun; Baek, Kwang Jin; Im, Mie-Jae

    2004-08-27

    A multifunctional enzyme, G(h), is a GTP-binding protein that couples to the alpha(1B)-adrenoreceptor and stimulates phospholipase C-delta1 but also displays transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activity. G(h)/TG2 has been implicated to play a role in cell motility. In this study we have examined which function of G(h)/TG2 is involved in this cellular response and the molecular basis. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cell with epinephrine inhibits migration to fibronectin and vitronectin, and the inhibition is blocked by the alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin or chloroethylclonidine. Up-regulation or overexpression of G(h)/TG2 in human aortic smooth muscle cells, DDT1-MF2, or human embryonic kidney cells, HEK 293 cells, results in inhibition of the migratory activity, and stimulation of the alpha(1B)-adrenoreceptor with the alpha(1) agonist further augments the inhibition of migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells and DDT1-MF2. G(h)/TG2 is coimmunoprecipitated by an integrin alpha(5) antibody and binds to the cytoplasmic tail peptide of integrins alpha(5), alpha(v), and alpha(IIb) subunits in the presence of guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS). Mutation of Lys-Arg residues in the GFFKR motif, present in the alpha(5)-tail, significantly reduces the binding of GTPgammaS-G(h)/TG2. Moreover, the motif-containing integrin alpha(5)-tail peptides block G(h)/TG2 coimmunoprecipitation and reverse the inhibition of the migratory activity of HEK 293 cells caused by overexpression G(h)/TG2. These results provide evidence that G(h) function initiates the modulation of cell motility via association of GTP-bound G(h)/TG2 with the GFFKR motif located in integrin alpha subunits.

  12. Quantifying Effects of Pharmacological Blockers of Cardiac Autonomous Control Using Variability Parameters.

    PubMed

    Miyabara, Renata; Berg, Karsten; Kraemer, Jan F; Baltatu, Ovidiu C; Wessel, Niels; Campos, Luciana A

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the most sensitive heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV) parameters from a given set of well-known methods for the quantification of cardiovascular autonomic function after several autonomic blockades. Methods: Cardiovascular sympathetic and parasympathetic functions were studied in freely moving rats following peripheral muscarinic (methylatropine), β1-adrenergic (metoprolol), muscarinic + β1-adrenergic, α1-adrenergic (prazosin), and ganglionic (hexamethonium) blockades. Time domain, frequency domain and symbolic dynamics measures for each of HRV and BPV were classified through paired Wilcoxon test for all autonomic drugs separately. In order to select those variables that have a high relevance to, and stable influence on our target measurements (HRV, BPV) we used Fisher's Method to combine the p -value of multiple tests. Results: This analysis led to the following best set of cardiovascular variability parameters: The mean normal beat-to-beat-interval/value (HRV/BPV: meanNN), the coefficient of variation (cvNN = standard deviation over meanNN) and the root mean square differences of successive (RMSSD) of the time domain analysis. In frequency domain analysis the very-low-frequency (VLF) component was selected. From symbolic dynamics Shannon entropy of the word distribution (FWSHANNON) as well as POLVAR3, the non-linear parameter to detect intermittently decreased variability, showed the best ability to discriminate between the different autonomic blockades. Conclusion: Throughout a complex comparative analysis of HRV and BPV measures altered by a set of autonomic drugs, we identified the most sensitive set of informative cardiovascular variability indexes able to pick up the modifications imposed by the autonomic challenges. These indexes may help to increase our understanding of cardiovascular sympathetic and parasympathetic functions in translational studies of experimental diseases.

  13. An investigation into the relative merits of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP-27) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as vagal neuro-transmitters in exocrine pancreas of rats.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, S; Eardley, J E; McNulty, K F; Sutcliffe, C P; Morrison, J D

    1997-07-01

    Pancreatic exocrine secretions were collected over 15 min periods and analysed in terms of weight of juice, total HCO3- and total protein in anaesthetized and pithed rats. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) (i.v.) evoked a serous HCO3- secretion which contained relatively little protein, together with a marked vasodepressor action. The latter was still maximal at lower doses of PACAP, which evoked diminished pancreatic secretions. The effects of PACAP were similar to those evoked by the same dose of VIP and by cervical vagal stimulation, while secretion evoked a much larger secretion of fluid and HCO3-. The time courses of the PACAP-evoked secretions were significantly delayed compared with those of VIP. In the pithed rat, PACAP caused the same level of pancreatic secretions as in the anaesthetized rat, though this was now accompanied by a substantial pressor response which was blocked by phentolamine or prazosin, indicating that it was alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediated. VIP caused a depressor response in the pithed rat, as well as the same level of pancreatic secretions as in the anaesthetized rat. The putative VIP antagonist [Lys1,Pro25,Arg3,4,Tyr6]-VIP (abbreviated as VIPi) caused a selective and significant reduction in the HCO3- secretion evoked by VIP and blocked the vasodepressor response caused by VIP. By contrast, VIPi did not antagonize either the secretory or vasodepressor actions of PACAP. Unilateral electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve evoked significant increases in the weight of juice, total protein and total HCO3- secreted. When preceded by injection of VIPi, vagally evoked secretions were unchanged in terms of weight of juice and total protein but had a significantly reduced HCO3- content. These results are consistent with the release of VIP, though not PACAP, as a vagal neurotransmitter in the exocrine pancreas.

  14. Ergosteryl 2-naphthoate, An Ergosterol Derivative, Exhibits Antidepressant Effects Mediated by the Modification of GABAergic and Glutamatergic Systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingzhu; Li, Haijun; Zhao, Yan; Cai, Enbo; Zhu, Hongyan; Gao, Yugang; Liu, Shuangli; Yang, He; Zhang, Lianxue; Tang, Guosheng; Wang, Ruiqing

    2017-03-31

    Phytosterols are a kind of natural component including sitosterol, campesterol, avenasterol, ergosterol (Er) and others. Their main natural sources are vegetable oils and their processed products, followed by grains, by-products of cereals and nuts, and small amounts of fruits, vegetables and mushrooms. In this study, three new Er monoester derivatives were obtained from the reflux reaction with Er: organic acids (furoic acid, salicylic acid and 2-naphthoic acid), 1-Ethylethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCI) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) in dichloromethane. Their chemical structures were defined by IR and NMR. The present study was also undertaken to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of Er and its derivatives in male adult mice models of depression, and their probable involvement of GABAergic and glutamatergic systems by the forced swim test (FST). The results indicated that Er and its derivatives display antidepressant effects. Moreover, one derivative of Er, ergosteryl 2-naphthoate (ErN), exhibited stronger antidepressant activity in vivo compared to Er. Acute administration of ErN (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and a combination of ErN (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and tianeptine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with bicuculline (a competitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, 4 mg/kg, i.p.) and N -methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg/kg, i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of ErN (5 mg/kg, i.p.). However, prazosin (a α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time. Altogether, these results indicated that ErN produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by GABAergic and glutamatergic systems.

