Science.gov

Sample records for pre highly active

  1. High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan Plateau fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan Plateau is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan Plateau to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan Plateau levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high

  2. Association of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy with clinical and biochemical indices among women with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Niren R; Moodley, Jagidesa; Chuturgoon, Anil

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether clinical and biochemical features associated with pre-eclampsia are significantly altered among women with HIV infection taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A prospective observational cohort study was conducted between July 2013 and September 2014 at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital, Durban, South Africa. Women with and without pre-eclampsia and HIV infection were enrolled at booking and followed up until delivery. Specific demographic data, clinical features, laboratory indices, and complications were analyzed. Of 193 participants, 98 had pre-eclampsia (45 [45.9%] with HIV infection). There were no significant differences in clinical features and laboratory indices among the study groups except for γ-glutamyl transferase levels, which were significantly higher among women with pre-eclampsia and HIV infection (26.9±40.9U/L) than among those with pre-eclampsia but no HIV infection (17.1±14.0U/L; P=0.001). Perinatal and maternal complications were similar, and there were no maternal deaths. Clinical features, laboratory indices, and complications among women with pre-eclampsia and HIV infection taking HAART were similar to those among women with pre-eclampsia without HIV infection. Current guidelines remain appropriate; however, frequent hepatic function tests should be conducted. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-Apprenticeship Training Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Paul; Blomberg, Davinia

    2011-01-01

    Pre-apprenticeships are becoming an increasingly important component of the Australian vocational education and training (VET) system. The purpose of this report is to investigate the level of pre-apprenticeship activity occurring in Australia and to examine the characteristics of pre-apprenticeship courses and the students undertaking those…

  4. Enhanced High-Temperature Ice Nucleation Ability of Crystallized Aerosol Particles after Pre-Activation at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Moehler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The term pre-activation in heterogeneous ice nucleation describes the observation that the ice nucleation ability of solid ice nuclei may improve after they have already been involved in ice crystal formation or have been exposed to a temperature lower than 235 K. This can be explained by the retention of small ice embryos in cavities or crevices at the particle surface or by the capillary condensation and freezing of supercooled water, respectively. In recent cloud chamber experiments with crystallized aqueous ammonium sulfate, oxalic acid, and succinic acid solution droplets, we have unraveled a further pre-activation mechanism under ice subsaturated conditions which does not require the preceding growth of ice on the seed aerosol particles (Wagner, R. et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JD021741). First cloud expansion experiments were performed at a high temperature (267 - 244 K) where the crystallized particles did not promote any heterogeneous ice nucleation. Ice nucleation at this temperature, however, could be triggered by temporarily cooling the crystallized particles to a lower temperature. This is because upon crystallization, residuals of the aqueous solution are trapped within the crystals. These captured liquids can freeze when cooled below their respective homogeneous or heterogeneous freezing temperature, leading to the formation of ice pockets in the crystalline particles. When warmed again to the higher temperature, ice formation by the pre-activated particles occurred via depositional and deliquescence-induced ice growth, with ice active fractions ranging from 1 to 4% and 4 to 20%, respectively. Pre-activation disappeared above the eutectic temperature, which for the organic acids are close to the melting point of ice. This mechanism could therefore contribute to the very small fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles that are still ice active well above 263 K.

  5. Neuropathology of AIDS: An Autopsy Review of 284 Cases from Brazil Comparing the Findings Pre- and Post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) and Pre- and Postmortem Correlation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos; Rodrigues, Blenda Sousa Carli; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Tostes, Sebastião; Meneses, Antonio Carlos Oliveira; Silva-Vergara, Mário Leon; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of central nervous system (CNS) in 284 autopsy AIDS cases in Brazil (1989-2008) divided into 3 groups: A (without antiretroviral treatment: 163 cases); B (other antiretroviral therapies: 76 cases); C (HAART for 3 months or more: 45 cases). In 165 (58.1%) cases, relevant lesions were found, predominantly infections (54.2%); the most frequent was toxoplasmosis (29.9%) followed by cryptococcosis (15.8%), purulent bacterial infections (3.9%), and HIV encephalitis (2.8%); non-Hodgkin lymphomas occurred in 1.4% and vascular lesions in 1.1%. There was no difference when compared the frequency of lesion among the groups; however, toxoplasmosis was less common while HIV encephalitis was more frequent in group C related to A. CNS lesions remain a frequent cause of death in AIDS; however, the mean survival time was four times greater in group C than in A. In 91 (55.1%) of 165 cases with relevant brain lesions (or 32% of the total 284 cases), there was discordance between pre- and postmortem diagnosis; disagreement type 1 (important disease that if diagnosed in life could change the patient prognosis) occurred in 49 (53.8%) of 91 discordant cases (17.6% of the total 284) indicating the autopsy importance, even with HAART and advanced diagnostics technologies.

  6. Neuropathology of AIDS: An Autopsy Review of 284 Cases from Brazil Comparing the Findings Pre- and Post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) and Pre- and Postmortem Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos; Rodrigues, Blenda Sousa Carli; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Tostes, Sebastião; Meneses, Antonio Carlos Oliveira; Silva-Vergara, Mário Leon; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of central nervous system (CNS) in 284 autopsy AIDS cases in Brazil (1989–2008) divided into 3 groups: A (without antiretroviral treatment: 163 cases); B (other antiretroviral therapies: 76 cases); C (HAART for 3 months or more: 45 cases). In 165 (58.1%) cases, relevant lesions were found, predominantly infections (54.2%); the most frequent was toxoplasmosis (29.9%) followed by cryptococcosis (15.8%), purulent bacterial infections (3.9%), and HIV encephalitis (2.8%); non-Hodgkin lymphomas occurred in 1.4% and vascular lesions in 1.1%. There was no difference when compared the frequency of lesion among the groups; however, toxoplasmosis was less common while HIV encephalitis was more frequent in group C related to A. CNS lesions remain a frequent cause of death in AIDS; however, the mean survival time was four times greater in group C than in A. In 91 (55.1%) of 165 cases with relevant brain lesions (or 32% of the total 284 cases), there was discordance between pre- and postmortem diagnosis; disagreement type 1 (important disease that if diagnosed in life could change the patient prognosis) occurred in 49 (53.8%) of 91 discordant cases (17.6% of the total 284) indicating the autopsy importance, even with HAART and advanced diagnostics technologies. PMID:22461978

  7. Highly active, thermally stable, ethylene-polymerisation pre-catalysts based on niobium/tantalum-imine systems.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Carl; Walton, Mark; Clowes, Lucy; Hughes, David L; Fuller, Anna-Marie; Chao, Yimin; Walton, Alex; Sumerin, Victor; Elo, Pertti; Soshnikov, Igor; Zhao, Weizhen; Sun, Wen-Hua

    2013-07-01

    catalysts with, in the case of niobium, catalytic activities that were two orders of magnitude higher than those previously observed. The effects of steric hindrance and electronic configuration on the polymerisation activity of these tantalum and niobium pre-catalysts were investigated. Spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and (1)H-(1)H and (1)H-(13)C correlations) on the reactions of compounds 4a/4b with either MAO(50) or AlMe3/[CPh3](+)[B(C6F5)4](-) were consistent with the formation of a diamagnetic cation of the form [L(4)AlMe2](+) (MAO(50) is the product of the vacuum distillation of commercial MAO at +50 °C and contains only 1 mol% of Al in the form of free AlMe3). In the presence of MAO, this cationic aluminium complex was not capable of initiating the ROMP (ring opening metathesis polymerisation) of norbornene, whereas the 4a/4b systems with MAO(50) were active. A parallel pressure reactor (PPR)-based homogeneous polymerisation screening by using pre-catalysts 1b, 1c, 2a, 3a and 6a, in combination with MAO, revealed only moderate-to-good activities for the homo-polymerisation of ethylene and the co-polymerisation of ethylene/1-hexene. The molecular structures are reported for complexes 1a-1c, 2b, 5, 6a, 6b, 7a, 8a and 8c. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Imported acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis in metropolitan France: a comparison of pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy and highly active anti-retroviral therapy eras.

    PubMed

    Peigne, Vincent; Dromer, Françoise; Elie, Caroline; Lidove, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infection is rare outside disease-endemic areas. Clinical presentation and outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis are unknown in non-endemic areas with wide access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective analysis of cases recorded at the French National Reference Center for Mycoses and Antifungals during two decades: pre-HAART (1985-1994) and HAART (1997-2006). Clinical features and outcome of all adults with proven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis were compared between the two periods. One hundred four patients were included (40 during the pre-HAART era and 64 during the HAART era). Diagnosis was established a mean of 62 days after onset of symptoms. One-year overall mortality rates decreased from 53% (pre-HAART era) to 22% (HAART era). Diagnosis during the pre-HAART era and an older age were the only independent factors associated with death. Histoplasmosis is a rare invasive fungal infection outside disease-endemic areas. Its prognosis improved significantly during the HAART era.

  9. High Altitude Ballooning as a Mechanism for Teaching NGSS-Related Geoscience Content and Classroom Activities for Pre- and In-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M. A.; Kroeger, T.

    2014-12-01

    Training in-service and pre-service K-12 science teachers to understand and structure appropriate instructional opportunities for addressing cross-cutting concepts and engineering design with students in their classrooms is critical given the emphases in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). One mechanism for doing so involves utilizing high altitude ballooning as a tool for providing authentic investigation opportunities in the geosciences. As individual states review and make decisions about what role the NGSS will play in their standards, it is important for college and university science teacher preparation programs to prepare current and future teachers to become more comfortable with designing research investigations, controlling variables, anticipating cross-disciplinary connections, refining and analyzing data, and communicating the findings of real and contrived scientific investigation. Many undergraduate and professional development research possibilities exist through high altitude ballooning, including: microbiological experimentation at high altitudes, microcontroller use for context-specific data collection, near-space system development and design, balloon flight-track modeling, and more. Example projects and findings will be shared. Equally important to creating appropriate learning activities to address NGSS expectations is understanding the context-specific needs and available resources existing in K-12 science classrooms. Findings from semi-structured interviews with a focus group of pre-service and practicing teachers will be presented -- from both participants and non-participants in high altitude ballooning activities -- related to how high altitude ballooning could be (or already is) being used to meet NGSS and state science standards. The two primary outcomes of the presentation are to: 1) inform science teacher preparation programs for purposes of structuring useful and appropriate science methods activities; 2) frame the K-12

  10. Pre-School Child Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This activity kit was designed for parents to use with their preschool children and focuses on the development of skills through play. Sixty activities are described. Descriptions are accompanied by a photograph, a list of materials needed, directions, the purpose of the activity, and a statement of what the child will learn from it. Many of the…

  11. Active RNAP pre-initiation sites are highly mutated by cytidine deaminases in yeast, with AID targeting small RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Benjamin JM; Wu, Yee Ling; Rada, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Cytidine deaminases are single stranded DNA mutators diversifying antibodies and restricting viral infection. Improper access to the genome leads to translocations and mutations in B cells and contributes to the mutation landscape in cancer, such as kataegis. It remains unclear how deaminases access double stranded genomes and whether off-target mutations favor certain loci, although transcription and opportunistic access during DNA repair are thought to play a role. In yeast, AID and the catalytic domain of APOBEC3G preferentially mutate transcriptionally active genes within narrow regions, 110 base pairs in width, fixed at RNA polymerase initiation sites. Unlike APOBEC3G, AID shows enhanced mutational preference for small RNA genes (tRNAs, snoRNAs and snRNAs) suggesting a putative role for RNA in its recruitment. We uncover the high affinity of the deaminases for the single stranded DNA exposed by initiating RNA polymerases (a DNA configuration reproduced at stalled polymerases) without a requirement for specific cofactors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03553.001 PMID:25237741

  12. Effect of pre- and post-weaning high-fat dietary manipulation on intestinal microflora and alkaline phosphatase activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Šefčíková, Z; Bujňáková, D

    2017-04-12

    We investigated the impact of a high-fat (HF) diet during pre- and post-weaning periods on the intestinal microbiota and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in male rats. Nutrition from birth was influenced by feeding rat dams with either a standard or HF diet. After weaning male pups nursed by control dams continued on a standard diet (CC) or HF diet (C->HF), while offspring nursed by HF dams continued on HF diet (HF) or standard diet (HF->C). The numbers of Bacteriodes/Prevotella (BAC) and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus (LAB) in the gut were determined by FISH technique. HF pups displayed enhanced adiposity and increased AP activity (19%), as well as higher LAB (P<0.001) and lower numbers of BAC (P<0.001) in the jejunum and colon than controls. In HF->C rats, post-weaning lower fat intake resulted in decreased fat deposition accompanied by reduced AP activity (20%) compared to HF rats. Composition of the intestinal microbiota in these rats was not influenced. In contrast, in comparison with controls, C->HF rats displayed higher LAB (P<0.001) and lower BAC (P<0.001) together with increased adiposity and AP activity (14%). These results indicate that consumption of diet with different fat content could modulate gut microbial/functional conditions depending on the period when the nutritional manipulation occurs.

  13. "You Know I Hate It when People Half Ass Things": A Case Study of a High School Science Student and the Role of Pre-Instructional Activities, Goal Orientation, and Self-Efficacy in Learning with Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Samuel Arthur

    2010-01-01

    This single subject case study followed a high school student and his use of a simulation of marine ecosystems. The study examined his metaworld, motivation, and learning before, during and after using the simulation. A briefing was conceptualized based on the literature on pre-instructional activities, advance organizers, and performance…

  14. "You Know I Hate It when People Half Ass Things": A Case Study of a High School Science Student and the Role of Pre-Instructional Activities, Goal Orientation, and Self-Efficacy in Learning with Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Samuel Arthur

    2010-01-01

    This single subject case study followed a high school student and his use of a simulation of marine ecosystems. The study examined his metaworld, motivation, and learning before, during and after using the simulation. A briefing was conceptualized based on the literature on pre-instructional activities, advance organizers, and performance…

  15. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required pre-filing activity. 655.1302... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1302 Required pre-filing activity. (a) Time of filing of... pre-filing recruitment steps set forth in this section have been fully satisfied, except...

  16. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Required pre-filing activity. 655.1302... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1302 Required pre-filing activity. (a) Time of filing of... pre-filing recruitment steps set forth in this section have been fully satisfied, except...

  17. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Required pre-filing activity. 655.1302... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1302 Required pre-filing activity. (a) Time of filing of... pre-filing recruitment steps set forth in this section have been fully satisfied, except...

  18. 29 CFR 96.52 - Pre-resolution phase activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pre-resolution phase activities. 96.52 Section 96.52 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.52 Pre-resolution phase activities. (a) Submission of reports. Recipients and subrecipients...

  19. 29 CFR 96.52 - Pre-resolution phase activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-resolution phase activities. 96.52 Section 96.52 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.52 Pre-resolution phase activities. (a) Submission of reports. Recipients and...

  20. 29 CFR 96.52 - Pre-resolution phase activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-resolution phase activities. 96.52 Section 96.52 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.52 Pre-resolution phase activities. (a) Submission of reports. Recipients and...

  1. 29 CFR 96.52 - Pre-resolution phase activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-resolution phase activities. 96.52 Section 96.52 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.52 Pre-resolution phase activities. (a) Submission of reports. Recipients and...

  2. Palladacycle containing nitrogen and selenium: highly active pre-catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction and unprecedented conversion into nano-sized Pd17Se15.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gyandshwar Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Singh, Ajai Kumar

    2010-08-28

    Newly synthesized, air and moisture insensitive palladacycle [PdCl(L-H)] (L = (C(6)H(5))(2-HOC(6)H(4))CHNH(CH(2))(3)SePh; a (N, Se, C(-)) ligand) shows high catalytic activity for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction of phenylboronic acid with aryl/heteroaryl chlorides/bromides (TON for aryl chlorides up to 9200) and is converted to approximately 8 nm size particles of Pd(17)Se(15) (probably the real catalyst).

  3. Parental education and physical activity in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S; Ricardo, N; Soares-Miranda, L; Santos, R; Moreira, C; Mota, J

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess pre-school children's total physical activity (TPA) patterns and compliance with guidelines and to examine differences relative to parental education. The sample consisted on 509 healthy pre-school children, aged 3-6 years recruited from kindergartens located in the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal. The PA was assessed for 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. For TPA, we followed the guidelines of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play). For TPA, we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >60  min per day in active play. Parental education was analysed according to the Portuguese education system. Children with parents in the highest education level were less active than children from low and middle education level (P ≤ 0.001) in all patterns of PA (week and weekend). Regarding TPA during the week we found that the majority of children from low and middle parental education meet the NASPE guidelines. On the other hand, more than half the children from high parental education did not meet these recommendations (P ≤ 0.001) and MVPA recommendations (P ≤ 0.05). In both recommendations, children from low parental education were twice more likely to meet the recommendations compared with children belonging to high parental education. Parent education was negatively associated with children's daily physical activity patterns and compliance with guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Surface modification and deuterium retention in reduced-activation steels under low-energy deuterium plasma exposure. Part II: steels pre-damaged with 20 MeV W ions and high heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Zhou, Z.; Sugiyama, K.; Balden, M.; Pintsuk, G.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Efimov, V.

    2017-03-01

    The reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels including Eurofer (9Cr) and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels by the addition of Y2O3 particles investigated in Part I were pre-damaged either with 20 MeV W ions at room temperature at IPP (Garching) or with high heat flux at FZJ (Juelich) and subsequently exposed to low energy (~20-200 eV per D) deuterium (D) plasma up to a fluence of 2.9  ×  1025 D m-2 in the temperature range from 290 K to 700 K. The pre-irradiation with 20 MeV W ions at room temperature up to 1 displacement per atom (dpa) has no noticeable influence on the steel surface morphology before and after the D plasma exposure. The pre-irradiation with W ions leads to the same concentration of deuterium in all kinds of investigated steels, regardless of the presence of nanoparticles and Cr content. It was found that (i) both kinds of irradiation with W ions and high heat flux increase the D retention in steels compared to undamaged steels and (ii) the D retention in both pre-damaged and undamaged steels decreases with a formation of surface roughness under the irradiation of steels with deuterium ions with incident energy which exceeds the threshold of sputtering. The increase in the D retention in RAFM steels pre-damaged either with W ions (damage up to ~3 µm) or high heat flux (damage up to ~10 µm) diminishes with increasing the temperature. It is important to mention that the near surface modifications caused by either implantation of high energy ions or a high heat flux load, significantly affect the total D retention at low temperatures or low fluences but have a negligible impact on the total D retention at elevated temperatures and high fluences because, in these cases, the D retention is mainly determined by bulk diffusion.

  5. Role of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s On-Site Representatives in pre-licensing activities for a high-level radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, P.S.; Gilray, J.

    1994-12-31

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission are required to consult with each other prior to DOE`s submittal of a license application to construct a high-level radioactive waste repository. DOE entered into an agreement which, in part, enabled NRC On-Site Representatives to be stationed at a high-level waste candidate site {open_quotes}principally to serve as a point of prompt informational exchange and consultation and to preliminary identify concerns about such investigations relating to potential licensing issues.{close_quotes} On-Site Representatives` direct observation of site characterization activities including construction of an underground studies facility (at Yucca Mountain, NV candidate site) provides NRC staff opportunities to help ensure that DOE will develop data which are appropriate to determine if the site will safely isolate waste and which will be defensible in a License Application. The On-Site Representatives, through supervision and input from the Division of High-Level Waste Management, may consult with the DOE site project office and its contractor staff on items pertaining to management and program controls necessary to satisfy NRC licensing needs, such as demonstrated application of procedural controls and technical data that will support a License Application. The On-Site Representatives interact with DOE through consultations with project staff, quality assurance workshops, observations of reviews of computer software and Q-List considerations, responses to audit and surveillance observations and day-to-day contact with DOE site management, QA staff, and technical investigators.

  6. Pre-Gibsonian observations on active touch.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin

    2016-05-01

    James J. Gibson's (1962) now-classic "Observations on Active Touch" demonstrated the superiority of active over passive touch in object discrimination tasks and thereby exposed the paradigmatic limits of preceding research. Before Gibson, according to the received view, the sense of touch had been treated as a mere receptive channel, ignoring the hand's explorative movements. This article challenges this common narrative by juxtaposing Gibson's article with research published in the German-speaking parts of Europe between the early 19th and mid-20th centuries. The concept of "active touch" did not originate from Gibson's paper alone, nor should earlier appearances of the term be treated simply as exceptional cases. On the contrary, throughout the 19th century, the concept facilitated fundamental theoretical, cross-disciplinary discussions and ultimately evolved into an object of experimental study on its own. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: a combined study of two cohorts.

    PubMed

    Cysique, Lucette A; Maruff, Paul; Brew, Bruce J

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals across pre- and post-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras. Two cohorts of HIV-infected individuals attending tertiary referral hospital outpatient clinics were studied. The cohorts represented two eras of antiretroviral medication: monotherapy (n = 51) and HAART (n = 90). Each was compared in nine neuropsychological domains in regard to the prevalence as well as pattern of neuropsychological impairment. Because the authors intended to characterize the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological deficits in nondemented advanced HIV-infected individuals, patients with a current diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex were not included. The prevalence of impairment was not significantly different across pre-HAART and HAART eras using a standard criterion to define impairment: -2 SD in two neuropsychological measures (41.1%/38.8%). Prevalence of deficits was not significantly reduced in patients with undetectable plasma viral load. The pattern of neuropsychological impairment was different across pre-HAART and HAART eras, with an improvement in attention, verbal fluency, visuoconstruction deficits, but a deterioration in learning efficiency and complex attention. This change remained even in patients with an undetectable plasma viral load, although the severity was partially diminished. Neuropsychological deficits remain common in the HAART era, essentially uninfluenced by HAART. The finding that some neuropsychological functions are improving while other are deteriorating indicates that these deficits do not reflect "burnt out" damage but rather that there is an active intracerebral process occurring, the nature of which is still to be determined.

  8. Pre-activation of aerosol particles by ice preserved in pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Pre-activation denotes the capability of particles or materials to nucleate ice at lower relative humidities or higher temperatures compared to their intrinsic ice nucleation efficiency after having experienced an ice nucleation event or low temperature before. This review presumes that ice preserved in pores is responsible for pre-activation and analyses pre-activation under this presumption. Idealized trajectories of air parcels are used to discuss the pore characteristics needed for ice to persist in pores and to induce macroscopic ice growth out of the pores. The pore width needed to keep pores filled with water decreases with decreasing relative humidity as described by the inverse Kelvin equation. Thus, narrow pores remain filled with ice well below ice saturation. However, the smaller the pore width, the larger the melting and freezing point depressions within the pores. Therefore, pre-activation due to pore ice is constrained by the melting of ice in narrow pores and the sublimation of ice from wide pores imposing restrictions on the temperature and relative humidity range of pre-activation for cylindrical pores. Ice is better protected in ink-bottle-shaped pores with a narrow opening leading to a large cavity. However, whether pre-activation is efficient also depends on the capability of ice to grow macroscopically, i.e. out of the pore. A strong effect of pre-activation is expected for swelling pores, because at low relative humidity (RH) their openings narrow and protect the ice within them against sublimation. At high relative humidities, they open up and the ice can grow to macroscopic size and form an ice crystal. Similarly, ice protected in pockets is perfectly sheltered against sublimation but needs the dissolution of the surrounding matrix to be effective. Pores partially filled with condensable material may also show pre-activation. In this case, complete filling occurs at lower RH than for empty pores and freezing shifts to lower temperatures.Pre-activation

  9. A two-year history of high bone loading physical activity attenuates ethnic differences in bone strength and geometry in pre-/early pubertal children from a low-middle income country.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Rebecca M; Avidon, Ingrid; Norris, Shane A; McVeigh, Joanne A

    2013-12-01

    We examined the interplay between ethnicity and weight-bearing physical activity on the content and volumetric properties of bone in a pre- to early pubertal South African Black and White population. Sixty six children [Black boys, 10.4 (1.4)yrs, n=15; Black girls, 10.1 (1.2)yrs, n=27; White boys, 10.1 (1.1)yrs, n=7; White girls, 9.6 (1.3)yrs, n=17] reported on all their physical activities over the past two years in an interviewer administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). All participants underwent a whole body and site-specific DXA scan and we also assessed bone structure and estimated bone strength with pQCT. Children were classified as being either high or low bone loaders based on the cohort's median peak bone strain score estimated from the PAQ. In the low bone loading group, Black children had greater femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC) (2.9 (0.08)g) than White children (2.4 (0.11)g; p=0.05). There were no ethnic differences in the high bone loaders for femoral neck BMC. At the cortical site, the Black low bone loaders had a greater radius area (97.3 (1.3) vs 88.8 (2.6)mm(2); p=0.05) and a greater tibia total area (475.5 (8.7) vs. 397.3 (14.0)mm(2); p=0.001) and strength (1633.7 (60.1) vs. 1271.8 (98.6)mm(3); p=0.04) compared to the White low bone loaders. These measures were not different between the Black low and high bone loaders or between the Black and White high bone loaders. In conclusion, the present study shows that there may be ethnic and physical activity associations in the bone health of Black and White pre-pubertal children and further prospective studies are required to determine the possible ethnic specific response to mechanical loading.

  10. Pre-activation of ice-nucleating particles by the pore condensation and freezing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert; Kiselev, Alexei; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Steinke, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    In spite of the resurgence in ice nucleation research a comparatively small number of studies deal with the phenomenon of pre-activation in heterogeneous ice nucleation. Fifty years ago, it was shown that various mineral dust and volcanic ash particles can be pre-activated to become nuclei for ice crystal formation even at temperatures as high as 270-271 K. Pre-activation was achieved under ice-subsaturated conditions without any preceding macroscopic ice growth by just temporarily cooling the particles to temperatures below 228 K. A two-step mechanism involving capillary condensation of supercooled water and subsequent homogeneous freezing was proposed to account for the particles' enhanced ice nucleation ability at high temperatures. This work reinvestigates the efficiency of the proposed pre-activation mechanism in temperature-cycling experiments performed in a large cloud chamber with suspended particles. We find the efficiency to be highest for the clay mineral illite as well as for highly porous materials like zeolite and diatomaceous earth, whereas most aerosols generated from desert dust surface samples did not reveal a measurable pre-activation ability. The pre-activation efficiency is linked to particle pores in a certain size range. As estimated by model calculations, only pores with diameters between about 5 and 8 nm contribute to pre-activation under ice-subsaturated conditions. This range is set by a combination of requirements from the negative Kelvin effect for condensation and a critical size of ice embryos for ice nucleation and melting. In contrast to the early study, pre-activation is only observed for temperatures below 260 K. Above that threshold, the particles' improved ice nucleation ability disappears due to the melting of ice in the pores.

  11. Pre-activation of ice nucleating particles by the pore condensation and freezing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Kiselev, A.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Steinke, I.

    2015-10-01

    In spite of the resurgence in ice nucleation research a comparatively small number of studies deal with the phenomenon of pre-activation in heterogeneous ice nucleation. Already fifty years ago, it was shown that various mineral dust and volcanic ash particles can be pre-activated to become nuclei for ice crystal formation even at temperatures as high as 270-271 K. Pre-activation was achieved under ice subsaturated conditions without any preceding macroscopic ice growth by just temporarily cooling the particles to temperatures below 228 K. A two-step mechanism involving capillary condensation of supercooled water and subsequent homogeneous freezing was proposed to account for the particles' enhanced ice nucleation ability at high temperatures. This work reinvestigates the efficiency of the proposed pre-activation mechanism in temperature-cycling experiments performed in a large cloud chamber with suspended particles. We find the efficiency to be highest for the clay mineral illite as well as for highly porous materials like zeolite and diatomaceous earth, whereas most aerosols generated from desert dust surface samples did not reveal a measurable pre-activation ability. The pre-activation efficiency is linked to particle pores in a certain size range. As estimated by model calculations, only pores with diameters between about 5 and 8 nm contribute to pre-activation under ice subsaturated conditions. In contrast to the early study, pre-activation is only observed for temperatures below 260 K. Above that threshold, the particles' improved ice nucleation ability disappears due to the melting of ice in the pores.

  12. Into the Woods: The Impact of Pre-Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lee

    While reading teachers have routinely introduced pre-reading activation strategies for decades, literature teachers are trained to become expert on what happens after reading, to be adept at follow-up, to be agile with close analysis of an already finished reading experience. As a result of a presentation by a reading specialist, a veteran…

  13. Activating Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' critical thinking skills are essential for fostering the development of the same skills in their students. To demonstrate how teachers' ability to examine solutions critically can be developed and supported, we analyse a classroom activity performed by a group of pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (N = 37) who were asked:…

  14. STEM Tones Pre-Activate Suffixes in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Roll, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Results from the present event-related potentials (ERP) study show that tones on Swedish word stems can rapidly pre-activate upcoming suffixes, even when the word stem does not carry any lexical meaning. Results also show that listeners are able to rapidly restore suffixes which are replaced with a cough. Accuracy in restoring suffixes correlated…

  15. High gain pre-amplifier laser beam quality evaluating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Zhang, Xue; Fan, Zhongwei

    2011-06-01

    Designed a system for the high gain laser pre-amplifier to evaluate the image quality. The system uses 4f imaging principle and Kepler type telescope was choiced, it has two advantages: avert optical distortion and eliminate aberration in the measurement system. Combined with the location of the lens inside of pre-amplifier such as the spatial filter , the near field imaging structure was designed. The structure can be reduced to 11.9 times the beam image, and clearly passed the image to the CCD target surface. The location of first positive lens focus is the location of far field image. In this article, one laser pre-amplifier was measured. The average measured near field modulation M=1.34, the average measured far field diffraction limit is 2.94. Experiments show that the stability of measuring system is less than+/-5%, it can meet the measurement requirements of ICF laser pre-amplifier parameters. Use this system we can discover the problem during the design and installation. There is great meaning for develop of laser pre-amplifier in ICF for further.

  16. P2Y2R activation by nucleotides released from the highly metastatic breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 contributes to pre-metastatic niche formation by mediating lysyl oxidase secretion, collagen crosslinking, and monocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young Nak; Jin, Hana; Eun, So Young; Park, Sang Won; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hye Jung

    2014-10-15

    Tumor microenvironmental hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) overexpression, leading to the release of lysyl oxidase (LOX), which crosslinks collagen at distant sites to facilitate environmental changes that allow cancer cells to easily metastasize. Our previous study showed that activation of the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) by ATP released from MDA-MB-231 cells increased MDA-MB-231 cell invasion through endothelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of P2Y2R in breast cancer cell metastasis to distant sites. ATP or UTP released from hypoxia-treated MDA-MB-231 cells induced HIF-1α expression and LOX secretion by the activation of P2Y2R, and this phenomenon was significantly reduced in P2Y2R-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, P2Y2R-mediated LOX release induced collagen crosslinking in an in vitro model. Finally, nude mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells showed high levels of LOX secretion, crosslinked collagen and CD11b+ BMDC recruitment in the lung; however, mice that were injected with P2Y2R-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells did not exhibit these changes. These results demonstrate that P2Y2R plays an important role in activation of the HIF-1α-LOX axis, the induction of collagen crosslinking and the recruitment of CD11b+ BMDCs. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation by nucleotides recruits THP-1 monocytes, resulting in primary tumor progression and pre-metastatic niche formation.

  17. P2Y2R activation by nucleotides released from the highly metastatic breast cancer cell contributes to pre-metastatic niche formation by mediating lysyl oxidase secretion, collagen crosslinking, and monocyte recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Young Nak; Jin, Hana; Eun, So Young; Park, Sang Won; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hye Jung

    2014-01-01

    Tumor microenvironmental hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) overexpression, leading to the release of lysyl oxidase (LOX), which crosslinks collagen at distant sites to facilitate environmental changes that allow cancer cells to easily metastasize. Our previous study showed that activation of the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) by ATP released from MDA-MB-231 cells increased MDA-MB-231 cell invasion through endothelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of P2Y2R in breast cancer cell metastasis to distant sites. ATP or UTP released from hypoxia-treated MDA-MB-231 cells induced HIF-1α expression and LOX secretion by the activation of P2Y2R, and this phenomenon was significantly reduced in P2Y2R-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, P2Y2R-mediated LOX release induced collagen crosslinking in an in vitro model. Finally, nude mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells showed high levels of LOX secretion, crosslinked collagen and CD11b+ BMDC recruitment in the lung; however, mice that were injected with P2Y2R-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells did not exhibit these changes. These results demonstrate that P2Y2R plays an important role in activation of the HIF-1α–LOX axis, the induction of collagen crosslinking and the recruitment of CD11b+ BMDCs. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation by nucleotides recruits THP-1 monocytes, resulting in primary tumor progression and pre-metastatic niche formation. PMID:25238333

  18. The Prediabetes Detection and Physical Activity Intervention Delivery (PRE-PAID) program.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Chip P; Riddell, Michael C; Jamnik, Veronica K

    2013-12-01

    Inspired by increases in the prevalence and incidence of prediabetes, the Pre-diabetes Detection and Physical Activity Intervention Delivery Project (PRE-PAID) is a multiphasic program that identifies persons at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, provides an opportunity for culturally appropriate, community-based physical activity and facilitates training of qualified exercise professionals on diabetes screening as well as prediabetes-specific training recommendations. This article provides an overview of the PRE-PAID project and includes some preliminary screening data, as well as lessons learned from the implementation of community-based physical activity programs that target specific, high-risk ethnicities. Recommendations and special considerations involving physical activity that targets persons with prediabetes also are discussed. A total of 691 individuals have undergone the PRE-PAID risk-identification process, which involves a brief questionnaire and point-of-care finger-prick hemoglobin A1C testing. The mean hemoglobin A1C level was 6.0±0.90% (mean ± standard deviation). Questionnaire scores showed that, on average, the individuals screened had 3 to 5 typical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as high body mass index, waist circumference, physical inactivity or family history of diabetes. Community-specific breakdowns of these results also are presented in this article. Sharing experiences from the PRE-PAID project can help formulate a framework for future prediabetes screening and physical activity interventions that are community based, target persons with prediabetes and are culturally appropriate.

  19. Effects of pre-industrial human activities on climate.

    PubMed

    Robock, A; Graf, H F

    1994-09-01

    Pre-industrial human activities which changed the atmospheric greenhouse gas or aerosol loading, or which modified the properties of the earth's surface, such as albedo, roughness, or vegetation cover, had the potential to modify the regional or even global climate. The primary activities which could have produced these effects were deforestation, burning, and agriculture. These activities were not independent, and often occurred together. Deforestation could have produced warming or cooling at the surface, and different effects on different scales, depending on the fate of the biomass removed and the new use of the land. Burning is much less now than it was in the past in some regions, which would have produced warming as the burning decreased. This may be a partial explanation for the Little Ice Age. While a thorough survey of such pre-industrial human activities is called for, current information indicates that regional climatic effects were large in some regions, such as western North America, and hemispheric or global effects were possible. Once these pre-industrial human climatic forcing factors are better quantified, existing numerical models of the climate can be used to examine the impacts on regional and global scales.

  20. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Stellar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuin, N. Paul

    The best known low mass pre-main sequence stars, the T Tauri stars. have very active chromospheres and show a variable emission line spectrum. There is a large variety in activity amongst than. Recently another type of pre-main sequence stars was identified which may be post T Tauri stars (PTTS) and were named 'naked T Tauri stars' (NTTS). These PTTS/NTTS are strong X-Ray sources, and do not have a T Tauri type spectrum. The age of these sources is comparable to those of the T Tauri stars, which implies that either the activity evolves much faster in pre-main sequence stars than the timescale in which they move towards the main sequence, or that an external source is responsible for their activity. We propose to obtain low resolution long- and short wavelength RE spectra of two of the PTTS/NTTS and of a T Tauri star of comparable activity. Archival data will be used from three other T Tauri stars having larger activity. The data will enable us to derive models for the chromosphere and transition region. Those will clarify whether there is a gradual change in activity, or a sudden one as way be caused by the closing up of an open magnetic field. Because they cover a large range in chromoshperic activity the models will enable us to improve the alfven wave wind models used for T Tau and RU Lup. In particular the question of the wave dissipation scale length and wave leakage will be considered.

  1. Catalytic activation of pre-substrates via dynamic fragment assembly on protein templates.

    PubMed

    Burda, Edyta; Rademann, Jörg

    2014-11-18

    Sensitive detection of small molecule fragments binding to defined sites of biomacromolecules is still a considerable challenge. Here we demonstrate that protein-binding fragments are able to induce enzymatic reactions on the protein surface via dynamic fragment ligation. Fragments binding to the S1 pocket of serine proteases containing a nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur nucleophile are found to activate electrophilic pre-substrates through a reversible, covalent ligation reaction. The dynamic ligation reaction positions the pre-substrate molecule at the active site of the protein thereby inducing its enzymatic cleavage. Catalytic activation of pre-substrates is confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The approach is investigated with 3 pre-substrates and 14 protein-binding fragments and the specific activation and the templating effect exerted by the enzyme is quantified for each protease-fragment-pre-substrate combination. The described approach enables the site-specific identification of protein-binding fragments, the functional characterization of enzymatic sites and the quantitative analysis of protein template-assisted ligation reactions.

  2. Accuracy of highly sexually active gay and bisexual men's predictions of their daily likelihood of anal sex and its relevance for intermittent event-driven HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine highly sexually active gay and bisexual men's accuracy in predicting their sexual behavior for the purposes of informing future research on intermittent, event-driven HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Design For 30 days, 92 HIV-negative men completed a daily survey about their sexual behavior (n = 1,688 days of data) and indicated their likelihood of having anal sex with a casual male partner the following day. Method We utilized multilevel modeling to analyze the association between self-reported likelihood of and subsequent engagement in anal sex. Results We found a linear association between men's reported likelihood of anal sex with casual partners and the actual probability of engaging in sex, though men overestimated the likelihood of sex. Overall, we found that men were better at predicting when they would not have sex than when they would, particularly if any likelihood value greater than 0% was treated as indicative that sex might occur. We found no evidence that men's accuracy of prediction was affected by whether it was a weekend or whether they were using substances, though both did increase the probability of sex. Discussion These results suggested that, were men taking event-driven intermittent PrEP, 14% of doses could have been safely skipped with a minimal rate of false negatives using guidelines of taking a dose unless there was no chance (i.e., 0% likelihood) of sex on the following day. This would result in a savings of over $1,300 per year in medication costs per participant. PMID:25559594

  3. Chromospheric Activity in Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Theodore

    IUE observations of solar-type stars show a decline of chromospheric and TR emission with age. For main-sequence stars older than 100 million yr, this decay is exponential from a plateau defined by the youngest stars. At an age of ~1 million yr, the pre-main-sequence T Tauri stars have UV emission line fluxes some 2 orders of magnitude above the plateau for mainsequence stars. This suggests that chromospheric activity in the T Tauri stars falls to the levels of the older stars by a separate decay scheme. The decline in pre-mainsequence activity may be caused by the evolutionary shallowing of the convection zone, while on the main-sequence it is due to the star's spindown. This hypothesis needs confirmation, but relatively few T Tauri stars have been observed by IUE. Since the majority of the T Tauri stars thus far observed are probably more massive than the Sun, it may be inappropriate to compare their UV emission with that of the older I Mo dwarf stars. We propose here to observe the ultraviolet chromospheric and TR lines of pre-main-sequence stars we believe to be of ~1 M(sun). We have chosen a sample of low-luminosity M-type T Tauri stars from the T-associations in Lupus; if evolutionary tracks have any validity, a large fraction of those stars should be close to 1 M(sun)in mass. In order to place the stars more accurately on the H-R diagram and to determine their rotation rates (for comparison with the mainsequence stars), we plan concurrent visual spectroscopy and visual-infrared photometry.

  4. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and paraoxonase activity in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Demir, B; Demir, S; Atamer, Y; Guven, S; Atamer, A; Kocyigit, Y; Hekimoglu, A; Toprak, G

    2011-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and the oxidation of lipoproteins were investigated in 35 women with pre-eclampsia and in 35 healthy control women with normal pregnancies. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and PON1 activity were assessed. There were no significant between-group differences in subject age, gestational age at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and ApoB levels. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum Lp(a) were significantly higher in subjects with pre-eclampsia than in controls. Mean serum HDL, ApoA1 and PON1 activity were significantly lower in subjects with pre-eclampsia compared with controls. In conclusion, lipids and oxidized lipoproteins may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  5. 78 FR 44572 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Pre-Launch Activities Importation Requests; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Pre-Launch Activities... entitled ``Pre-Launch Activities Importation Requests (PLAIR).'' This draft guidance describes FDA's policy... announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Pre-Launch Activities...

  6. Travel to high altitude with pre-existing lung disease.

    PubMed

    Luks, A M; Swenson, E R

    2007-04-01

    The pathophysiology of high-altitude illnesses has been well studied in normal individuals, but little is known about the risks of high-altitude travel in patients with pre-existing lung disease. Although it would seem self-evident that any patient with lung disease might not do well at high altitude, the type and severity of disease will determine the likelihood of difficulty in a high-altitude environment. The present review examines whether these individuals are at risk of developing one of the main forms of acute or chronic high-altitude illness and whether the underlying lung disease itself will get worse at high elevations. Several groups of pulmonary disorders are considered, including obstructive, restrictive, vascular, control of ventilation, pleural and neuromuscular diseases. Attempts will be made to classify the risks faced by each of these groups at high altitude and to provide recommendations regarding evaluation prior to high-altitude travel, advice for or against taking such excursions, and effective prophylactic measures.

  7. Helioseismology of pre-emerging active regions. III. Statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    The subsurface properties of active regions (ARs) prior to their appearance at the solar surface may shed light on the process of AR formation. Helioseismic holography has been applied to samples taken from two populations of regions on the Sun (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, that were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Paper I. Paper II showed that there are statistically significant signatures in the average helioseismic properties that precede the formation of an AR. This paper describes a more detailed analysis of the samples of pre-emergence regions and regions without emergence based on discriminant analysis. The property that is best able to distinguish the populations is found to be the surface magnetic field, even a day before the emergence time. However, after accounting for the correlations between the surface field and the quantities derived from helioseismology, there is still evidence of a helioseismic precursor to AR emergence that is present for at least a day prior to emergence, although the analysis presented cannot definitively determine the subsurface properties prior to emergence due to the small sample sizes.

  8. Why Change to Active Learning? Pre-Service and In-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Audrey; Simmie, Geraldine Mooney; Kennedy, Therese

    2014-01-01

    This article explores pre-service and in-service science teachers' perceptions on active learning, and examines the effectiveness of active learning by pre-service science teachers in the Irish second level classroom through a two-phase study. In the first phase, data on perceptions were gathered from final year pre-service teachers and in-service…

  9. Examination of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities Using Problem Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Didem Inel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, both the activities prepared by pre-service science teachers regarding the Problem Based Learning method and the pre-service science teachers' views regarding the method were examined before and after applying their activities in a real class environment. 69 pre-service science teachers studying in the 4th grade of the science…

  10. Why Change to Active Learning? Pre-Service and In-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Audrey; Simmie, Geraldine Mooney; Kennedy, Therese

    2014-01-01

    This article explores pre-service and in-service science teachers' perceptions on active learning, and examines the effectiveness of active learning by pre-service science teachers in the Irish second level classroom through a two-phase study. In the first phase, data on perceptions were gathered from final year pre-service teachers and in-service…

  11. Apollo Director Phillips Monitors Apollo 11 Pre-Launch Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    From the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) control room, Apollo Program Director Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips monitors pre-launch activities for Apollo 11. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the KSC in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. Real-World Literacy Activity in Pre-School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we share real-world literacy activities that we designed and implemented in two early literacy classes for preschoolers from two inner-city neighbourhoods that were part of an intergenerational family literacy program, Literacy for Life (LFL). The program was informed by research that shows that young children in high literate…

  13. Real-World Literacy Activity in Pre-School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we share real-world literacy activities that we designed and implemented in two early literacy classes for preschoolers from two inner-city neighbourhoods that were part of an intergenerational family literacy program, Literacy for Life (LFL). The program was informed by research that shows that young children in high literate…

  14. Impacts of inoculum pre-treatments on enzyme activity and biochemical methane potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Strömberg, Sten; Nges, Ivo Achu; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were carried out to investigate the influence of inoculum pre-treatments (filtration and pre-incubation) on methane production from cellulose and wheat straw. First-order model and Monod model were used to evaluate the kinetic constants of the BMP assays. The results demonstrated that fresh inoculum was the best option to perform BMP tests. This was evidenced by highest enzyme activity (0.11 U/mL) and highest methane yields for cellulose (356 NmL CH4/gVS) as well as wheat straw (261 NmL CH4/gVS). Besides, high biodegradability (85.8% for cellulose and 61.3% for wheat straw) was also obtained when the fresh inoculum was used. Moreover, a kinetic evaluation showed that inoculum pre-incubation at 37°C or storage at 4°C introduced a lag-time whereas the effects on hydrolysis rate were less consequent. In summary, pre-treatments affected the enzyme activity of the inoculum, and further on, significantly influenced the methane production and the degradation kinetics of the investigated substrates. It is recommended that filtration of inoculum should be avoided unless in case too large particles therein.

  15. 77 FR 74279 - Agency Information Collection (Pre-Discharge Compensation Claim): Activity under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Pre-Discharge Compensation Claim): Activity under OMB Review AGENCY....rennie@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0743.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Pre... currently approved collection. Abstract: The Pre-Discharge Compensation Claim form will be used by...

  16. 78 FR 38452 - Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0524.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment... collection. Abstract: VA personnel use the form to document pre-employment history and conduct...

  17. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type of... the pre-need burial program should be extended to all Veterans and service members, and not limited...

  18. 77 FR 60028 - Proposed Information Collection (Pre-Discharge Compensation Claim) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Pre-Discharge Compensation Claim) Activity: Comment Request... comments on the information required from service members to participate in the pre- discharge claims.... Title: Pre-Discharge Compensation Claim. OMB Control Number: 2900-0743. Type of Review: Extension of...

  19. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27148029

  20. Biological pre-treatment: Enhancing biogas production using the highly cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Mutschlechner, Mira; Illmer, Paul; Wagner, Andreas Otto

    2015-09-01

    With regard to renewable sources of energy, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a desirable endeavor. However, the highly heterogeneous structure of lignocellulose restricts the exploitation of its promising potential in biogas plants. Hence, effective pre-treatment methods are decisive prerequisites to overcome these challenges in order to improve the utilization ratio of (ligno) cellulosic substrates during fermentation. In the present study, the application of Trichoderma viride in an aerobic upstream process prior to anaerobic digestion led up to a threefold increase in the yield of methane and total gas in a lab-scale investigation. Due to its highly efficient cellulolytic activities, T. viride seemed to be responsible for an improved nutrient availability that positively influenced the anaerobic microbiocenosis. Aerobic pre-treatment of organic matter with T. viride is therefore a promising solution to achieve higher methane yields and degradation performances without any additional energy demand, nor undesired by-product inhibition.

  1. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention.

    PubMed

    Kottlow, Mara; Schlaepfer, Anthony; Baenninger, Anja; Michels, Lars; Brandeis, Daniel; Koenig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health. We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods. Four temporally coherent networks (TCNs)-the default mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network-were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks' pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha, and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing. We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be "online" synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  2. Zambian pre-service junior high school science teachers' chemical reasoning and ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, Asiana

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: examine junior high school pre-service science teachers' chemical reasoning; and establish the extent to which the pre-service science teachers' chemical abilities explain their chemical reasoning. A sample comprised 165 junior high school pre-service science teachers at Mufulira College of Education in Zambia. There were 82 males and 83 females. Data were collected using a Chemical Concept Reasoning Test (CCRT). Pre-service science teachers' chemical reasoning was established through qualitative analysis of their responses to test items. The Rasch Model was used to determine the pre-service teachers' chemical abilities and item difficulty. Results show that most pre-service science teachers had incorrect chemical reasoning on chemical concepts assessed in this study. There was no significant difference in chemical understanding between the Full-Time and Distance Education pre-service science teachers, and between second and third year pre-service science teachers. However, there was a significant difference in chemical understanding between male and female pre-service science teachers. Male pre-service science teachers showed better chemical understanding than female pre-service science teachers. The Rasch model revealed that the pre-service science teachers had low chemical abilities, and the CCRT was very difficult for this group of pre-service science teachers. As such, their incorrect chemical reasoning was attributed to their low chemical abilities. These results have implications on science teacher education, chemistry teaching and learning, and chemical education research.

  3. Dasatinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the Src kinase, reduces the growth and activates apoptosis in pre-neoplastic Barrett's esophagus cell lines: evidence for a noninvasive treatment of high-grade dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Inge, Landon J; Fowler, Aaron J; Paquette, Kimberly M; Richer, Amanda L; Tran, Nhan; Bremner, Ross M

    2013-02-01

    Only local ablation (radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy) or esophagectomy currently is available to treat high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Alternative treatments, specifically chemopreventive strategies, are lacking. Our understanding of the molecular changes of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus offers an opportunity to inhibit neoplastic progression of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Increased activity of the Src kinase and deregulation of the tumor suppressor p27 are features of malignant cells and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Src phosphorylates p27, inhibiting its regulatory function and increasing cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that a small molecule inhibitor of Src might reduce the growth and reverse Src-mediated deregulation of p27 in Barrett's esophagus cells. Immortalized Barrett's esophagus cell lines established from patient biopsies were treated with the Src kinase inhibitor dasatinib and evaluated for p27 localization and protein levels, as well as for effects on the cell cycle and apoptosis using flow cytometry, viability assays, and protein and RNA markers. Dasatinib reduced both Src activation and p27 phosphorylation and increased p27 protein levels and nuclear localization. These effects correlated with decreased proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, and activation of apoptosis. Analysis of biopsies of patients with Barrett's esophagus revealed the presence of phosphorylated p27 in high-grade dysplasia, consistent with in vitro findings. Dasatinib has considerable antineoplastic effects on Barrett's esophagus cell lines carrying genetic markers associated with dysplasia, which correlates with the reversal of p27 deregulation. These findings suggest that dasatinib has potential as a treatment for patients with high-grade dysplasia and Barrett's esophagus and that p27 holds promise as a biomarker in the clinical use of dasatinib in patients with high-grade dysplasia and Barrett

  4. Army Pre-Positioned Stocks and High-Speed Sealift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    5 One 2x1 Bde Set (Qatar) One 2x1 Bde Set (Kuwait) APS-3 One 2x2 Bde Set (Diago Garcia) One 1x1 Bde Set (Diago Garcia) APS-3 Saipan APS-1 CONUS...Army pre-positioned an additional one brigade set (second brigade set was a 1x1 brigade) and pre-positioned as part of APS-3 on two LARGE Medium Speed...a 1x1 brigade set in addition to port opening equipment, sustainment stocks and ammunition for a contingency corps of five and a third (5 1/3

  5. Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Joan; Vena, John; Brasure, John; Freudenheim, Jo; Graham, Saxon

    2003-01-01

    Examined associations between leisure time and occupational physical activity (PA) across the lifespan and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Data on women age 40-85 years indicated that strenuous PA related to reduced breast cancer risk among both pre- and postmenopausal women. The effects were strongest for women active at least 20 years…

  6. Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Joan; Vena, John; Brasure, John; Freudenheim, Jo; Graham, Saxon

    2003-01-01

    Examined associations between leisure time and occupational physical activity (PA) across the lifespan and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Data on women age 40-85 years indicated that strenuous PA related to reduced breast cancer risk among both pre- and postmenopausal women. The effects were strongest for women active at least 20 years…

  7. C/EBPα Activates Pre-existing and De Novo Macrophage Enhancers during Induced Pre-B Cell Transdifferentiation and Myelopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    van Oevelen, Chris; Collombet, Samuel; Vicent, Guillermo; Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Badeaux, Aimee; Bussmann, Lars; Sardina, Jose Luis; Thieffry, Denis; Beato, Miguel; Shi, Yang; Bonifer, Constanze; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcription-factor-induced somatic cell conversions are highly relevant for both basic and clinical research yet their mechanism is not fully understood and it is unclear whether they reflect normal differentiation processes. Here we show that during pre-B-cell-to-macrophage transdifferentiation, C/EBPα binds to two types of myeloid enhancers in B cells: pre-existing enhancers that are bound by PU.1, providing a platform for incoming C/EBPα; and de novo enhancers that are targeted by C/EBPα, acting as a pioneer factor for subsequent binding by PU.1. The order of factor binding dictates the upregulation kinetics of nearby genes. Pre-existing enhancers are broadly active throughout the hematopoietic lineage tree, including B cells. In contrast, de novo enhancers are silent in most cell types except in myeloid cells where they become activated by C/EBP factors. Our data suggest that C/EBPα recapitulates physiological developmental processes by short-circuiting two macrophage enhancer pathways in pre-B cells. PMID:26235892

  8. C/EBPα Activates Pre-existing and De Novo Macrophage Enhancers during Induced Pre-B Cell Transdifferentiation and Myelopoiesis.

    PubMed

    van Oevelen, Chris; Collombet, Samuel; Vicent, Guillermo; Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Badeaux, Aimee; Bussmann, Lars; Sardina, Jose Luis; Thieffry, Denis; Beato, Miguel; Shi, Yang; Bonifer, Constanze; Graf, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    Transcription-factor-induced somatic cell conversions are highly relevant for both basic and clinical research yet their mechanism is not fully understood and it is unclear whether they reflect normal differentiation processes. Here we show that during pre-B-cell-to-macrophage transdifferentiation, C/EBPα binds to two types of myeloid enhancers in B cells: pre-existing enhancers that are bound by PU.1, providing a platform for incoming C/EBPα; and de novo enhancers that are targeted by C/EBPα, acting as a pioneer factor for subsequent binding by PU.1. The order of factor binding dictates the upregulation kinetics of nearby genes. Pre-existing enhancers are broadly active throughout the hematopoietic lineage tree, including B cells. In contrast, de novo enhancers are silent in most cell types except in myeloid cells where they become activated by C/EBP factors. Our data suggest that C/EBPα recapitulates physiological developmental processes by short-circuiting two macrophage enhancer pathways in pre-B cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre- to Post-operative Changes in Physical Activity: Report from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Hsu, Jesse Y; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Eid, George M; Flum, David R; Mitchell, James E; Pender, John R; Smith, Mark D; Steffen, Kristine J; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies report that bariatric surgery patients report more physical activity (PA) after surgery than before, but the quality of PA assessment has been questionable. Methods The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a 10-center longitudinal study of adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Of 2458 participants, 455 were given an activity monitor, which records steps/minute, and an exercise diary before and 1 year after surgery. Mean step/day, active minutes/day, and high-cadence minutes/week were calculated for 310 participants who wore the monitor at least 10 hours/day for at least 3 days at both time points. Pre- and post-surgery PA were compared for differences using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Generalized Estimating Equations identified independent pre-operative predictors of post-operative PA. Results PA increased significantly (p<.0001) pre- to post-operative for all PA measures. Median values pre- and post-operative were: 7563 and 8788 steps/day; 309 and 340 active minutes/day; and 72 and 112 high-cadence minutes/week, respectively. However, depending on the PA measure, 24–29% of participants were at least 5% less active post-operative than pre-operative. Controlling for surgical procedure, sex, age and BMI, higher PA preoperative independently predicted higher PA post-operative (p<.0001, all PA measures). Less pain, not having asthma and self-report of increasing PA as a weight loss strategy pre-operative also independently predicted more high-cadence minutes/week post-operative (p<.05). Conclusion The majority of adults increase their PA level following bariatric surgery. However, most remain insufficiently active and some become less active. Increasing PA, addressing pain and treating asthma prior to surgery may have a positive impact on post-operative PA. PMID:21944951

  10. Effects of chronic caffeine pre-exposure on conditioned and unconditioned psychomotor activity induced by nicotine and amphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Palmatier, M I; Fung, E Y K; Bevins, R A

    2003-05-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of chronic pre-exposure to caffeine on the subsequent conditioned and unconditioned locomotor activating effects of nicotine or amphetamine in rats. Rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of caffeine anhydrous (0, 10 or 30 mg/kg base) for 30 days. Conditioning (environment-drug pairings) began after the last day of caffeine pre-exposure. Pre-exposure to 30 mg/kg of caffeine enhanced the acute and chronic locomotor effects of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). A similar enhancement of activity was not seen with the high (0.421 mg/kg base) or low dose (0.175 mg/kg) of nicotine. In a drug-free test, the distinct environment paired with amphetamine and the high dose of nicotine evoked increases in activity relative to controls. Caffeine pre-exposure did not affect expression of this conditioned hyperactivity. These effects of caffeine pre-exposure on amphetamine-induced activity could not be attributed to non-specific effects of caffeine.

  11. Pre-service High School Teachers' Perceptions of Three Environmental Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Tahsin

    2003-01-01

    Identifies and describes misconceptions held by pre-service high school science teachers regarding three environmental issues: the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Indicates that many pre-service high school teachers possess an array of misconceptions about the causes and effects of each. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Pre-service High School Teachers' Perceptions of Three Environmental Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Tahsin

    2003-01-01

    Identifies and describes misconceptions held by pre-service high school science teachers regarding three environmental issues: the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Indicates that many pre-service high school teachers possess an array of misconceptions about the causes and effects of each. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. Decreased proteolytic activity of the mitochondrial amyloid-β degrading enzyme, PreP peptidasome, in Alzheimer's disease brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Nyosha; Guo, Lan; Yan, Shiqiang; Du, Heng; Pinho, Catarina Moreira; Chen, John Xi; Glaser, Elzbieta; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the neurotoxic peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been shown in brain mitochondria of AD patients and of AD transgenic mouse models. The presence of Aβ in mitochondria leads to free radical generation and neuronal stress. Recently, we identified the presequence protease, PreP, localized in the mitochondrial matrix in mammalian mitochondria as the novel mitochondrial Aβ-degrading enzyme. In the present study, we examined PreP activity in the mitochondrial matrix of the human brain's temporal lobe, an area of the brain highly susceptible to Aβ accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We found significantly lower hPreP activity in AD brains compared with non-AD age-matched controls. By contrast, in the cerebellum, a brain region typically spared from Aβ accumulation, there was no significant difference in hPreP activity when comparing AD samples to non-AD controls. We also found significantly reduced PreP activity in the mitochondrial matrix of AD transgenic mouse brains (Tg mAβPP and Tg mAβPP/ABAD) when compared to non-transgenic aged-matched mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial fractions isolated from AD brains and Tg mAβPP mice had higher levels of 4-hydroxynonenal, an oxidative product, as compared with those from non-AD and nonTg mice. Accordingly, activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly reduced in the AD mitochondria. These findings suggest that decreased PreP proteolytic activity, possibly due to enhanced ROS production, contributes to Aβ accumulation in mitochondria leading to the mitochondrial toxicity and neuronal death that is exacerbated in AD. Clearance of mitochondrial Aβ by PreP may thus be of importance in the pathology of AD.

  14. Eliminating pre-lithiation step for making high energy density hybrid Li-ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng S.

    2017-03-01

    Pre-lithiation is an indispensable step for making hybrid lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), its high cost and process complexity have greatly hindered the commercialization of LICs. Aiming to eliminate the pre-lithiation step, we propose an in-situ lithiation concept by introducing a Li+ ion source material into the positive electrode to enable the lithiation to be completed in the formation cycle. In this paper we start with the fundamental principle of LICs to discuss the requirements for Li+ ion source materials and demonstrate this concept by employing Li-rich Li2CuO2 as the Li+ ion source material, natural graphite and activated carbon (AC) as the negative and positive electrode materials. It is shown that the LICs made such behave as a pure capacitor with ability to deliver the same level of specific capacity and specific capacitance, i.e., 56 mAh g-1 and 143 F g-1 vs. the mass of AC in the voltage range between 2.8 V and 4.2 V, as those obtained from the counterpart Li/AC half-cell. The present concept is also applicable to other LICs with the negative electrode required to be pre-lithiated.

  15. Evaluation of bias associated with high-multiplex, target-specific pre-amplification

    PubMed Central

    Okino, Steven T.; Kong, Michelle; Sarras, Haya; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel PCR-based pre-amplification (PreAmp) technology that can increase the abundance of over 350 target genes one million-fold. To assess potential bias introduced by PreAmp we utilized ERCC RNA reference standards, a model system that quantifies measurement error in RNA analysis. We assessed three types of bias: amplification bias, dynamic range bias and fold-change bias. We show that our PreAmp workflow introduces only minimal amplification and fold-change bias under stringent conditions. We do detect dynamic range bias if a target gene is highly abundant and PreAmp occurred for 16 or more PCR cycles; however, this type of bias is easily correctable. To assess PreAmp bias in a gene expression profiling experiment, we analyzed a panel of genes that are regulated during differentiation using the NTera2 stem cell model system. We find that results generated using PreAmp are similar to results obtained using standard qPCR (without the pre-amplification step). Importantly, PreAmp maintains patterns of gene expression changes across samples; the same biological insights would be derived from a PreAmp experiment as with a standard gene expression profiling experiment. We conclude that our PreAmp technology can facilitate analysis of extremely limited samples in gene expression quantification experiments. PMID:27077043

  16. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…

  17. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Learning and Teaching of Activity-Based Lessons Supported with Spreadsheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 12 pre-service mathematics teachers worked in teams to develop their knowledge and skills in using teacher-led spreadsheet demonstrations to help students explore mathematics concepts, stimulate discussions and perform authentic tasks through activity-based lessons. Pre-service teachers' lesson plans, their instruction of the…

  18. 76 FR 31683 - Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: NCA PreNeed Burial...

  19. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Learning and Teaching of Activity-Based Lessons Supported with Spreadsheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 12 pre-service mathematics teachers worked in teams to develop their knowledge and skills in using teacher-led spreadsheet demonstrations to help students explore mathematics concepts, stimulate discussions and perform authentic tasks through activity-based lessons. Pre-service teachers' lesson plans, their instruction of the…

  20. Plant Activities for the Pre-Literate Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunken, Jori

    1988-01-01

    Notes several benefits that early childhood activities with plants can provide. Contains suggestions on projects involving children and narcissus bulbs, birdseed gardens, and amaryllis. Includes several extentions to the activities which deal with art and dramatics. (TW)

  1. Plant Activities for the Pre-Literate Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunken, Jori

    1988-01-01

    Notes several benefits that early childhood activities with plants can provide. Contains suggestions on projects involving children and narcissus bulbs, birdseed gardens, and amaryllis. Includes several extentions to the activities which deal with art and dramatics. (TW)

  2. Sono-thermal pre-treatment of waste activated sludge before anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Şahinkaya, Serkan; Sevimli, Mehmet Faik

    2013-01-01

    Sonication and thermalization can be applied successfully to disrupt the complex waste activated sludge (WAS) floc structure and to release extra and intra cellular polymeric substances into soluble phase along with solubilization of particulate organic matters, before sludge digestion. In this study, sonication has been combined with thermalization to improve its disintegration efficiency. It was aimed that rise in temperature occurring during the sonication of sludge was used to be as an advantage for the following thermalization in the combined pre-treatment. Thus, the effects of sonication, thermalization and sono-thermalization on physical and chemical properties of sludge were investigated separately under different pre-treatment conditions. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods were in the following descending order: sono-thermalization > sonication > thermalization. The optimum operating conditions for sono-thermalization were determined as the combination of 1-min sonication at 1.0 W/mL and thermalization at 80 °C for 1h. The influences of sludge pre-treatment on biodegradability of WAS were experienced with biochemical methane potential assay in batch anaerobic reactors. Relative to the control reactor, total methane production in the sono-thermalized reactor increased by 13.6% and it was more than the sum of relative increases achieved in the sonicated and thermalized reactors. Besides, the volatile solids and total chemical oxygen demand reductions in the sono-thermalized reactor were enhanced as well. However, it was determined that sludge pre-treatment techniques applied in this study was not feasible due to their high energy requirements.

  3. Student Activism: An Exploration of Pre-Service Teacher Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tol, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated university student activism from both a theoretical and applied perspective. The aims were to explore some of the elements that might enable or constrain student activism and to facilitate the students' opportunity to act on an issue of their choice. The three elements of self-efficacy, group work, and time were reviewed in…

  4. Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component Pre- and Postmobilization Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    and deployment: month of activation and return from active duty and month of deployment to theater and rede - ployment to the United States, from...Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2007. Sanzo, Rachel L., “Combat Vets Prepare Guardsmen for War Zone,” 42nd Infantry Division Public Affairs, August 15

  5. Activity Group Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenk, Agnes M.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)

  6. High-resolution Observations of Downflows at One End of a Pre-eruption Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Deng, Na; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin

    2017-06-01

    Studying the dynamics of filaments at the pre-eruption phase can shed light on the precursor of eruptive events. Such high-resolution studies (of the order of 0.″1) are highly desirable yet very rare. In this work, we present a detailed observation of a pre-eruption evolution of a filament obtained by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). One end of the filament is anchored at the sunspot in the NOAA active region (AR) 11515, which is well observed by NST Hα off-bands from four hours before to one hour after the filament eruption. A M1.6 flare is associated with the eruption. We observed persistent downflowing materials along the Hα multi-threaded component of the loop toward the AR end during the pre-eruption phase. We traced the trajectories of plasma blobs along the Hα threads and obtained a plane-of-sky velocity of 45 km s-1 on average. Furthermore, we estimated the real velocities of the downflows and the altitude of the filament by matching the observed Hα threads with magnetic field lines extrapolated from a nonlinear force-free field model. Observations of chromospheric brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma blobs are also presented. The lower limit of the kinetic energy per second of the downflows through the brightenings is found to be ˜1021 erg. Larger FOV observations from BBSO full-disk Hα images show that the AR end of the filament started ascending four hours before the flare. We attribute the observed downflows at the AR end of the filament to the draining effect of the filament rising prior to its eruption. During the slow-rise phase, the downflows continuously drained away ˜1015g mass from the filament over a few hours, which is believed to be essential for the instability, and could be an important precursor of eruptive events.

  7. Activity and growth of anammox biomass on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laureni, Michele; Weissbrodt, David G; Szivák, Ilona; Robin, Orlane; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Joss, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    Direct treatment of municipal wastewater (MWW) based on anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria holds promise to turn the energy balance of wastewater treatment neutral or even positive. Currently, anammox processes are successfully implemented at full scale for the treatment of high-strength wastewaters, whereas the possibility of their mainstream application still needs to be confirmed. In this study, the growth of anammox organisms on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (MWW(pre-treated)), amended with nitrite, was proven in three parallel reactors. The reactors were operated at total N concentrations in the range 5-20 mg(N)∙L(-1), as expected for MWW. Anammox activities up to 465 mg(N)∙L(-1)∙d(-1) were reached at 29 °C, with minimum doubling times of 18 d. Lowering the temperature to 12.5 °C resulted in a marked decrease in activity to 46 mg(N)∙L(-1)∙d(-1) (79 days doubling time), still in a reasonable range for autotrophic nitrogen removal from MWW. During the experiment, the biomass evolved from a suspended growth inoculum to a hybrid system with suspended flocs and wall-attached biofilm. At the same time, MWW(pre-treated) had a direct impact on process performance. Changing the influent from synthetic medium to MWW(pre-treated) resulted in a two-month delay in net anammox growth and a two to three-fold increase in the estimated doubling times of the anammox organisms. Interestingly, anammox remained the primary nitrogen consumption route, and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-targeted amplicon sequencing analyses revealed that the shift in performance was not associated with a shift in dominant anammox bacteria ("Candidatus Brocadia fulgida"). Furthermore, only limited heterotrophic denitrification was observed in the presence of easily biodegradable organics (acetate, glucose). The observed delays in net anammox growth were thus ascribed to the acclimatization of the initial anammox population or/and the development of a side

  8. Pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Barry, Don C.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetic activity on single solarlike stars declines with stellar age. This has important consequences for the influence of the sun on the early solar system. What is meant by stellar activity, and how it is measured, is reviewed. Stellar activity on the premain-sequence phase of evolution is discussed; the classical T Tauri stars do not exhibit solarlike activity, while the naked T Tauri stars do. The emission surface fluxes of the naked T Tauri stars are similar to those of the youngest main-sequence G stars. The best representation for solarlike stars is a decay proportional to exp(A x t exp 0.5), where A is a function of line excitation temperature. From these decay laws, one can determine the interdependences of the activity, age, and rotation periods. The fluxes of ionizing photons at the earth early in its history are discussed; there was sufficient fluence to account for the observed isotopic ratios of the noble gases.

  9. Enhancing Student Retention of Prerequisite Knowledge through Pre-Class Activities and In-Class Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann T. S.; Olofson, Eric L.; Novak, Walter R. P.

    2017-01-01

    To foster the connection between biochemistry and the supporting prerequisite concepts, a collection of activities that explicitly link general and organic chemistry concepts to biochemistry ideas was written and either assigned as pre-class work or as recitation activities. We assessed student learning gains after using these activities alone, or…

  10. Signs of Spring. A Spring Activity Packet for Pre-School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the characteristics of…

  11. Pre-β-HDL formation relates to high-normal free thyroxine in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Perton, Frank G; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2016-01-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. Associations between variation in thyroid function and pre-β-high density lipoproteins (pre-β-HDL), i.e. lipid-poor or lipid free HDL particles that act as initial acceptor of cell-derived cholesterol, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma pre-β-HDL with thyroid function in euthyroid subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, plasma (apo)lipoproteins, pre-β-HDL, pre-β-HDL formation (pre-β-HDL generation during incubation with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase being inhibited) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM and 82 non-diabetic subjects. TSH was similar and free T4 was slightly higher (P < 0.05) in T2DM vs. non-diabetic subjects. HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were lower, whereas pre-β-HDL (expressed as % of apoA-I), triglycerides and PLTP activity were higher in T2DM (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In T2DM, pre-β-HDL formation (in apoA-I concentration and in % of apoA-I) was positively related to free T4, PLTP activity, total cholesterol and triglycerides (P < 0.05 for each). Multivariable linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, PLTP activity, total cholesterol and triglycerides, demonstrated that pre-β-HDL formation was positively related to free T4 (in apoA-I concentration: β = 0.278, P = 0.014; in % of apoA-I: β = 0.343, P = 0.003) in T2DM, but not in non-diabetic subjects (both P > 0.30; interaction terms: both P < 0.05). Variations in thyroid function within the euthyroid range may influence the metabolism of pre-β-HDL in T2DM.