  15. Direct block of native and cloned (Kir2.1) inward rectifier K+ channels by chloroethylclonidine

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Jolley, R; Dart, C; Standen, N B

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the inhibition of inwardly rectifying potassium channels by the α-adrenergic agonist/antagonist chloroethylclonidine (CEC). We used two preparations; two-electrode voltage-clamp of rat isolated flexor digitorum brevis muscle and whole-cell patch-clamp of cell lines transfected with Kir2.1 (IRK1).In skeletal muscle and at a membrane potential of −50 mV, chloroethylclonidine (CEC), an agonist at α2-adrenergic receptors and an antagonist at α1x-receptors, was found to inhibit the inward rectifier current with a Ki of 30 μM.The inhibition of skeletal muscle inward rectifier current by CEC was not mimicked by clonidine, adrenaline or noradrenaline and was not sensitive to high concentrations of α1-(prazosin) or α2-(rauwolscine) antagonists.The degree of current inhibition by CEC was found to vary with the membrane potential (approximately 70% block at −50 mV c.f. ∼10% block at −190 mV). The kinetics of this voltage dependence were further investigated using recombinant inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir2.1) expressed in the MEL cell line. Using a two pulse protocol, we calculated the time constant for block to be ∼8 s at 0 mV, and the rate of unblock was described by the relationship τ=exp((Vm+149)/22) s.This block was effective when CEC was applied to either the inside or the outside of patch clamped cells, but ineffective when a polyamine binding site (aspartate 172) was mutated to asparagine.The data suggest that the clonidine-like imidazoline compound, CEC, inhibits inward rectifier K+ channels independently of α-receptors by directly blocking the channel pore, possibly at an intracellular polyamine binding site. PMID:10516659

  16. The “Ram Effect”: A “Non-Classical” Mechanism for Inducing LH Surges in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chanvallon, Audrey; Dupont, Joëlle; Lardic, Lionel; Lomet, Didier; Martinet, Stéphanie; Scaramuzzi, Rex J.

    2016-01-01

    During spring sheep do not normally ovulate but exposure to a ram can induce ovulation. In some ewes an LH surge is induced immediately after exposure to a ram thus raising questions about the control of this precocious LH surge. Our first aim was to determine the plasma concentrations of oestradiol (E2) E2 in anoestrous ewes before and after the “ram effect” in ewes that had a “precocious” LH surge (starting within 6 hours), a “normal” surge (between 6 and 28h) and “late» surge (not detected by 56h). In another experiment we tested if a small increase in circulating E2 could induce an LH surge in anoestrus ewes. The concentration of E2 significantly was not different at the time of ram introduction among ewes with the three types of LH surge. “Precocious” LH surges were not preceded by a large increase in E2 unlike “normal” surges and small elevations of circulating E2 alone were unable to induce LH surges. These results show that the “precocious” LH surge was not the result of E2 positive feedback. Our second aim was to test if noradrenaline (NA) is involved in the LH response to the “ram effect”. Using double labelling for Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) we showed that exposure of anoestrous ewes to a ram induced a higher density of cells positive for both in the A1 nucleus and the Locus Coeruleus complex compared to unstimulated controls. Finally, the administration by retrodialysis into the preoptic area, of NA increased the proportion of ewes with an LH response to ram odor whereas treatment with the α1 antagonist Prazosin decreased the LH pulse frequency and amplitude induced by a sexually active ram. Collectively these results suggest that in anoestrous ewes NA is involved in ram-induced LH secretion as observed in other induced ovulators. PMID:27384667

  17. The antidepressant-like effect of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine in the mouse forced swimming test is mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

    PubMed

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Mantovani, Anderson C; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-10-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like action of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a derivative of isoquinoline class, in Swiss mice. The antidepressant-like effect of FDPI was characterized in the modified forced swimming test (FST) and the possible mechanism of action was investigated by using serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and [(3)H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake were determined in prefrontal cortices of mice. The results showed that FDPI (1, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.g.) reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming time but did not alter climbing time in the modified FST. These effects were similar to those of paroxetine (8mg/kg, i.p.), a positive control. Pretreatments with p-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis), WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., 5-HT1A antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist) and SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a D1 receptor antagonist) were effective to block the antidepressant-like effect of FDPI at a dose of 1mg/kg in the FST. Ritanserin (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 and D3 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2 receptor antagonist) and propranolol (2mg/kg, i.p., a β receptor antagonist) did not modify the effect of FDPI in the FST. FDPI did not change synaptosomal [(3)H]5-HT uptake. At doses of 10 and 20mg/kg FDPI inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B activities. These results suggest that antidepressant-like effect of FDPI is mediated mostly by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulation of resistance artery tone by the trace amine β-phenylethylamine: dual indirect sympathomimetic and α1-adrenoceptor blocking actions.

    PubMed

    Narang, Deepak; Kerr, Paul M; Lunn, Stephanie E; Beaudry, Rhys; Sigurdson, Julie; Lalies, Margaret D; Hudson, Alan L; Light, Peter E; Holt, Andrew; Plane, Frances

    2014-10-01

    The trace amine β-phenylethylamine (PEA) is normally present in the body at low nanomolar concentrations but can reach micromolar levels after ingestion of drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase and primary amine oxidase. In vivo, PEA elicits a robust pressor response, but there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism, with both vasodilation and constriction reported in isolated blood vessels. Using functional and biochemical approaches, we found that at low micromolar concentrations PEA (1-30 μM) enhanced nerve-evoked vasoconstriction in the perfused rat mesenteric bed but at a higher concentration (100 μM) significantly inhibited these responses. The α2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (1 µM) also enhanced nerve-mediated vasoconstriction, but in the presence of both rauwolscine (1 µM) and PEA (30 µM) together, nerve-evoked responses were initially potentiated and then showed time-dependent rundown. PEA (10 and 100 μM) significantly increased noradrenaline outflow from the mesenteric bed as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. In isolated endothelium-denuded arterial segments, PEA (1 µM to 1 mM) caused concentration-dependent reversal of tone elicited by the α1-adrenoceptor agonists noradrenaline (EC50 51.69 ± 10.8 μM; n = 5), methoxamine (EC50 68.21 ± 1.70 μM; n = 5), and phenylephrine (EC50 67.74 ± 16.72 μM; n = 5) but was ineffective against tone induced by prostaglandin F2 α or U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxyprostaglandin F2 α). In rat brain homogenates, PEA displaced binding of both [(3)H]prazosin (Ki ≈ 25 μM) and [(3)H]rauwolscine (Ki ≈ 1.2 μM), ligands for α1- and α2-adrenoceptors, respectively. These data provide the first demonstration that dual indirect sympathomimetic and α1-adrenoceptor blocking actions underlie the vascular effects of PEA in resistance arteries. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. L-arginine and Arginase Products Potentiate Dexmedetomidine-induced Contractions in the Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Man, Ricky Y K; Ng, Kwok F J; Leung, Susan W S; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2018-03-01

    The α2-adrenergic sedative/anesthetic agent dexmedetomidine exerts biphasic effects on isolated arteries, causing endothelium-dependent relaxations at concentrations at or below 30 nM, followed by contractions at higher concentrations. L-arginine is a common substrate of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arginases. This study was designed to investigate the role of L-arginine in modulating the overall vascular response to dexmedetomidine. Isometric tension was measured in isolated aortic rings of Sprague Dawley rats. Cumulative concentrations of dexmedetomidine (10 nM to 10 μM) were added to quiescent rings (with and without endothelium) after previous incubation with vehicle, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), prazosin (α1-adrenergic antagonist), rauwolscine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), L-arginine, (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (arginase inhibitor), N-hydroxy-L-arginine (arginase inhibitor), urea and/or ornithine. In some preparations, immunofluorescent staining, immunoblotting, or measurement of urea content were performed. Dexmedetomidine did not contract control rings with endothelium but evoked concentration-dependent increases in tension in such rings treated with L-NAME (Emax 50 ± 4%) or after endothelium-removal (Emax 74 ± 5%; N = 7 to 12). Exogenous L-arginine augmented the dexmedetomidine-induced contractions in the presence of L-NAME (Emax 75 ± 3%). This potentiation was abolished by (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (Emax 16 ± 4%) and N-hydroxy-L-arginine (Emax 18 ± 4%). Either urea or ornithine, the downstream arginase products, had a similar potentiating effect as L-arginine. Immunoassay measurements demonstrated an upregulation of arginase I by L-arginine treatment in the presence of L-NAME (N = 4). These results suggest that when vascular nitric oxide homeostasis is impaired, the potentiation of the vasoconstrictor effect of