  12. Preparation of binderless activated carbon monolith from pre-carbonization rubber wood sawdust by controlling of carbonization and activation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Taslim, R.; Iwantono

    2013-09-01

    Binderless activated carbon monolith (ACM) was prepared from pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust (RWSD). The effect of the carbonization temperature (400, 500, 600, 700, 800 dan 900 °C) on porosity characteristic of the ACM have been studied. The optimum carbonization temperature for obtaining ACM with high surface area of 600 °C with CO2 activation at 800 °C for one hour. At this condition, the surface area as high as 733 m2 g-1 could be successfully obtained. By improved the activation temperature at 900 °C for 2.5 h, it was found that the surface area of 860 m2 g-1. For this condition, the ACM exhibit the specific capacitance of 90 F g-1. In addition the termogravimertic (TG)-differential termografimertic (DTG) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) measurement were also performed on the ACMs and the result has been studied. Finally, it was conclude that the high surface area of ACM from RWSD could be produced by proper selections of carbonization and activation condition.

  13. Optogenetic excitation of preBötzinger complex neurons potently drives inspiratory activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Alsahafi, Zaki; Dickson, Clayton T; Pagliardini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the sites and mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis is of fundamental interest in the field of respiratory neurophysiology. Previous studies demonstrated the necessary and sufficient role of preBötzinger complex (preBötC) in generating inspiratory rhythms in vitro and in vivo. However, the influence of timed activation of the preBötC network in vivo is as yet unknown given the experimental approaches previously used. By unilaterally infecting preBötC neurons using an adeno-associated virus expressing channelrhodopsin we photo-activated the network in order to assess how excitation delivered in a spatially and temporally precise manner to the inspiratory oscillator influences ongoing breathing rhythms and related muscular activity in urethane-anaesthetized rats. We hypothesized that if an excitatory drive is necessary for rhythmogenesis and burst initiation, photo-activation of preBötC not only will increase respiratory rate, but also entrain it over a wide range of frequencies with fast onset, and have little effect on ongoing respiratory rhythm if a stimulus is delivered during inspiration. Stimulation of preBötC neurons consistently increased respiratory rate and entrained respiration up to fourfold baseline conditions. Furthermore, brief pulses of photostimulation delivered at random phases between inspiratory events robustly and consistently induced phase-independent (Type 0) respiratory reset and recruited inspiratory muscle activity at very short delays (∼100 ms). A 200 ms refractory period following inspiration was also identified. These data provide strong evidence for a fine control of inspiratory activity in the preBötC and provide further evidence that the preBötC network constitutes the fundamental oscillator of inspiratory rhythms. PMID:26010654

  14. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention of pre-eclampsia: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kasawara, Karina Tamy; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Costa, Maria Laura; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; e Silva, João Luiz Pinto

    2012-10-01

    Exercise and physical activity have been studied and suggested as a way to reduce or minimize the effects of pre-eclampsia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between exercise and/or physical activity and occurrence of pre-eclampsia. We conducted electronic searches without year of publication and language limitations. This was a systematic review designed according to PRISMA. Different databases accessed were as follows: PubMed®; Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS); Scientific Electronic Library On-line (SciELO); Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro); and ISI web of Knowledge(SM) . The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were as follows: ("exercise" OR "motor activity" OR "physical activity") AND ("pre-eclampsia" OR "eclampsia" OR "hypertension, pregnancy-induced"). Inclusion criteria were studies conducted in adults who were engaged in some physical activity. The selection and methodological evaluation were carried out by two independent reviewers. Risk assessment was made by the odds ratio (OR) and incidence of pre-eclampsia in the population who performed physical activity/exercise. A total of 231 articles were found, 214 of which were excluded based on title and full-text, so that 17 remained. Comparison of six case-control studies showed that physical activity had a protective effect on the development of pre-eclampsia [OR 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.91, p < 0.01]. The 10 prospective cohort studies showed no significant difference (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.05, p= 0.81). The only randomized clinical trial showed a protective effect on the development of pre-eclampsia in the stretching group (OR 6.34, 95% CI 0.72-55.37, p= 0.09). This systematic review indicates a trend toward a protective effect of physical activity in the prevention of pre-eclampsia.

  15. JANNAF workshop on hazards due to pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results and hazards associated with the pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants are discussed. Special attention was given to future needs for modeling and the problem of deflagration to detonation transition.

  16. PRE-AND POST-ACTIVITY STRETCHING PRACTICES OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Popp, Jennifer K; Bellar, David; Hoover, Donald L; Craig, Bruce W; Leitzelar, Brianna N; Wanless, Elizabeth A; Judge, Lawrence W

    2015-02-14

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of collegiate-certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States. Participants (n= 521) were provided an overview of the study, as well as a hyperlink to a web-based survey. The "Pre- and Post-Activity Practices in Athletic Training Questionnaire" consisted of demographic items and elements to measure knowledge and practices related to pre- and post-activity stretching routines. In previous studies, the survey demonstrated construct validity, α = .722. Pearson chi-square test was used to evaluate goodness of fit, and kappa was calculated to measure agreement between items. Only 32.2% of ATs recommended dynamic stretching (DS) to be performed pre-activity, whereas a larger percentage (42.2%) recommended a combination of static stretching (SS) and DS. ATs reported that only 28.0% of athletes are performing DS prior to activity. Conversely, 60.6% of collegiate ATs recommended SS post-exercise, and 61.0% of athletes agree and perform post-workout static stretching (κ=0.761, P<0.001). Collegiate ATs appear to under-utilize the current research evidence, which indicates that DS is more beneficial than SS when used pre-activity, and ATs continue to regularly incorporate SS in their pre-activity routines. However, there is evidence that collegiate ATs in the United States emphasize SS post-activity in a manner consistent with current research.

  17. Prediction Signatures in the Brain: Semantic Pre-Activation during Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Maess, Burkhard; Mamashli, Fahimeh; Obleser, Jonas; Helle, Liisa; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    There is broad agreement that context-based predictions facilitate lexical-semantic processing. A robust index of semantic prediction during language comprehension is an evoked response, known as the N400, whose amplitude is modulated as a function of semantic context. However, the underlying neural mechanisms that utilize relations of the prior context and the embedded word within it are largely unknown. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) data while participants were listening to simple German sentences in which the verbs were either highly predictive for the occurrence of a particular noun (i.e., provided context) or not. The identical set of nouns was presented in both conditions. Hence, differences for the evoked responses of the nouns can only be due to differences in the earlier context. We observed a reduction of the N400 response for highly predicted nouns. Interestingly, the opposite pattern was observed for the preceding verbs: highly predictive (that is more informative) verbs yielded stronger neural magnitude compared to less predictive verbs. A negative correlation between the N400 effect of the verb and that of the noun was found in a distributed brain network, indicating an integral relation between the predictive power of the verb and the processing of the subsequent noun. This network consisted of left hemispheric superior and middle temporal areas and a subcortical area; the parahippocampus. Enhanced activity for highly predictive relative to less predictive verbs, likely reflects establishing semantic features associated with the expected nouns, that is a pre-activation of the expected nouns. PMID:27895573

  18. Minority Pre Co-op Program for High School Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union Carbide Corp., Oak Ridge, TN. Nuclear Div.

    In a program undertaken by Union Carbide to encourage black students to enter science and engineering studies, five black universities recruited high school graduates. The universities were: Howard Univ., North Carolina A and T State Univ., Southern Univ., Tennessee State Univ., and Tuskegee Institute. Union Carbide provided summer employment for…

  19. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  20. Pre-stimulus activity predicts the winner of top-down vs. bottom-up attentional selection.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Ali; DiQuattro, Nicholas E; Bengson, Jesse; Geng, Joy J

    2011-02-28

    Our ability to process visual information is fundamentally limited. This leads to competition between sensory information that is relevant for top-down goals and sensory information that is perceptually salient, but task-irrelevant. The aim of the present study was to identify, from EEG recordings, pre-stimulus and pre-saccadic neural activity that could predict whether top-down or bottom-up processes would win the competition for attention on a trial-by-trial basis. We employed a visual search paradigm in which a lateralized low contrast target appeared alone, or with a low (i.e., non-salient) or high contrast (i.e., salient) distractor. Trials with a salient distractor were of primary interest due to the strong competition between top-down knowledge and bottom-up attentional capture. Our results demonstrated that 1) in the 1-sec pre-stimulus interval, frontal alpha (8-12 Hz) activity was higher on trials where the salient distractor captured attention and the first saccade (bottom-up win); and 2) there was a transient pre-saccadic increase in posterior-parietal alpha (7-8 Hz) activity on trials where the first saccade went to the target (top-down win). We propose that the high frontal alpha reflects a disengagement of attentional control whereas the transient posterior alpha time-locked to the saccade indicates sensory inhibition of the salient distractor and suppression of bottom-up oculomotor capture.

  1. High compressive pre-strains reduce the bending fatigue life of nitinol wire.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Pelton, Alan R; Weaver, Jason D; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Nagaraja, Srinidhi

    2015-04-01

    Prior to implantation, Nitinol-based transcatheter endovascular devices are subject to a complex thermo-mechanical pre-strain associated with constraint onto a delivery catheter, device sterilization, and final deployment. Though such large thermo-mechanical excursions are known to impact the microstructural and mechanical properties of Nitinol, their effect on fatigue properties is still not well understood. The present study investigated the effects of large thermo-mechanical pre-strains on the fatigue of pseudoelastic Nitinol wire using fully reversed rotary bend fatigue (RBF) experiments. Electropolished Nitinol wires were subjected to a 0%, 8% or 10% bending pre-strain and RBF testing at 0.3-1.5% strain amplitudes for up to 10(8) cycles. The imposition of 8% or 10% bending pre-strain resulted in residual set in the wire. Large pre-strains also significantly reduced the fatigue life of Nitinol wires below 0.8% strain amplitude. While 0% and 8% pre-strain wires exhibited distinct low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue regions, reaching run out at 10(8) cycles at 0.6% and 0.4% strain amplitude, respectively, 10% pre-strain wires continued to fracture at less than 10(5) cycles, even at 0.3% strain amplitude. Furthermore, over 70% fatigue cracks were found to initiate on the compressive pre-strain surface in pre-strained wires. In light of the texture-dependent tension-compression asymmetry in Nitinol, this reduction in fatigue life and preferential crack initiation in pre-strained wires is thought to be attributed to compressive pre-strain-induced plasticity and tensile residual stresses as well as the formation of martensite variants. Despite differences in fatigue life, SEM revealed that the size, shape and morphology of the fatigue fracture surfaces were comparable across the pre-strain levels. Further, the mechanisms underlying fatigue were found to be similar; despite large differences in cycles to failure across strain amplitudes and pre-strain levels, cracks

  2. Identification of a pre-active conformation of a pentameric channel receptor

    PubMed Central

    Menny, Anaïs; Lefebvre, Solène N; Schmidpeter, Philipp AM; Drège, Emmanuelle; Fourati, Zaineb; Delarue, Marc; Edelstein, Stuart J; Nimigean, Crina M; Joseph, Delphine; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2017-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemical signaling through global allosteric transitions. Despite the existence of several high-resolution structures of pLGICs, their dynamical properties remain elusive. Using the proton-gated channel GLIC, we engineered multiple fluorescent reporters, each incorporating a bimane and a tryptophan/tyrosine, whose close distance causes fluorescence quenching. We show that proton application causes a global compaction of the extracellular subunit interface, coupled to an outward motion of the M2-M3 loop near the channel gate. These movements are highly similar in lipid vesicles and detergent micelles. These reorganizations are essentially completed within 2 ms and occur without channel opening at low proton concentration, indicating that they report a pre-active intermediate state in the transition pathway toward activation. This provides a template to investigate the gating of eukaryotic neurotransmitter receptors, for which intermediate states also participate in activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23955.001 PMID:28294942

  3. The variability of high intensity exercise tests in -pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Ingle, L; Tolfrey, K

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the variability of different performance tests during high intensity exercise in active, untrained pre- and early pubertal boys. Participants were habituated to the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), force-velocity test (FVt), standing broad jump (SBJ), vertical jump test (VJT) and 40 m sprint test and repeated these procedures once a week for a period of 6 weeks. 54 active, but untrained, prepubertal boys (mean±SD) (age 12.1±0.3 years, stature 1.55±0.06 m, and body mass 47.9±10.2 kg) were recruited. After Wk2, the variability of short-term power output was low in prepubertal boys, for example, for WAnT-determined peak power (CV%=3.4%; ICC=0.982; mean bias±random error=10±50 W) and this trend was also evident for tests of athletic performance (for example, the 40 m sprint test, CV%=1.3%; ICC=0.990; mean bias±random error=0.01±0.59 s). Variability was reduced further at Wk6 for all high intensity exercise tests. The findings of the current study indicate that tests of short-term power output and athletic performance are reliable from a single measurement given an appropriate period of habituation and strict standardisation of test procedures in pre- and early pubertal boys.

  4. Pre-irradiation chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, N Tubiana; Genet, D; Labrousse, F; Bouillet, P; Denes, S Lavau; Martin, J; Labourey, J L; Venat, L; Clavere, P; Moreau, J J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the response rate and toxicity of a combination of Carmustine and Cisplatin administered before radiation in patients with newly diagnosed high grade astrocytoma. A good response rate has been published with this association in primary cerebral high grade tumor. This protocol was administered in a homogeneous population of 37 adult patients with measurable tumor on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scan. After biopsy or subtotal resection, the patients received BCNU 40 mg/m2/d and CODP 40 mg/m2/d, for 3 days every 28 days for 3 cycles. Evaluation was performed before each cycle. Radiation therapy began 4 weeks after completing the chemotherapy or immediately if there was evidence of tumor progression on chemotherapy. Seven out of 37 (19%) demonstrated tumor regression with a median duration to progression of 11 months. Median survival was 6 months. Myelosuppression was the predominant but manageable toxicity. This work indicated that the first chemotherapy protocol gave poor results in a homogeneous group of patients, with bad prognosis.

  5. 75 FR 39524 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in... TSCA, 15 U.S.C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with... renovation and remodeling activities of pre-1978 housing and child-occupied facilities in the State of...

  6. Pre-irradiation testing of actively cooled Be-Cu divertor modules

    SciTech Connect

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Kuehnlein, W.

    1995-09-01

    A set of neutron irradiation tests is prepared on different plasma facing materials (PFM) candidates and miniaturized components for ITER. Beside beryllium the irradiation program which will be performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, includes different carbon fiber composites (CFQ) and tungsten alloys. The target values for the neutron irradiation will be 0.5 dpa at temperatures of 350{degrees}C and 700{degrees}C, resp.. The post irradiation examination (PIE) will cover a wide range of mechanical tests; in addition the degradation of thermal conductivity will be investigated. To determine the high heat flux (HHF) performance of actively cooled divertor modules, electron beam tests which simulate the expected heat loads during the operation of ITER, are scheduled in the hot cell electron beam facility JUDITH. These tests on a selection of different actively cooled beryllium-copper and CFC-copper divertor modules are performed before and after neutron irradiation; the pre-irradiation testing is an essential part of the program to quantify the zero-fluence high heat flux performance and to detect defects in the modules, in particular in the brazed joints.

  7. Pre- and Postnatal Women's Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Anita G.; Bray, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve…

  8. Short-term high-altitude pre-exposure improves neurobehavioral ability

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenyun; Chen, Guozhu; Qin, Jun; Zhang, Jihang; Guo, Xubin; Yu, Jie; Song, Pan; Lu, Wei; Xu, Baida; Li, Jiabei; Ding, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the duration of high-altitude (HA) pre-exposure on human neurobehavioral parameters including mood states and cognitive performance at HA. One hundred and eleven healthy individuals (ranging in age from 18 to 35 years) were recruited to participate in this study. They were divided into two groups: a 4-day short-term HA pre-exposure group (n=57) and a 3-month long-term HA pre-exposure group (n=54). All participants lived in the area at 400 m altitude above sea level before pre-exposure to HA. They were then transported to 3700 m plateau for either a 4-day or a 3-month HA pre-exposure, and finally delivered to 4400 m plateau. On the last day of pre-exposure at 3700 m and on the 10th day at 4400 m, neurobehavioral parameters of the participants in the two groups were evaluated. At the end of pre-exposure and on the 10th day of HA exposure, participants in the short-term group had significantly lower negative mood states, better cognitive performance with higher sensorimotor, attention, and psychomotor abilities, and less acute mountain sickness in comparison with the participants in the long-term pre-exposure group. Our field study with large samples showed that in comparison with 3-month long-term pre-exposure, 4-day short-term HA pre-exposure at 3700 m has a better effect in improving human neurobehavioral parameters including mood states and cognitive performance and reducing acute mountain sickness when exposed to a HA at 4400 m. PMID:26966781

  9. Disrupting pre-SMA activity impairs facial happiness recognition: an event-related TMS study.

    PubMed

    Rochas, Vincent; Gelmini, Lauriane; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Poulet, Emmanuel; Saoud, Mohamed; Brunelin, Jerome; Bediou, Benoit

    2013-07-01

    It has been suggested that the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) could be implicated in facial emotion expression and recognition, especially for laughter/happiness. To test this hypothesis, in a single-blind, randomized crossover study, we investigated the impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on performances of 18 healthy participants during a facial emotion recognition task. Using a neuronavigation system based on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of each participant, TMS (5 pulses, 10 Hz) was delivered over the pre-SMA or the vertex (control condition) in an event-related fashion after the presentation of happy, fear, and angry faces. Compared with performances during vertex stimulation, we observed that TMS applied over the left pre-SMA specifically disrupted facial happiness recognition (FHR). No difference was observed between the 2 conditions neither for fear and anger recognition nor for reaction times (RT). Thus, interfering with pre-SMA activity with event-related TMS after stimulus presentation produced a selective impairment in the recognition of happy faces. These findings provide new insights into the functional implication of the pre-SMA in FHR, which may rely on the mirror properties of pre-SMA neurons.

  10. Pre-Activation Negativity (PrAN) in Brain Potentials to Unfolding Words

    PubMed Central

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Frid, Johan; Roll, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    We describe an event-related potential (ERP) effect termed the “pre-activation negativity” (PrAN), which is proposed to index the degree of pre-activation of upcoming word-internal morphemes in speech processing. Using lexical competition measures based on word-initial speech fragments (WIFs), as well as statistical analyses of ERP data from three experiments, it is shown that the PrAN is sensitive to lexical competition and that it reflects the degree of predictive certainty: the negativity is larger when there are fewer upcoming lexical competitors. PMID:27777558

  11. Adaptive Response Induced by Pre-Exposure to 915 MHz Radiofrequency: A Possible Role for Antioxidant Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Daneshmand, M; Zal, F; Zare, R; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A

    2017-06-01

    Over the past few years, the rapid use of high frequency electromagnetic fields like mobile phones has raised global concerns about the negative health effects of its use. Adaptive response is the ability of a cell or tissue to better resist stress damage by prior exposure to a lesser amount of stress. This study aimed to assess whether radiofrequency radiation can induce adaptive response by changing the antioxidant balance. In order to assess RF-induced adaptive response in tissues, we evaluated the level of GSH and the activity of GR in liver. 50 rats were divided into 5 groups. Three groups were pre-exposed to 915 MHz RF radiation, 4 hours per day for one week at different powers, as low, medium and high. 24 hours after the last exposure to radiation, they were exposed to 4 Gy sublethal dose of gamma radiation and then sacrificed after 5 hours. Their livers were removed, washed and were kept at -80o C until used. Our finding showed that pre-exposure to 915 MHz radiofrequency radiation with specific power could induce adaptive response in liver by inducing changes in the activity and level of antioxidant enzymes. It can be concluded that pre-exposure to microwave radiation could increase the level of GSH and the activity of GR enzyme, although these increases were seen just in low power group, and the GR activity was indicated in medium power group. This increase protects tissue from oxidative damage induced by sublethal dose of gamma radiation.

  12. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using a novel indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy based on indigenous iron (in WAS) activated peroxidation to enhance methane production from WAS. Pre-treatment of WAS for 30 min at 50mg H2O2/g total solids (dry weight) and pH 2.0 (iron concentration in WAS was 7 mg/g TS) substantially enhanced WAS solubilization. Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated that methane production was improved by 10% at a digestion time of 16d after incorporating the indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment. Model-based analysis indicated that indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment improved the methane potential by 13%, whereas the hydrolysis rate was not significantly affected. The economic analysis showed that the proposed pre-treatment method can save the cost by $112,000 per year in a treatment plant with a population equivalent of 300,000. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-fracture individual characteristics associated with high total health care costs after hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Schousboe, J T; Paudel, M L; Taylor, B C; Kats, A M; Virnig, B A; Dowd, B E; Langsetmo, L; Ensrud, K E

    2017-03-01

    Older women with pre-fracture slow walk speed, high body mass index, and/or a high level of multimorbidity have significantly higher health care costs after hip fracture compared to those without those characteristics. Studies to investigate if targeted health care interventions for these individuals can reduce hip fracture costs are warranted.

  14. Mentoring Highly Aggressive Children: Pre-Post Changes in Mentors' Attitudes, Personality, and Attachment Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faith, Melissa A.; Fiala, Samuel E.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which mentoring highly aggressive children was associated with changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies. Participants were 102 college students who each mentored an aggressive, high-risk child across three academic semesters (spring, fall, spring). We examined pre- to post-mentoring…

  15. Pre-Session Satiation as a Treatment for Stereotypy During Group Activities.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia Hoher; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Lang, Russell; Goodwyn, Fara; Ninci, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy.

  16. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  17. Making Pre-Algebra Come Alive: Student Activities & Teacher Notes. Math Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posamentier, Alfred S.

    This book contains a set of versatile enrichment exercises that cover a very broad range of mathematical topics and applications in pre-algebra from the Moebius strip to the googol. Several criteria have been used in developing the activities and selecting the topics that are included. All of them bear heavily and equally on concerns for…

  18. 31 CFR 537.409 - Activities under pre-May 21, 1997 agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities under pre-May 21, 1997 agreements. 537.409 Section 537.409 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 537.409 - Activities under pre-May 21, 1997 agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities under pre-May 21, 1997 agreements. 537.409 Section 537.409 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS...

  20. Building an Understanding of Functions: A Series of Activities for Pre-Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2008-01-01

    Building block toys can be used to illustrate various concepts connected with functions including graphs and rates of change of linear and exponential functions, piecewise functions, and composition of functions. Five brief activities suitable for a pre-calculus course are described.

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Learning Styles and Preferences towards Instructional Technology Activities and Collaborative Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…

  2. The Use of Pre-Reading Activities in Reading Skills Achievement in Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah

    2016-01-01

    Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…

  3. Building an Understanding of Functions: A Series of Activities for Pre-Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2008-01-01

    Building block toys can be used to illustrate various concepts connected with functions including graphs and rates of change of linear and exponential functions, piecewise functions, and composition of functions. Five brief activities suitable for a pre-calculus course are described.

  4. 31 CFR 537.409 - Activities under pre-May 21, 1997 agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities under pre-May 21, 1997 agreements. 537.409 Section 537.409 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS...

  5. Investigating Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards the Computer Based Education in Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Nursel; Alici, Sule

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' attitudes towards using Computer Based Education (CBE) while implementing science activities. More specifically, the present study examined the effect of different variables such as gender, year in program, experience in preschool, owing a computer, and the…

  6. Structural mechanism of RPA loading on DNA during activation of a simple pre-replication complex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Klimovich, Vitaly; Arunkumar, Alphonse I; Hysinger, Erik B; Wang, Yingda; Ott, Robert D; Guler, Gulfem D; Weiner, Brian; Chazin, Walter J; Fanning, Ellen

    2006-11-29

    We report that during activation of the simian virus 40 (SV40) pre-replication complex, SV40 T antigen (Tag) helicase actively loads replication protein A (RPA) on emerging single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This novel loading process requires physical interaction of Tag origin DNA-binding domain (OBD) with the RPA high-affinity ssDNA-binding domains (RPA70AB). Heteronuclear NMR chemical shift mapping revealed that Tag-OBD binds to RPA70AB at a site distal from the ssDNA-binding sites and that RPA70AB, Tag-OBD, and an 8-nucleotide ssDNA form a stable ternary complex. Intact RPA and Tag also interact stably in the presence of an 8-mer, but Tag dissociates from the complex when RPA binds to longer oligonucleotides. Together, our results imply that an allosteric change in RPA quaternary structure completes the loading reaction. A mechanistic model is proposed in which the ternary complex is a key intermediate that directly couples origin DNA unwinding to RPA loading on emerging ssDNA.

  7. Tcra enhancer activation by inducible transcription factors downstream of pre-TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    del Blanco, Beatriz; García-Mariscal, Alberto; Wiest, David L; Hernández-Munain, Cristina

    2012-04-01

    The Tcra enhancer (Eα) is essential for pre-TCR-mediated activation of germline transcription and V(D)J recombination. Eα is considered an archetypical enhanceosome that acts through the functional synergy and cooperative binding of multiple transcription factors. Based on dimethylsulfate genomic footprinting experiments, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding Eα activation in the absence of differences in enhancer occupancy. Our data provide the molecular mechanism of Eα activation and an explanation of this paradox. We found that germline transcriptional activation of Tcra is dependent on constant phospholipase Cγ, as well as calcineurin- and MAPK/ERK-mediated signaling, indicating that inducible transcription factors are crucially involved. NFAT, AP-1, and early growth response factor 1, together with CREB-binding protein/p300 coactivators, bind to Eα as part of an active enhanceosome assembled during pre-TCR signaling. We favor a scenario in which the binding of lymphoid-restricted and constitutive transcription factors to Eα prior to its activation forms a regulatory scaffold to recruit factors induced by pre-TCR signaling. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of tissue- and signal-specific transcription factors dictates the Eα function. This mechanism for enhancer activation may represent a general paradigm in tissue-restricted and stimulus-responsive gene regulation.

  8. Adherence to physical activity and electronic media guidelines in Australian pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Okely, Anthony D; Trost, Stewart G; Steele, Julie R; Cliff, Dylan P; Mickle, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine compliance with the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guideline for physical activity and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendation for electronic media use among urban pre-school children in two large cities on the East Coast of Australia. Cross-sectional data were collected from 266 parents. Time spent using electronic media (watching television, DVDs or on the computer) and in physical activity were parent reported. The proportion who met each guideline was calculated. 56 per cent and 79% of children met the NASPE guideline on weekdays and weekends, respectively, while 73% and 70% met the AAP recommendation on weekdays and weekends, with no difference between boys and girls. A substantial minority do not meet physical activity and electronic media use recommendations, highlighting the need to better understand what factors contribute to physical activity and electronic media use among this group of pre-schoolers.

  9. HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF PRE-EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS. II. AVERAGE EMERGENCE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A. C.; Braun, D. C.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Javornik, B.

    2013-01-10

    We report on average subsurface properties of pre-emerging active regions as compared to areas where no active region emergence was detected. Helioseismic holography is applied to samples of the two populations (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, which were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Leka et al. We find that there are statistically significant signatures (i.e., difference in the means of more than a few standard errors) in the average subsurface flows and the apparent wave speed that precede the formation of an active region. The measurements here rule out spatially extended flows of more than about 15 m s{sup -1} in the top 20 Mm below the photosphere over the course of the day preceding the start of visible emergence. These measurements place strong constraints on models of active region formation.

  10. Safety and Acceptability of the PrePex Device When Used in Routine Male Circumcision Service Delivery During Active Surveillance in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mavhu, Webster; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Keatinge, Jo; Dhodho, Efison; Samkange, Christopher A.; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Mugurungi, Owen; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Cowan, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Male circumcision devices have the potential to accelerate voluntary medical male circumcision roll-out, with PrePex being one promising device. Here, we present findings on safety and acceptability from active surveillance of the implementation of PrePex among 1000 males circumcised in Zimbabwe. Methods: The first 1000 men consecutively circumcised using PrePex during routine service delivery were actively followed up. Outcome measures included PrePex uptake, attendance for postcircumcision visits, and adverse events (AEs). A survey was conducted among 500 consecutive active surveillance clients to assess acceptability and satisfaction with PrePex. Results: A total of 2156 men aged 18 years or older were circumcised across the 6 PrePex active surveillance sites. Of these, 1000 (46.4%) were circumcised using PrePex. Among them, 4 (0.4%) self-removals that required surgery (severe AEs) were observed. Six (0.6%) removals by providers (moderate AEs) did not require surgery. A further 280 (28%) AEs were mild or moderate pain during device removal. There were also 12 (1.2%) moderate AEs unrelated to pain. All AEs resolved without sequelae. There was high adherence to follow-up appointments, with 97.7% of clients attending the scheduled day 7 visit. Acceptability of PrePex was high among survey participants, 93% indicated willingness to recommend the device to peers. Of note, 95.8% of respondents reported experiencing pain when the device was being removed. Additionally, 85.2% reported experiencing odor while wearing the device or during removal. Conclusions: Active surveillance of the first 1000 men circumcised using PrePex suggests that the device is both safe and acceptable when used in routine service delivery. PMID:27331593

  11. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis.

  12. Differences in Inflammatory Markers between Nulliparous Women Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-Active versus Active Labor

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jeremy L.; Lamp, Jane M.; Lowe, Nancy K.; Gillespie, Shannon L.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Mccarthy, Donna O.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if labor-associated inflammatory markers differ between low-risk, nulliparous women in pre-active vs. active labor at hospital admission and over time. Study Design Prospective comparative study of low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term (N=118) sampled from two large Midwestern hospitals. Circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers were measured at admission and again 2 and 4 hours later: namely, neutrophil and monocyte counts; and serum inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8). Biomarker concentrations and their patterns of change over time were compared between pre-active (n=63) and active (n=55) labor admission groups using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 in the active labor admission group were significantly higher than concentrations in the pre-active labor admission group at all three time points. Neutrophil levels were significantly higher in the active group at 2 and 4 hours after admission. The rate of increase in neutrophils and IL-10 between admission and 2 hours later was faster in the active group (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Circulating concentrations of several inflammatory biomarkers are higher and their rate of change over time since admission is faster among low-risk, nulliparous women admitted to hospitals in active labor, as compared to those admitted in pre-active labor. More research is needed to determine if progressive changes in inflammatory biomarkers might be a useful adjunct to improving the assessment of labor progression and determining the optimal timing of labor admission. PMID:25086275

  13. Requirement for highly efficient pre-mRNA splicing during Drosophila early embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Guilgur, Leonardo Gastón; Prudêncio, Pedro; Sobral, Daniel; Liszekova, Denisa; Rosa, André; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila syncytial nuclear divisions limit transcription unit size of early zygotic genes. As mitosis inhibits not only transcription, but also pre-mRNA splicing, we reasoned that constraints on splicing were likely to exist in the early embryo, being splicing avoidance a possible explanation why most early zygotic genes are intronless. We isolated two mutant alleles for a subunit of the NTC/Prp19 complexes, which specifically impaired pre-mRNA splicing of early zygotic but not maternally encoded transcripts. We hypothesized that the requirements for pre-mRNA splicing efficiency were likely to vary during development. Ectopic maternal expression of an early zygotic pre-mRNA was sufficient to suppress its splicing defects in the mutant background. Furthermore, a small early zygotic transcript with multiple introns was poorly spliced in wild-type embryos. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the existence of a developmental pre-requisite for highly efficient splicing during Drosophila early embryonic development and suggest in highly proliferative tissues a need for coordination between cell cycle and gene architecture to ensure correct gene expression and avoid abnormally processed transcripts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02181.001 PMID:24755291

  14. Removal of MIB and geosmin using granular activated carbon with and without MIEX pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Drikas, Mary; Dixon, Mike; Morran, Jim

    2009-12-01

    This study assessed the impact of MIEX pre-treatment, followed by either coagulation or microfiltration (MF), on the effectiveness of pilot granular activated carbon (GAC) filters for the removal of the taste and odour compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, from a surface drinking water source over a 2-year period. Complete removal of MIB and geosmin was achieved by all GAC filters for the first 10 months, suggesting that the available adsorption capacity was sufficient to compensate for differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) entering the GAC filters. Reduction of empty bed contact time (EBCT), in all but one GAC filter, resulted in breakthrough of spiked MIB and geosmin, with initial results inconclusive regarding the impact of MIEX pre-treatment. MIB and geosmin removal increased over the ensuing 12 months until complete removal of both MIB and geosmin was again achieved in all but one GAC filter, which had been pre-chlorinated. Autoclaving and washing the GAC filters had minimal impact on geosmin removal but reduced MIB removal by 30% in all but the pre-chlorinated filter, confirming that biodegradation impacted MIB removal. The impact of biodegradation was greater than any impact on GAC adsorption arising from DOC differences due to MIEX pre-treatment. It is not clear whether, at a lower initial EBCT, MIEX pre-treatment may have impacted on the adsorption capacity of the virgin GAC. The GAC filter maintained at the longer EBCT, which was also pre-chlorinated, completely removed MIB and geosmin for the period of the study, suggesting that the greater adsorption capacity was compensating for any decrease in biological degradation.

  15. Amygdala activation in maltreated children during pre-attentive emotional processing.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Eamon J; De Brito, Stéphane A; Kelly, Philip A; Bird, Geoffrey; Sebastian, Catherine L; Mechelli, Andrea; Samuel, Sophie; Viding, Essi

    2013-04-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with significantly increased risk of psychiatric disorder. To date, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of children have mainly focused on institutionalisation and investigated conscious processing of affect. To investigate neural response to pre-attentively presented affect cues in a community sample of children with documented experiences of maltreatment in the home. A masked dot-probe paradigm involving pre-attentive presentation of angry, happy and neutral facial expressions was employed. Eighteen maltreated children were compared with 23 carefully matched non-maltreated peers. Increased neural response was observed in the right amygdala for pre-attentively presented angry and happy faces in maltreated v. non-maltreated children. Level of amygdala activation was negatively associated with age at onset for several abuse subtypes. Maltreatment is associated with heightened neural response to positive and negative facial affect, even to stimuli outside awareness. This may represent a latent neural risk factor for future psychiatric disorder.

  16. NFAT regulates pre-synaptic development and activity-dependent plasticity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Amanda; Franciscovich, Amy; Bowers, Mallory; Sandstrom, David J.; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2010-01-01

    The calcium-regulated transcription factor NFAT is emerging as a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity but precise cellular consequences of NFAT function remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the single Drosophila NFAT homolog is widely expressed in the nervous system including motor neurons and unexpectedly controls neural excitability. Likely due to this effect on excitability, NFAT regulates overall larval locomotion and both chronic and acute forms of activity-dependent plasticity at the larval glutamatergic neuro-muscular synapse. Specifically, NFAT-dependent synaptic phenotypes include changes in the number of pre-synaptic boutons, stable modifications in synaptic microtubule architecture and pre-synaptic transmitter release, while no evidence is found for synaptic retraction or alterations in the level of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule FasII. We propose that NFAT regulates pre-synaptic development and constraints long-term plasticity by dampening neuronal excitability. PMID:21185939

  17. Pre-Activity and Post-Activity Stretching Perceptions and Practices in NCAA Division I Volleyball Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Bellar, David; Bottone, Adam; Wanless, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if NCAA Division I women's volleyball programs were in compliance with suggested current pre- and post-activity stretching protocols. Questionnaires were sent to NCAA division I women's volleyball programs in the United States. Fifty six coaches (23 males & 33 females) participated in the study. Some…

  18. Relationships among diet, physical activity, and dual plane dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone outcomes in pre-pubertalgirls.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Brann, Lynn S; Bruening, Kay S; Scerpella, Tamara A; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2017-12-01

    In pre-pubertal girls, nutrient intakes and non-aquatic organized activity were evaluated as factors in vertebral body bone mass, structure, and strength. Activity, vitamin B12, and dietary fiber predicted bone outcomes most consistently. Exercise and vitamin B12 appear beneficial, whereas high fiber intake appears to be adverse for vertebral body development.

  19. Effect of pre-acclimation of granular activated carbon on microbial electrolysis cell startup and performance.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, Nicole; Yilmazel, Yasemin Dilsad; Hong, Pei-Ying; Logan, Bruce E

    2017-02-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P>0.4) for GAC acclimated to hydrogen (22±9.3nmolcm(-3)d(-1)), methanol (25±9.7nmolcm(-3)d(-1)), and a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mix (22±11nmolcm(-3)d(-1)). However, MECs started with GAC but no pre-acclimation had lower methane generation rates (13±4.1nmolcm(-3)d(-1)), and MECs without GAC had the lowest rates (0.7±0.8nmolcm(-3)d(-1) after cycle 2). Microbes previously found in methanogenic MECs, or previously shown to be capable of exocellular electron transfer, were enriched on the GAC. Pre-acclimation using GAC is therefore a simple approach to enrich electroactive communities, improve methane generation rates, and decrease startup times in MECs.

  20. Effects of a 2-year healthy eating and physical activity intervention for 3-6-year-olds in communities of high and low socio-economic status: the POP (Prevention of Overweight among Pre-school and school children) project.

    PubMed

    De Coen, Valerie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vereecken, Carine; Verbestel, Vera; Haerens, Leen; Huybrechts, Inge; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based, 2-year, multi-component intervention on BMI, eating and physical activity behaviour in Flanders, Belgium, targeting children aged 3-6 years in communities of high and low socio-economic status (SES). Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one pre-primary and primary schools in three different intervention communities and three paired-matched (on SES profile) control communities in Flanders, Belgium. BMI Z-scores at baseline and follow-up were calculated for 1102 children. Questionnaires with sociodemographic data and FFQ were available from 694 of these 1102 children. No significant effects were found on BMI Z-scores for the total sample. However, there was a significant decrease in BMI Z-score of 0·11 in the low-SES intervention community compared with the low-SES control community, where the BMI Z-score increased by 0·04 (F = 6·26, P = 0·01). No significant intervention effects could be found for eating behaviour, physical activity or screen-time. There were no significant interaction effects of age and gender of the children on the outcome variables. Although no significant effects were found for BMI Z-scores in the total sample, this intervention had a promising effect in the low-SES community of reducing excess weight gain among young children.

  1. Physical Activity, Decision-Making Abilities, and Eating Disturbances in Pre- and Postbariatric Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Merle; Langenberg, Svenja; Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Schulze, Mareike; Köhler, Hinrich; Crosby, Ross D; Marschollek, Michael; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered to have a beneficial influence on executive functioning, including decision-making. Enhanced decision-making after bariatric surgery may strengthen patients' ability to delay gratification, helping to establish appropriate eating behavior. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare a preoperative group with a postoperative group with regard to daily PA, decision-making, and eating disturbances; and (2) investigate the relationship between these variables. The study included 71 bariatric surgery candidates (55 % women, BMI [kg/m(2)] M = 46.9, SD = 6.0) and 73 postoperative patients (57 % women, BMI M = 32.0, SD = 4.1; 89 % Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 11 % sleeve gastrectomy; months postoperative M = 8.2, SD = 3.5; total weight loss [%] M = 33.2, SD = 8.9) who completed SenseWear Pro2 activity monitoring. Decision-making was assessed using a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task and eating disorder psychopathology using the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. The number of patients who were classified as physically inactive was similarly high in the pre- and postoperative groups. No group differences emerged with regard to decision-making, but the postoperative group exhibited less eating disturbances than the preoperative group. No significant associations were found between PA, decision-making, and eating behavior. Patients after bariatric surgery were not more physically active than bariatric surgery candidates, which should be considered in care programs. Additionally, future research is needed to explore the possible link between PA, patients' decision-making abilities, and eating disturbances concerning dose-response questions.

  2. High Palatoglossal Arch: A New Indication for Pre-prosthetic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Raikwar, Kanchan R; Ghodke, Monali; Garde, Janardan B; Suryavanshi, Rajendrakumar

    2016-07-01

    Pre-prosthetic surgery helps to overcome the challenge of prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient including restoration of the best masticatory function possible, combined with restoration or improvement of dental and facial esthetics. Maxillary denture prosthesis fabrication should include thorough examination of the soft palate and palatoglossal arch anatomy. This case report emphasizes on high palatoglossal arch as a rare and new cause of loss of posterior palatal seal and thereby retention of maxillary denture with rational, treated by pre-prosthetic surgery, ever reported in literature.

  3. The RNA chaperone activity of the Trypanosoma brucei editosome raises the dynamic of bound pre-mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, W.-Matthias; Voigt, Christin; Brecht, Michael; Göringer, H. Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcript maturation in African trypanosomes requires an RNA editing reaction that is characterized by the insertion and deletion of U-nucleotides into otherwise non-functional mRNAs. The reaction is catalyzed by editosomes and requires guide (g)RNAs as templates. Recent data demonstrate that the binding of pre-edited mRNAs to editosomes is followed by a chaperone-type RNA remodeling reaction. Here we map the changes in RNA folding using selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). We demonstrate that pre-mRNAs in their free state adopt intricately folded, highly stable 2D-structures. Editosome binding renders the pre-mRNAs to adopt 2D-conformations of reduced stabilities. On average about 30% of the nucleotides in every pre-mRNA are affected with a prevalence for U-nucleotides. The data demonstrate that the chaperone activity acts by increasing the flexibility of U-residues to lower their base-pairing probability. This results in a simplified RNA folding landscape with a reduced energy barrier to facilitate the binding of gRNAs. The data provide a first rational for the enigmatic U-specificity of the editing reaction. PMID:26782631

  4. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  5. Pre- to Postoperative Physical Activity Changes in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Self-Report vs. Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Jakicic, John M.; Unick, Jessica L.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G. Dean; Ryder, Beth A.; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery patients report significant pre- to postoperative increases in physical activity (PA). However, it is unclear whether objective measures would corroborate these changes. The present study compared self-reported and accelerometer-based estimates of changes in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) from pre- (pre-op) to 6 months postsurgery (post-op). Twenty bariatric surgery (65% laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding, 35% gastric bypass) patients (46.2 ± 9.8 years, 88% female, pre-op BMI = 50.8 ± 9.7 kg/m2) wore RT3 accelerometers as an objective measure of MVPA and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) as a subjective measure before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Time (min/week) spent in MVPA was calculated for the PPAQ and RT3 (≥1-min and ≥10-min bouts) at pre-op and post-op. Self-reported MVPA increased fivefold from pre-op to post-op (44.6 ± 80.8 to 212.3 ± 212.4 min/week; P < 0.005). By contrast, the RT3 showed nonsignificant decreases in MVPA for both ≥1-min (186.0 ± 169.0 to 151.2 ± 118.3 min/week) and ≥10-min (41.3 ± 109.3 to 39.8 ± 71.3 min/ week) bouts. At pre-op, the percentage of participants who accumulated ≥150-min/week of MVPA in bouts ≥10-min according to the PPAQ and RT3 was identical (10%). However, at post-op, 55% of participants reported compliance with the recommendation compared to 5% based on RT3 measurement (P = 0.002). Objectively-measured changes in MVPA from pre-op to 6 months post-op appear to be much smaller than self-reported changes. Further research involving larger samples is needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether self-report and objective PA measures are differentially associated with surgical weight loss outcomes. PMID:20379143

  6. Pre- and postsurgical biomagnetic activity in malt-type gastric lesions. A case report.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, C; Anninos, P; Polychronidis, A; Kotini, A; Adamopoulos, A; Tamiolakis, D

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the biomagnetic activity of a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-) type gastric lymphoma, and to determine if this procedure could be an adjunct to endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the assessment of the disease pre- and postsurgically. A 47-year-old female with a 2-year clinical history of a low-grade MALT-type gastric lymphoma associated with Helicobacter pylori was examined. The disease showed no histologic remission after eradication of the H. pylori infection and subsequent treatment with chemotherapy and the patient was classified as stage II EA. A decision for surgical resection was made. Biomagnetic waveform recordings were made in the target area before and after surgery and the Fourier analysis of these recordings was performed. The gastric lymphoma biomagnetic waveforms showed high amplitudes (1.8 pT) before and low amplitudes (0.6 pT) after resection. The corresponding Fourier analysis demonstrated that the maximum spectral power of the presurgical measurement was elevated (mean 235 +/- 847 pT2/Hz) compared with that obtained postsurgically (mean 725 +/- 89 pT2/Hz). The difference was of statistical significance ( p < 0.0001, t-test). Biomagnetic monitoring of gastric lymphoma, which is an entirely new diagnostic modality, could be a supplement to EUS for assessing remission or persistence of disease with medical treatment during follow up.

  7. High calorie and protein clear fluid regime for pre-operative bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J P; Little, J M

    1986-09-01

    The effect of a high calorie and protein clear fluid regime for pre-operative bowel preparation was assessed in 16 patients requiring aortic grafting for aneurysm or occlusive disease. Patients were randomized to receive either standard clear fluids or a special high calorie and protein clear fluid regime for 48 h pre-operatively. Nitrogen balance was calculated for the first 5 postoperative days. The group receiving the special high calorie and protein clear fluid regime had a consistent reduction in negative nitrogen balance on each day of the study with a mean daily negative nitrogen balance of 9.00 g compared to 12.33 g, this difference being highly significant (P = 0.004).

  8. Compressive pre-stress effects on magnetostrictive behaviors of highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, Julia R.; Na, Suok-Min; Flatau, Alison B.

    2017-05-01

    Fe-Ga (Galfenol) and Fe-Al (Alfenol) are rare-earth-free magnetostrictive alloys with mechanical robustness and strong magnetoelastic coupling. Since highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets along <100> orientations have been developed with magnetostrictive performances of ˜270 ppm and ˜160 ppm, respectively, they have been of great interest in sensor and energy harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate stress-dependent magnetostrictive behaviors in highly textured rolled sheets of NbC-added Fe80Al20 and Fe81Ga19 alloys with a single (011) grain coverage of ˜90%. A compact fixture was designed and used to introduce a uniform compressive pre-stress to those thin sheet samples along a [100] direction. As compressive pre-stress was increased to above 100 MPa, the maximum observed magnetostriction increased 42% in parallel magnetostriction along the stress direction, λ//, in highly textured (011) Fe81Ga19 thin sheets for a compressive pre-stress of 60 MPa. The same phenomena were observed for (011) Fe80Al20 (maximum increase of 88% with a 49 MPa compressive stress). This trend is shown to be consistent with published results on the effect of pre-stress on magnetostriction in rods of single crystal and textured polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy of similar compositions, and single crystal data gathered using our experimental set up. Interestingly, the saturating field (Hs) does not vary with pre-stresses, while the saturating field in rod-shaped samples of Fe-Ga increases with an increase of pre-stress. This suggests that for a range of compressive pre-stresses, thin sheet samples have larger values of d33 transduction coefficients and susceptibility than rod-shaped samples of similar alloy compositions, and hence they should provide performance benefits when used in sensor and actuator device applications. Thus, we discuss potential reasons for the unexpected trends in Hs with pre-stress, and present preliminary results from tests conducted to

  9. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Hoffman, Mattan W; Tranchina, Christopher P; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pre-exercise high energy drink on reaction time and anaerobic power in competitive strength/power athletes. In addition, the effect of the pre-exercise drink on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus was also explored. Methods Twelve male strength/power athletes (21.1 ± 1.3 y; 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; 88.6 ± 12.1 kg; 17.6 ± 3.3% body fat) underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory and were provided with either 120 ml of a high energy drink (SUP), commercially marketed as Redline Extreme® or 120 ml of a placebo (PL) that was similar in taste and appearance but contained no active ingredients. Following consumption of the supplement or placebo subjects rested quietly for 10-minutes prior to completing a survey and commencing exercise. The survey consisted of 4 questions asking each subject to describe their feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus for that moment. Following the completion of the questionnaire subjects performed a 2-minute quickness and reaction test on the Makoto testing device (Makoto USA, Centennial CO) and a 20-second Wingate Anaerobic Power test. Following a 10-minute rest subjects repeated the testing sequence and after a similar rest period a third and final testing sequence was performed. The Makoto testing device consisted of subjects reacting to both a visual and auditory stimulus and striking one out of 30 potential targets on three towers. Results Significant difference in reaction performance was seen between SUP and PL in both average number of targets struck (55.8 ± 7.4 versus 51.9 ± 7.4, respectively) and percent of targets struck (71.9 ± 10.5% versus 66.8 ± 10.9%, respectively). No significant differences between trials were seen in any anaerobic power measure. Subjective feelings of energy (3.5 ± 0.5 versus 3.1 ± 0

  10. PRE-FLARE ACTIVITY AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DURING THE EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF ENERGY RELEASE IN A SOLAR ERUPTIVE FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Bhuwan; Veronig, Astrid M.; Bong, Su-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar

    2011-12-20

    In this paper, we present a multi-wavelength analysis of an eruptive white-light M3.2 flare that occurred in active region NOAA 10486 on 2003 November 1. The excellent set of high-resolution observations made by RHESSI and the TRACE provides clear evidence of significant pre-flare activities for {approx}9 minutes in the form of an initiation phase observed at EUV/UV wavelengths followed by an X-ray precursor phase. During the initiation phase, we observed localized brightenings in the highly sheared core region close to the filament and interactions among short EUV loops overlying the filament, which led to the opening of magnetic field lines. The X-ray precursor phase is manifested in RHESSI measurements below {approx}30 keV and coincided with the beginning of flux emergence at the flaring location along with early signatures of the eruption. The RHESSI observations reveal that both plasma heating and electron acceleration occurred during the precursor phase. The main flare is consistent with the standard flare model. However, after the impulsive phase, an intense hard X-ray (HXR) looptop source was observed without significant footpoint emission. More intriguingly, for a brief period, the looptop source exhibited strong HXR emission with energies up to {approx}50-100 keV and significant non-thermal characteristics. The present study indicates a causal relation between the activities in the pre-flare and the main flare. We also conclude that pre-flare activities, occurring in the form of subtle magnetic reorganization along with localized magnetic reconnection, played a crucial role in destabilizing the active region filament, leading to a solar eruptive flare and associated large-scale phenomena.

  11. The virtual library in action: Collaborative international control of high-energy physics pre-print

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitz, P.A.; Addis, L.; Galic, H.; Johnson, T.

    1996-02-01

    This paper will discuss how control of the grey literature in high-energy physics pre-prints developed through a collaborative effort of librarians and physicists. It will highlight the critical steps in the development process and describe one model of a rapidly evolving virtual library for high-energy physics information. In conclusion, this paper will extend this physics model to other areas of grey literature management.

  12. Inhibition of mesenchymal stromal cells by pre-activated lymphocytes and their culture media.

    PubMed

    Valencic, Erica; Loganes, Claudia; Cesana, Stefania; Piscianz, Elisa; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Biagi, Ettore; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-09

    Despite having a proven immunosuppressive potential in vitro, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are reported to display variable efficacy in vivo and, in fact, their proven benefit in the clinical practice is still limited and controversial. The interplay between clinical grade MSCs and pre-activated donor lymphocytes or selected lymphocyte subsets was studied in vitro. The kinetics of MSC growth and viability was evaluated by adhesion-dependent changes of culture plate impedance and biochemically by a colorimetric assay. Activation of natural killer (NK) cells was assessed as well, using a flow cytometry assay. A strong inhibition of MSC growth was rapidly induced by the addition of pre-activated lymphocytes but not of resting lymphocytes. Inhibition seems not to be attributable to a single cell population, as similar results can be obtained by depleting NK cells or by using either selected CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes. In addition, conditioned medium (CM) from activated lymphocytes was able to inhibit MSC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, licensing with IFN-γ partially protected MSCs from pre-activated lymphocytes but not from their CM. These results suggest an inhibitory role of lymphocyte-activation-derived substances. However, the identification of a single molecule responsible for MSC inhibition remained elusive, even if preliminary experiments showed that ATP and, to a lesser extent, TNF-α might play a role. These results suggest that survival of MSCs can be affected by soluble mediators released by activated lymphocytes. Thus it can be hypothesized that MSC immunosuppressive action in vivo could be impaired by ongoing immune activation through the release of inflammatory mediators.

  13. Active Learning Applications in the History of Chemistry: Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendur, Gülten; Polat, Merve; Toku, Abdullah; Kazanci, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a History and Philosophy of Chemistry-I course based on active learning applications on the level of knowledge of pre-service chemistry teachers about the history of chemistry. The views of pre-service chemistry teachers about these activities were also investigated. The study was carried out with 38…

  14. Active Learning Applications in the History of Chemistry: Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendur, Gülten; Polat, Merve; Toku, Abdullah; Kazanci, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a History and Philosophy of Chemistry-I course based on active learning applications on the level of knowledge of pre-service chemistry teachers about the history of chemistry. The views of pre-service chemistry teachers about these activities were also investigated. The study was carried out with 38…

  15. Performance of a concurrent cognitive task modifies pre- and post-perturbation-evoked cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, George; Boe, Shaun G; Marlin, Amanda; McIlroy, William E

    2017-02-16

    Preparation for postural instability engages cortical resources that serve to optimize compensatory balance responses. Engagement of these cortical resources in cognitive dual-task activities may impact the ability to appropriately prepare and optimize responses to instability. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cognitive dual-task activities influenced cortical activity preceding and following postural instability. Postural instability was induced using a lean-and-release paradigm in 10 healthy participants. Perturbations were either temporally predictable (PRED) or unpredictable (UNPRED) and presented with (COG) or without a cognitive dual-task, presented in blocks of trials. The electroencephalogram was recorded from multiple frontal electrode sites. EEG data were averaged over 25-35 trials across conditions. Area under the curve of pre-perturbation cortical activity and peak latency and amplitude of post-perturbation cortical activity were quantified at the Cz site and compared across conditions. Performance of the concurrent cognitive task reduced the mean (SE) magnitude of pre-perturbation cortical activity in advance of predictable bouts of postural instability (PRED: 18.7(3.0)mVms; PRED-COG; 14.0(2.3)mVms). While the level of cognitive load influenced the amplitude of the post-perturbation N1 potential in the predictable conditions, there were no changes in N1 with a cognitive dual task during unpredictable conditions (PRED: -32.1(3.2)µV; PRED-COG: -50.8(8.4)µV; UNPRED: -65.0(12.2)µV; UNPRED-COG: -64.2(12.7)µV). Performance of the cognitive task delayed and reduced the magnitude of the initial gastrocnemius response. The findings indicate that pre- and post-perturbation cortical activity is affected by a cognitive distractor when postural instability is temporally predictable. Distraction also influences associated muscle responses.

  16. Cognitive control activity is modulated by the magnitude of interference and pre-activation of monitoring mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cespón, Jesús; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Simon task is used to study interference from irrelevant spatial information. Interference is manifested by longer reaction times when the required response –based on non-spatial features- is spatially incompatible with stimulus position. Interference is greater when incompatible trials are preceded by compatible trials (compatible-incompatible sequence) than when they are preceded by incompatible trials (incompatible-incompatible sequence). However, the relationships between spatial attention, interference and cognitive control have not been investigated. In the present study, we distinguished three experimental conditions according to sequential effects: same mappings (SM, compatible-compatible/incompatible-incompatible sequences: low interference), opposite mappings (OM, compatible-incompatible/incompatible-compatible sequences: high interference) and unrelated mappings (UM, central-compatible/central-incompatible sequences: intermediate interference). The negativity central contralateral (N2cc, a correlate of prevention of spatial response tendencies) was larger in OM than in SM, indicating greater cognitive control for greater interference. Furthermore, N2cc was larger in UM than in SM/OM, indicating lower neural efficiency for suppressing spatial tendencies of the response after central trials. Attentional processes (negativity posterior contralateral) were also delayed in UM relative to SM/OM, suggesting attentional facilitation by similar sets of attentional shifts in successive trials. Overall, the present findings showed that cognitive control is modulated by the magnitude of interference and pre-activation of monitoring mechanisms. PMID:27995983

  17. Enhancing student retention of prerequisite knowledge through pre-class activities and in-class reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ann T S; Olofson, Eric L; Novak, Walter R P

    2017-03-04

    To foster the connection between biochemistry and the supporting prerequisite concepts, a collection of activities that explicitly link general and organic chemistry concepts to biochemistry ideas was written and either assigned as pre-class work or as recitation activities. We assessed student learning gains after using these activities alone, or in combination with regularly-integrated clicker and discussion questions. Learning gains were determined from student performance on pre- and post-tests covering key prerequisite concepts, biochemistry course exams, and student self-evaluation. Long-term retention of the material was assessed using a comprehensive exam given to a subset of the students. Our results show that using the pre-class exercises in combination with integrative questions was effective at improving student performance in both the short and long term. Similar results were obtained at both a large research institution with large class enrollments and at a private liberal arts college with moderate enrollments. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):97-104, 2017.

  18. Pre-acclimation to low ammonia improves ammonia handling in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) when exposed subsequently to high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Datta, Surjya Narayan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    We tested whether exposing fish to low ammonia concentrations induced acclimation processes and helped fish to tolerate subsequent (sub)lethal ammonia exposure by activating ammonia excretory pathways. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were pre-exposed to 0.27mM ammonia (∼10% 96h LC50) for 3, 7 and 14days. Thereafter, each of these pre-exposed and parallel naïve groups were exposed to 1.35mM high environmental ammonia (HEA, ∼50% 96h LC50) for 12h and 48h to assess the occurrence of ammonia acclimation based on sub-lethal end-points, and to lethal ammonia concentrations (2.7mM, 96h LC50) in order to assess improved survival time. Results show that fish pre-exposed to ammonia for 3 and 7days had a longer survival time than the ammonia naïve fish. However, this effect disappeared after prolonged (14days) pre-exposure. Ammonia excretion rate (Jamm) was strongly inhibited (or even reversed) in the unacclimated groups during HEA. On the contrary, after 3days the pre-exposure fish maintained Jamm while after 7days these pre-acclimated fish were able to increase Jamm efficiently. Again, this effect disappeared after 14days of pre-acclimation. The efficient ammonia efflux in pre-acclimated fish was associated with the up-regulation of branchial mRNA expression of ammonia transporters and exchangers. Pre-exposure with ammonia for 3-7days stimulated an increment in the transcript level of gill Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b mRNA relative to the naïve control group and the up-regulation of these two Rhcg homologs was reinforced during subsequent HEA exposure. No effect of pre-exposure was noted for Rhbg. Relative to unacclimated fish, the transcript level of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE-3) was raised in 3-7days pre-acclimated fish and remained higher during the subsequent HEA exposure while gill H(+)-ATPase activities and mRNA levels were not affected by pre-acclimation episodes. Likewise, ammonia pre-acclimated fish with or without HEA exposure displayed pronounced up-regulation in Na

  19. Pre-sodiated nickel cobaltite for high-performance sodium-ion capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Sun, Xiaoming; Lim, Kyungmi; Ranganathan Gaddam, Rohit; Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Kang, Kisuk; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2017-09-01

    Sodium-ion capacitors (NICs) are a hybrid energy storage system that store energy via both charge adsorption at the cathode/electrolyte interface and charge intercalation in the bulk of the anode, thereby possessing a higher energy density than supercapacitors and a higher power density than batteries. In this work, nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) hollow spheres with a chestnut shell morphology have been solvothermally synthesized and tested in a sodium half-cell. The NiCo2O4 material exhibits a reversible capacity of 313 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1. Pre-sodiation of NiCo2O4 is found to significantly improve its energy density. A NIC fabricated with pre-sodiated NiCo2O4 as the anode and an activated carbon (AC) as the cathode delivers an energy density of 60 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 10,000 W kg-1. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results reveal that NiCo2O4 is converted to metallic nickel and cobalt and Na2O phases during the pre-sodiation. The metallic nickel and cobalt phases are kinetically favourable for the electrolyte diffusion and electrochemical reactions, thus significantly improving the performance of the pre-sodiated NiCo2O4 electrode.

  20. Adaptive Response Induced by Pre-Exposure to 915 MHz Radiofrequency: A Possible Role for Antioxidant Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mostafavi-Pour, Z.; Daneshmand, M.; Zal, F.; Zare, R.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, the rapid use of high frequency electromagnetic fields like mobile phones has raised global concerns about the negative health effects of its use. Adaptive response is the ability of a cell or tissue to better resist stress damage by prior exposure to a lesser amount of stress. This study aimed to assess whether radiofrequency radiation can induce adaptive response by changing the antioxidant balance. Materials and Methods: In order to assess RF-induced adaptive response in tissues, we evaluated the level of GSH and the activity of GR in liver. 50 rats were divided into 5 groups. Three groups were pre-exposed to 915 MHz RF radiation, 4 hours per day for one week at different powers, as low, medium and high. 24 hours after the last exposure to radiation, they were exposed to 4 Gy sublethal dose of gamma radiation and then sacrificed after 5 hours. Their livers were removed, washed and were kept at -80o C until used. Results: Our finding showed that pre-exposure to 915 MHz radiofrequency radiation with specific power could induce adaptive response in liver by inducing changes in the activity and level of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that pre-exposure to microwave radiation could increase the level of GSH and the activity of GR enzyme, although these increases were seen just in low power group, and the GR activity was indicated in medium power group. This increase protects tissue from oxidative damage induced by sublethal dose of gamma radiation. PMID:28580335

  1. Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the restricted active space method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meiyuan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-01-28

    The intensities and relative energies of metal K pre-edge features are sensitive to both geometric and electronic structures. With the possibility to collect high-resolution spectral data it is important to find theoretical methods that include all important spectral effects: ligand-field splitting, multiplet structures, 3d-4p orbital hybridization, and charge-transfer excitations. Here the restricted active space (RAS) method is used for the first time to calculate metal K pre-edge spectra of open-shell systems, and its performance is tested against on six iron complexes: [FeCl6](n-), [FeCl4](n-), and [Fe(CN)6](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The method gives good descriptions of the spectral shapes for all six systems. The mean absolute deviation for the relative energies of different peaks is only 0.1 eV. For the two systems that lack centrosymmetry [FeCl4](2-/1-), the ratios between dipole and quadrupole intensity contributions are reproduced with an error of 10%, which leads to good descriptions of the integrated pre-edge intensities. To gain further chemical insight, the origins of the pre-edge features have been analyzed with a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture that serves as a bridge between the spectra and the electronic structures. The pre-edges contain information about both ligand-field strengths and orbital covalencies, which can be understood by analyzing the RAS wavefunction. The RAS method can thus be used to predict and rationalize the effects of changes in both the oxidation state and ligand environment in a number of hard X-ray studies of small and medium-sized molecular systems.

  2. Promoting Diversity in STEM through Active Recruiting and Mentoring: The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Binder, Breanna; Tremmel, Michael; Garofali, Kristen; Agol, Eric; Meadows, Victoria

    2015-11-01

    The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) is a research and mentoring program for underclassmen and transfer students offered by the University of Washington Astronomy Department since 2005. The primary goal of Pre-MAP is to recruit and retain students from groups traditionally underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through early exposure to research. The Pre-MAP seminar is the core component of the program and offers instruction in computing skills, data manipulation, science writing, statistical analysis, and scientific speaking and presentation skills. Students choose research projects proposed by faculty, post-docs and graduate students in areas related to astrophysics, planetary science, and astrobiology. Pre-MAP has been successful in retaining underrepresented students in STEM fields relative to the broader UW population, and we've found these students are more likely to graduate and excel academically than their peers. As of spring 2015, more than one hundred students have taken the Pre-MAP seminar, and both internal and external evaluations have shown that all groups of participating students report an increased interest in astronomy and science careers at the end of the seminar. Several former Pre-MAP students have obtained or are pursuing doctoral and master’s degrees in STEM fields; many more work at NASA centers, teaching colleges, or as engineers or data analysts. Pre- MAP student research has produced dozens of publications in peer-reviewed research journals. This talk will provide an overview of the program: the structure of the seminar, examples of projects completed by students, cohort-building activities outside the seminar, funding sources, recruitment strategies, and the aggregate demographic and achievement data of our students. It is our hope that similar programs may be adopted successfully at other institutions.

  3. High levels of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance and treatment failure in Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Ragna S; Boender, T Sonia; Sigaloff, Kim C.E.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Ndembi, Nicaise; Adeyemo, Titilope; Temiye, Edamisan O; Osibogun, Akin; Ondoa, Pascale; Calis, Job C; Akanmu, Alani Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Children are an especially vulnerable population to develop PDR given that paediatric second-line treatment options are limited. Although monitoring of PDR is important, data on the paediatric prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and its consequences for treatment outcomes are scarce. We designed a prospective paediatric cohort study to document the prevalence of PDR and its effect on subsequent treatment failure in Nigeria, the country with the second highest number of HIV-infected children in the world. Methods HIV-1-infected children ≤12 years, who had not been exposed to drugs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), were enrolled between 2012 and 2013, and followed up for 24 months in Lagos, Nigeria. Pre-antiretroviral treatment (ART) population-based pol genotypic testing and six-monthly viral load (VL) testing were performed. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of PDR (World Health Organization (WHO) list for transmitted drug resistance) on subsequent treatment failure (two consecutive VL measurements >1000 cps/ml or death). Results Of the total 82 PMTCT-naïve children, 13 (15.9%) had PDR. All 13 children harboured non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations, of whom seven also had nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. After 24 months, 33% had experienced treatment failure. Treatment failure was associated with PDR and a higher log VL before treatment initiation (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.53 (95%CI 1.61–35.15) and 2.85 (95%CI 1.04–7.78), respectively). Discussion PDR was present in one out of six Nigerian children. These high numbers corroborate with recent findings in other African countries. The presence of PDR was relevant as it was the strongest predictor of first-line treatment failure. Conclusions Our findings stress the importance of implementing fully active regimens

  4. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in terms of physical activity, cognitive and social outcomes. In addition, we aimed to identify which playground characteristics are the strongest correlates of beneficial effects and for which subgroups of children effects are most distinct. In total, 13 experimental and 17 observational studies have been summarized of which 10 (77%) and 16 (94%) demonstrated moderate to high methodological quality, respectively. Nearly all experimental studies (n = 11) evaluated intervention effects on time spent in different levels of physical activity during recess. Research on the effects of (pre)school playgrounds on cognitive and social outcomes is scarce (n = 2). The experimental studies generated moderate evidence for an effect of the provision of play equipment, inconclusive evidence for an effect of the use of playground markings, allocating play space and for multi-component interventions, and no evidence for an effect of decreasing playground density, the promotion of physical activity by staff and increasing recess duration on children’s health. In line with this, observational studies showed positive associations between play equipment and children’s physical activity level. In contrast to experimental studies, significant associations were also found between children’s physical activity and a decreased playground density and increased recess duration. To confirm the findings of this review, researchers are advised to conduct more experimental studies with a randomized controlled design and to incorporate the assessment of implementation strategies and process evaluations to reveal which intervention strategies and playground characteristics are most

  5. Outcomes of Nulliparous Women with Spontaneous Labor Onset Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-active versus Active Labor

    PubMed Central

    NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre-active

  6. Pre-miRNA Loop Nucleotides Control the Distinct Activities of mir-181a-1 and mir-181c in Early T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Sibiao; Chen, Chang-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Mature miRNAs can often be classified into large families, consisting of members with identical seeds (nucleotides 2 through 7 of the mature miRNAs) and highly homologous ∼21-nucleotide (nt) mature miRNA sequences. However, it is unclear whether members of a miRNA gene family, which encode identical or nearly identical mature miRNAs, are functionally interchangeable in vivo. Methods and Findings We show that mir-181a-1, but not mir-181c, can promote CD4 and CD8 double-positive (DP) T cell development when ectopically expressed in thymic progenitor cells. The distinct activities of mir-181a-1 and mir-181c are largely determined by their unique pre-miRNA loop nucleotides—not by the one-nucleotide difference in their mature miRNA sequences. Moreover, the activity of mir-181a-1 on DP cell development can be quantitatively influenced by nucleotide changes in its pre-miRNA loop region. We find that both the strength and the functional specificity of miRNA genes can be controlled by the pre-miRNA loop nucleotides. Intriguingly, we note that mutations in the pre-miRNA loop regions affect pre-miRNA and mature miRNA processing, but find no consistent correlation between the effects of pre-miRNA loop mutations on the levels of mature miRNAs and the activities of the mir-181a-1/c genes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that pre-miRNA loop nucleotides play a critical role in controlling the activity of miRNA genes and that members of the same miRNA gene families could have evolved to achieve different activities via alterations in their pre-miRNA loop sequences, while maintaining identical or nearly identical mature miRNA sequences. PMID:18974849

  7. Developing Climate Literate, Pre-service, Middle- and High-school Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Ad-Marbach, G.; Wolfson, J.; Ozbay, G.; Mead, H.; Merrill, J.; Sezen, A.; Fox-Lykens, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Maryland and Delaware Climate Change Education Assessment and Research (MADE-CLEAR) project strives to improve climate literacy throughout Delaware and Maryland by enhancing the ability of pre-service teachers to teach climate change related material. One branch of this effort focuses on assessing, and then improving on, the climate literacy content that pre-service teachers have been exposed to and have retained throughout their degree studies. To this end, higher education faculty who teach basic science courses at four institutions in our two states have been surveyed to determine the amount of climate literacy content already present in their courses. In addition, a pilot study to assess the core climate knowledge and understanding of pre-service teachers is underway. Results from both studies are being used to develop workshops that will address pre-service teacher alternate conceptions or incomplete understanding of climate, as well as provide methods for teaching climate content aligned with NGSS in the middle- and high-school classroom.

  8. High precision Hugoniot measurements on statically pre-compressed fluid helium

    DOE PAGES

    Seagle, Christopher T.; Reinhart, William D.; Lopez, Andrew J.; ...