  20. Exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction limits muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in ventricular performance in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Spranger, Marty D.; Kaur, Jasdeep; Sala-Mercado, Javier A.; Krishnan, Abhinav C.; Abu-Hamdah, Rania; Alvarez, Alberto; Machado, Tiago M.; Augustyniak, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Increases in myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise mainly occur via increases in coronary blood flow (CBF) as cardiac oxygen extraction is high even at rest. However, sympathetic coronary constrictor tone can limit increases in CBF. Increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during exercise likely occurs via the action of and interaction among activation of skeletal muscle afferents, central command, and resetting of the arterial baroreflex. As SNA is heightened even at rest in subjects with hypertension (HTN), we tested whether HTN causes exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction in canines during mild treadmill exercise with muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA; elicited by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ~60%) thereby limiting increases in CBF and ventricular performance. Experiments were repeated after α1-adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 75 µg/kg) and in the same animals following induction of HTN (modified Goldblatt 2K1C model). HTN increased mean arterial pressure from 97.1 ± 2.6 to 132.1 ± 5.6 mmHg at rest and MMA-induced increases in CBF, left ventricular dP/dtmax, and cardiac output were markedly reduced to only 32 ± 13, 26 ± 11, and 28 ± 12% of the changes observed in control. In HTN, α1-adrenergic blockade restored the coronary vasodilation and increased in ventricular function to the levels observed when normotensive. We conclude that exaggerated MMA-induced increases in SNA functionally vasoconstrict the coronary vasculature impairing increases in CBF, which limits oxygen delivery and ventricular performance in HTN. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that metaboreflex-induced increases in coronary blood flow and ventricular contractility are attenuated in hypertension. α1-Adrenergic blockade restored these parameters toward normal levels. These findings indicate that the primary mechanism mediating impaired metaboreflex-induced increases in ventricular function in hypertension is accentuated coronary vasoconstriction. Listen to this article

  1. Dopamine acting at D1-like, D2-like and α1-adrenergic receptors differentially modulates theta and gamma oscillatory activity in primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Mazhar; Johnson, Nicholas W; Sehirli, Umit S; Woodhall, Gavin L; Stanford, Ian M

    2017-01-01

    The loss of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's is accompanied by the emergence of exaggerated theta and beta frequency neuronal oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) and basal ganglia. DA replacement therapy or deep brain stimulation reduces the power of these oscillations and this is coincident with an improvement in motor performance implying a causal relationship. Here we provide in vitro evidence for the differential modulation of theta and gamma activity in M1 by DA acting at receptors exhibiting conventional and non-conventional DA pharmacology. Recording local field potentials in deep layer V of rat M1, co-application of carbachol (CCh, 5 μM) and kainic acid (KA, 150 nM) elicited simultaneous oscillations at a frequency of 6.49 ± 0.18 Hz (theta, n = 84) and 34.97 ± 0.39 Hz (gamma, n = 84). Bath application of DA resulted in a decrease in gamma power with no change in theta power. However, application of either the D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 or the D2-like agonist quinpirole increased the power of both theta and gamma suggesting that the DA-mediated inhibition of oscillatory power is by action at other sites other than classical DA receptors. Application of amphetamine, which promotes endogenous amine neurotransmitter release, or the adrenergic α1-selective agonist phenylephrine mimicked the action of DA and reduced gamma power, a result unaffected by prior co-application of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and sulpiride. Finally, application of the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin blocked the action of DA on gamma power suggestive of interaction between α1 and DA receptors. These results show that DA mediates complex actions acting at dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors, α1 adrenergic receptors and possibly DA/α1 heteromultimeric receptors to differentially modulate theta and gamma activity in M1.

  2. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effects of the 5-HT and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, sibutramine, in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Helen C; Bearham, M Clair; Hutchins, Lisa J; Mazurkiewicz, Sarah E; Needham, Andrew M; Heal, David J

    1997-01-01

    Sibutramine is a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (serotonin- noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, SNRI) which is currently being developed as a treatment for obesity. Sibutramine has been shown to decrease food intake in the rat. In this study we have used a variety of monoamine receptor antagonists to examine the pharmacological mechanisms underlying sibutramine-induced hypophagia. Individually-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on reversed phase lighting with free access to food and water. Drugs were administered at 09 h 00 min and food intake was monitored over the following 8 h dark period. Sibutramine (10 mg kg−1, p.o.) produced a significant decrease in food intake during the 8 h following drug administration. This hypophagic response was fully antagonized by the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.3 and 1 mg kg−1, i.p.), and partially antagonized by the β1-adrenoceptor antagonist, metoprolol (3 and 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) and the 5-HT receptor antagonists, metergoline (non-selective; 0.3 mg kg−1, i.p.); ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C; 0.1 and 0.5 mg kg−1, i.p.) and SB200646 (5-HT2B/2C; 20 and 40 mg kg−1, p.o.). By contrast, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX821002 (0.3 and 1 mg kg−1, i.p.) and the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118,551 (3 and 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) did not reduce the decrease in food intake induced by sibutramine. These results demonstrate that β1-adrenoceptors, 5-HT2A/2C-receptors and particularly α1-adrenoceptors, are involved in the effects of sibutramine on food intake and are consistent with the hypothesis that sibutramine-induced hypophagia is related to its ability to inhibit the reuptake of both noradrenaline and 5-HT, with the subsequent activation of a variety of noradrenaline and 5-HT receptor systems. PMID:9283694

  3. Proteinuria in mice expressing PKB/SGK-resistant GSK3.

    PubMed

    Boini, Krishna M; Amann, Kerstin; Kempe, Daniela; Alessi, Dario R; Lang, Florian

    2009-01-01

    SGK1 is critically important for mineralocorticoid/salt-induced glomerular injury. SGK1 inactivates GSK3, which downregulates Snail, a DNA-binding molecule repressing the transcription of nephrin, a protein critically important for the integrity of the glomerular slit membrane. PKB/SGK-dependent GSK regulation is disrupted in mice carrying a mutation, in which the serine in the SGK/PKB-phosphorylation consensus sequence is replaced by alanine. The present study explored whether PKB/SGK-dependent GSK3 regulation influences glomerular proteinuria. Gene-targeted knockin mice with mutated and thus PKB/SGK-resistant GSK3alpha,beta (gsk3(KI)) were compared with their wild-type littermates (gsk3(WT)). gsk3(KI) and gsk3(WT) mice were implanted with DOCA release pellets and offered 1% saline as drinking water for 21 days. Under standard diet, tap water intake and absence of DOCA, urinary flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin excretion were significantly larger and blood pressure was significantly higher in gsk3(KI) than in gsk3(WT) mice. Within 18 days, DOCA/salt treatment significantly increased fluid intake and urinary flow rate, urinary protein and albumin excretion, and blood pressure in both genotypes but the respective values were significantly higher in gsk3(KI) than in gsk3(WT) mice. Plasma albumin concentration was significantly lower in gsk3(KI) than in gsk3(WT) mice. Proteinuria was abrogated by lowering of blood pressure with alpha(1)-blocker prazosin (1 microg/g body wt) in 8-mo-old mice. According to immunofluorescence, nephrin at 3 and 8 mo and podocin expression at 3 mo were significantly lower in gsk3(KI) than in gsk3(WT) mice. After 18 days, DOCA/salt treatment renal glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage were significantly more pronounced in gsk3(KI) than in gsk3(WT) mice. The observations reveal that disruption of PKB/SGK-dependent regulation of GSK3 leads to glomerular injury with proteinuria, which may at least

  4. Clonidine-induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation mediated by endothelial α2-adrenoceptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Xavier F; Poblete, M Inés; Boric, Mauricio P; Mendizábal, Victoria E; Adler-Graschinsky, Edda; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo

    2001-01-01

    To assess the involvement of endothelial α2-adrenoceptors in the clonidine-induced vasodilatation, the mesenteric artery of Sprague Dawley rats was cannulated and perfused with Tyrode solution (2 ml min−1). We measured perfusion pressure, nitric oxide (NO) in the perfusate using chemiluminescence, and tissue cyclic GMP by RIA.In phenylephrine-precontracted mesenteries, clonidine elicited concentration-dependent vasodilatations associated to a rise in luminal NO. One hundred nM rauwolscine or 100 μM Lω-nitro-L-arginine antagonized the clonidine-induced vasodilatation. Guanabenz, guanfacine, and oxymetazoline mimicked the clonidine-induced vasorelaxation.In non-contracted mesenteries, 100 nM clonidine elicited a maximal rise of NO (123±13 pmol); associated to a peak in tissue cyclic GMP. Endothelium removal, Lω-nitro-L-arginine, or rauwolscine ablated the rise in NO. One hundred nM aminoclonidine, guanfacine, guanabenz, UK14,304 and oxymetazoline mimicked the clonidine-induced surge of NO. Ten μM ODQ obliterated the clonidine-induced vasorelaxation and the associated tissue cyclic GMP accumulation; 10 – 100 nM sildenafil increased tissue cyclic GMP accumulation without altering the clonidine-induced NO release.α2-Adrenergic blockers antagonized the clonidine-induced rise in NO. Consistent with a preferential α2D-adrenoceptor activation, the KBs for yohimbine, rauwolscine, phentolamine, WB-4101, and prazosin were: 6.8, 24, 19, 165, and 1489 nM, respectively.Rat pretreatment with 100 mg kg−1 6-hydroxydopamine reduced 95% tissue noradrenaline and 60% neuropeptide Y. In these preparations, 100 nM clonidine elicited a rise of 91.9±15.5 pmol NO. Perfusion with 1 μM guanethidine or 1 μM guanethidine plus 1 μM atropine did not modify the NO surge evoked by 100 nM clonidine.Clonidine and congeners activate endothelial α2D-adrenoceptors coupled to the L-arginine pathway, suggesting that the antihypertensive action of

  5. Adherence to Antihypertensive Treatment and the Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects of Renal Denervation in the Renal Denervation for Hypertension (DENERHTN) Trial.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Michel; Pereira, Helena; Hamdidouche, Idir; Gosse, Philippe; Monge, Matthieu; Bobrie, Guillaume; Delsart, Pascal; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap-Collas, Caroline; Girerd, Xavier; Michel Halimi, Jean; Zannad, Faiez; Ormezzano, Olivier; Vaïsse, Bernard; Herpin, Daniel; Ribstein, Jean; Chamontin, Bernard; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Ferrari, Emile; Plouin, Pierre-François; Jullien, Vincent; Sapoval, Marc; Chatellier, Gilles

    2016-09-20

    The DENERHTN trial (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) confirmed the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of renal denervation added to a standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment for resistant hypertension at 6 months. We report the influence of adherence to antihypertensive treatment on blood pressure control. One hundred six patients with hypertension resistant to 4 weeks of treatment with indapamide 1.5 mg/d, ramipril 10 mg/d (or irbesartan 300 mg/d), and amlodipine 10 mg/d were randomly assigned to renal denervation plus standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment, or the same antihypertensive treatment alone. For standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment, spironolactone 25 mg/d, bisoprolol 10 mg/d, prazosin 5 mg/d, and rilmenidine 1 mg/d were sequentially added at monthly visits if home blood pressure was ≥135/85 mm Hg after randomization. We assessed adherence to antihypertensive treatment at 6 months by drug screening in urine/plasma samples from 85 patients. The numbers of fully adherent (20/40 versus 21/45), partially nonadherent (13/40 versus 20/45), or completely nonadherent patients (7/40 versus 4/45) to antihypertensive treatment were not different in the renal denervation and the control groups, respectively (P=0.3605). The difference in the change in daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months between the 2 groups was -6.7 mm Hg (P=0.0461) in fully adherent and -7.8 mm Hg (P=0.0996) in nonadherent (partially nonadherent plus completely nonadherent) patients. The between-patient variability of daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure was greater for nonadherent than for fully adherent patients. In the DENERHTN trial, the prevalence of nonadherence to antihypertensive drugs at 6 months was high (≈50%) but not different in the renal denervation and control groups. Regardless of adherence to treatment, renal denervation plus standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment resulted in

  6. Effect of melatonin on monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in the thymus of chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuju; Reheman, Aikebaier; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Zhang, Yuxian; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-08-01

    A total of 360 post-hatching day 0 (P0) Arbor Acre male broilers, including intact, sham operation and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) and blue light (BL) from a light-emitting diode (LED) system until for P14. We studied the effects of melatonin and its receptors on monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in the thymus of broilers. The density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cells and the proliferation of T-lymphocytes in response to Concanavalin A (ConA) in GL significantly increased both in vivo and in vitro (from 9.57% to 32.03% and from 34.30% to 50.53%, respectively) compared with other lights (p<0.005) and was strongly correlated with melatonin levels in plasma (p<0.005). Pinealectomy reduced the levels of circulatory melatonin and the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and eliminated the differences between GL and other lights (p<0.005). However, exogenous melatonin (10(-9)M) significantly increased the proliferative activity of T-lymphocyte by 9.64% (p=0.002). In addition, GL significantly increased mRNA expression levels of Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c receptors from 21.09% to 32.57%, and protein expression levels from 24.43% to 42.92% compared with RL (p<0.05). However, these effects were blocked after pinealectomy. Furthermore, 4P-PDOT (a selective Mel1b antagonist) and prazosin (a selective Mel1c antagonist) attenuated GL-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA (p=0.000). Luzindole (a nonselective Mel1a/Mel1b antagonist), however, did not induce these effects (p=0.334). These results suggest that melatonin may mediate GL-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation via the Mel1b and Mel1c receptors but not via the Mel1a receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic stress targets posttranscriptional mechanisms to rapidly upregulate α1C-subunit of Cav1.2b calcium channels in colonic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress elevates plasma norepinephrine, which enhances expression of the α(1C)-subunit of Ca(v)1.2b channels in colonic smooth muscle cells within 1 h. Transcriptional upregulation usually does not explain such rapid protein synthesis. We investigated whether chronic stress-induced release of norepinephrine utilizes posttranscriptional mechanisms to enhance the α(1C)-subunit. We performed experiments on colonic circular smooth muscle strips and in conscious rats, using a 9-day chronic intermittent stress protocol. Incubation of rat colonic muscularis externa with norepinephrine enhanced α(1C)-protein expression within 45 min, without a concomitant increase in α(1C) mRNA, indicating posttranscriptional regulation of α(1C)-protein by norepinephrine. We found that norepinephrine activates the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway to concurrently enhance α(1C)-protein translation and block its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Incubation of colonic muscularis externa with norepinephrine or LiCl, which inhibits GSK-3β, enhanced p-GSK-3β and α(1C)-protein time dependently. Using enrichment of phosphoproteins and ubiquitinated proteins, we found that both norepinephrine and LiCl decrease α(1C) phosphorylation and polyubiquitination. Concurrently, they suppress eIF2α (Ser51) phosphorylation and 4E-BP1 expression, which stimulates gene-specific translation. The antagonism of two upstream kinases, PI3K and Akt, inhibits the induction of α(1C)-protein by norepinephrine. Cyanopindolol (β(3)-AR-antagonist) almost completely suppresses and propranolol (β(1/2)-AR antagonist) partially suppresses norepinephrine-induced α(1C)-protein expression, whereas phentolamine and prazosin (α-AR and α(1)-AR antagonist, respectively) have no significant effect. Experiments in conscious animals showed that chronic stress activates the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling. We conclude that norepinephrine released by chronic stress rapidly enhances the protein expression of α(1C