    2016-09-27

    Here we describe how the capability for statically pre-compressing fluid targets for Hugoniot measurements utilizing gas gun driven flyer plates has been developed. Pre-compression expands the capability for initial condition control, allowing access to thermodynamic states off the principal Hugoniot. Absolute Hugoniot measurements with an uncertainty less than 3% on density and pressure were obtained on statically pre-compressed fluid helium utilizing a two stage light gas gun. Helium is highly compressible; the locus of shock states resulting from dynamic loading of an initially compressed sample at room temperature is significantly denser than the cryogenic fluid Hugoniot even for relatively modestmore » (0.27–0.38 GPa) initial pressures. Lastly, the dynamic response of pre-compressed helium in the initial density range of 0.21–0.25 g/cm3 at ambient temperature may be described by a linear shock velocity (us) and particle velocity (up) relationship: us = C0 + sup, with C0 = 1.44 ± 0.14 km/s and s = 1.344 ± 0.025.« less

  9. High precision Hugoniot measurements on statically pre-compressed fluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagle, Christopher T.; Reinhart, William D.; Lopez, Andrew J.; Hickman, Randy J.; Thornhill, Tom F.

    2016-09-01

    The capability for statically pre-compressing fluid targets for Hugoniot measurements utilizing gas gun driven flyer plates has been developed. Pre-compression expands the capability for initial condition control, allowing access to thermodynamic states off the principal Hugoniot. Absolute Hugoniot measurements with an uncertainty less than 3% on density and pressure were obtained on statically pre-compressed fluid helium utilizing a two stage light gas gun. Helium is highly compressible; the locus of shock states resulting from dynamic loading of an initially compressed sample at room temperature is significantly denser than the cryogenic fluid Hugoniot even for relatively modest (0.27-0.38 GPa) initial pressures. The dynamic response of pre-compressed helium in the initial density range of 0.21-0.25 g/cm3 at ambient temperature may be described by a linear shock velocity (us) and particle velocity (up) relationship: us = C0 + sup, with C0 = 1.44 ± 0.14 km/s and s = 1.344 ± 0.025.

  10. High precision Hugoniot measurements on statically pre-compressed fluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, Christopher T.; Reinhart, William D.; Lopez, Andrew J.; Hickman, Randy J.; Thornhill, Tom F.

    2016-09-27

    Here we describe how the capability for statically pre-compressing fluid targets for Hugoniot measurements utilizing gas gun driven flyer plates has been developed. Pre-compression expands the capability for initial condition control, allowing access to thermodynamic states off the principal Hugoniot. Absolute Hugoniot measurements with an uncertainty less than 3% on density and pressure were obtained on statically pre-compressed fluid helium utilizing a two stage light gas gun. Helium is highly compressible; the locus of shock states resulting from dynamic loading of an initially compressed sample at room temperature is significantly denser than the cryogenic fluid Hugoniot even for relatively modest (0.27–0.38 GPa) initial pressures. Lastly, the dynamic response of pre-compressed helium in the initial density range of 0.21–0.25 g/cm3 at ambient temperature may be described by a linear shock velocity (us) and particle velocity (up) relationship: us = C0 + sup, with C0 = 1.44 ± 0.14 km/s and s = 1.344 ± 0.025.

  11. High precision Hugoniot measurements on statically pre-compressed fluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, Christopher T.; Reinhart, William D.; Lopez, Andrew J.; Hickman, Randy J.; Thornhill, Tom F.

    2016-09-27

    Here we describe how the capability for statically pre-compressing fluid targets for Hugoniot measurements utilizing gas gun driven flyer plates has been developed. Pre-compression expands the capability for initial condition control, allowing access to thermodynamic states off the principal Hugoniot. Absolute Hugoniot measurements with an uncertainty less than 3% on density and pressure were obtained on statically pre-compressed fluid helium utilizing a two stage light gas gun. Helium is highly compressible; the locus of shock states resulting from dynamic loading of an initially compressed sample at room temperature is significantly denser than the cryogenic fluid Hugoniot even for relatively modest (0.27–0.38 GPa) initial pressures. Lastly, the dynamic response of pre-compressed helium in the initial density range of 0.21–0.25 g/cm3 at ambient temperature may be described by a linear shock velocity (us) and particle velocity (up) relationship: us = C0 + sup, with C0 = 1.44 ± 0.14 km/s and s = 1.344 ± 0.025.

  12. Image homogenization using pre-emphasis method for high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Wang, Chunsheng; Yu, Baiying; Vigneron, Daniel; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-08-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) field (B 1) inhomogeneity due to shortened wavelength at high field is a major cause of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nonuniformity in high dielectric biological samples (e.g., human body). In this work, we propose a method to improve the B 1 and MRI homogeneity by using pre-emphasized non-uniform B 1 distribution. The intrinsic B 1 distribution that could be generated by a RF volume coil, specifically a microstrip transmission line (MTL) coil used in this work, was pre-emphasized in the sample's periphery region of interest to compensate for the central brightness induced by high frequency interference effect due to shortened wave length. This pre-emphasized non-uniform B 1 can be realized by varying the parameters of microstrip elements, such as the substrate thickness of MTL volume coil. Both numerical simulation and phantom MR imaging studies were carried out to investigate the feasibility and merit of the proposed method in achieving homogeneous MR images. The simulation results demonstrate that by using a pre-emphasized B 1 distribution generated by the MTL volume coil, relatively uniform B 1 distribution and homogeneous MR image (98% homogeneity) within the spherical phantom (15 cm diameter) were achieved with 4.5 mm thickness. The B 1 and MRI intensity distributions of a 16-element MTL volume coil with fixed substrate thickness and five varied saline loads were modeled and experimentally tested. Similar results from both simulation and experiments were obtained, suggesting substantial improvements of B 1 and MRI homogeneities within the phantom containing 125 mM saline. The overall results demonstrate an efficient B 1 shimming approach for improving high field MRI.

  13. Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) when co-administered with zinc (II) ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV

    PubMed Central

    Houston, David M. J.; Bugert, Joachim J.; Denyer, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a clinical need for new therapeutic products against Herpes simplex virus (HSV). The pomegranate, fruit of the tree Punica granatum L, has since ancient times been linked to activity against infection. This work probed the activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and co-administered zinc (II) ions. Materials and methods PRE was used in conjunction with zinc (II) salts to challenge HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant HSV in terms of virucidal plaque assay reduction and antiviral activities in epithelial Vero host cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay using a commercial kit. Results Zinc sulphate, zinc citrate, zinc stearate and zinc gluconate demonstrated similar potentiated virucidal activity with PRE against HSV-1 by up to 4-fold. A generally parabolic relationship was observed when HSV-1 was challenged with PRE and varying concentrations of ZnSO4, with a maximum potentiation factor of 5.5. Punicalagin had 8-fold greater virucidal activity than an equivalent mass of PRE. However, antiviral data showed that punicalagin had significantly lower antiviral activity compared to the activity of PRE (EC50 = 0.56 μg mL-1) a value comparable to aciclovir (EC50 = 0.18 μg mL-1); however, PRE also demonstrated potency against aciclovir-resistant HSV (EC50 = 0.02 μg mL-1), whereas aciclovir showed no activity. Antiviral action of PRE was not influenced by ZnSO4. No cytotoxicity was detected with any test solution. Conclusions The potentiated virucidal activity of PRE by coadministered zinc (II) has potential as a multi-action novel topical therapeutic agent against HSV infections, such as coldsores. PMID:28665969

  14. Pre- and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor blocking activity of raubasine in the rat vas deferens.

    PubMed Central

    Demichel, P.; Gomond, P.; Roquebert, J.

    1981-01-01

    1 The actions of raubasine, yohimbine and corynanthine at pre- and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors were studied in the rat vas deferens. 2 Low frequency electrical stimulation of the isolated vas deferens of the rat produced regular contractions that were inhibited by low concentrations of clonidine. This inhibition was presynaptic in origin and involved alpha-adrenoceptors. 3 Presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist activity was assessed by studying the effect of increasing antagonist concentrations on cumulative clonidine dose-response curves on the stimulated vas deferens. 4 Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist activity in the isolated vas deferens was assessed by comparing control cumulative noradrenaline dose-response curves in the absence and in the presence of increasing concentrations of antagonists. 5 The results indicate that raubasine and corynanthine preferentially block postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors. Yohimbine is more potent in blocking pre- than postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors. The ration of the pre/postsynaptic potency declines in the order yohimbine less than raubasine less than corynanthine. PMID:6118191

  15. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kongkanand, Anusorn

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  16. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  17. High Dispersion Line Profile Studies of TW HYA and Other Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1984-07-01

    We propose to extend our study of line profiles in T Tauri stars by obtaining a 16 hour SWP-HI spectrum of TW Hya and 6-8 hour LWP-HI spectra of TW Hya, AK Sco, CoD -35 10525 and CoD -33 10685. High dispersion spectra of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars provide unique information on line widths, shifts, and asymmetries, as well as evidence for mass outflow, circumstellar absorption, and diagnostics for the temperature structure of the outer atmosphere layers of these complex yet incredibly important objects. We have previously obtained and studied line profiles in RU Lupi and the prototype star T Tau. RU Lupi has line profiles that are dominated by the wind expansion, for example the MgII and FeII multiplet UV1 profiles are unique in that they have a classical P Cygni shape, whereas T Tau has more symmetric emission profiles indicative of a chromosphere and hotter layers not dominated by expansion. TW Hya is different from these two previously studied stars in that it may be the brightest known example of a post-T Tauri star, and hence less active and older than the other PMS stars. We intend to compare its line profiles with those of RU Lupi and T Tauri in order to understand the differences in the non-thermal mass motions, wind expansion, and thermal structures of these three very different T Tau stars. The requested LWPHI spectra are to obtain MgII and FeII multiplet UV1. profiles of 4 different T Tauri objects so as to infer the expansion and thermal structure in their chromospheric layers.

  18. Acetazolamide pre-treatment before ascending to high altitudes: when to start?

    PubMed Central

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is the main responsible factor initiating the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in susceptible individuals. Measures that improve oxygenation and/or hasten acclimatization like pre-treatment with acetazolamide will prevent the development of AMS. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with acetazolamide the day before arrival at high altitude would elicit improved oxygenation compared to placebo not until the second day of high-altitude exposure. Fifteen study participants were randomly assigned in a double blind fashion to receive placebo or acetazolamide (2 × 125 mg) before (10 hours and 1 hour) exposure to high altitude (Monte Rosa plateau, 3480 m). Beside AMS scoring, heart rate, minute ventilation, and blood gas analyses were performed during rest and submaximal exercise at low altitude and on day 1, 2 and 3 at high altitude. From low altitude to day 1 at high altitude changes of pH (7.41 ± 0.01 vs. 7.48 ± 0.04) and HCO3 (24.0 ± 0.46 vs. 24.6 ± 2.6 mmol/L) within the placebo group differed significantly from those within the acetazolamide group (7.41 ± 0.01 vs. 7.41 ± 0.02; 23.6 ± 0.38 vs. 20.7 ± 1.8 mmol/L) (P < 0.05). AMS incidence tended to be lower with acetazolamide (P < 0.1). From low altitude to day 2 at high altitude changes of paO2 within the placebo group (75.3 ± 5.4 vs. 40.5 ± 3.4 mmHg) differed significantly from those within the acetazolamide group (76.5 ± 4.5 vs. 48.2 ± 4.9 mmHg) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, pre-treatment with low-dose acetazolamide on the day before ascending to high altitude tended to reduce AMS incidence on the first day at high altitude but improved oxygen availability to tissues not until the second day of exposure. Therefore, it is suggested that the beginning of pre-treatment with low-dose acetazolamide at least two days before arrival at high altitude, in contrast to usual recommendations, would be of greater beneficial effect on AMS development. PMID:25550957

  19. Matrix Pre-coated Targets for High Throughput MALDI Imaging of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed matrix pre-coated targets for imaging proteins in thin tissue sections by MALDI MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry). Gold covered microscope slides were coated with sinapinic acid (SA) in batches in advance and were shown to be stable for over 6 months when kept in the dark. The sample preparation protocol using these SA pre-coated targets involves treatment with diisopropylethylamine (DIEA)-H2O vapor, transforming the matrix layer to a viscous ionic liquid. This SA-DIEA ionic liquid layer extracts proteins and other analytes from tissue sections that are thaw mounted to this target. DIEA is removed by immersion of the target into diluted acetic acid (AcOH), allowing SA to co-crystallizes with extracted analytes directly on the target. Ion images (3–70 kDa) of sections of mouse brain and rat kidney at spatial resolution down to 10 μm were obtained. Use of pre-coated slides greatly reduces sample preparation time for MALDI imaging while providing high throughput, low cost, and high spatial resolution images. PMID:24809903

  20. Is Your System Calibrated? MRI Gradient System Calibration for Pre-Clinical, High-Resolution Imaging

    PubMed Central

    O’Callaghan, James; Wells, Jack; Richardson, Simon; Holmes, Holly; Yu, Yichao; Walker-Samuel, Simon

    2014-01-01

    High-field, pre-clinical MRI systems are widely used to characterise tissue structure and volume in small animals, using high resolution imaging. Both applications rely heavily on the consistent, accurate calibration of imaging gradients, yet such calibrations are typically only performed during maintenance sessions by equipment manufacturers, and potentially with acceptance limits that are inadequate for phenotyping. To overcome this difficulty, we present a protocol for gradient calibration quality assurance testing, based on a 3D-printed, open source, structural phantom that can be customised to the dimensions of individual scanners and RF coils. In trials on a 9.4 T system, the gradient scaling errors were reduced by an order of magnitude, and displacements of greater than 100 µm, caused by gradient non-linearity, were corrected using a post-processing technique. The step-by-step protocol can be integrated into routine pre-clinical MRI quality assurance to measure and correct for these errors. We suggest that this type of quality assurance is essential for robust pre-clinical MRI experiments that rely on accurate imaging gradients, including small animal phenotyping and diffusion MR. PMID:24804737

  1. The FDA Perspective on Pre-Clinical Testing for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Gerald R.

    2006-05-01

    In the U. S., the pre-market review of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) devices is carried out under the authority of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Different regulatory mechanisms may apply depending on the complexity of the HIFU device and the indications for use, but in all cases pre-clinical testing is required. This testing typically includes ultrasound field characterization, thermal modeling and measurement, and may include demonstrating the accuracy of targeting and monitoring, if applicable. Because there are no guidance documents or standards for these tests at present, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) welcomes working with interested parties to develop acceptable procedures that can be incorporated into the regulatory review process.

  2. 76 FR 27044 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... exposures that cause serious lead poisonings, especially in children under age 6, who are particularly... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in...(c)(3) of TSCA, 15 U.S.C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program...

  3. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  4. Exploring Indigenous Game-Based Physics Activities in Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptual Change and Transformation of Epistemic Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz Escaño

    2017-01-01

    "Laro-ng-Lahi" (Indigenous Filipino game) based physics activities invigorated the integration of culture in the pre-service physics education to develop students' epistemic beliefs and the notion of conceptual understanding through conceptual change. The study conveniently involved 28 pre-service undergraduate physics students enrolled…

  5. Exploring Indigenous Game-Based Physics Activities in Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptual Change and Transformation of Epistemic Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz Escaño

    2017-01-01

    "Laro-ng-Lahi" (Indigenous Filipino game) based physics activities invigorated the integration of culture in the pre-service physics education to develop students' epistemic beliefs and the notion of conceptual understanding through conceptual change. The study conveniently involved 28 pre-service undergraduate physics students enrolled…

  6. ERECTA signaling controls Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture through chromatin-mediated activation of PRE1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hanyang; Zhao, Lihua; Wang, Lulu; Zhang, Man; Su, Zhenxia; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Heming; Qin, Yuan

    2017-03-13

    Flowering plants display a remarkable diversity in inflorescence architecture, and pedicel length is one of the key contributors to this diversity. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) mediated signaling pathway plays important roles in regulating inflorescence architecture by promoting cell proliferation. However, the regulating mechanism remains elusive in the pedicel. Genetic interactions between ERECTA signaling and the chromatin remodeling complex SWR1 in the control of inflorescence architecture were studied. Comparative transcriptome analysis was applied to identify downstream components. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleosome occupancy was further investigated. The results indicated that the chromatin remodeler SWR1 coordinates with ERECTA signaling in regulating inflorescence architecture by activating the expression of PRE1 family genes and promoting pedicel elongation. It was found that SWR1 is required for the incorporation of the H2A.Z histone variant into nucleosomes of the whole PRE1 gene family and the ERECTA controlled expression of PRE1 gene family through regulating nucleosome dynamics. We propose that utilization of a chromatin remodeling complex to regulate gene expression is a common theme in developmental control across kingdoms. These findings shed light on the mechanisms through which chromatin remodelers orchestrate complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression in coordination with a developmental cue.

  7. Topoisomerase IIα promotes activation of RNA polymerase I transcription by facilitating pre-initiation complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Swagat; Panova, Tatiana; Miller, Gail; Volkov, Arsen; Porter, Andrew C. G.; Russell, Jackie; Panov, Konstantin I.; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Type II DNA topoisomerases catalyse DNA double-strand cleavage, passage and re-ligation to effect topological changes. There is considerable interest in elucidating topoisomerase II roles, particularly as these proteins are targets for anti-cancer drugs. Here we uncover a role for topoisomerase IIα in RNA polymerase I-directed ribosomal RNA gene transcription, which drives cell growth and proliferation and is upregulated in cancer cells. Our data suggest that topoisomerase IIα is a component of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase Iβ complex and interacts directly with RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor RRN3, which targets the polymerase to promoter-bound SL1 in pre-initiation complex formation. In cells, activation of rDNA transcription is reduced by inhibition or depletion of topoisomerase II, and this is accompanied by reduced transient double-strand DNA cleavage in the rDNA-promoter region and reduced pre-initiation complex formation. We propose that topoisomerase IIα functions in RNA polymerase I transcription to produce topological changes at the rDNA promoter that facilitate efficient de novo pre-initiation complex formation. PMID:23511463

  8. The contribution of pre-stimulus neural oscillatory activity to spontaneous response time variability.

    PubMed

    Bompas, Aline; Sumner, Petroc; Muthumumaraswamy, Suresh D; Singh, Krish D; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2015-02-15

    Large variability between individual response times, even in identical conditions, is a ubiquitous property of animal behavior. However, the origins of this stochasticity and its relation to action decisions remain unclear. Here we focus on the state of the perception-action network in the pre-stimulus period and its influence on subsequent saccadic response time and choice in humans. We employ magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a correlational source reconstruction approach to identify the brain areas where pre-stimulus oscillatory activity predicted saccadic response time to visual targets. We find a relationship between future response time and pre-stimulus power, but not phase, in occipital (including V1), parietal, posterior cingulate and superior frontal cortices, consistently across alpha, beta and low gamma frequencies, each accounting for between 1 and 4% of the RT variance. Importantly, these correlations were not explained by deterministic sources of variance, such as experimental factors and trial history. Our results further suggest that occipital areas mainly reflect short-term (trial to trial) stochastic fluctuations, while the frontal contribution largely reflects longer-term effects such as fatigue or practice. Parietal areas reflect fluctuations at both time scales. We found no evidence of lateralization: these effects were indistinguishable in both hemispheres and for both saccade directions, and non-predictive of choice - a finding with fundamental consequences for models of action decision, where independent, not coupled, noise is normally assumed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Organ-specific effects of low-dose zinc pre-exposure on high-dose zinc induced mitochondrial dysfunction in large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Shen, Bin; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2017-04-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of low-dose zinc (Zn) pre-exposure on survival rate, new Zn accumulation, and mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver and spleen of large yellow croaker exposed to high-dose Zn. To the end, fish were pre-exposed to 0 and 2 mg L(-1) Zn for 48 h and post-exposed to 0 and 12 mg L(-1) Zn for 48 h. Twelve milligrams Zn per liter exposure alone reduced survival rate, but the effect did not appear in the 2 mg L(-1) Zn pre-exposure groups. Two milligrams per liter Zn pre-exposure also ameliorated 12 mg Zn L(-1) induced new Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial swelling in the liver. However, these effects did not appear in the spleen. In the liver, 2 mg L(-1) Zn pre-exposure apparently relieved 12 mg L(-1) Zn induced down-regulation of activities of ATP synthase (F-ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The mRNA levels of these genes remained relatively stable in fish exposed to 12 mg L(-1) Zn alone, but increased in fish exposed to 12 mg L(-1) Zn with 2 mg L(-1) Zn pre-treatment. In the spleen, 2 mg Zn L(-1) pre-exposure did not mitigate the down-regulation of mRNA levels of genes and activities of relative enzymes induced by 12 mg L(-1) Zn. In conclusion, our study demonstrated low-dose zinc pre-exposure ameliorated high-dose zinc induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver but not in the spleen of large yellow croaker, indicating an organ-specific effect.

  10. A novel method for photodegradation of high-chroma dye wastewater via electrochemical pre-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kunjiao; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Peiqiang; Gao, Junxia; Lv, Baoying; Li, Dongming

    2010-06-01

    A new two-step process involving the electrocatalytic (EC) pre-oxidation and the following photoelectrocatalytic synergistic (PEC) oxidation is proposed to treat the high concentration and high-chroma methyl orange dye wastewater, which cannot be degraded by photocatalytic oxidation (PC) directly. The SnO(2)/TiO(2)-NTs/Ti electrode simultaneously possessing the outstanding PC oxidation properties of TiO(2)-NTs and the excellent EC oxidation abilities of the Sb doped SnO(2) was synthesized by impregnating Sb doped SnO(2) nanoparticles into TiO(2)-NTs. In the pre-oxidation process as the first stage, the high-color dye wastewater is decolorized with electrochemical method to some extent. Then, the wastewater becomes a light transmission system. It provides a suitable condition for PC oxidation reaction in the second stage. The synergistic effects of PC and EC oxidation led to the high PEC efficiency and the complete mineralization of dye wastewater is achieved. This two-step process is fast and efficient, which is worthy to study and explore in the practical environmental treatment.

  11. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  12. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  13. In vitro steroid-induced meiosis in Rhinella arenarum oocytes: role of pre-MPF activation.

    PubMed

    Arias Torres, Ana Josefina; Bühler, Marta Inés; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    In this work we showed the relationship between seasonal periods and the response of R. arenarum follicles and oocytes to different steroids. Using in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) assays, we demonstrated that P4 is the main steroid capable of inducing maturation in R. arenarum oocytes and follicles. In the second part of this work we showed that androgens can activate pre-maturation promoting factors (pre-MPFs) such as P4, by cytoplasm microinjection experiments. The results indicated that the steroids assayed induced oocyte and follicle maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In oocytes, P4 was the most efficient steroid as a maturation inducer (EC50 of the reproductive period, 6 nM, EC50 of the non-reproductive period ≅ 30 nM). Androgens (DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone; T, testosterone; and AD, androstenedione) were less efficient maturation inducers than P4 (EC50 reproductive period ≅ 50, 120 and 600 nM respectively). Similar results were obtained with intact follicles in both seasonal periods. Although the response of follicles to the different androgens was variable, in no case was it above the above the response induced by P4. Independently of the season, oocytes and follicles incubated in P4, P5 and T underwent GVBD after 6-10 h while oocytes and follicles incubated in DHEA and AD matured more slowly. Furthermore, we demonstrated that microinjection of mature cytoplasm from androgen-treated oocytes is sufficient to promote GVBD in immature recipient oocytes (DHEA, 57 ± 12%; AD, 60 ± 8%; T, 56 ± 13%). Thus, androgens such as DHEA, T and AD are as competent as P4 to activate pre-MPF.

  14. Novel target for high-risk neuroblastoma identified in pre-clinical research | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Pre-clinical research by investigators at the Center for Cancer Research and their colleagues have identified a number of novel epigenetic targets for high-risk neuroblastoma and validated a promising new targeted inhibitor in pre-clinical models.  Read more...

  15. NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The new Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards should be part of every school district's repertoire of standards to ensure that the learning needs of advanced students are being met. "NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services" details six standards that…

  16. Pre-gravid physical activity and reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy: the role of insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Qi, Ying; Sermer, Mathew; Connelly, Philip W; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J G

    2009-04-01

    Pre-gravid physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), although neither the types of exercise nor the physiologic mechanisms underlying this protective effect have been well-studied. Thus, we sought to study the relationships between types of pre-gravid physical activity and metabolic parameters in pregnancy, including glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. A total of 851 women underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT) and a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in late pregnancy, yielding four glucose tolerance groups: (i) GDM; (ii) gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT); (iii) abnormal GCT with normal glucose tolerance on OGTT (abnormal GCT NGT); and (iv) normal GCT with NGT on OGTT (normal GCT NGT). Pre-gravid physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire, which measures (i) total physical activity and (ii) its three component domains: work, nonsport leisure-time, and vigorous/sports activity. Glucose tolerance status improved across increasing quartiles of pre-gravid total physical activity (P = 0.0244). Whereas neither work nor nonsport leisure-time activity differed between glucose tolerance groups, pre-gravid vigorous/sports activity was significantly higher in women with normal GCT NGT compared to women with (i) abnormal GCT NGT (P = 0.0018) (ii) GIGT (P = 0.0025), and (iii) GDM (P = 0.0044). In particular, vigorous/sports activity correlated with insulin sensitivity (measured by IS(OGTT)) (r = 0.21, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, on multiple linear regression analysis, pre-gravid vigorous/sports activity emerged as a significant independent predictor of IS(OGTT) in pregnancy (t = 4.97, P < 0.0001). Pre-gravid vigorous/sports activity is associated with a reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, an effect likely mediated by enhanced insulin sensitivity.

  17. Active Traction Force Response to Long-Term Cyclic Stretch Is Dependent on Cell Pre-stress

    PubMed Central

    Cirka, Heather; Monterosso, Melissa; Diamantides, Nicole; Favreau, John; Wen, Qi; Billiar, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is recognized as a potent modulator of cellular behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix assembly. However, the study of how cell-generated traction force changes in response to stretch is generally limited to short-term stimulation. The goal of this work is to determine how cells actively alter their traction force in response to long-term physiological cyclic stretch as a function of cell pre-stress. We have developed, to our knowledge, a novel method to assess traction force after long-term (24 h) uniaxial or biaxial cyclic stretch under conditions of high cell pre-stress with culture on stiff (7.5 kPa) polyacrylamide gels (with or without transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)) and low pre-stress by treating with blebbistatin or culture on soft gels (0.6 kPa). In response to equibiaxial stretch, valvular interstitial cells on stiff substrates decreased their traction force (from 300 nN to 100 nN) and spread area (from 3000 to 2100 μm2). With uniaxial stretch, the cells had similar decreases in traction force and area and reoriented perpendicular to the stretch. TGF-β1-treated valvular interstitial cells had higher pre-stress (1100 nN) and exhibited a larger drop in traction force with uniaxial stretch, but the percentage changes in force and area with stretch were similar to the non-TGF-β1-treated group. Cells with inhibited myosin II motors increased traction force (from 41 nN to 63 nN) and slightly reoriented toward the stretch direction. In contrast, cells cultured on soft gels increased their traction force significantly, from 15 nN to 45 nN, doubled their spread area, elongated from an initially rounded morphology, and reoriented perpendicular to the uniaxial stretch. Contractile-moment measurements provided results consistent with total traction force measurements. The combined results indicate that the change in traction force in response to external cyclic stretch is dependent upon the

  18. Active Traction Force Response to Long-Term Cyclic Stretch Is Dependent on Cell Pre-stress.

    PubMed

    Cirka, Heather; Monterosso, Melissa; Diamantides, Nicole; Favreau, John; Wen, Qi; Billiar, Kristen

    2016-04-26

    Mechanical stimulation is recognized as a potent modulator of cellular behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix assembly. However, the study of how cell-generated traction force changes in response to stretch is generally limited to short-term stimulation. The goal of this work is to determine how cells actively alter their traction force in response to long-term physiological cyclic stretch as a function of cell pre-stress. We have developed, to our knowledge, a novel method to assess traction force after long-term (24 h) uniaxial or biaxial cyclic stretch under conditions of high cell pre-stress with culture on stiff (7.5 kPa) polyacrylamide gels (with or without transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)) and low pre-stress by treating with blebbistatin or culture on soft gels (0.6 kPa). In response to equibiaxial stretch, valvular interstitial cells on stiff substrates decreased their traction force (from 300 nN to 100 nN) and spread area (from 3000 to 2100 μm(2)). With uniaxial stretch, the cells had similar decreases in traction force and area and reoriented perpendicular to the stretch. TGF-β1-treated valvular interstitial cells had higher pre-stress (1100 nN) and exhibited a larger drop in traction force with uniaxial stretch, but the percentage changes in force and area with stretch were similar to the non-TGF-β1-treated group. Cells with inhibited myosin II motors increased traction force (from 41 nN to 63 nN) and slightly reoriented toward the stretch direction. In contrast, cells cultured on soft gels increased their traction force significantly, from 15 nN to 45 nN, doubled their spread area, elongated from an initially rounded morphology, and reoriented perpendicular to the uniaxial stretch. Contractile-moment measurements provided results consistent with total traction force measurements. The combined results indicate that the change in traction force in response to external cyclic stretch is dependent upon the

  19. Automated cleaning and pre-processing of immunoglobulin gene sequences from high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, Miri; Noga, Hila; Tabibian-Keissar, Hilla; Barshack, Iris; Mehr, Ramit

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) yields tens of thousands to millions of sequences that require a large amount of pre-processing work to clean various artifacts. Such cleaning cannot be performed manually. Existing programs are not suitable for immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, which are variable and often highly mutated. This paper describes Ig High-Throughput Sequencing Cleaner (Ig-HTS-Cleaner), a program containing a simple cleaning procedure that successfully deals with pre-processing of Ig sequences derived from HTS, and Ig Insertion—Deletion Identifier (Ig-Indel-Identifier), a program for identifying legitimate and artifact insertions and/or deletions (indels). Our programs were designed for analyzing Ig gene sequences obtained by 454 sequencing, but they are applicable to all types of sequences and sequencing platforms. Ig-HTS-Cleaner and Ig-Indel-Identifier have been implemented in Java and saved as executable JAR files, supported on Linux and MS Windows. No special requirements are needed in order to run the programs, except for correctly constructing the input files as explained in the text. The programs' performance has been tested and validated on real and simulated data sets. PMID:23293637

  20. Microwave and ultrasound pre-treatments influence microbial community structure and digester performance in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Maria; Crauwels, Sam; Van Geel, Maarten; Dewil, Raf; Lievens, Bart; Appels, Lise

    2016-06-01

    Comparative analyses of bacterial and archaeal community structures and dynamics in three biogas digesters during start-up and subsequent operation using microwaved, ultrasonicated or untreated waste activated sludge were performed based on 454 pyrosequencing datasets of part of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences and quantitative PCR. The pre-treatment increased the solubility, and thus the availability of the substrate for microbial degradation and significantly affected the succession of the anaerobic community structure over the course of the digestion. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in all digesters throughout operation. Proteobacteria decreased in relative abundance from 23-26 % to 11-13 % in association with enhanced substrate availability. Negative correlations between relative abundance of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the substrate availability and/or biogas production were disclosed in statistical analyses. Clostridiales was the dominant order in Firmicutes, and Clostridiales, Clostridia and Firmicutes relative abundance and richness were shown to positively correlate with substrate availability and biogas generation. Methanogenic communities had a fairly restricted structure, highly dominated by Methanosaeta and Methanobrevibacter phylotypes. A gradual decline in Methanobrevibacter and increased representation of Methanosaeta concilii over time were particularly apparent in the digester receiving untreated waste activated sludge, whereas more diversified archaeal communities were maintained in the pre-treatment digesters. The quantitative PCR analyses revealed a methanogenic community distribution that coincided with the 454 pyrosequencing data.

  1. Adsorption of lignocelluloses of model pre-hydrolysis liquor on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Pedram; Ryan, Jennifer; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the adsorption behavior of various components dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis of kraft process on activated carbon. In this work, model prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) solutions (MPHL)s were prepared via mixing various commercially available monosugars, xylan, lignin and furfural; and their adsorption performance on activated carbon (AC) was investigated. In singular (one component) MPHL/AC systems, furfural had the maximum and xylose had the minimum adsorption, and the adsorption of monosugars was basically similar on AC. Also, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was added (0.5 g/l) to singular xylan or lignin MPHL/AC system, which increased the lignin and xylan adsorptions to 350 and 190 mg/g on AC, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Motor cortex pre-activation by standing facilitates word retrieval in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, M.; Breitenstein, C.; Westerhoff, U.; Sommer, J.; Rösser, N.; Rodriguez, A.D.; Harnish, S.; Knecht, S.; Flöel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives A tight link between linguistic functions and activation of motor areas has been consistently reported, indicating that the two systems share functional neural resources. However, little efforts have been made to explore whether this knowledge could aid the rehabilitation of neurological conditions affecting language functions (e.g., aphasia). Moreover, the few previous studies that assessed the impact of motor-language interactions in aphasia used manual gestures, which are an integral component of language comprehension and production. Methods In the present study we assessed whether pre-activation of the leg-motor cortex, during standing vs. sitting, can facilitate language production in chronic aphasia. In a cross-over within-subject design, we assessed performance on a picture naming task and controlled for effects on processing speed and simple verbal reaction time. Results We found that standing compared to sitting had a beneficial effect on the number of semantic self-corrections that resulted in correct naming. In the absence of effects on motor or general processing speed, this points to a specific effect on lexical retrieval and selection. This was further corroborated by an error pattern analysis. Successful semantic self-corrections during standing were only found when there was already partial activation of the target semantic network, i.e., when self-corrections were preceded by an incorrect, but semantically associated naming response. Discussion Our findings show that pre-activation of the motor system, that extends beyond the intrinsic link between manual gestures and language, can facilitate lexical access in chronic aphasia and may open new directions in aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:20966157

  3. Unique Transcriptional Profile of Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning in Pre- and Post-Ischemic Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Kevin J.; Tupicoff, Amanda; Williams-Pritchard, Grant; Kiessling, Can J.; See Hoe, Louise E.; Headrick, John P.; Peart, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning) induced by 3–5 days of opioid receptor (OR) agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%). Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des), natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb) and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds). Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3), cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf) and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3), together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1) and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid). Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia), which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2) and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu), and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1) and Txnip. Conclusions Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  4. Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling

  5. Highly ordered Ga(As)Sb quantum dots grown on pre-structured GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeber, Thomas Henning; Strassner, Johannes; Wolff, Sandra; Laegel, Bert; Foukhardt, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Ga(Sb)As quantum dots (QDs) are usually grown on plane GaAs substrates by self-organization in the StranskiKrastanov mode. Here we report on Ga(As)Sb QD growth on a pre-structured GaAs substrate to achieve highly ordered QDs. The structure consists of a two-dimensional array of holes/troughs milled into the substrate (wafer with initial epitaxial buffer layer) with a gallium focused ion beam (Ga-FIB). Thus, the area density of the QDs can be controled. For exact positioning of the QDs in the milled holes it is important that the diameter of the dots equals the diameter of the milled holes. In a previous publication we have shown that we are able to change the diameter as well as the height of the QDs by controlled variation of growth temperature, Ga/Sb ratio, and nominal coverage. The diameter and depth of the milled holes as well as their separation are varied. Also, different milling techniques are examined to optimize milling time and procedure. The pre-structured GaAs substrate is overgrown in a second molecular-beam-epitaxial (MBE) step, first with another thin GaAs buffer layer, then with a QD layer. With the optimum of the milling and growth parameter sets the diameter of the QDs equals the size of the milled holes and the QDs can be grown highly ordered in the given pre-structured array. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report about exact positioning of Ga(As)Sb QDs on GaAs.

  6. Intracellular activation of ovastacin mediates pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Körschgen, Hagen; Kuske, Michael; Karmilin, Konstantin; Yiallouros, Irene; Balbach, Melanie; Floehr, Julia; Wachten, Dagmar; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Stöcker, Walter

    2017-09-01

    How and where is pro-ovastacin activated and how does active ovastacin regulate zona pellucida hardening (ZPH) and successful fertilization? Ovastacin is partially active before exocytosis and pre-hardens the zona pellucida (ZP) before fertilization. The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH. Female mice deficient in the extracellular circulating ovastacin-inhibitor fetuin-B are infertile due to pre-mature ZPH. We isolated oocytes from wild-type and ovastacin-deficient (Astlnull) FVB mice before and after fertilization (in vitro and in vivo) and quantified ovastacin activity and cleavage of ZP2 by immunoblot. We assessed ZPH by measuring ZP digestion time using α-chymotrypsin and by determining ZP2 cleavage. We determined cellular distribution of ovastacin by immunofluorescence using domain-specific ovastacin antibodies. Experiments were performed at least in triplicate with a minimum of 20 oocytes. Data were pre-analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of normal distribution, significance was determined via two-sided Student's t-test, whereas in case of non-normal distribution via Mann-Whitney U-test. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes contained both inactive pro-ovastacin and activated ovastacin. Immunoblot and ZP digestion assays revealed a partial cleavage of ZP2 even before fertilization in wild-type mice. Partial cleavage coincided with germinal-vesicle breakdown and MII, despite the presence of fetuin-B protein, an endogenous ovastacin inhibitor, in the follicular and oviductal fluid. Upon exocytosis, part of the C-terminal domain of ovastacin remained attached to the plasmalemma, while the N-terminal active ovastacin domain was secreted. This finding may resolve previously conflicting data showing that ovastacin acts both as an oolemmal receptor termed SAS1B (sperm acrosomal SLLP1 binding protein; SLLP, sperm lysozyme like

  7. Alternative Splicing of hTERT Pre-mRNA: A Potential Strategy for the Regulation of Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuewen; Wang, Yuchuan; Chang, Guangming; Wang, Feng; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The activation of telomerase is one of the key events in the malignant transition of cells, and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is indispensable in the process of activating telomerase. The pre-mRNA alternative splicing of hTERT at the post-transcriptional level is one of the mechanisms for the regulation of telomerase activity. Shifts in splicing patterns occur in the development, tumorigenesis, and response to diverse stimuli in a tissue-specific and cell type–specific manner. Despite the regulation of telomerase activity, the alternative splicing of hTERT pre-mRNA may play a role in other cellular functions. Modulating the mode of hTERT pre-mRNA splicing is providing a new precept of therapy for cancer and aging-related diseases. This review focuses on the patterns of hTERT pre-mRNA alternative splicing and their biological functions, describes the potential association between the alternative splicing of hTERT pre-mRNA and telomerase activity, and discusses the possible significance of the alternative splicing of the hTERT pre-mRNA in the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of cancer and aging-related diseases. PMID:28272339

  8. Alternative Splicing of hTERT Pre-mRNA: A Potential Strategy for the Regulation of Telomerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuewen; Wang, Yuchuan; Chang, Guangming; Wang, Feng; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xin

    2017-03-07

    The activation of telomerase is one of the key events in the malignant transition of cells, and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is indispensable in the process of activating telomerase. The pre-mRNA alternative splicing of hTERT at the post-transcriptional level is one of the mechanisms for the regulation of telomerase activity. Shifts in splicing patterns occur in the development, tumorigenesis, and response to diverse stimuli in a tissue-specific and cell type-specific manner. Despite the regulation of telomerase activity, the alternative splicing of hTERT pre-mRNA may play a role in other cellular functions. Modulating the mode of hTERT pre-mRNA splicing is providing a new precept of therapy for cancer and aging-related diseases. This review focuses on the patterns of hTERT pre-mRNA alternative splicing and their biological functions, describes the potential association between the alternative splicing of hTERT pre-mRNA and telomerase activity, and discusses the possible significance of the alternative splicing of the hTERT pre-mRNA in the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of cancer and aging-related diseases.

  9. Physical activity promotion in the primary care setting in pre- and type 2 diabetes - the Sophia step study, an RCT.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Jenny; Yngve, Agneta; Hagströmer, Maria; Brismar, Kerstin; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Iskull, Christina; Möller, Peter; Johansson, Unn-Britt

    2015-07-12

    Physical activity prevents or delays progression of impaired glucose tolerance in high-risk individuals. Physical activity promotion should serve as a basis in diabetes care. It is necessary to develop and evaluate health-promoting methods that are feasible as well as cost-effective within diabetes care. The aim of Sophia Step Study is to evaluate the impact of a multi-component and a single component physical activity intervention aiming at improving HbA1c (primary outcome) and other metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity levels and overall health in patients with pre- and type 2 diabetes. Sophia Step Study is a randomized controlled trial and participants are randomly assigned to either a multi-component intervention group (A), a pedometer group (B) or a control group (C). In total, 310 patients will be included and followed for 24 months. Group A participants are offered pedometers and a website to register steps, physical activity on prescription with yearly follow-ups, motivational interviewing (10 occasions) and group consultations (including walks, 12 occasions). Group B participants are offered pedometers and a website to register steps. Group C are offered usual care. The theoretical framework underpinning the interventions is the Health Belief Model, the Stages of Change Model, and the Social Cognitive Theory. Both the multi-component intervention (group A) and the pedometer intervention (group B) are using several techniques for behavior change such as self-monitoring, goal setting, feedback and relapse prevention. Measurements are made at week 0, 8, 12, 16, month 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24, including metabolic and cardiovascular biomarkers (HbA1c as primary health outcome), accelerometry and daily steps. Furthermore, questionnaires were used to evaluate dietary intake, physical activity, perceived ability to perform physical activity, perceived support for being active, quality of life, anxiety, depression, well-being, perceived treatment

  10. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ) which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Methods Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%). Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity). Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities) were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED), non-sedentary (non-SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary) or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC) or kappa (κ) values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Results Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day-1) and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day-1), was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day-1) and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day-1) or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day-1) cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA) was 20.9 mins.day-1 and 45.2 mins.day-1. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from 0

  11. Monocrotophos Induces the Expression and Activity of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in Pre-Sensitized Cultured Human Brain Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Vinay K.; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Abhishek K.; Kashyap, Mahendra P.; Jahan, Sadaf; Pandey, Ankita; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Khanna, Vinay K.; Yadav, Sanjay; Lohani, Mohtshim; Pant, Aditya B.

    2014-01-01

    The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y) and glial (U373-MG) cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), cyclophosphamide (CPA), ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP), a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h) of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against xenobiotics

  12. Volatile Compound, Physicochemical, and Antioxidant Properties of Beany Flavor-Removed Soy Protein Isolate Hydrolyzates Obtained from Combined High Temperature Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sang-Hun; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the volatile compound, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of beany flavor-removed soy protein isolate (SPI) hydrolyzates produced by combined high temperature pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Without remarkable changes in amino acid composition, reductions of residual lipoxygenase activity and beany flavor-causing volatile compounds such as hexanol, hexanal, and pentanol in SPI were observed after combined heating and enzymatic treatments. The degree of hydrolysis, emulsion capacity and stability, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging activity of SPI were significantly increased, but the magnitudes of apparent viscosity, consistency index, and dynamic moduli (G′, G″) of SPI were significantly decreased after the combined heating and enzymatic treatments. Based on these results, it was suggested that the enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with high temperature pre-treatment may allow for the production of beany flavor-removed SPI hydrolyzates with superior emulsifying and antioxidant functionalities. PMID:28078256

  13. Zeolite A synthesized from alkaline assisted pre-activated halloysite for efficient heavy metal removal in polluted river water and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingpeng; Chen, Hong; Lin, Junzhong; Lin, Zhang; Sun, Junliang

    2017-06-01

    High quality zeolite A was synthesized through a hydrothermal process using alkaline-assisted pre-activated halloysite mineral as the alumina and silica source. The synthesis conditions employed in this study were finely tuned by varying the activating temperature, sodium hydroxide content, water content and Si/Al ratio. The obtained zeolite A showed excellent adsorption properties for both single metal cation solutions and mixed cation solutions when the concentrations of the mixed cations were comparable with those in polluted natural river water and industrial wastewater. High adsorptive capacities for Ag(+) (123.05mg/g) and Pb(2+) (227.70mg/g) were achieved using the synthesized zeolite A. This observation indicates that the zeolite A synthesized from alkaline-assisted pre-activated halloysite can be used as a low-cost and relatively effective adsorbent to purify heavy metal cation polluted natural river water and industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Multi-Parameter Observation and Detection of Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Parrot, M.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The recent large earthquakes (M9.0 Tohoku, 03/2011; M7.0 Haiti, 01/2010; M6.7 L Aquila, 04/2008; and M7.9 Wenchuan 05/2008) have renewed interest in pre-anomalous seismic signals associated with them. Recent workshops (DEMETER 2006, 2011 and VESTO 2009 ) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric /ionospheric signals observed in space prior to these events. Our initial results indicate that no single pre-earthquake observation (seismic, magnetic field, electric field, thermal infrared [TIR], or GPS/TEC) can provide a consistent and successful global scale early warning. This is most likely due to complexity and chaotic nature of earthquakes and the limitation in existing ground (temporal/spatial) and global satellite observations. In this study we analyze preseismic temporal and spatial variations (gas/radon counting rate, atmospheric temperature and humidity change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) which we propose occur before the onset of major earthquakes:. We propose an Integrated Space -- Terrestrial Framework (ISTF), as a different approach for revealing pre-earthquake phenomena in seismically active areas. ISTF is a sensor web of a coordinated observation infrastructure employing multiple sensors that are distributed on one or more platforms; data from satellite sensors (Terra, Aqua, POES, DEMETER and others) and ground observations, e.g., Global Positioning System, Total Electron Content (GPS/TEC). As a theoretical guide we use the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model to explain the generation of multiple earthquake precursors. Using our methodology, we evaluated retrospectively the signals preceding the most devastated earthquakes during 2005-2011. We observed a correlation between both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of these earthquakes. The second phase of our validation include systematic retrospective analysis for more than 100 major earthquakes (M>5

  15. D Survey of Pre-Hispanic Wall Painting with High Resolution Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucet, G.

    2013-07-01

    The survey and representation of pre-hispanic wall painting use to be done with traditional photography, we describe the difficulties and limitations found in this approach and we show another solution to improve the quality of this documentation. It relies on the use of photogrammetry and MicMac program. The calculated orthophotos have an accurate geometry, they are high resolution and the three-dimensional models present a high level of detail. We obtain a complete representation which satisfy the requirements of art historians and conservators to study the meanings of the paintings and their conservation state. Furthermore, as this improvement is achieved by following a particular strategy for the photo sessions and the mathematical processing on the images, it doesn't need the acquisition of additional equipment. We explain how we applied the method in the registration of a structure covered with pictorial representations that was discovered in the archaeological site of Las Higueras, México.

  16. Nonlinearity mitigation for high-speed optical OFDM transmitters using digital pre-distortion.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yuan; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou; Li, Guifang

    2013-03-25

    Optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OOFDM) signal is sensitive to nonlinear distortions induced by optical modulators. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a digital pre-distortion (DPD) algorithm to linearize the optical modulators including electro-absorption modulated lasers (EML) and Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM) used in high-speed OOFDM transmitters. By using an adaptive DPD algorithm with a learning structure, the inverse transfer function of a modulator, which is based on a polynomial model, has been obtained. In the experiment, the performance improvements with and without considering the memory effects of the DPD model are illustrated. The two typical kinds of high-speed OOFDM signals with a bit rate up to 30-Gb/s have been implemented experimentally. The results show that the nonlinear distortion induced by optical modulators can be compensated by using the DPD algorithm to substantially improve the optical modulation index.

  17. Electron Pre-acceleration at Nonrelativistic High-Mach-number Perpendicular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohdan, Artem; Niemiec, Jacek; Kobzar, Oleh; Pohl, Martin

    2017-09-01

    We perform particle-in-cell simulations of perpendicular nonrelativistic collisionless shocks to study electron heating and pre-acceleration for parameters that permit the extrapolation to the conditions at young supernova remnants. Our high-resolution large-scale numerical experiments sample a representative portion of the shock surface and demonstrate that the efficiency of electron injection is strongly modulated with the phase of the shock reformation. For plasmas with low and moderate temperature (plasma beta {β }{{p}}=5\\cdot {10}-4 and {β }{{p}}=0.5), we explore the nonlinear shock structure and electron pre-acceleration for various orientations of the large-scale magnetic field with respect to the simulation plane, while keeping it at 90° to the shock normal. Ion reflection off of the shock leads to the formation of magnetic filaments in the shock ramp, resulting from Weibel-type instabilities, and electrostatic Buneman modes in the shock foot. In all of the cases under study, the latter provides first-stage electron energization through the shock-surfing acceleration mechanism. The subsequent energization strongly depends on the field orientation and proceeds through adiabatic or second-order Fermi acceleration processes for configurations with the out-of-plane and in-plane field components, respectively. For strictly out-of-plane field, the fraction of suprathermal electrons is much higher than for other configurations, because only in this case are the Buneman modes fully captured by the 2D simulation grid. Shocks in plasma with moderate {β }{{p}} provide more efficient pre-acceleration. The relevance of our results to the physics of fully 3D systems is discussed.

  18. Pre-Processing Effect on the Accuracy of Event-Based Activity Segmentation and Classification through Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Fida, Benish; Bernabucci, Ivan; Bibbo, Daniele; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2015-09-11

    Inertial sensors are increasingly being used to recognize and classify physical activities in a variety of applications. For monitoring and fitness applications, it is crucial to develop methods able to segment each activity cycle, e.g., a gait cycle, so that the successive classification step may be more accurate. To increase detection accuracy, pre-processing is often used, with a concurrent increase in computational cost. In this paper, the effect of pre-processing operations on the detection and classification of locomotion activities was investigated, to check whether the presence of pre-processing significantly contributes to an increase in accuracy. The pre-processing stages evaluated in this study were inclination correction and de-noising. Level walking, step ascending, descending and running were monitored by using a shank-mounted inertial sensor. Raw and filtered segments, obtained from a modified version of a rule-based gait detection algorithm optimized for sequential processing, were processed to extract time and frequency-based features for physical activity classification through a support vector machine classifier. The proposed method accurately detected >99% gait cycles from raw data and produced >98% accuracy on these segmented gait cycles. Pre-processing did not substantially increase classification accuracy, thus highlighting the possibility of reducing the amount of pre-processing for real-time applications.

  19. Horticultural activity predicts later localized limb status in a contemporary pre-industrial population.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin C; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Modern humans may have gracile skeletons due to low physical activity levels and mechanical loading. Tests using pre-historic skeletons are limited by the inability to assess behavior directly, while modern industrialized societies possess few socio-ecological features typical of human evolutionary history. Among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists, we test whether greater activity levels and, thus, increased loading earlier in life are associated with greater later-life bone status and diminished age-related bone loss. We used quantitative ultrasonography to assess radial and tibial status among adults aged 20+ years (mean ± SD age = 49 ± 15; 52% female). We conducted systematic behavioral observations to assess earlier-life activity patterns (mean time lag between behavioural observation and ultrasound = 12 years). For a subset of participants, physical activity was again measured later in life, via accelerometry, to determine whether earlier-life time use is associated with later-life activity levels. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during medical exams. Structural decline with age is reduced for the tibia (female: -0.25 SDs/decade; male: 0.05 SDs/decade) versus radius (female: -0.56 SDs/decade; male: -0.20 SDs/decade), which is expected if greater loading mitigates bone loss. Time allocation to horticulture, but not hunting, positively predicts later-life radial status (βHorticulture  = 0.48, p = 0.01), whereas tibial status is not significantly predicted by subsistence or sedentary leisure participation. Patterns of activity- and age-related change in bone status indicate localized osteogenic responses to loading, and are generally consistent with the logic of bone functional adaptation. Nonmechanical factors related to subsistence lifestyle moderate the association between activity patterns and bone structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Highly efficient single cell arraying by integrating acoustophoretic cell pre-concentration and dielectrophoretic cell trapping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Antfolk, Maria; Kobayashi, Marina; Kaneda, Shohei; Laurell, Thomas; Fujii, Teruo

    2015-11-21

    To array rare cells at the single-cell level, the volumetric throughput may become a bottleneck in the cell trapping and the subsequent single-cell analysis, since the target cells per definition commonly exist in a large sample volume after purification from the original sample. Here, we present a novel approach for high throughput single cell arraying by integrating two original microfluidic devices: an acoustofluidic chip and an electroactive microwell array. The velocity of the cells is geared down in the acoustofluidic chip while maintaining a high volume flow rate at the inlet of the microsystem, and the cells are subsequently trapped one by one into the microwell array using dielectrophoresis. The integrated system exhibited a 10 times improved sample throughput compared to trapping with the electroactive microwell array chip alone, while maintaining a highly efficient cell recovery above 90%. The results indicate that the serial integration of the acoustophoretic pre-concentration with the dielectrophoretic cell trapping drastically improves the performance of the electroactive microwell array for highly efficient single cell analysis. This simple and effective system for high throughput single cell arraying with further possible integration of additional functions, including cell sorting and downstream analysis after cell trapping, has potential for development to a highly integrated and automated platform for single-cell analysis of rare cells.

  1. Modeling of Cardiac Muscle Thin Films: Pre-stretch, Passive and Active Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jongmin; Grosberg, Anna; Nawroth, Janna C.; Parker, Kevin Kit; Bertoldi, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in tissue engineering has made it possible to build contractile bio-hybrid materials that undergo conformational changes by growing a layer of cardiac muscle on elastic polymeric membranes. Further development of such muscular thin films for building actuators and powering devices requires exploring several design parameters, which include the alignment of the cardiac myocytes and the thickness/Young’s modulus of elastomeric film. To more efficiently explore these design parameters, we propose a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model, which accounts for both the passive deformation including pre-stretch and the active behavior of the cardiomyocytes. The proposed 3-D constitutive model is implemented within a finite element framework, and can be used to improve the current design of bio-hybrid thin films and help developing bio-hybrid constructs capable of complex conformational changes. PMID:22236531

  2. Skeletal benefits of pre-menarcheal gymnastics are retained after activity cessation.

    PubMed

    Scerpella, Tamara A; Dowthwaite, Jodi N; Gero, Nicole M; Kanaley, Jill A; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical loading during childhood and adolescence may yield skeletal benefits that persist beyond activity cessation and menarche. At 1 year pre- and 2 years post-menarche, nondominant forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and projected area (area) were compared in gymnasts (n = 9), ex-gymnasts (n = 8) and nongymnasts (n = 13). At both observations, gymnasts and ex-gymnasts had higher forearm aBMD, BMC and area than nongymnasts. Gymnasts had higher postmenarcheal means than ex-gymnasts for all three parameters. Childhood mechanical loading yields skeletal advantages that persist at least 24 months after loading cessation and menarche. Continued postmenarcheal loading yields additional benefit.

  3. Modeling of cardiac muscle thin films: pre-stretch, passive and active behavior.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmin; Grosberg, Anna; Nawroth, Janna C; Parker, Kevin Kit; Bertoldi, Katia

    2012-03-15

    Recent progress in tissue engineering has made it possible to build contractile bio-hybrid materials that undergo conformational changes by growing a layer of cardiac muscle on elastic polymeric membranes. Further development of such muscular thin films for building actuators and powering devices requires exploring several design parameters, which include the alignment of the cardiac myocytes and the thickness/Young's modulus of elastomeric film. To more efficiently explore these design parameters, we propose a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model, which accounts for both the passive deformation including pre-stretch and the active behavior of the cardiomyocytes. The proposed 3-D constitutive model is implemented within a finite element framework, and can be used to improve the current design of bio-hybrid thin films and help developing bio-hybrid constructs capable of complex conformational changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using pre-hydrolysis liquor of Eucalyptus wood and its effective antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, M; Nagashree, K L; Yallappa, S; Manjappa, S; Manjunath, K S; Dharmaprakash, M S

    2017-02-01

    Herein, we described for the first time, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using pre-hydrolyzed liquor of Eucalyptus wood under ambient conditions. The pre-hydrolyzed liquor containing a high amount of metabolites such as polyphenols, hemicelluloses and its derivatives are mainly assisted for the reduction and stabilization process of Ag+ ions to AgNPs. The formation of AgNPs is monitored by recording the UV-vis spectrophotometer for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼415nm. The intensity of SPR increased linearly with increasing the reaction time at ambient condition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of AgNPs reveals the formation of face-centered cubic structure. Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the spherical shaped particles and narrow size distribution with an average diameter of 25-30nm. The elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis confirms the presence of Ag as the major amount and is found to be 82%. Analysis of the fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the NPs revealed the presence of phytoconstituents from pre-hydrolyzed liquor adsorbed on the surface of AgNPs. Moreover, in vitro, antimicrobial activity is found to be effective for as-synthesized AgNPs on tested bacteria (viz., P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli) followed by fungus (C. oxysporum, P. chrysogenum, C. albicans and A.niger). Thus, these results suggest the use of biosynthesized AgNPs as effective growth inhibitors for various biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF PRE-EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS. I. OVERVIEW, DATA, AND TARGET SELECTION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Birch, A. C.; Dunn, T.; Javornik, B.; Braun, D. C.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, I.

    2013-01-10

    This first paper in a series describes the design of a study testing whether pre-appearance signatures of solar magnetic active regions were detectable using various tools of local helioseismology. The ultimate goal is to understand flux-emergence mechanisms by setting observational constraints on pre-appearance subsurface changes, for comparison with results from simulation efforts. This first paper provides details of the data selection and preparation of the samples, each containing over 100 members, of two populations: regions on the Sun that produced a numbered NOAA active region, and a 'control' sample of areas that did not. The seismology is performed on data from the GONG network; accompanying magnetic data from SOHO/MDI are used for co-temporal analysis of the surface magnetic field. Samples are drawn from 2001-2007, and each target is analyzed for 27.7 hr prior to an objectively determined time of emergence. The results of two analysis approaches are published separately: one based on averages of the seismology- and magnetic-derived signals over the samples, another based on Discriminant Analysis of these signals, for a statistical test of detectable differences between the two populations. We include here descriptions of a new potential-field calculation approach and the algorithm for matching sample distributions over multiple variables. We describe known sources of bias and the approaches used to mitigate them. We also describe unexpected bias sources uncovered during the course of the study and include a discussion of refinements that should be included in future work on this topic.

  6. Familial resemblance of body composition, physical activity, and resting metabolic rate in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Djafarian, Kurosh; Speakman, John R; Stewart, Joanne; M Jackson, Diane

    2013-10-01

    Although parental obesity is a well-established predisposing factor for the development of obesity, associations between regional body compositions, resting metabolic rates (RMR), and physical activity (PA) of parents and their pre-school children remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-child correlations for total and regional body compositions, resting energy expenditures, and physical activity. Participants were 89 children aged 2-6 years and their parents, consisting of 61 families. Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Total and regional body compositions were measured by both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and deuterium dilution. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer. There was a significant parent-offspring regression for total fat free mass (FFM) between children and their mothers (P=0.02), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (average of father and mother value) (P=0.002) when measured by DXA. The same was true for fat mass (FM) between children and mothers (P<0.01), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (P=0.001). There was no significant association between children and parents for physical activity during the entire week, weekend, weekdays, and different parts of days, except for morning activity, which was positively related to the mothers' morning activities (P<0.01) and mid-parent (P=0.009). No association was found between RMR of children and parents before and after correction for FFM and FM. These data suggest a familial resemblance for total body composition between children and their parents. Our data showed no familial resemblance for PA and RMR between children and their parents.

  7. Characteristics of sunspot longitudinal distribution and their correlation with solar activity in pre-Greenwich data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. G.; Miletsky, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    We study and compare characteristics of the sunspot group latitude distribution in two catalogs: extended Greenwich (1874-2014) and Schwabe (1825-1867) (Arlt et al., 2013). We show that both datasets reveal similar correlations between the latitude and amplitude characteristics of the 11-year cycle: the latitude dispersion correlates with the current activity and the sunspot mean latitude at the cycle's maximum is proportional to its amplitude. This agrees with the conclusions drawn in (Ivanov et al., 2011; Ivanov and Miletsky, 2014) for the Greenwich catalog. We show that the latitude properties of the sunspot distribution are much more tolerant to gaps in observational data than traditional amplitude indices of activity. Therefore, the discovered correlations can be used for estimation of the observation quality and independent normalization of the activity levels in spotty pre-Greenwich data. We exemplified this using the Schwabe catalog. In addition, we show that the first part of the Schwabe data probably contains errors in sunspot latitudes, which lead to overestimation of the sunspot latitude dispersions.

  8. Patellar tendon straps decrease pre-landing quadriceps activation in males with patellar tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Adam B; Ko, Jupil; Simpson, Kathy J; Brown, Cathleen N

    2017-03-01

    To determine if patellar tendon straps altered quadriceps' muscle activity during a drop-jump landing in males with and without patellar tendinopathy. Case-control. Biomechanics Research Laboratory. Twenty recreationally-active males participated: ten (age = 21.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 182.8 ± 5.3 cm, mass = 81.7 ± 8.6 kg) with patellar tendinopathy; ten (age = 22.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 185.7 ± 4.5 cm, mass = 82.2 ± 9.8 kg) were healthy with no history of tendinopathy. Electromyography (EMG) data for the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles were collected. Five 2-legged 40 cm drop-jumps were performed wearing a patellar tendon strap and 5 with no-strap in a counterbalanced order. Root-mean square EMG (REMG) values of the VM, RF, and VL were averaged for a pre-landing and post-landing interval. Multiple mixed-model two-way ANOVAs were performed to determine the effect of tendinopathy and strapping condition on REMG values for each muscle. For the pre-landing interval, all participants displayed lesser VL EMG activation (0.44 ± 0.19%, 0.53 ± 0.27%, respectively; p = 0.007, d = 0.39) in the no-strap compared with the strap condition. When wearing a strap, all participants demonstrated lower VL activation prior to landing which may be helpful in reducing tensile stress at the tendon. These effects may be clinically important in modulating pain in those with patellar tendinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2013-11-05

    Mechanisms for performing matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. A load and splat operation is performed to load an element of a second vector operand and replicating the element to each of a plurality of elements of a second target vector register. A multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the matrix multiplication operation. The partial product of the matrix multiplication operation is accumulated with other partial products of the matrix multiplication operation.

  10. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  11. Effect of Child Centred Methods on Teaching and Learning of Science Activities in Pre-Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andiema, Nelly C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite many research studies showing the effectiveness of teacher application of child-centered learning in different educational settings, few studies have focused on teaching and learning activities in Pre-Schools. This research investigates the effect of child centered methods on teaching and learning of science activities in preschools in…

  12. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    The GlobVolcano project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the Volcano Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, GlobVolcano is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites located in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of GlobVolcano offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, volcanoes, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the volcano. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island

  13. Abdominal fat distribution in pre- and postmenopausal women: The impact of physical activity, age, and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Sames, C; Swisher, L; Swick, A G; Ploutz-Snyder, L L; Steppan, C M; Sagendorf, K S; Feiglin, D; Jaynes, E B; Meyer, R A; Weinstock, R S

    2001-08-01

    Age-related increases in total body fat have been reported, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of menopausal status on abdominal fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, we investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution on blood lipid profiles and leptin concentrations. Twenty-three premenopausal (PRE), 27 postmenopausal (POST), and 28 postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) had measurements of regional abdominal fat, blood lipids, and serum leptin concentrations. The women were matched for body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass. Age and menopausal status were not found to be significant predictors of total abdominal fat, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, while physical activity was a significant predictor (P <.01) for total abdominal fat (R(2) =.16), visceral fat (R(2) =.32) and percent visceral fat (R(2) =.25). There was a trend for a greater visceral fat content in the POST women compared with the PRE women (2,495.0 +/- 228.4 v 1,770.4 +/- 240.8 cm(2), respectively, P =.06). The percent visceral abdominal fat was significantly lower (P <.05) in the premenopausal women than in either postmenopausal group (PRE, 23.2% +/- 1.7%; POST, 28.9% +/- 1.8%; ERT, 28.9% +/- 1.6%). Menopausal status and age did not influence any of the blood lipid values. Abdominal fat distribution was a significant predictor of cholesterol concentrations and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, but only accounted for approximately 15% of the variability in these levels. Total body fat and physical activity accounted for 47% of the variability in leptin concentrations, while abdominal fat distribution, age, and menopausal status were not significant predictors. In conclusion, in early postmenopausal women, the level of physical activity accounts for the variability in abdominal fat distribution observed

  14. Improved removal of arsenic from groundwater using pre-corroded steel and iron tailored granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zou, J; Cannon, F S; Chen, W; Dempsey, B A

    2010-01-01

    The authors have combined corrosion of steel fittings or perforated sheets with granular activated carbon (GAC) that had been pre-treated with Fe(III)-citrate, to produce an innovative and low-maintenance technique for removing arsenic from groundwater. Removal of arsenic was measured using two GAC column configurations: rapid small scale column tests (RSSCT's) and mini-column tests. Independent variables included pH, pre-corrosion procedure, and idling of the column (i.e. intentionally stopping flow for defined times in order to create reducing conditions). Use of corroded steel plus pre-treated GAC removed arsenic to below 10 microg/L for up to 248,000 bed volumes (BV) at pH 6, compared to 7,000 BVs for pre-treated GAC without pre-corroded steel. Performance was not as good at pH 6.5 or 7.5. Idling the system recovered the iron corrosion ability by reducing the passive Fe(III) layer on pre-corroded steel surface, as a result the BVs to arsenic breakthrough was doubled. But idling also caused brief periods of arsenic and iron release after restart, due to reductive dissolution of arsenic-containing ferric oxides. GAC was also effective as filtration media for removal of iron (hydr)oxide particles (and associated arsenic) that was released from the pre-corroded iron.

  15. A Rab2 Mutant with Impaired GTPase Activity Stimulates Vesicle Formation from Pre-Golgi Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, Ellen J.

    1999-01-01

    Rab2 immunolocalizes to pre-Golgi intermediates (vesicular-tubular clusters [VTCs]) that are the first site of segregation of anterograde- and retrograde-transported proteins and a major peripheral site for COPI recruitment. Our previous work showed that Rab2 Q65L (equivalent to Ras Q61L) inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in vivo. In this study, the biochemical properties of Rab2 Q65L were analyzed. The mutant protein binds GDP and GTP and has a low GTP hydrolysis rate that suggests that Rab2 Q65L is predominantly in the GTP-bound–activated form. The purified protein arrests vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transport from VTCs in an assay that reconstitutes ER-to-Golgi traffic. A quantitative binding assay was used to measure membrane binding of β-COP when incubated with the mutant. Unlike Rab2 that stimulates recruitment, Rab2 Q65L showed a dose-dependent decrease in membrane-associated β-COP when incubated with rapidly sedimenting membranes (ER, pre-Golgi, and Golgi). The mutant protein does not interfere with β-COP binding but stimulates the release of slowly sedimenting vesicles containing Rab2, β-COP, and p53/gp58 but lacking anterograde grade-directed cargo. To complement the biochemical results, we observed in a morphological assay that Rab2 Q65L caused vesiculation of VTCs that accumulated at 15°C. These data suggest that the Rab2 protein plays a role in the low-temperature–sensitive step that regulates membrane flow from VTCs to the Golgi complex and back to the ER. PMID:10359600

  16. Midazolam microdose to determine systemic and pre-systemic metabolic CYP3A activity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Nicolas; Kocheise, Franziska; Carls, Alexandra; Burhenne, Jürgen; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to establish a method to assess systemic and pre-systemic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity using ineffective microgram doses of midazolam. Methods In an open, one sequence, crossover study, 16 healthy participants received intravenous and oral midazolam at microgram (0.001 mg intravenous and 0.003 mg oral) and regular milligram (1 mg intravenous and 3 mg oral) doses to assess the linearity of plasma and urine pharmacokinetics. Results Dose-normalized AUC and Cmax were 37.1 ng ml−1 h [95% CI 35.5, 40.6] and 39.1 ng ml−1 [95% CI 30.4, 50.2] for the microdose and 39.0 ng ml−1 h [95% CI 36.1, 42.1] and 37.1 ng ml−1 [95% CI 26.9, 51.3] for the milligram dose. CLmet was 253 ml min−1 [95% CI 201, 318] vs. 278 ml min−1 [95% CI 248, 311] for intravenous doses and 1880 ml min−1 [95% CI 1590, 2230] vs. 2050 ml min−1 [95% CI 1720, 2450] for oral doses. Oral bioavailability of a midazolam microdose was 23.4% [95% CI 20.0, 27.3] vs. 20.9% [95% CI 17.1, 25.5] after the regular dose. Hepatic and gut extraction ratios for microgram doses were 0.44 [95% CI 0.39, 0.49] and 0.53 [95% CI 0.45, 0.63] and compared well with those for milligram doses (0.43 [95% CI 0.37, 0.49] and 0.61 [95% CI 0.53, 0.70]). Conclusion The pharmacokinetics of an intravenous midazolam microdose is linear to the applied regular doses and can be used to assess safely systemic CYP3A activity and, in combination with oral microdoses, pre-systemic CYP3A activity. PMID:25588320

  17. Pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation alleviates damage to the flag leaf caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation on leaf physiology of winter wheat in response to post-anthesis heat stress. The results showed that both pre- and post-anthesis heat stresses significantly depressed flag leaf photosynthesis and enhanced cell membrane peroxidation, as exemplified by increased O₂⁻(·) production rate and reduction in activities of antioxiditave enzymes. However, under post-anthesis heat stress, plants with pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation (HH) showed much higher photosynthetic rates than those without pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation (CH). Leaves of HH plants exhibited a higher Chl a/b ratio and lower chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio and superoxide anion radical release rate compared with those of the CH plants. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities in HH plants were significantly higher than in CH. Coincidently, expressions of photosythesis-responsive gene encoding Rubisco activase B (RcaB) and antioxidant enzyme-related genes encoding mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and cytosolic glutathione reductase (GR) were all up-regulated under HH, whereas a gene encoding a major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab) was up-regulated by post-anthesis heat stress at 10 DAA, but was down-regulated at 13 DAA. The changes in the expression levels of the HH plants were more pronounced than those for the CH. Collectively, the results indicated that pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation could effectively alleviate the photosynthetic and oxidative damage caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat flag leaves, which was partially attributable to modifications in the expression of the photosythesis-responsive and antioxidant enzymes-related genes.