  8. Effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and MK 801 on the EEGq in the prefrontal cortex of conscious rats; antagonism by clozapine, and antagonists of AMPA-, α1- and 5-HT2A-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sebban, Claude; Tesolin-Decros, Brigitte; Ciprian-Ollivier, Jorge; Perret, Laurent; Spedding, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of the propsychotic agent phencyclidine (PCP), were studied in conscious rats using power spectra (0 – 30 Hz), from the prefrontal cortex or sensorimotor cortex. PCP (0.1 – 3 mg kg−1 s.c.) caused a marked dose-dependent increase in EEG power in the frontal cortex at 1 – 3 Hz with decreases in power at higher frequencies (9 – 30 Hz). At high doses (3 mg kg−1 s.c.) the entire spectrum shifted to more positive values, indicating an increase in cortical synchronization. MK 801 (0.05 – 0.1 mg kg−1 i.p.) caused similar effects but with lesser changes in power. In contrast, the non-competitive AMPA antagonists GYKI 52466 and GYKI 53655 increased EEG power over the whole power spectrum (1 – 10 mg kg−1 i.p.) The atypical antipsychotic clozapine (0.2 mg kg−1 s.c.) synchronized the EEG (peak 8 Hz). The 5-HT2A-antagonist, M100907, specifically increased EEG power at 2 – 3 Hz at low doses (10 and 50 μg kg÷1 s.c.), whereas at higher doses (0.1 mg kg−1 s.c.) the profile resembled that of clozapine. Clozapine (0.2 mg kg−1 s.c.), GYKI 53655 (5 mg kg−1 i.p.), prazosin (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg−1 i.p.), and M100907 (0.01 and 0.05 mg kg−1 s.c.) antagonized the decrease in power between 5 and 30 Hz caused by PCP (1 mg kg−1 s.c.), but not the increase in power at 1 – 3 Hz in prefrontal cortex. PMID:11786481

  9. NO-dependent blood pressure regulation in RGS2-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Obst, Michael; Tank, Jens; Plehm, Ralph; Blumer, Kendall J.; Diedrich, Andrè; Jordan, Jens; Luft, Friedrich C.; Gross, Volkmar

    2009-01-01

    The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) 2, a GTPase-activating protein, is activated via the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway and thereby may influence blood pressure regulation. To test that notion, we measured mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) with telemetry in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg L-NAME/10 ml tap water)-treated RGS2-deficient (RGS2−/−) and RGS2-sufficient (RGS2+/+) mice and assessed autonomic function. Without L-NAME, RGS2−/− mice showed during day and night a similar increase of MAP compared with controls. L-NAME treatment increased MAP in both strains. nNOS is involved in this L-NAME-dependent blood pressure increase, since 7-nitroindazole increased MAP by 8 and 9 mmHg (P < 0.05) in both strains. The L-NAME-induced MAP increase of 14–15 mmHg during night was similar in both strains. However, the L-NAME-induced MAP increase during the day was smaller in RGS2−/− than in RGS2+/+ (11 ± 1 vs. 17 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion was higher in RGS2−/− than in RGS2+/+ mice. The MAP decrease after prazosin was more pronounced in L-NAME-RGS2−/−. HR variability parameters [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), low-frequency (LF) power, and high-frequency (HF) power] and baroreflex sensitivity were increased in RGS2−/−. Atropine and atropine plus metoprolol markedly reduced RMSSD, LF, and HF. Our data suggest an interaction between RGS2 and the NO-cGMP pathway. The blunted L-NAME response in RGS2−/− during the day suggests impaired NO signaling. The MAP increases during the active phase in RGS2−/− mice may be related to central sympathetic activation and increased vascular adrenergic responsiveness. PMID:16269576

  10. Vasodilators and α-adrenoceptor antagonists in hypertension and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    1 The mechanism of the increase in arteriolar resistance in hypertension and heart failure is differently derived. In hypertension, venous compliance is normal and the concentric narrowing of the arteriolar resistance vessels is `anatomical'; it is not due to increased stimulation or enhanced sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle. In heart failure narrowing of both the arteriolar resistance and venous capacitance vessels derives predominantly from increased sympathoadrenal stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors in the vascular smooth muscle. 2 Vasodilator drugs which relax vascular smooth muscle differ widely in their site of activity. None are entirely specific for arteries, arterioles or veins, but they may be grouped for therapeutic convenience into those predominantly acting on arterioles (for example hydralazine) and those acting on veins (for example nitrates). 3 Control of the resting blood pressure in stable essential hypertension appears to be equally well achieved with non-specific arteriolar dilators (for example hydralazine, minoxidil, calcium antagonists) as those with specific α1-adrenoceptor blocking properties (for example prazosin, indoramin). Pressure surges due to dynamic exercise and mental stress are little influenced by either category of drug. In contrast, α-adrenoceptor antagonists appear to be capable of partly suppressing increase in ambulatory pressure and the pressor responses to isometric exercise and cold, particularly in patients pre-treated with β-blocking drugs. 4 In acute heart failure, non-selective α-blocking drugs (for example phentolamine) produce an equal reduction in left ventricular filling pressure but greater increase in cardiac output than vasodilator drugs with a more balanced relaxing effect on arterioles and venules. 5 In chronic heart failure, the little information available indicates that non-selective arteriolar dilatation is probably associated with a greater increase in cardiac output lesser reduction in left

  11. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion and mucosal protection. Neurohumoral influence and transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Säfsten, B

    1993-01-01

    Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) plays an important role in the defence against acid discharged from the stomach. The secretion by duodenum immediately distal to the Brunner's glands area and devoid of pancreatic and biliary secretions, was investigated in vivo in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats and in vitro in mucosae isolated from the American bullfrog. Transport mechanisms were studied in isolated rat duodenal enterocytes and identified by use of digitized microfluorometry and the fluoroprobe BCECF. Cyclic AMP production in enterocytes of villus vs. crypt origin was measured with radioimmunoassay. The benzodiazepines diazepam and Ro 15-1788 stimulated DMBS in the rat when administered intravenously or intracerebroventricularly; however, their stimulatory effect was abolished by bilateral proximal vagotomy, and they had no effect on the secretion by isolated bullfrog mucosa. It is concluded that these benzodiazepines stimulate secretion by acting upon the central nervous system and that their effects are vagally mediated. Dopamine, the catechol-O-methyl-transferase-inhibitor nitecapone, and the dopamine D1 agonist SKF-38393 all stimulated DMBS. The peripherally acting antagonist domperidone while having no influence on basal DMBS did prevent the influences of SKF-38393 and nitecapone. The alpha 1-antagonist prazosin had no such effects and the combined results suggest that DMBS is stimulated via peripheral dopamine D1 receptors. Intravenous, but not central nervous, administration of the muscarinic M1 receptor antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine effectively stimulated DMBS; however their effectiveness was dependent on intact vagal nerves. Phentolamine, an unselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist, prevented the stimulation by pirenzepine and telenzepine and stimulation by carbachol was abolished by hexamethonium. It is concluded that peripheral nicotinergic and muscarinergic M1 receptors mediate stimulation of DMBS, in part by acting upon

  12. p-( sup 125 I)iodoclonidine is a partial agonist at the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, M.A.; Wade, S.M.; Neubig, R.R.