  18. Pre-treatment with silymarin reduces brain myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory cytokines in 6-OHDA hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Haddadi, Rasool; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Brooshghalan, Shahla Eyvari

    2013-10-25

    Most chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) are accompanied by neuroinflammation which is associated with glial cells activation and production of different inflammatory cytokines. In the present study we evaluated the anti-cataleptic effect of silymarin pre-treatment in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, striatum myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of inflammatory cytokines. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of silymarin (100, 200 and 300mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. Then, catalepsy was induced by unilateral infusion of 6-OHDA (8μg/2μl/rat) into the central region of the SNc. The anti-cataleptic effect of silymarin was assessed by the bar test 3-weeks after neurotoxin injection. Striatal myeloperoxidase activity and CSF levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were assessed at the end of behavioral experiments. Our data demonstrated that silymarin pre-treatment decreased catalepsy. The most anti-cataleptic effect was observed at the dose of 300mg/kg of silymarin (p<0.001). There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in MPO activity of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats whereas; in silymarin (in all 3 doses, i.p. for 5 days) pre-treated hemi-parkinsonian rats' MPO activity was decreased markedly (p<0.001). Furthermore the CSF levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased (p<0.001) in silymarin (100, 200 and 300mg/kg) pre-treated rats up to the range of normal non-parkinsonian animals. From these results, it may be concluded that pre-treatment with silymarin attenuates 6-OHDA-induced catalepsy by decreasing striatal MPO activity and restores CSF concentration of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 to the levels of normal non-parkinsonian rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and heat pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-15

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane production. In order to further improve methane production from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and heat pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), heat alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with heat (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or heat pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. Heat pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and heat pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and heat can be produced as by-products of anaerobic sludge digestion.

  20. Environmental Activities, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William C.; Larson, Robert J.

    This guide, for use at the junior high level, is aimed at helping our youth become more knowledgeable concerning the environment and associated problems, thus making them aware of how to solve these problems and motivating them to work toward their solution. Among the subjects discussed are art in nature, erosion, body pollution, water pollution,…

  1. Investigation of Effect of Pre-Strain on Very High-Cycle Fatigue Strength of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Nakane, Motoki; Masaki, Kiyotaka; Hashimoto, Shota; Ochi, Yasuo; Asano, Kyoichi

    This paper describes the effect of large pre-strain on very high cycle fatigue strength of austenitic stainless steels that are widely used in nuclear power plants. Fatigue tests were carried out on strain-hardened specimens. The material served in this study was type SUS316NG. Up to ±20% pre-strain was introduced to the materials, and the materials were mechanically machined into hourglass shaped smooth specimens. Some specimens were pre-strained after machining. Experiments were conducted in ultrasonic and rotating-bending fatigue testing machines. The S-N curves obtained in this study show that an increase in the magnitude of the pre-strain increases the fatigue strength of the material and this relationship is independent of the type of the pre-strain of tension or compression. Although all specimens fractured by the surface initiated fatigue cracks, one specimen fractured by an internal origin. However, this internal fracture did not cause a sudden drop in fatigue strength of type SUS316NG. Vickers hardness tests were carried out to ascertain the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness of the pre-strained materials. It was found that the increase in the fatigue limit of the pre-strained materials strongly depended on the hardness derived from an indentation size equal to the scale of stage I fatigue cracks.

  2. Increased activity of pre-motor network does not change the excitability of motoneurons during protracted scratch initiation

    PubMed Central

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Alaburda, Aidas; Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic response properties of neurons change during network activity. These changes may reinforce the initiation of particular forms of network activity. If so, the involvement of neurons in particular behaviours in multifunctional networks could be determined by up- or down-regulation of their intrinsic excitability. Here we employed an experimental paradigm of protracted scratch initiation in the integrated carapace–spinal cord preparation of adult turtles (Chrysemys scripta elegans). The protracted initiation of scratch network activity allows us to investigate the excitability of motoneurons and pre-motor network activity in the time interval from the start of sensory stimulation until the onset of scratch activity. Our results suggest that increased activity in the pre-motor network facilitates the onset of scratch episodes but does not change the excitability of motoneurons at the onset of scratching. PMID:23339173

  3. High prevalence and diversity of pre-CTXΦ alleles in the environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains in the Zhujiang River estuary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duochun; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Baisheng; Deng, Xiaoling; Tan, Hailing; Diao, Baowei; Chen, Jingdiao; Ke, Bixia; Zhong, Haojie; Zhou, Haijian; Ke, Changwen; Kan, Biao

    2014-06-01

    Toxigenic conversion of environmental Vibrio cholerae strains through lysogenic infection by the phage CTXΦ is an important step in the emergence of new pathogenic clones. The precursor form of the CTXΦ phage, pre-CTXΦ, does not carry the cholera toxin gene. During our investigation, we frequently found pre-CTXΦ prophages in non-toxigenic isolates in the serogroups of O1 and O139 strains in the Zhujiang estuary. We observed high amounts of sequence variation of rstR and gIII(CTX) in the pre-CTXΦ alleles as well as in the tcpA sequences within the strains. In addition, a new pre-CTXΦ allele, with a novel rstR sequence type and hybrid RS2, was identified. Our findings show that active, complicated gene recombination and horizontal transfer of pre-CTXΦs occurs within V. cholerae environmental strains, which creates a complex intermediate pool for the generation of toxigenic clones in the estuarine environment. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement is a feature of pre-term parturition but not of spontaneous labor at term.

    PubMed

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Soto, Eleazar; Dong, Zhong; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Ogge, Giovanna; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2010-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of fragment Bb (FBb) are a marker for activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system. High concentrations of FBb in maternal blood, as early as the first trimester, are associated with subsequent spontaneous pre-term delivery <34 weeks of gestation. The aim of this study was to determine whether spontaneous pre-term labor (PTL) with intact membranes, intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) or labor at term are associated with alterations in circulating maternal FBb concentrations. This cross-sectional study included women in the following groups: (i) non-pregnant (n = 40); (ii) normal pregnancy (gestational age range 20-36, 6/7 weeks, n = 63); (iii) women at term not in labor (n = 70); (iv) women at term in spontaneous labor (n = 59); (v) patients with an episode of PTL who delivered at term (n = 62); (vi) PTL without IAI who delivered pre-term (n = 30); and (vii) PTL with IAI who delivered pre-term (n = 67). Maternal plasma FBb concentrations were determined by ELISA. (i) Among patients with PTL, those who had a pre-term delivery either with IAI (1.21 microg/mL, IQR 0.77-2.16) or without IAI (1.13 microg/mL, IQR 0.92-2.08) had a higher median maternal plasma FBb concentration than those who delivered at term (0.86 microg/mL, IQR 0.64-1.57; P = 0.007 and P = 0.026, respectively); (ii) there was no difference in the median plasma FBb concentration between patients with and without IAI who delivered pre-term (P = 0.9); (iii) in contrast, spontaneous labor at term was not associated with a significant change in the maternal plasma FBb concentration (P = 0.8); (iv) maternal plasma concentration of FBb did not differ significantly between normal pregnant women and the non-pregnant controls (P = 0.8) and were not correlated with advancing gestational age (r = -0.28, P = 0.8). (i) Pre-term parturition is associated with activation of the alternative complement pathway in maternal circulation; (ii) such activation is not detectable

  5. STS-105/Discovery/ISS 7A.1: Pre-Launch Activities, Launch, Orbit Activities and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-105 is introduced at their pre-launch meal and at suit-up. The crew members include Commander Scott Horowitz, Pilot Rick Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Patrick Forrester and Daniel Barry, together with the Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition 3 crew includes Commander Frank Culbertson, Soyuz Commander Vladimir Dezhurov, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin. When the astronauts depart for the launch pad in the Astrovan, their convoy is shown from above. Upon reaching the launch pad, they conduct a walk around of the shuttle, display signs for family members while being inspected in the White Room, and are strapped into their seats onboard Disciovery. The video includes footage of Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, and some of the pre-launch procedures at the Launch Control Center are shown. The angles of launch replays include: TV-1, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad A, Tower 1, UCS-15, Grandstand, OTV-70, Onboard, IGOR, and UCS-23. The moment of docking between Discovery and the ISS is shown from inside Discovery's cabin. While in orbit, the crew conducted extravehicular activities (EVAs) to attach an experiments container, and install handrails on the Destiny module of the ISS. The video shows the docking and unloading of the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) onto the ISS. The deployment of a satellite from Discovery with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the background is shown. Cape Canaveral is also shown from space. Landing replays include VAB, Tower 1, mid-field, South End SLF, North End SLF, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). NASA Administrator Dan Goldin meets the crew upon landing and participates in their walk around of Discovery. The video concludes with a short speech by commander Horowitz.

  6. STS-105/Discovery/ISS 7A.1: Pre-Launch Activities, Launch, Orbit Activities and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-105 is introduced at their pre-launch meal and at suit-up. The crew members include Commander Scott Horowitz, Pilot Rick Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Patrick Forrester and Daniel Barry, together with the Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition 3 crew includes Commander Frank Culbertson, Soyuz Commander Vladimir Dezhurov, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin. When the astronauts depart for the launch pad in the Astrovan, their convoy is shown from above. Upon reaching the launch pad, they conduct a walk around of the shuttle, display signs for family members while being inspected in the White Room, and are strapped into their seats onboard Disciovery. The video includes footage of Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, and some of the pre-launch procedures at the Launch Control Center are shown. The angles of launch replays include: TV-1, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad A, Tower 1, UCS-15, Grandstand, OTV-70, Onboard, IGOR, and UCS-23. The moment of docking between Discovery and the ISS is shown from inside Discovery's cabin. While in orbit, the crew conducted extravehicular activities (EVAs) to attach an experiments container, and install handrails on the Destiny module of the ISS. The video shows the docking and unloading of the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) onto the ISS. The deployment of a satellite from Discovery with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the background is shown. Cape Canaveral is also shown from space. Landing replays include VAB, Tower 1, mid-field, South End SLF, North End SLF, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). NASA Administrator Dan Goldin meets the crew upon landing and participates in their walk around of Discovery. The video concludes with a short speech by commander Horowitz.

  7. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P < 0.001) with a greater increase after HVT (+0.8 km · h(-1) vs. +0.5 km · h(-1) after HIIT, P = 0.04). Maximal velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P < 0.003). Both training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  8. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood.

  9. Plasticity induced by pre-existing defects during high strain-rate loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringa, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    High strain-rate deformation of metals has been typically studied for perfect monocrystals. Computational advances now allow more realistic simulations of materials including defects, which lower the Hugoniot Elastic Limit, and lead to microstructures differing from the ones from perfect monocrystals. As pre-existing defects one can consider vacancy clusters, dislocation loops, grain boundaries, etc. New analysis tools allow analysis of dislocation densities and twin fractions, for both f.c.c. and b.c.c. metals. Recent results for defective single crystal Ta [Tramontina et al.., High Energy Den. Phys. 10, 9 (2014), and Ruestes et al., Scripta Mat. 68, 818 (2013)], and for polycrystalline b.c.c metals [Tang et al., Mat. Sci. Eng. A 580, 414 (2013), and Gunkelmann et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 144111 (2012)] will be highlighted, alongside new results for nanocrystalline Cu, Ta, Fe, and Zr [Ruestes et al., Scripta Mat. 71, 9 (2014)]. This work has been carried out in collaboration with D. Tramontina, C. Ruestes, E. Millan, J. Rodriguez-Nieva, M.A. Meyers, Y. Tang, H. Urbassek, N. Gunkelmann, A. Stukowski, M. Ruda, G. Bertolino, D. Farkas, A. Caro, J. Hawreliak, B. Remington, R. Rudd, P. Erhart, R. Ravelo, T. Germann, N. Park, M. Suggit, S. Michalik, A. Higginbotham and J. Wark. Funding by PICT2008-1325 and SeCTyP U.N. Cuyo.

  10. Average magnetic moments of pre-yrast high spin states in {sup 166,165}Hf

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, L.; Hass, M.; Broude, C.

    1996-01-01

    The average magnetic moments of high spin states in Hf isotopes were determined in a transient field measurement at the 14 MV Koffler accelerator of the Weizmann Institute. The reaction {sup 130}Te({sup 40}Ca,{ital xn}){sup 166,165}Hf at beam energies from 167 to 182.5 MeV was used to populate different high spin regions and provide the recoiling Hf nuclei with sufficient velocity to traverse the 2.9 mg/cm{sup 2} Gd ferromagnetic layer. Standard double ratios and angular distributions for various low level transitions were measured to determine precession angles. These carry information regarding the average {ital g} factor of unobservable transitions at medium excitation. To obtain a more quantitative analysis regarding the time-decay history of the {gamma} cascade, Monte Carlo simulations of the cascade were carried out. The significance of the results for understanding the single particle nature of these pre-yrast levels is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. High prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in adults with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pober, B R; Wang, E; Caprio, S; Petersen, K F; Brandt, C; Stanley, T; Osborne, L R; Dzuria, J; Gulanski, B

    2010-05-15

    A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered to 28 adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Three quarters of the WS subjects showed abnormal glucose curves, meeting diagnostic criteria for either diabetes or the pre-diabetic state of impaired glucose tolerance. Fasting mean glucose and median insulin levels did not differ significantly in the total WS cohort versus age-gender-BMI matched controls, though the glucose area under the curve was greater in the WS subjects. HbA1c levels were not as reliable as the OGTT in diagnosing the presence of diabetes. Given the high prevalence of impaired glucose regulation, adults with WS should be screened for diabetes, and when present should be treated in accordance with standard medical practice. Hemizygosity for a gene mapping to the Williams syndrome chromosome region (WSCR) is likely the major factor responsible for the high frequency of diabetes in WS. Syntaxin-1A is a prime candidate gene based on its location in the WSCR, its role in insulin release, and the presence of abnormal glucose metabolism in mouse models with aberrantly expressed Stx-1a.

  12. High Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Adults With Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pober, Barbara R.; Wang, Erica T.; Caprio, Sonia; Petersen, Kitt F.; Brandt, Cynthia; Stanley, Takara L.; Osborne, Lucy R.; Dziura, James; Gulanski, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered to 28 adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Three quarters of the WS subjects showed abnormal glucose curves, meeting diagnostic criteria for either diabetes or the pre-diabetic state of impaired glucose tolerance. Fasting mean glucose and median insulin levels did not differ significantly in the total WS cohort versus age–gender–BMI matched controls, though the glucose area under the curve was greater in the WS subjects. HbA1c levels were not as reliable as the OGTT in diagnosing the presence of diabetes. Given the high prevalence of impaired glucose regulation, adults with WS should be screened for diabetes, and when present should be treated in accordance with standard medical practice. Hemizygosity for a gene mapping to the Williams syndrome chromosome region (WSCR) is likely the major factor responsible for the high frequency of diabetes in WS. Syntaxin-1A is a prime candidate gene based on its location in the WSCR, its role in insulin release, and the presence of abnormal glucose metabolism in mouse models with aberrantly expressed Stx-1a. PMID:20425788

  13. Dual phase high-temperature membranes for CO2 separation - performance assessment in post- and pre-combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Peters, Thijs; Xing, Wen; Fontaine, Marie-Laure; Bredesen, Rune

    2016-10-20

    Dual phase membranes are highly CO2-selective membranes with an operating temperature above 400 °C. The focus of this work is to quantify the potential of dual phase membranes in pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture processes. The process evaluations show that the dual phase membranes integrated with an NGCC power plant for CO2 capture are not competitive with the MEA process for post-combustion capture. However, dual phase membrane concepts outperform the reference Selexol technology for pre-combustion CO2 capture in an IGCC process. The two processes evaluated in this work, post-combustion NGCC and pre-combustion IGCC, represent extremes in CO2 partial pressure fed to the separation unit. Based on the evaluations it is expected that dual phase membranes could be competitive for post-combustion capture from a pulverized coal fired power plant (PCC) and pre-combustion capture from an Integrated Reforming Cycle (IRCC).

  14. Lateral-crack-free, buckled, inkjet-printed silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched elastomeric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemyon; Chung, Seungjun; Song, Hyunsoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Hong, Yongtaek

    2013-03-01

    We report the formation of lateral-crack-free silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates using the inkjet-printing method followed by an annealing process under the pre-stretched state. Due to Poisson's effect, cracks are easily obtained in the direction lateral to the pre-stretching and releasing directions when the highly pre-stretched substrate is released after the electrode formation. In our method, however, Poisson's effect is suppressed significantly from the PDMS thermal expansion perpendicular to the pre-stretched direction during the annealing process. In order to prevent the formation of a lateral crack, the annealing temperature needs to be optimized for each pre-stretching condition. We modelled their relationship using Poisson's ratios and thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and silver materials. Our measurement results showed consistent result with the simulation. The resistance of the fabricated silver electrodes negligibly changes under up to 17% strain and even after 1000 time stretching cycle tests.

  15. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitacre, Michael; Diaz, Zulmaris; Esquierdo, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004). The student teaching…

  16. Differences in Learning Geometry among High and Low Spatial Ability Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Hasan; Jakubowski, Elizabeth; Corey, Darryl

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize the geometric thinking and understanding of four pre-service middle and secondary mathematics teachers while considering their spatial ability levels. To investigate the differences, if any, that existed among these pre-service middle and secondary teachers with different spatial…

  17. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections on Awareness and Knowledge Following Active Learning in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the pre-service teachers' reflection on an environmental knowledge questionnaire administered in an introductory environmental education course. Reflection sheets that addressed pre-/post-course knowledge questionnaires were collected from 75 students who took the course in three consecutive years. The students represented…

  18. Effect of the Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor precursor (preGcMAF) on phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Syota; Takeuchi, Ryota; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Hirota, Keiji; Terada, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Shinya; Nakata, Eiji; Hori, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The 1f1f subtype of the Gc protein (Gc(1f1f) protein) was converted into Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) by enzymatic processing in the presence of β-galactosidase of an activated B-cell and sialidase of a T-cell. We hypothesized that preGc(1f1f)MAF, the only Gc(1f1f) protein lacking galactose, can be converted to GcMAF in vivo because sialic acid is cleaved by residual sialidase. Hence, we investigated the effect of preGc(1f1f)MAF on the phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages. We examined the sugar moiety of preGc(1f1f)MAF with a Western blot using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) lectin. We also found that preGc(1f1f)MAF significantly enhanced phagocytic activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages but only in the presence of the mouse peritoneal fluid; the level of phagocytic activity was the same as that observed for GcMAF. PreGc(1f1f)MAF can be used as an effective macrophage activator in vivo.

  19. A Computer Program To Increase Comprehension of the Cartesian Rectangular Coordinate System in High School Pre-Algebra Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, I. Sheck

    The high percentage of high school pre-algebra students having difficulty learning the abstract concept of graphing ordered pairs on the Cartesian rectangular coordinate system was addressed by the creation and implementation of a computer-managed instructional program. Modules consisted of a pretest, instruction, two practice sessions, and a…

  20. Active euthanasia in pre-modern society, 1500-1800: learned debates and popular practices.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Historians of medical ethics have found that active euthanasia, in the sense of intentionally hastening the death of terminally-ill patients, was considered unacceptable in the Christian West before the 1870s. This paper presents a range of early modern texts on the issue which reflect a learned awareness of practices designed to shorten the lives of dying patients which were widely accepted among the lay public. Depriving the dying abruptly of their head-rest or placing them flat on the cold floor may strike us as merely symbolic today, but early moderns associated such measures with very concrete and immediate effects. In this sense, the intentional hastening of death in agonising patients had an accepted place in pre-modern popular culture. These practices must, however, be put into their proper context. Death was perceived more as a transition to the after-life and contemporary notions of dying could make even outright suffocation appear as an act of compassion which merely helped the soul depart from the body at the divinely ordained hour of death. The paper concludes with a brief comparison of early modern arguments with those of today.

  1. Early Human Activity (pre-332 BC) in Alexandria, Egypt: New findings in Eastern Harbor Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, J.; Landau, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    Historians have long postulated that a settlement called Rhakotis was present on Egypt's Mediterranean coast in the area subsequently occupied by the city of Alexandria. To date, however, the precise position of that site has not been located in the immediate area of the city founded by Alexander the Great. Also undefined are the earliest phases of occupation that pre-date Alexandria on Pharos Island and in the harbour area. A geoarchaeological project emphasizing sediment cores in Alexandria's Eastern Harbour now provides evidence of human occupation adjacent to these settings prior to establishment of Greece's great port in 332 BC. A radiocarbon-dated stratigraphic unit, defined as Middle Sand (III) and older than the 4th century BC, includes locally produced ceramics, along with rock fragments of non-local origin, and increased content of sand-sized heavy mineral and organic matter. Together, these date at least to Egypt's Late Dynastic Period (712-332 BC). Moreover, the geographic positions of core sites containing these markers indicate that early habitation occurred both at Pharos Island and on the mainland where the future Alexandria would be built. New findings in cores recovered in this marine environment are adding to knowledge of both natural processes and effects of human activity in early Alexandria.

  2. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon–producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Ottolini, Matteo; Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G.; Harris, Thurl E.; Patel, Manoj K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2017-01-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide–secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake–lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide–expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal. PMID:28218622

  3. High blood glucose independent of pre-existing diabetic status predicts mortality in patients initiating peritoneal dialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Hee; Han, Dong Cheol; Noh, Hyunjin; Jeon, Jin Seok; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lindholm, Bengt; Lee, Hi Bahl

    2015-06-01

    Poor glycemic control associates with increased mortality in diabetic (DM) dialysis patients, but it is less well established whether high blood glucose (BG) independent of pre-existing diabetic status associates with mortality in dialysis patients. We assessed factors affecting BG at the start of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and its mortality-predictive impact in Korean PD patients. In 174 PD patients (55 % males, 56 % DM), BG, nutritional status, comorbidity (CMD), and residual renal function (RRF) were assessed in conjunction with dialysis initiation. Determinants of BG and its association with mortality after a mean follow-up period of 30 ± 24 months were analyzed. On Cox proportional hazards analysis comprising all patients, old age, high CMD score, presence of protein energy wasting, and low serum albumin (Salb) concentration were independent predictors of mortality but not a high-BG level, while in patients without pre-existing diabetic status, high BG, together with old age and high CMD score, was an independent predictor of mortality. After adjustment for age, CMD score, and Salb, the risk ratio for mortality increased by 12 % per 1 mg/dL increase in BG in the non-DM patients. Patient survival in patients without pre-existing diabetic status with high BG did not differ from DM patients, but the survival of patients with high BG was significantly lower than in patients with low BG. In patients without pre-existing diabetic status, in multiple regression analysis, high BG at initiation of PD associated with high age, high body mass index, and low RRF. High blood glucose at initiation of PD associated with an increased mortality risk in PD patients without pre-existing diabetic status suggesting that blood glucose monitoring and surveillance of factors contributing to poor glycemic control are warranted in patients initiating PD therapy.

  4. Pre-systemic elimination of tilidine: localization and consequences for the formation of the active metabolite nortilidine.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Christine; Mathes, Kristin; Burhenne, Jürgen; Markert, Christoph; Blank, Antje; Mikus, Gerd

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic activity of tilidine, an opioid analgesic, is mainly related to its active metabolite nortilidine. Nortilidine formation mainly occurs during the high intestinal first-pass metabolism of tilidine by N-demethylation. Elimination of the active nortilidine to the inactive bisnortilidine is also mediated by N-demethylation and is supposed to take place in the liver, probably at a smaller rate. The aim of this study was the investigation of the pre-systemic elimination of tilidine using grapefruit juice (GFJ) as an intestinal CYP3A4 inhibitor and efavirenz (EFV) as a CYP3A4 activator. A randomized, open, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers using 100 mg tilidine solution p.o., regular strength GFJ 250 mL (3 times at 12-hr intervals) and EFV 400 mg (12 hr before tilidine administration). Tilidine, nortilidine and bisnortilidine in plasma and urine were quantified by a validated LC/MS/MS analysis. GFJ did not change any pharmacokinetic parameter of tilidine and its metabolites, which suggests that intestinal CYP3A4 does not contribute to the first-pass metabolism of tilidine. No effect of EFV on the pharmacokinetics of the active nortilidine was observed except a significant reduction of the terminal elimination half-life by 15%. Overall elimination (renal and metabolic clearances) was unaffected by every treatment. CYP3A4 does not seem to play a major role in tilidine first-pass and overall metabolism. Other unknown metabolites and their enzymes responsible for their formation have to be investigated as they account for the majority of renally excreted metabolites.

  5. The role of pre-pregnancy physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian E; Brown, Wendy J

    2011-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates approximately 3-11% of pregnancies and increases the risk on prenatal morbidity and later development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are thought to play a role in the development of GDM, independent of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and the development of GDM using a population-based prospective cohort study. Data from the youngest (1973-1978) cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n=2913) were used to determine the influences of self-reported physical activity, and sedentary behaviour in 2000 and 2003 on the development of GDM over subsequent three year periods, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. In this cohort of Australian women, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 2000 and 2003 were not associated with the development of GDM in the subsequent three years. In adjusted models, odds ratios for the development of GDM were 1.92 (95% CI 1.25-2.96) for overweight women (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) and 3.11 (1.92-5.03) for obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) compared with normal weight women. Those with lower education and women born in an Asian country also had higher risk of developing GDM than more highly educated and Australian born women, respectively. In conclusion, pre-pregnancy physical activity and sedentary behaviour appear to be less important in the development of GDM in this cohort than overweight and obesity.

  6. Chemistry For Kids: Pre-Chemistry Acid Rain Activities for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two activities on acid rain for students in intermediate grades. Materials needed and procedures used are included. Also describes "chemical magic" shows performed by high school students for sixth-grade students in seven elementary schools in Altus, Oklahoma. (JN)

  7. Chemistry For Kids: Pre-Chemistry Acid Rain Activities for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two activities on acid rain for students in intermediate grades. Materials needed and procedures used are included. Also describes "chemical magic" shows performed by high school students for sixth-grade students in seven elementary schools in Altus, Oklahoma. (JN)

  8. Chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors suppresses brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jiyoung; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) holds promise to combat obesity through energy-spending, non-shivering thermogenesis. Understanding of regulation of BAT development can lead to novel strategies to increase BAT mass and function for obesity treatment and prevention. Here, we report the effects of chronic activation of PRR on brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized brown pre-adipocytes from the classical interscapular BAT of mice. Activation of NOD1, TLR4, or TLR2 by their respective synthetic ligand suppressed brown marker gene expression and lipid accumulation during differentiation of brown-like adipocytes of C3H10T1/2. Activation of the PRR only during the commitment was sufficient to suppress the differentiation. PRR activation suppressed PGC-1α mRNA, but induced PRDM16 mRNA at the commitment. Consistently, PRR activation suppressed the differentiation of immortalized brown pre-adipocytes. Activation of PRR induced NF-κB activation in both cells, which correlated with their abilities to suppress PPARγ transactivation, a critical event for brown adipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chronic PRR activation suppressed brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes, possibly through suppression of PPARγ transactivation. The results suggest that anti- inflammatory therapies targeting PRRs may be beneficial for the BAT development.

  9. High-Resolution Fe XANES Pre-Edge Spectroscopy of Micas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, J. M.; Dyar, M. D.; Gunter, M.; Delaney, J. S.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2009-12-01

    Fe XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure) spectroscopy has the potential to yield information on Fe valence states and coordination geometry in minerals at microscales smaller than 10 μm. In this study, component peaks in Fe-Kα XANES pre-edge spectra of micas with varying compositions are examined to relate area-weighted pre-edge peaks present at the three optical orientations to Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios, cation site occupancies and mica structural features. Samples studied include three dioctahedral (Fe occupancy in M2 only) and three trioctahedral micas (Fe occupancy in both M1 and M2) with well-known chemistries: two illites, one muscovite, one annite, and two phlogopites with Fe3+/total Fe ranging from 11% to 75%. Mössbauer data determined that Fe3+and Fe2+ were present in the M sites of all samples except one tetra-ferriphlogopite, which is dominated by tetrahedral Fe3+ with a small amount of octahedral Fe3+. Samples were mounted on goniometer heads and the three optical orientations were determined using a spindle stage. XANES spectra were acquired with polarized x-rays parallel to each of the three optical orientations. Incident x-rays were tuned using a Si(311) monochromator at beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. XANES spectra were collected in fluorescence mode using a 9-element high purity Ge solid state detector array. Spectra were edge-step normalized and corrected for self-absorption using the FLUO algorithm. Differences between the tetra-ferriphlogopite spectra and the other high Fe3+ samples allow peaks due to tetrahedral Fe3+ and octahedral Fe3+ to be identified. The energy of the tetrahedral Fe3+ peak is higher by ~0.5 eV in the X direction than in Y and Z and its area is also much greater in the X orientation, suggesting that those transitions are favored perpendicular to c. Comparison of spectra of the other dioctahedral and trioctahedral micas allows peaks due to Fe3+ and Fe2+ in M1 and M2

  10. Modulation of a pre-existing conformational equilibrium tunes adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ådén, Jörgen; Verma, Abhinav; Schug, Alexander; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2012-10-10

    Structural plasticity is often required for distinct microscopic steps during enzymatic reaction cycles. Adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli (AK(eco)) populates two major conformations in solution; the open (inactive) and closed (active) state, and the overall turnover rate is inversely proportional to the lifetime of the active conformation. Therefore, structural plasticity is intimately coupled to enzymatic turnover in AK(eco). Here, we probe the open to closed conformational equilibrium in the absence of bound substrate with NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. The conformational equilibrium in absence of substrate and, in turn, the turnover number can be modulated with mutational- and osmolyte-driven perturbations. Removal of one hydrogen bond between the ATP and AMP binding subdomains results in a population shift toward the open conformation and a resulting increase of k(cat). Addition of the osmolyte TMAO to AK(eco) results in population shift toward the closed conformation and a significant reduction of k(cat). The Michaelis constants (K(M)) scale with the change in k(cat), which follows from the influence of the population of the closed conformation for substrate binding affinity. Hence, k(cat) and K(M) are mutually dependent, and in the case of AK(eco), any perturbation that modulates k(cat) is mirrored with a proportional response in K(M). Thus, our results demonstrate that the equilibrium constant of a pre-existing conformational equilibrium directly affects enzymatic catalysis. From an evolutionary perspective, our findings suggest that, for AK(eco), there exists ample flexibility to obtain a specificity constant (k(cat)/K(M)) that commensurate with the exerted cellular selective pressure.

  11. Combining task-evoked and spontaneous activity to improve pre-operative brain mapping with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael D.; Qian, Tianyi; Madsen, Joseph R.; Wang, Danhong; Li, Meiling; Ge, Manling; Zuo, Huan-cong; Groppe, David M.; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive localization of brain function is used to understand and treat neurological disease, exemplified by pre-operative fMRI mapping prior to neurosurgical intervention. The principal approach for generating these maps relies on brain responses evoked by a task and, despite known limitations, has dominated clinical practice for over 20 years. Recently, pre-operative fMRI mapping based on correlations in spontaneous brain activity has been demonstrated, however this approach has its own limitations and has not seen widespread clinical use. Here we show that spontaneous and task-based mapping can be performed together using the same pre-operative fMRI data, provide complimentary information relevant for functional localization, and can be combined to improve identification of eloquent motor cortex. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of our approach are quantified through comparison with electrical cortical stimulation mapping in eight patients with intractable epilepsy. Broad applicability and reproducibility of our approach is demonstrated through prospective replication in an independent dataset of six patients from a different center. In both cohorts and every individual patient, we see a significant improvement in signal to noise and mapping accuracy independent of threshold, quantified using receiver operating characteristic curves. Collectively, our results suggest that modifying the processing of fMRI data to incorporate both task-based and spontaneous activity significantly improves functional localization in pre-operative patients. Because this method requires no additional scan time or modification to conventional pre-operative data acquisition protocols it could have widespread utility. PMID:26408860

  12. Combining task-evoked and spontaneous activity to improve pre-operative brain mapping with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Qian, Tianyi; Madsen, Joseph R; Wang, Danhong; Li, Meiling; Ge, Manling; Zuo, Huan-Cong; Groppe, David M; Mehta, Ashesh D; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive localization of brain function is used to understand and treat neurological disease, exemplified by pre-operative fMRI mapping prior to neurosurgical intervention. The principal approach for generating these maps relies on brain responses evoked by a task and, despite known limitations, has dominated clinical practice for over 20years. Recently, pre-operative fMRI mapping based on correlations in spontaneous brain activity has been demonstrated, however this approach has its own limitations and has not seen widespread clinical use. Here we show that spontaneous and task-based mapping can be performed together using the same pre-operative fMRI data, provide complimentary information relevant for functional localization, and can be combined to improve identification of eloquent motor cortex. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of our approach are quantified through comparison with electrical cortical stimulation mapping in eight patients with intractable epilepsy. Broad applicability and reproducibility of our approach are demonstrated through prospective replication in an independent dataset of six patients from a different center. In both cohorts and every individual patient, we see a significant improvement in signal to noise and mapping accuracy independent of threshold, quantified using receiver operating characteristic curves. Collectively, our results suggest that modifying the processing of fMRI data to incorporate both task-based and spontaneous activity significantly improves functional localization in pre-operative patients. Because this method requires no additional scan time or modification to conventional pre-operative data acquisition protocols it could have widespread utility.

  13. Exploring alternatives to reduce economical costs associated with FNA pre-treatment of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, S; Icaran, P; Yuan, Z; Pijuan, M

    2017-06-26

    Recent studies have shown the effectiveness of Free Nitrous Acid (FNA) pre-treatment in enhancing sludge biodegradability and improving its methane production potential. FNA is regarded as an environmental friendly pre-treatment which can be easily applied when a source of nitrite is present in wastewater treatment plants. However, when nitrite is not available and needs to be purchased, this treatment can become less attractive due to the costs associated to nitrite. In order to overcome this possible limitation, two different strategies to optimize the use of nitrite during FNA treatment were investigated: i) Recovering NO2(-) after the pre-treatment is completed; and ii) Concentrating the sludge before FNA pre-treatment. Results show that recovering NO2(-) from the pre-treated sludge is not suitable due to the loss of soluble organic matter present in the supernatant after the pre-treatment. However, concentrating the sludge before the pre-treatment seems a good strategy to optimize the use of nitrite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strengthening the Research Architecture for High Quality Universal Pre-K: Development of a Quality Monitoring Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Natalia; Raver, Cybele; Morris, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe some of the activities of a partnership forged between NYU researchers and senior leaders in NYC that was intended to provide research infrastructure and capacity-building solutions while also addressing jointly identified research questions about the "Pre-K for All" (PKA) program. The…

  15. High Prevalence of Pre-invasive Lesions Adjacent to BRCA1/2-Associated Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Banu; Vogel, Kristen J.; Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez, Mike; Atchley, Deann; Broglio, Kristine R.; Amos, Christopher I.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Albarracin, Constance T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer to 43%-84%. It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack pre-invasive lesions. More recent studies have found pre-invasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of pre-invasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers. Our aim is to investigate the role of pre-invasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis. Methods We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS], lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], and atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH]) in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers. Results Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from breast cancer patients. We selected 146 mutation-negative breast cancer patients as age-matched controls. Of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated pre-invasive lesion compared with 75% of controls. Pre-invasive lesions were more prevalent in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1 mutation carriers (70% vs. 52%, respectively). The most common pre-invasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively. Conclusions Pre-invasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum. PMID:19174581

  16. 75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... exposures that cause serious lead poisonings, especially in children under age 6, who are particularly... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in... accordance with section 402(c)(3) of TSCA, 15 U.S.C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint...