    1990-08-01

    The binding properties of p-(125I)iodoclonidine (( 125I)PIC) to human platelet membranes and the functional characteristics of PIC are reported. (125I)PIC bound rapidly and reversibly to platelet membranes, with a first-order association rate constant (kon) at room temperature of 8.0 +/- 2.7 x 10(6) M-1 sec-1 and a dissociation rate constant (koff) of 2.0 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) sec-1. Scatchard plots of specific (125I)PIC binding (0.1-5 nM) were linear, with a Kd of 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. (125I)PIC bound to the same number of high affinity sites as the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2-AR) full agonist (3H) bromoxidine (UK14,304), which representedmore » approximately 40% of the sites bound by the antagonist (3H)yohimbine. Guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate greatly reduced the amount of (125I)PIC bound (greater than 80%), without changing the Kd of the residual binding. In competition experiments, the alpha 2-AR-selective ligands yohimbine, bromoxidine, oxymetazoline, clonidine, p-aminoclonidine, (-)-epinephrine, and idazoxan all had Ki values in the low nanomolar range, whereas prazosin, propranolol, and serotonin yielded Ki values in the micromolar range. Epinephrine competition for (125I)PIC binding was stereoselective. Competition for (3H)bromoxidine binding by PIC gave a Ki of 1.0 nM (nH = 1.0), whereas competition for (3H)yohimbine could be resolved into high and low affinity components, with Ki values of 3.7 and 84 nM, respectively. PIC had minimal agonist activity in inhibiting adenylate cyclase in platelet membranes, but it potentiated platelet aggregation induced by ADP with an EC50 of 1.5 microM. PIC also inhibited epinephrine-induced aggregation, with an IC50 of 5.1 microM. Thus, PIC behaves as a partial agonist in a human platelet aggregation assay. (125I)PIC binds to the alpha 2B-AR in NG-10815 cell membranes with a Kd of 0.5 +/- 0.1 nM.« less

  13. Differential regulation of the cell cycle by alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J; Shi, Ting; Yun, June; McCune, Dan F; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Perez, Dianne M

    2004-11-01

    Alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptors have been implicated in growth-promoting pathways. A microarray study of individual alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha(1A), alpha(1B), and alpha(1D)) expressed in Rat-1 fibroblasts revealed that epinephrine altered the transcription of several cell cycle regulatory genes in a direction consistent with the alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptors mediating G(1)-S cell cycle arrest and the alpha(1B-)mediating cell-cycle progression. A time course indicated that in alpha(1A) cells, epinephrine stimulated a G(1)-S arrest, which began after 8 h of stimulation and maximized at 16 h, at which point was completely blocked with cycloheximide. The alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor profile also showed unchecked cell cycle progression, even under low serum conditions and induced foci formation. The G(1)-S arrest induced by alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptors was associated with decreased cyclin-dependent kinase-6 and cyclin E-associated kinase activities and increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), all of which were blocked by prazosin. There were no differences in kinase activities and/or expression of p27(Kip1) in epinephrine alpha(1B)-AR fibroblasts, although the microarray did indicate differences in p27(Kip1) RNA levels. Cell counts proved the antimitotic effect of epinephrine in alpha(1A) and alpha(1D) cells and indicated that alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor subtype expression was sufficient to cause proliferation of Rat-1 fibroblasts independent of agonist stimulation. Analysis in transfected PC12 cells also confirmed the alpha(1A)- and alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor effect. The alpha(1B)-subtype native to DDT1-MF2 cells, a smooth muscle cell line, caused progression of the cell cycle. These results indicate that the alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptors mediate G(1)-S cell-cycle arrest, whereas alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor expression causes a cell cycle progression and may induce

  14. Naftopidil inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced bladder contraction in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takumi; Kasahara, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-30

    Naftopidil is an α(1D) and α(1A) subtype-selective α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist that has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced rat bladder contraction (10(-8)-10(-4) M). Naftopidil (0.3, 1, and 3 μM) inhibited 5-HT-induced bladder contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, other α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists, tamsulosin, silodosin or prazosin, did not inhibit 5-HT-induced bladder contraction. The 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was inhibited by both ketanserin and 4-(4-fluoronaphthalen-1-yl)-6-propan-2-ylpyrimidin-2-amine (RS127445), serotonin 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and α-methyl-5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2) receptor agonists, respectively, induced bladder contraction. The 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was not inhibited by N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-N-pyridin-2-yl-cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), [1-[2[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (GR113808) or (R)-3-[2-[2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)ethyl]pyrrolidine-1-sulphonyl]phenol (SB269970), 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, respectively. Naftopidil inhibited both the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2) receptor agonists-induced bladder contractions. Naftopidil binds to the human 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors with pKi values of 6.55 and 7.82, respectively. These results suggest that naftopidil inhibits 5-HT-induced bladder contraction via blockade of the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors in rats. Furthermore, 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was enhanced in bladder strips obtained from bladder outlet obstructed rats, with this contraction inhibited by naftopidil. The beneficial effects of naftopidil on storage symptoms such as urinary frequency and nocturia in patients with benign

  15. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura leaves: further elucidation of the possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved. Methods The methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) was prepared in the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The role of bradykinin, protein kinase C, pottasium channels, and various opioid and non-opioid receptors in modulating the extract’s antinociceptive activity was determined using several antinociceptive assays. Results are presented as Mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). The one-way ANOVA test with Dunnett's multiple comparison was used to analyze and compare the data, with P < 0.05 as the limit of significance. Results The MEMC, at all doses, demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in both the bradykinin- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced nociception. Pretreatment of the 500 mg/kg MEMC with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor), the antagonist of μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors (namely 10 mg/kg β-funaltrexamine, 1 mg/kg naltrindole and 1 mg/kg nor-binaltorphimine), and the non-opioid receptor antagonists (namely 3 mg/kg caffeine (a non-selective adenosinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine (an α2-noradrenergic antagonist), and 1 mg/kg pindolol (a β-adrenoceptor antagonist)) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the MEMC antinociception. However, 10 mg/kg atropine (a non-selective cholinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg prazosin (an α1-noradrenergic antagonist) and 20 mg/kg haloperidol (a non-selective dopaminergic antagonist) did not affect the extract's antinociception. The phytochemicals screening revealed the

  16. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura leaves: further elucidation of the possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Kader, Arifah Abdul; Kek, Teh Lay; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2014-02-20

    Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved. The methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) was prepared in the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The role of bradykinin, protein kinase C, pottasium channels, and various opioid and non-opioid receptors in modulating the extract's antinociceptive activity was determined using several antinociceptive assays. Results are presented as Mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). The one-way ANOVA test with Dunnett's multiple comparison was used to analyze and compare the data, with P < 0.05 as the limit of significance. The MEMC, at all doses, demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in both the bradykinin- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced nociception. Pretreatment of the 500 mg/kg MEMC with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor), the antagonist of μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors (namely 10 mg/kg β-funaltrexamine, 1 mg/kg naltrindole and 1 mg/kg nor-binaltorphimine), and the non-opioid receptor antagonists (namely 3 mg/kg caffeine (a non-selective adenosinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine (an α2-noradrenergic antagonist), and 1 mg/kg pindolol (a β-adrenoceptor antagonist)) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the MEMC antinociception. However, 10 mg/kg atropine (a non-selective cholinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg prazosin (an α1-noradrenergic antagonist) and 20 mg/kg haloperidol (a non-selective dopaminergic antagonist) did not affect the extract's antinociception. The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids

  17. Antidepressant potential of novel flavonoids derivatives from sweet violet (Viola odorata L): Pharmacological, biochemical and computational evidences for possible involvement of serotonergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Karim, Nasiara; Khan, Imran; Abdelhalim, Abeer; Khan, Ajmal; Halim, Sobia Ahsan

    2018-05-22

    Plant-derived natural constituents are of great interest in modern drug discovery due to their natural diversity. Viola odorata L has been traditionally used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituents including three flavonoids 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone[1] 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'dimethoxyflavone [2] and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone [3] from the whole plant of Viola odorata L and to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of these compounds and their possible mechanism of action using antagonists of the serotonergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic system. Classical animal models of depression including tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) using mice were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects. Mice were divided into various groups and were administered with either vehicle control, fluoxetine (FLX), or test compounds 1-3 intraperitoneally (i.p.). For experiments involving mechanism determination, mice were pretreated with 5-HT, dopamine and adrenergic antagonists. The brain 5-HT levels were determined following FST. Molecular docking studies were carried out to determine the binding affinity of compounds 1-3 to serotonergic receptors. The results indicated that compounds 1-3 at the dose of 1-30 mg/kg, i.p significantly decreased the immobility time in the FST and TST in mice. The reduction in immobility time was reversed by pre-treating the mice with pCPA (5-HT synthesis inhibitor) 100 mg/kg, i.p. and 5-HT receptor antagonists including WAY100635 (5-HT1a antagonist), ketanserin (a 5-HT2a antagonist) and ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist) but not with prazosin (α1-adrenergic antagonist) and SCH23390 (D1 dopaminergic antagonist) or haloperidol (D2 dopaminergic antagonist). Moreover, in neurochemical assays, compounds 1-3 caused a significant increase in the 5-HT level in the brain tissue as compared to vehicle. These increases were reversed in the mice

  18. Effect of sympathetic nervous system activation on the tonic vibration reflex in rabbit jaw closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Grassi, C; Deriu, F; Passatore, M

    1993-09-01

    1. In precollicular decerebrate rabbits we investigated the effect of sympathetic stimulation, at frequencies within the physiological range, on the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited in jaw closing muscles by small amplitude vibrations applied to the mandible (15-50 microns, 150-180 Hz). The EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter muscle and the force developed by the reflex was measured through an isometric transducer connected with the mandibular symphysis. 2. Unilateral stimulation of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic by the TVR, and a marked decrease or disappearance of the ipsilateral EMG activity. No significant changes were detected in the EMG contralateral to the stimulated nerve. Bilateral CSN stimulation reduced by 60-90% the force reflexly produced by the jaw closing muscles and strongly decreased or suppressed EMG activity on both sides. This effect was often preceded by a transient TVR enhancement, very variable in amplitude and duration, which was concomitant with the modest increase in pulmonary ventilation induced by the sympathetic stimulation. 3. During bilateral CSN stimulation, an increase in the vibration amplitude by a factor of 1.5-2.5 was sufficient to restore the TVR reduced by sympathetic stimulation. 4. The depressant action exerted by sympathetic activation on the TVR is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors, since it was almost completely abolished by the I.V. administration of either phentolamine or prazosin, this last drug being a selective antagonist of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. The sympathetically induced decrease in the TVR was not mimicked by manoeuvres producing a large and sudden reduction or abolition of the blood flow to jaw muscles, such as unilateral or bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. 5. The effect of sympathetic stimulation was not significantly modified after denervation of the inferior dental arch and/or anaesthesia of the temporomandibular joint, i.e. after having reduced

  19. Mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Vatner, D. E.; Uemura, N.; Bigaud, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hempel, D. M.; Graham, R. M.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    compared with saline control dogs. Furthermore, alpha 1-adrenergic receptor density, as determined by [3H]prazosin binding in membrane preparations from vessels in the mesentery, was decreased (8.2 +/- 1.0 versus 18.4 +/- 1.4 fmol/mg protein, p < 0.001) without any change in Kd in the AMD pump dogs compared with the saline pump dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  20. Quantification of [11C]GB67 binding to cardiac alpha1-adrenoceptors with positron emission tomography: validation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park-Holohan, So-Jin; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Turton, David R; Williams, Sharron L; Hume, Susan P; Camici, Paolo G; Rimoldi, Ornella E

    2008-09-01

    An increase in human cardiac alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1)-AR) density is associated with various diseases such as myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Positron emission tomography (PET) with an appropriate radioligand offers the possibility of imaging receptor function in the normal and diseased heart. [(11)C]GB67, an analogue of prazosin, has been shown in rats to have potential as a PET ligand with high selectivity to alpha(1)-AR. However, alpha(1)-AR density is up to ten times higher in rat heart compared to that in man. The aim of the present preclinical study was to extend the previous evaluation to a large mammal heart, where the alpha(1)-AR density is comparable to man, and to validate a method for quantification before PET studies in man. Seven [(11)C]GB67 PET studies, with weight-adjusted target dose of either 5.29 MBq kg(-1) (pilot, test-retest and baseline-predose studies) or 8.22 MBq kg(-1) (baseline-displacement studies), were performed in four anaesthetised pigs (39.5 +/- 3.9 kg). Total myocardial volume of distribution (V (T)) was estimated under different pharmacological conditions using compartmental analysis with a radiolabelled metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input function. A maximum possible blocking dose of 0.12 mumol kg(-1) of unlabeled GB67 was given 20 min before [(11)C]GB67 administration in the predose study and 45 min after administration of [(11)C]GB67 in the displacement study. In addition, [(15)O]CO (3,000 MBq) and [(15)O]H(2)O, with weight adjusted target dose of 10.57 MBq kg(-1), were also administered for estimation of blood volume recovery (RC) of the left ventricular cavity and myocardial perfusion (MBF), respectively. [(11)C]GB67 V (T) values (in ml cm(-3)) were estimated to be 24.2 +/- 5.5 (range, 17.3-31.3), 10.1 (predose) and 11.6 (displacement). MBF did not differ within each pig, including between baseline and predose conditions. Predose and displacement

  1. Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Part II.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, R; Nelson, K; Kirsten, D; Heintz, B

    1998-07-01

    -fed infants, combined with more women delaying pregnancy until their fourth decade, has entailed an increase in the need for hypertension management during lactation. Low dose hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol, nifedipine and enalapril or captopril do not pose enough of a risk of preclude breastfeeding in this group. The most frequently used antihypertensive agents during pregnancy are methyldopa, labetalol and calcium channel antagonists. Methyldopa and beta-blockers are the drugs of choice for treating mild to moderate hypertension. Prazosin and hydralazine are used to treat moderate to severe hypertension and hydralazine, urapidil or labetalol are used to treat hypertensive emergencies. The use of overly aggressive antihypertensive therapy during pregnancy should be avoided so that adequate uteroplacental blood flow is maintained. Methyldopa is the only drug accepted for use during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  2. Ilex paraguariensis Promotes Orofacial Pain Relief After Formalin Injection: Involvement of Noradrenergic Pathway.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Eudislaine Fonseca; de Oliveira, Simone Kobe; Nardi, Viviane Koepp; Gelinski, Tathiana Carla; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Maraschin, Marcelo; Nardi, Geisson Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Drinking mate or chimarrão, a hot infusion of Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) leaves, is a common habit in Southern South America that has a social and almost ritualistic role. It has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of I. paraguariensis infusion (ILEX) on orofacial nociception model induced by formalin, and study its mechanism of action. The analgesic effect of ILEX was assessed through writhing test, paw formalin test, paw edema induced by carrageenan, and orofacial pain induced by formalin. To study the action mechanism of ILEX, opioidergic, dopaminergic, nitrergic, and adrenergic pathways were investigated. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of ILEX infusion revealed caffeine and theobromine. The treatment with ILEX reduced the number of writhing. However, it was effective neither in the formalin paw test nor in the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Different from formalin paw test, ILEX was able to reduce the orofacial reactivity to formalin in 31.8% (70.4 ± 2.5 s; first phase), and 20% (127.3 ± 18.9 s; second phase). The analgesic effect of ILEX results from the modulation of noradrenergic pathways since prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, 0.15 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) reversed the analgesic effect of ILEX. The present report demonstrates that analgesic effect of ILEX in orofacial formalin test is due mainly to modulation of noradrenergic pathways. Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for the treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such arthritis and rheumatism.The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of ILEX on orofacial nociception model induced by formalin, and study its mechanism of

  3. [Treatment-resistant anxiety disorders: A literature review of drug therapy strategies].

    PubMed

    Ammar, G; Naja, W J; Pelissolo, A

    2015-06-01

    benefit in some but not all trials. Olanzapine was beneficial for the reduction of the CAPS score in addition to the improvement of sleep disturbances. Furthermore, prazosin was efficacious by reducing PTSD symptoms, sleep disturbances, nightmares, and psychological distress. One double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate treatment-resistant social phobia showing no benefit of pindolol add-on paroxetine. Our results demonstrate that the pharmacological management of treatment-resistant anxiety disorders is not sufficiently investigated in double-blind placebo-controlled trials, despite a growing evidence in favor of antipsychotics and some other pharmacological agents in resistant OCD and, to a lesser extent, PTSD. Hence, there is a crucial need for larger double-blind placebo-controlled trials for resistant anxiety disorders. Finally, being out of the scope of our review, we omitted studies of non-pharmacologic therapies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. [Monolayer culture of pancreatic islet cells of the adult rat: effect of 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose].

    PubMed

    Aoki, M; Kagawa, S; Yamamura, T; Matsuoka, A; Utsunomiya, J

    1988-02-20

    In the present study, the culture system for preparing monolayer islet cells of the neonatal rat was applied and modified for use with the pancreas of the adult rat. In this procedure, whole pancreatic tissues were enzymatically dispersed and then cultured for 30 days in TCM 199 medium with either 5.5 mM glucose or 5.5 mM glucose plus 1 mM 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose. Under culture conditions without 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose, the responsiveness of B cells was totally abolished by day 20 of culture. The addition of 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose destroyed fibroblasts selectively in a period of 20 days, yielding the monolayers mostly consisting of islet cells, and the morphological characteristics were well preserved at the end of the culture study period. After culture for 20 days in medium with 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose, insulin secretion was raised in a dose-dependent fashion due to the increasing concentrations of glucose, leucine and 2-ketoisocaproate. The dose-response curve for insulin secretion evoked by glucose was sigmoid with a Km of 7 mM glucose, and the secretion threshold was observed at a concentration of between 2.8 and 5.5 mM glucose. The ratios of the maximum level to the basal were 6, 5 and 3 respectively for glucose, leucine and 2-ketoisocaproate. The secretory competence was preserved in the B cells on day 30 as well. Addition of epinephrine or clonidine inhibited the glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently. At a concentration of 10(-7) M, both drugs produced an 80% drop in insulin secretion evoked by glucose. The inhibitory effect of epinephrine or clonidine was reversed by 3 X 10(-5) M yohimbine or 10(-5) M phentolamine, whereas 10(-5) M propranolol had little or no effect and alpha adrenergic blockade of prazosin (5 X 10(-5) M) was weak as compared to that of yohimbine. At a high concentration (10(-5) M) of phenylephrine, a marked drop of insulin secretion was observed. In summary, the present culture system facilitates the establishment of

  5. The effects of SB 216469, an antagonist which discriminates between the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor and the human prostatic alpha 1-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Chess-Williams, R.; Chapple, C. R.; Verfurth, F.; Noble, A. J.; Couldwell, C. J.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The affinity of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist SB 216469 (also known as REC 15/2739) has been determined at native and cloned alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes by radioligand binding and at functional alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in isolated tissues. 2. In radioligand binding studies with [3H]-prazosin, SB 216469 had a high affinity at the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors of the rat cerebral cortex and kidney (9.5-9.8) but a lower affinity at the alpha 1B-adrenoceptors of the rat spleen and liver (7.7-8.2). 3. At cloned rat alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and also at cloned human alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes stably transfected in Rat-1 cells, SB 216469 exhibited a high affinity at the alpha 1a-adrenoceptors (9.6-10.4) with a significantly lower affinity at the alpha 1b-adrenoceptor (8.0-8.4) and an intermediate affinity at the alpha 1d-adrenoceptor (8.7-9.2). 4. At functional alpha 1-adrenoceptors, SB 216469 had a similar pharmacological profile, with a high affinity at the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors of the rat vas deferens and anococcygeus muscle (pA2 = 9.5-10.0), a low affinity at the alpha 1B-adrenoceptors of the rat spleen (6.7) and guinea-pig aorta (8.0), and an intermediate affinity at the alpha 1D-adrenoceptors of the rat aorta (8.8). 5. Several recent studies have concluded that the alpha 1-adrenoceptor present in the human prostate has the pharmacological characteristics of the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype. However, the affinity of SB 216469 at human prostatic alpha 1-adrenoceptors (pA2 = 8.1) determined in isolated tissue strips, was significantly lower than the values obtained at either the cloned alpha 1a-adrenoceptors (human, rat, bovine) or the native alpha 1A-adrenoceptors in radioligand binding and functional studies in the rat. 6. Our results with SB 216469, therefore, suggest that the alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediating contractile responses of the human prostate has properties which distinguish it from the cloned alpha 1a

  6. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Caladium bicolor (Araceae) and its possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Salako, Olanrewaju A; Akindele, Abidemi J; Shitta, Omotoyosi M; Elegunde, Olajumoke O; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2015-12-24

    Caladium bicolor (Araceae) is a horticulture plant also used by some traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous leaf extract of C. bicolor and its possible mechanisms of action in rodents. Normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit and castor oil-induced diarrhoea tests were carried out in mice while gastric emptying and enteropooling tests were conducted in rats following the administration of distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o.), C. bicolor extract (1-50mg/kg, p.o.) and loperamide (5mg/kg, p.o.). The probable mechanisms of action of C. bicolor was investigated following pre-treatment with yohimbine (10mg/kg, s.c.; α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), pilocarpine (1mg/kg, s.c.; non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, s.c.; α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and propranolol (1mg/kg, i.p.; non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist) 15 min prior to administration of C. bicolor extract (50mg/kg, p.o.). After 30 min of pre-treatment with these drugs, the mice were subjected to the castor oil-induced intestinal transit test. C. bicolor extract did not produce significant (p>0.05) effect on normal intestinal transit unlike loperamide which caused significant (p<0.001) inhibition (61.57%). The extract caused significant (p<0.001) dose-dependent inhibition of castor oil-induced intestinal transit with peak effect, 100% inhibition, elicited at the dose of 50mg/kg compared to 86.97% inhibition for loperamide. Yohimbine and pilocarpine most significantly (p<0.001) reversed this effect of the extract. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, the extract (1mg/kg) and loperamide significantly (p<0.05, 0.01) delayed the onset of diarrhoea. For diarrhoea score, the extract (1 and 50mg/kg) inhibited diarrhoea development (47.53% and 43.83% inhibition, respectively) like loperamide (5mg/kg; 54.94%). The in vivo antidiarrhoeal index of

  7. Optimum and stepped care standardised antihypertensive treatment with or without renal denervation for resistant hypertension (DENERHTN): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Michel; Sapoval, Marc; Gosse, Philippe; Monge, Matthieu; Bobrie, Guillaume; Delsart, Pascal; Midulla, Marco; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap-Collas, Caroline; Trillaud, Hervé; Pereira, Helena; Plouin, Pierre-François; Chatellier, Gilles

    2015-05-16

    Conflicting blood pressure-lowering effects of catheter-based renal artery denervation have been reported in patients with resistant hypertension. We compared the ambulatory blood pressure-lowering efficacy and safety of radiofrequency-based renal denervation added to a standardised stepped-care antihypertensive treatment (SSAHT) with the same SSAHT alone in patients with resistant hypertension. The Renal Denervation for Hypertension (DENERHTN) trial was a prospective, open-label randomised controlled trial with blinded endpoint evaluation in patients with resistant hypertension, done in 15 French tertiary care centres specialised in hypertension management. Eligible patients aged 18-75 years received indapamide 1·5 mg, ramipril 10 mg (or irbesartan 300 mg), and amlodipine 10 mg daily for 4 weeks to confirm treatment resistance by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before randomisation. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either renal denervation plus an SSAHT regimen (renal denervation group) or the same SSAHT alone (control group). The randomisation sequence was generated by computer, and stratified by centres. For SSAHT, after randomisation, spironolactone 25 mg per day, bisoprolol 10 mg per day, prazosin 5 mg per day, and rilmenidine 1 mg per day were sequentially added from months two to five in both groups if home blood pressure was more than or equal to 135/85 mm Hg. The primary endpoint was the mean change in daytime systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months as assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The primary endpoint was analysed blindly. The safety outcomes were the incidence of acute adverse events of the renal denervation procedure and the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 6 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01570777. Between May 22, 2012, and Oct 14, 2013, 1416 patients were screened for eligibility, 106 of those were randomly assigned to treatment