  17. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  18. Effects of Pre- and Posttrip Activities Associated with a Residential Environmental Education Experience on Students' Attitudes toward the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Cavern, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    The authors measured the impact of adding pre- and posttrip in-class activities to the residential environmental education program at the New Jersey School of Conservation (NJSOC). Seventh-grade students (N = 169) from a suburban, northern New Jersey school district participated in a 3-day, 2-night experience. The Environmental Adaptation,…

  19. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  20. Activities in Mathematics Education and Teaching Interactions. The Construction of the Measurement of Capacity in Pre-Schoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharos, Konstantinos; Antonopoulos, Konstantinos; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    In this study we attempted to highlight the pedagogical role of activities to familiarize pre-schoolers with the measurement processes of container capacity. The sample of the study consisted of 20 subjects aged five-six, all coming from two Greek state kindergartens of the same area, bearing the same middle socioeconomic background. The research…

  1. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  2. Analyzing the Statistical Reasoning Levels of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers in the Context of a Model Eliciting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkas Ulusoy, Cigdem; Kayhan Altay, Mesture

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the statistical reasoning levels of preservice elementary school teachers. With this purpose, pre-service teachers consisting of 29 groups worked on a model eliciting activity (MEA) in scope of an elective course they were taking. At the end of the class, they were asked to present their solutions while…

  3. Separation methods for high specific activity radioarsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurisson, S. S.; Wycoff, D. E.; DeGraffenreid, A.; Embree, M. F.; Ketring, A. R.; Cutler, C. S.; Fassbender, M. E.; Ballard, B.

    2012-12-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals require the use of high specific activity radionuclides, especially when targeting limited numbers of receptors on tumor surfaces. Two radioisotopes of arsenic (72As and 77As) are potentially useful in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Methods for the production, separation, and isolation of high specific activity 72As and 77As are presented.

  4. Singularity in the positive Hall coeffcient near pre-onset temperatures in high-Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, G. C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Moon, B. M.; Safari, A.; Burke, T.; Stanley, W.

    1990-10-01

    Hall measurements using continuous extremely slow cooling and reheating rates as well as employing eqiulibrium point-by-point conventional techniques reveals a clear anomally in RH at pre-onset temperatures near Tc in polycrystalline samples Y1Ba2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10. The anomaly has the appearance of a singularity of Dirac-delta function which parallels earlier work on La1-xSrxCuO4. Recent single crystal work on the Bi-containing high-Tc superconductor is in accord with a clearcut anomaly. The singularity is tentatively interpreted to be associated (upon cooling) with initially the removal of positive holes from the hopping conduction system of the normal state such as from the increased concentration of bound virtual excitons due to increased exciton and hole lifetimes at low temperature. Subsequently the formation of Cooper pairs by mediation from these centers (bound-holes) and/or bound excitons) may cause an ionization of these bound virtual excitons thereby re-introducing holes and electrons into the conduction system at Tc.

  5. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Hochmuth, George J; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H; Teplitski, Max

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous experiments showed a limited impact of pre-harvest production practices on Salmonella proliferation on tomatoes, but suggested a significant effect of harvest time. We explored the data from two previously published and one unpublished experiment using regression trees, which allowed overcoming the interpretational difficulties of classical statistical models with higher order interactions. We assessed the effect of harvest time by explicitly modeling the climatic conditions at harvest time and by performing confirmatory laboratory experiments. Across all datasets, regression trees confirmed the dominant effect of harvest time on Salmonella proliferation, with humidity-related factors emerging as the most important underlying climatic factors. High relative humidity the week prior to harvest was consistently associated with lower Salmonella proliferation. A controlled lab experiment confirmed that tomatoes containing their native epimicrobiota supported significantly lower Salmonella proliferation when incubated at higher humidity prior to inoculation. The complex interactions between environmental conditions and the native microbiota of the tomato crop remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological distress in an earthquake-devastated area with pre-existing high rate of suicide.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Akira; Kitamura, Hideaki; Shindo, Masanobu; Honma, Hiroko; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2014-10-30

    On 12 March 2011 an earthquake devastated the Matsunoyama and Matsudai districts of Tōkamachi City, Niigata, Japan. These areas had high pre-existing suicide rates, especially among the elderly. We investigated whether mental health status became worse among the sufferers 5 months after the earthquake, and what kind of factors were implicated in any changes. A 15-item questionnaire that tapped earthquake-related variables and the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale to measure psychological distress were distributed to 1923 residents aged over 40 years. The mean age (S.D.) of the total 1731 respondents (male, 805; female, 926) was 68.2 (13.1) years. Of these, we assessed K10 scores from 1346 respondents. The mean scores (S.D.) for K10 and K6 (six selected items from the K10) were 5.8 (6.3) and 3.4 (3.9), respectively. Among the respondents, 9.1% and 3.2% obtained a score of K10 ≥15 and K6 ≥13, respectively. These scores showed slightly higher psychological distress, especially among the elderly, in comparison with existing community-based data. Categorical regression analysis revealed significant and relatively strong effects of initial psychological impact, decrease in sleep hours, advanced age, and decrease in interpersonal relationships within the community on the K10 score. The last item suggests the importance of socio-environmental factors in post-disaster mental health.

  7. [Determination of histamine in canned fish by high performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Jin, Gaowa; Cai, Youqiong; Yu, Huijuan; Qian, Beilei

    2010-11-01

    A pre-column derivatization-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of histamine in canned fish. The homogenated samples were ultrasonically extracted with perchloric acid aqueous solution, derivatized with dansyl chloride and diluted with acetonitrile to a desired volume. The samples were determined by HPLC with ultraviolet detector and quantified by external standard method. Adopting a C18 column with 1.8 microm stationary phase particles, the analysis time for each sample was smaller than 5 min with the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. It can decrease the consumption of the mobile phase and save the cost. The linear range was 0.08-8.00 mg/L for histamine. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 98. The average recoveries of histamine at different concentration levels in spiked samples were greater than 96% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were smaller than 2.5%. The quantitation limit was 5.00 mg/kg for histamine in canned fish by HPLC. The results indicated that this HPLC method is fast, sensitive, reproducible and practical for the routine analysis of histamine in canned fish.

  8. Acute Effects of Pre-Event Lower Limb Massage on Explosive and High Speed Motor Capacities and Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Arabaci, Ramiz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of pre- performance lower limb massage after warm-up on explosive and high-speed motor capacities and flexibility. Twenty-four physically active healthy Caucasian male subjects volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were from a Physical Education and Sport Department in a large university in Turkey. The study had a counterbalanced crossover design. Each of the subjects applied the following intervention protocols in a randomised order; (a) massage, (b) stretching, and (c) rest. Before (pre) and after (post) each of the interventions, the 10 meter acceleration (AS), flying start 20 meter sprint (FS), 30 meter sprint from standing position (TS), leg reaction time (LR), vertical jump (VJ) and sit & reach (SR) tests were performed. A Wilcoxon’s signed rank test was used to compare before and after test values within the three interventions (massage, stretching and rest). The data showed a significant worsening, after massage and stretching interventions, in the VJ, LR (only in stretching intervention), AS and TS tests (p < 0.05), and significant improvement in the SR test (p < 0.05). In contrast, the rest intervention led only to a significant decrement in TS performance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that performing 10 minute posterior and 5 minute anterior lower limb Swedish massage has an adverse effect on vertical jump, speed, and reaction time, and a positive effect on sit and reach test results. Key pointsPerforming 10 minute posterior and 5 minute anterior lower limb Swedish massages has an adverse affect on vertical jump, speed, and reaction time and a positive effect on sit and reach test results.According to the present results, long duration massage should not be recommended for warm-ups.Larger subject pools are needed to verify these events. PMID:24149965

  9. Acute effects of pre-event lower limb massage on explosive and high speed motor capacities and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Arabaci, Ramiz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of pre- performance lower limb massage after warm-up on explosive and high-speed motor capacities and flexibility. Twenty-four physically active healthy Caucasian male subjects volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were from a Physical Education and Sport Department in a large university in Turkey. The study had a counterbalanced crossover design. Each of the subjects applied the following intervention protocols in a randomised order; (a) massage, (b) stretching, and (c) rest. Before (pre) and after (post) each of the interventions, the 10 meter acceleration (AS), flying start 20 meter sprint (FS), 30 meter sprint from standing position (TS), leg reaction time (LR), vertical jump (VJ) and sit & reach (SR) tests were performed. A Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to compare before and after test values within the three interventions (massage, stretching and rest). The data showed a significant worsening, after massage and stretching interventions, in the VJ, LR (only in stretching intervention), AS and TS tests (p < 0.05), and significant improvement in the SR test (p < 0.05). In contrast, the rest intervention led only to a significant decrement in TS performance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that performing 10 minute posterior and 5 minute anterior lower limb Swedish massage has an adverse effect on vertical jump, speed, and reaction time, and a positive effect on sit and reach test results. Key pointsPerforming 10 minute posterior and 5 minute anterior lower limb Swedish massages has an adverse affect on vertical jump, speed, and reaction time and a positive effect on sit and reach test results.According to the present results, long duration massage should not be recommended for warm-ups.Larger subject pools are needed to verify these events.

  10. SeqTrim: a high-throughput pipeline for pre-processing any type of sequence read

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High-throughput automated sequencing has enabled an exponential growth rate of sequencing data. This requires increasing sequence quality and reliability in order to avoid database contamination with artefactual sequences. The arrival of pyrosequencing enhances this problem and necessitates customisable pre-processing algorithms. Results SeqTrim has been implemented both as a Web and as a standalone command line application. Already-published and newly-designed algorithms have been included to identify sequence inserts, to remove low quality, vector, adaptor, low complexity and contaminant sequences, and to detect chimeric reads. The availability of several input and output formats allows its inclusion in sequence processing workflows. Due to its specific algorithms, SeqTrim outperforms other pre-processors implemented as Web services or standalone applications. It performs equally well with sequences from EST libraries, SSH libraries, genomic DNA libraries and pyrosequencing reads and does not lead to over-trimming. Conclusions SeqTrim is an efficient pipeline designed for pre-processing of any type of sequence read, including next-generation sequencing. It is easily configurable and provides a friendly interface that allows users to know what happened with sequences at every pre-processing stage, and to verify pre-processing of an individual sequence if desired. The recommended pipeline reveals more information about each sequence than previously described pre-processors and can discard more sequencing or experimental artefacts. PMID:20089148

  11. Modified ADM1 for high-rate anaerobic co-digestion of thermally pre-treated brewery surplus yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Liam; Gutbrod, Alexander; Domes, Herbert; Groß, Frauke; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Delgado, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Co-digestion of surplus yeast with brewery wastewater is a potentially economical method for recovering energy, in the form of biogas, from this difficult to dispose of by-product. In this work a modified version of the ADM1 (Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1) was calibrated for an anaerobic digester fed with thermally pre-treated brewery yeast surplus wastewater. The model could predict changes to reactor methane production and reduction of biodegradable matter when fed with both pre-treated and untreated yeast surplus wastewater at varying loading rates. Model calibration focused on low temperature thermal pre-treatment as experiments into a combined thermal-alkaline pre-treatment did not show any significant improvements. A low temperature pre-treatment of 60 °C for 30 minutes was sufficient for yeast inactivation and allowed for stable and more efficient operation of the high-rate anaerobic digester over a period of 232 days. The low temperature and time for pre-treatment also reduced the evaporation of easily biodegradable residual ethanol present in the influent, while still maintaining a low level of suspended matter. Inline measurements of gas composition, production and effluent chemical oxygen demand were sufficient for reliable model calibration of these same outputs. More detailed characterization of influent and effluent is required if organic acid concentrations for pH control are needed.

  12. Trends in emerging and high risk activities

    Treesearch

    Robert C. White; Richard Schreyer; Kent Downing

    1980-01-01

    Newly emerging and high risk activities have increased markedly in the last generation, yet little is known about trends in participation. Factors such as technological innovation and creative experimentation with traditional activities appear to play a major role in the development of new activities. Christy's criteria for mass demand in recreation are used to...

  13. Pre-stack full waveform inversion of ultra-high-frequency marine seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzano, Giuseppe; Vardy, Mark E.; Henstock, Timothy J.

    2017-03-01

    The full waveform inversion (FWI) of seismic reflection data aims to reconstruct a detailed physical properties model of the subsurface, fitting both the amplitude and traveltime of the reflections generated at physical discontinuities in the propagation medium. Unlike reservoir-scale seismic exploration, where seismic inversion is a widely adopted remote characterisation tool, ultra high frequency (UHF, 0.2-4.0 kHz) multi-channel marine reflection seismology is still most often limited to a qualitative interpretation of the reflections' architecture. Here we propose an elastic full waveform inversion methodology, custom-tailored for pre-stack UHF marine data in vertically heterogeneous media to obtain a decimetric-scale distribution of P-impedance, density and Poisson's ratio within the shallow sub-seabed sediments. We address the deterministic multi-parameter inversion in a sequential fashion. The complex trace instantaneous phase is first inverted for the P-wave velocity to make-up for the lack of low-frequency in the data and reduce the non-linearity of the problem. This is followed by a short-offset P-impedance optimisation and a further step of full offset range Poisson's ratio inversion. Provided that the seismogram contains wide reflection angles (>40 degrees), we show that it is possible to invert for density and decompose a-posteriori the relative contribution of P-wave velocity and density to the P-impedance. A broad range of synthetic tests is used to prove the potential of the methodology and highlights sensitivity issues specific to UHF seismic. An example application to real data is also presented. In the real case, trace normalisation is applied to minimise the systematic error deriving from an inaccurate source wavelet estimation. The inverted model for the top 15 meters of the sub-seabed agrees with the local lithological information and core-log data. Thus we can obtain a detailed remote characterisation of the shallow sediments using a multi

  14. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  15. Immune Adjuvant Activity of Pre-Resectional Radiofrequency Ablation Protects against Local and Systemic Recurrence in Aggressive Murine Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumito; Ku, Amy W.; Bucsek, Mark J.; Muhitch, Jason B.; Vardam-Kaur, Trupti; Kim, Minhyung; Fisher, Daniel T.; Camoriano, Marta; Khoury, Thaer; Skitzki, Joseph J.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Evans, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While surgical resection is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, local and distant recurrences continue to adversely affect outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Evidence that an alternative debulking strategy involving radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces antitumor immunity prompted the current investigation of the efficacy of performing RFA prior to surgical resection (pre-resectional RFA) in a preclinical mouse model. Experimental Design Therapeutic efficacy and systemic immune responses were assessed following pre-resectional RFA treatment of murine CT26 colon adenocarcinoma. Results Treatment with pre-resectional RFA significantly delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival compared to sham surgery, RFA, or resection alone. Mice in the pre-resectional RFA group that achieved a complete response demonstrated durable antitumor immunity upon tumor re-challenge. Failure to achieve a therapeutic benefit in immunodeficient mice confirmed that tumor control by pre-resectional RFA depends on an intact adaptive immune response rather than changes in physical parameters that make ablated tumors more amenable to a complete surgical excision. RFA causes a marked increase in intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration, thus substantially enhancing the ratio of CD8+ effector T cells: FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Importantly, pre-resectional RFA significantly increases the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and tumor-draining lymph node but had no impact on infiltration by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M1 macrophages or M2 macrophages at tumor sites or in peripheral lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen). Finally, pre-resectional RFA of primary tumors delayed growth of distant tumors through a mechanism that depends on systemic CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Conclusion Improved survival and antitumor systemic immunity elicited by pre-resectional RFA support the translational potential of this neoadjuvant

  16. Effects of pre-slaughter stress on proteolytic enzyme activities and muscle quality of farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Hultmann, Lisbeth; Phu, Tran Minh; Tobiassen, Torbjørn; Aas-Hansen, Øyvind; Rustad, Turid

    2012-10-01

    Farmed Atlantic cod were subjected to a combination of stressors in a holding tank before being killed, pre rigor filleted and stored in ice. At slaughter, a higher level of stress was confirmed by blood physiology analyses. This was further associated with significantly reduced muscle pH and somewhat elevated muscle collagenase-like activity in the stressed fish, whereas no differences in cathepsin-like activities were found. After 5 days of iced storage, the stressed fish had significantly lower water holding capacity, reduced hardness and yellowish colour compared to the control group, and no differences in the other parameters investigated. Independent of pre-slaughter stress, the activities of cathepsin B- and B/L-like enzymes increased and activities of cathepsin D/E- and collagenase-like enzymes decreased with storage.

  17. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production.

  18. THE HIGHLY ECCENTRIC PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY RX J0529.3+1210

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, G. N.; Prato, L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Schaefer, G. H.; Simon, M.

    2009-03-15

    The young system RX J0529.3+1210 was initially identified as a single-lined spectroscopic binary. Using high-resolution infrared spectra, acquired with NIRSPEC on Keck II, we measured radial velocities for the secondary. The method of using the infrared regime to convert single-lined spectra into double-lined spectra, and derive the mass ratio for the binary system, has been successfully used for a number of young, low-mass binaries. For RX J0529.3+1210, a long-period (462 days) and highly eccentric (0.88) binary system, we determine the mass ratio to be 0.78 {+-} 0.05 using the infrared double-lined velocity data alone, and 0.73 {+-} 0.23 combining visible light and infrared data in a full orbital solution. The large uncertainty in the latter is the result of the sparse sampling in the infrared and the high eccentricity: the stars do not have a large velocity separation during most of their {approx}1.3 yr orbit. A mass ratio close to unity, consistent with the high end of the 1{sigma} uncertainty for this mass ratio value, is inconsistent with the lack of a visible light detection of the secondary component. We outline several scenarios for a color difference in the two stars, such as one heavily spotted component, higher-order multiplicity, or a unique evolutionary stage, favoring detection of only the primary star in visible light, even in a mass ratio {approx}1 system. However, the evidence points to a lower ratio. Although RX J0529.3+1210 exhibits no excess at near-infrared wavelengths, a small 24 {mu}m excess is detected, consistent with circumbinary dust. The properties of this binary and its membership in {lambda} Ori versus a new nearby stellar moving group at {approx}90 pc are discussed. We speculate on the origin of this unusual system and on the impact of such high eccentricity, the largest observed in a pre-main-sequence double-lined system to date, on the potential for planet formation.

  19. High pre-freezing dilution improves post-thaw function of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Leahy, T; Marti, J I; Mendoza, N; Pérez-Pé, R; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-05-01

    Despite considerable cryobiology research there is no industry standard for the concentration to which ram spermatozoa should be diluted before freezing. Ram semen is highly concentrated and often frozen at a high sperm concentration, necessitating the use of small laparoscopic insemination doses. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the effect of dilution on the integrity of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. In the first experiment, spermatozoa were extended with a Tris-buffered diluent before freezing or after thawing to yield a final sperm concentration of 20 x 10(6)/ml, or were not diluted. Motility characteristics, viability and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa were analysed over a 6h incubation period at 37 degrees C. In the second experiment, spermatozoa were either diluted before freezing, subjected to sex-sorting or not diluted before freezing. Thawed spermatozoa were separated into sub-populations using centrifugal counter-current distribution (CCCD) and the profile of partition and functional integrity (viability, chlortetracycline status and Annexin-V binding) in the sub-populations assessed. Dilution before freezing significantly improved post-thaw viability, acrosome integrity and total motility whereas dilution post-thaw decreased viability and motility of spermatozoa. Sperm heterogeneity, as assessed by CCCD profile, was not different for control, diluted and sex-sorted spermatozoa. Analysis of CCCD sub-populations showed the proportion of functional cells (displaying the F-Pattern or no PS translocation) was similar for all sperm types. The results show that ram spermatozoa retain normal function at higher pre-freeze dilution rates than are commonly used in the sheep industry. The application of these findings would result in more practicable and functional artificial insemination doses.

  20. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  1. Can the laboratory assay of protein C activity assist in monitoring the hemostatic function in pre-eclampsia?

    PubMed

    He, S; Bremme, K; Blombäck, M

    1999-04-01

    Published reports do not agree about whether protein C activity is non-significantly changed or decreased in a hypercoagulable state induced by pre-eclampsia without hemolysis-elevated liver enzyme/low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. In order to assess the relationship between this anticoagulant and enhanced hemostasis, levels of protein C activity, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble fibrin, fibrin D-dimers and antithrombin were determined in 30 pre-eclampsia patients without the HELLP syndrome, in 22 normal pregnant women in gestational weeks 30-35, and in 13 non-pregnant controls. Levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble fibrin and D-dimers increased (P < 0.05) whereas antithrombin decreased (P < 0.05) in patients with pre-eclampsia, compared with normal pregnant women. Levels of protein C did not differ significantly between patients with pre-eclampsia, normal pregnant women and controls (P > 0.05). The 5th and 95th percentiles of protein C levels in normal pregnant women were 0.53 and 1.30 U/ml, respectively; levels between these two values could be considered physiological. When the pre-eclampsia patients were subdivided according to these percentiles, none belonged to the subgroup with protein C < or = 5th percentile; 23% (seven of 30) fell into the subgroup with protein C > or = 95th percentile. Elevated levels of hypercoagulation markers were shown in the groups whose protein C fell within 5th-95th or > or = 95th percentiles (P < 0.05), compared with normal pregnant women. Concentrations of protein C and thrombin-antithrombin complex were significantly correlated (r = 0.69, P > 0.05) in patients with pre-eclampsia. In summary, in subjects with pre-eclampsia without the HELLP syndrome, protein C activity may be similar to that in normal pregnant women. However, such a 'physiological' anticoagulant level in association with the enhanced thrombin generation and fibrin formation does not necessarily reflect a physiological capability of coagulation

  2. Comparison Between Pre-Exhaustion and Traditional Exercise Order on Muscle Activation and Performance in Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Enrico Gori; Brown, Lee E.; Gomes, Willy Andrade; Corrêa, Daniel Alves; Serpa, Érica Paes; da Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas; Junior, Guanis de Barros Vilela; Fioravanti, Gustavo zorzi; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of pre-exhaustion vs. traditional exercise order on neuromuscular performance and sEMG in trained men. Fourteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height: 174.9 ± 4.1 cm, and total body mass: 80.0 ± 11.1 kg) took part of this study. All tests were randomized and counterbalanced for all subjects and experimental conditions. Volunteers attended one session in the laboratory. First, they performed ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests for each exercise (bench press and triceps pushdown) separately. Secondly, they performed all three conditions at 10RM: pre-test (bench press and triceps pushdown, separately), pre-exhaustion (triceps pushdown+bench press, PE) and traditional (bench press+triceps pushdown, TR), and rested 30 minutes between conditions. Results showed that pre-test was significantly greater than PE (p = 0.031) but not different than TR, for total volume load lifted. There was a significant difference between the pre-test and the time-course of lactate measures (p = 0.07). For bench press muscle activity of the pectoralis major, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). Also, for muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.001, PE: p = 0.005, and TR: p = 0.006). For triceps pushdown, muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). For RPE, there were no significant differences between PE and TR (p = 0.15). Our results suggest that exercise order decreases repetitions performed, however, neuromuscular fatigue, lactate, and RPE are not impacted. The lack of difference in total volume load lifted between PE and TR might explain, at least in part, the similar metabolic and perceptual

  3. Reconstructing pre-impact baseline conditions using benthic foraminifera in an area of increasing petroleum exploration activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    While macrofauna is traditionally used to bio-monitor to state of the ecosystem, benthic foraminifera have large potential for bio-monitoring as well. As their tests stay preserved in the sedimentary archive it is possible to reconstruct pre-impacted conditions, by studying foraminiferal assemblages in sediment cores. The use of foraminiferal faunas as bio-monitoring tools is complicated by the natural variability. Therefore, detailed site specific studies are needed, to understand the range of natural variability of the area of interest. This study characterizes the natural variability in the Bjørnøyrenna-Ingøydjupet area in the Southern Barents Sea. The Southern Barents Sea is a relatively un-impacted and uncontaminated area, however petroleum industry related activities are expected to increase in the near future. This makes the area a valuable natural laboratory to establish pre-impacted baselines for future seabed monitoring programs. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were examined at high resolution in sediment cores and compared to sediment properties and metal concentrations. Species associated to temperate water masses dominate in the southern part of the study area, while species associated to cooler water masses increase in abundance towards the north into Bjørnøyrenna. Additionally, the foraminiferal assemblages might reflect climatic oscillations on both millennial and decadal time scales. Patterns in the calcareous foraminiferal assemblages suggest an enhanced food supply as a result of increased Atlantic Water inflow through the region during the last 150 years. Sediment TOC content has been linked with variable inflow of Atlantic Water. A strong positive correlation was observed between TOC content with metal content in the cores. It is therefore essential to consider the role of natural variability of oceanographic conditions when using benthic foraminiferal assemblages to monitor for potential anthropogenic impacts on the environment. This

  4. [Maternal metabolic diseases related to pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in mexican women with high risk pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Higareda, Salvador; Pérez-Pérez, Omar-Alejandro; Balderas-Peña, Luz-Ma-Adriana; Martínez-Herrera, Brenda-Eugenia; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana-Leticia; Ramírez-Conchas, Rosa-Emilia

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been proposed as a risk factor related to gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Identify pregnancy related diseases associated with pre-pregnancy obesity as a risk factor ina high risk preganancy patient population. 600 patients whose pre-pregnancy obesity had been assessed as a high risk factor were included in the study. The means, standard deviation, median, interquartile intervals, Pearson and Spearman correlation and logistic regression to estimate risk with the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index was 29.59 ± 6.42 kg/m(2). The mean for recommended pregnancy weight gain was 2.31 ± 1.03 kg, but the mean of real weight gain was 8.91 ± 6.84 kg. A significant correlation between pre-pregnancy obesity and family history of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000), systemic hypertension (p=0.003), cardiac diseases (p=0.000), dyslipidemia (p=0.000) and obesity (p=0.000) was identified. Pre-pregnancy obesity was identified as a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes (OR: 1.95; IC95%: 1.39 to 2.76; p=0.000) in this kind of patient. 75% of high risk pregnancy women in a high specialty hospital in West Mexico are overweight or obese when they become pregnant. These are risk factors in the development of gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-activated human mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with doxorubicin synergistically enhance tumor-suppressive activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Park, Min Sung; Peltier, Grantham C; Lee, Ryang Hwa

    2015-10-01

    Previously, we showed that human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were activated to express tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) upon TNF-α stimulation, induced cell death in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cells (MDA), and RNA released from apoptotic MDA further increased TRAIL expression in hMSCs. This feed-forward stimulation increased apoptosis in MDA cells. Here, we tested whether TRAIL-expressing hMSCs, in combination with a sub-toxic-dose of a chemotherapy drug doxorubicin, would overcome TRAIL resistance and create synergistic effects on targeting metastatic TNBC. To optimize conditions for the combination treatment, we (i) selected an optimal condition to activate hMSCs for TRAIL expression, (ii) selected an optimal dose of doxorubicin treatment, (iii) examined underlying mechanisms in vitro and (iv) tested the efficacy of the optimized conditions in a xenograft mouse model of human breast cancer lung metastasis. The results showed that DNA fragments from apoptotic MDA triggered hMSCs to increase further TRAIL expression in an absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-dependent manner, and thus higher TRAIL-expressing hMSCs stimulated with synthetic DNA, poly(deoxyadenylic-deoxythymidylic) acid [poly(dA:dT)], more effectively suppressed tumor progression in vivo. Furthermore, activated hMSCs increased apoptosis in MDA cells when combined with a sub-toxic dose of doxorubicin, which was mediated by up-regulating TRAIL and Fas-related pathways. When we combined the optimized conditions, pre-activated hMSCs with poly (dA:dT) synergistically reduced tumor burden even with minimal doxorubicin treatment in a xenograft mouse model of human breast cancer lung metastasis. These results suggest that the treatment of hMSCs with a sub-toxic dose of doxorubicin can overcome TRAIL resistance and be a potential novel therapy for TNBC metastasis treatment. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by

  6. Weight gain in healthy pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI, diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2015-07-01

    to explore gestational weight gain in healthy women in relation to pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet and physical activity. a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages receiving antenatal care from an independent midwife in the Netherlands. Weight gain was assessed using the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and classified as below, within, or above the guidelines. A multinomial regression analysis was performed with weight gain classifications as the dependent variable (within IOM-guidelines as reference). Independent variables were pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet (broken down into consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish) and physical activity (motivation to engage in physical activity, pre-pregnancy physical activity and decline in physical activity during pregnancy). Covariates were age, gestational age, parity, ethnicity, family income, education, perceived sleep deprivation, satisfaction with pre-pregnancy weight, estimated prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, having a weight gain goal and having received weight gain advice from the midwife. forty-two per cent of the women surveyed gained weight within the guidelines. Fourteen per cent of the women gained weight below the guidelines and 44 per cent gained weight above the guidelines. Weight gain within the guidelines, compared to both above and below the guidelines, was not associated with pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index nor with diet. A decline in physical activity was associated with weight gain above the guidelines (OR 0.54, 95 per cent CI 0.33-0.89). Weight gain below the guidelines was seen more often in women who perceived a greater sleep deprivation (OR 1.20, 95 per cent CI 1.02-1.41). Weight gain above the guidelines was seen less often in Caucasian women in comparison to non-Caucasian women (OR 0.22, 95 per cent CI 0.08-0.56) and with women who did not stop smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.49, 95 per cent CI 0.25-0.95). a decline in

  7. Differential effects of stress on fear learning and activation of the amygdala in pre-adolescent and adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Barbayannis, Georgia; Franco, Daly; Wong, Solange; Galdamez, Josselyn; Romeo, Russell D; Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2017-09-30

    Adolescence is accompanied by the maturation of several stress-responsive areas of the brain including the amygdala, a key region for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. These changes may contribute to the development of stress-related disorders in adolescence, such as anxiety and depression, and increase the susceptibility to these psychopathologies later in life. Here, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on fear learning and amygdala activation in pre-adolescent and adult male rats. Pre-adolescents exposed to stress prior to fear conditioning showed greater resistance to the extinction of fear memories than adults. At the cellular level, the combination of stress and fear conditioning resulted in a greater number of FOS-positive cells in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) than fear conditioning alone, and this increase was greater in pre-adolescents than in adults. Despite age-dependent differences, we found no changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the amygdala of either pre-adolescent or adult males. Overall, our data indicate that stress prior to fear conditioning leads to extinction-resistant fear responses in pre-adolescent animals, and that the BLA may be one neural locus mediating these age-dependent effects of stress on fear learning. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of Students' Pre-College Characteristics, High School Experiences, College Expectations, and Initial Enrollment Characteristics on Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined the extent to which pre-college characteristics, high school experiences, college expectations, and initial enrollment characteristics were related to graduation from college. Data from admission applications, the "ACT Compass" survey, and initial enrollment measures for Fall 2004 and Fall 2005 first-time…

  9. Characterizing Design Cognition of High School Students: Initial Analyses Comparing Those with and without Pre-Engineering Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, John; Lammi, Matthew; Gero, John; Grubbs, Michael E.; Paretti, Marie; Williams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Reported in this article are initial results from of a longitudinal study to characterize the design cognition and cognitive design styles of high school students with and without pre-engineering course experience over a 2-year period, and to compare them with undergraduate engineering students. The research followed a verbal protocol analysis…

  10. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  11. The Influence of Students' Pre-College Characteristics, High School Experiences, College Expectations, and Initial Enrollment Characteristics on Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined the extent to which pre-college characteristics, high school experiences, college expectations, and initial enrollment characteristics were related to graduation from college. Data from admission applications, the "ACT Compass" survey, and initial enrollment measures for Fall 2004 and Fall 2005 first-time…

  12. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  13. Different duration of high-altitude pre-exposure associated with the incidence of acute mountain sickness on Jade Mountain.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Chiu, Yu-Hui; Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Li, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Shih-Hao; Kao, Wei-Fong; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Chiu, Te-Fa; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chan, Chang-Wei

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the association between the duration of high-altitude (>3000 m) pre-exposure and acute mountain sickness (AMS) incidence. A prospective observational study was conducted on 2 random days each month from April 2007 to March 2008 at Paiyun Lodge (3402 m), Jade Mountain, Taiwan. Demographic data, prior AMS history, symptoms, and scores and the days and times of high-altitude pre-exposure within the preceding 2 months were obtained from lowland (<1500 m) trekkers. Totally, 1010 questionnaires were analyzed; 106, 76, and 828 trekkers had pre-exposure lasting at least 3 days (group 1), less than 3 days (group 2), and 0 days (group 3), respectively. Acute mountain sickness incidence was significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1 (21.70%, 35.53%, 37.08%, respectively; P = .008). Logistic regression analysis indicated a significantly lower AMS risk in group 1 (group 1, P = .004; odds ratio [OR], 0.479; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.290-0.791; group 2, P = .226; OR, 0.725; 95% CI, 0.430-1.221). In group 1, 28 and 78 trekkers had single and intermittent multiple pre-exposure, respectively. There was no difference in the incidence or severity of AMS symptoms between single and intermittent multiple pre-exposure (AMS, P = .838; headache, P = .891; dizziness or lightheadedness, P = .414; fatigue and/or weakness, P = .957; gastrointestinal symptoms, P = .257; difficulty sleeping, P = .804; AMS score, P = .796). High-altitude pre-exposure lasting at least 3 days within the preceding 2 months was associated with a significant lower AMS incidence during a subsequent ascent among Jade Mountain trekkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  15. PROBING PRE-GALACTIC METAL ENRICHMENT WITH HIGH-REDSHIFT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-11-20

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature {approx}> 10{sup 4} K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm{sup -3}. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n {approx}> 100 cm{sup -3}. The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z {approx}> 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may distinguish whether the first heavy elements were

  16. Determination of biogenic amines in beer with pre-column derivatization by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Shi, Tianyu; Qian, Kun; Li, Pingliang; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2009-02-15

    Eighteen samples of commercially available Chinese beer were analyzed in order to determine the content of biogenic amines. The method involves pre-column derivatization of the amines with 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride (CNBF) and subsequent analysis by RP-HPLC (reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography) with diode array detection. The labeled biogenic amines were separated on a Kromasil C18 column (250mmx4.6mm, 5microm) at room temperature and UV detection was applied at 254nm. The separation of seven labeled biogenic amines was achieved within 22min by elution acetonitrile and HAc-NaAc buffers. The method linearity, calculated for each biogenic amine, has a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9925, in concentrations ranging from 2.9micromolL(-1) to 565micromolL(-1). Detection limits of biogenic amines were 0.056-0.87micromolL(-1), at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The proposed method has been applied to the quantitative determination of spermine, phenethylamine, spermidine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and putrescine in beer with recoveries of 91.9-103.1% and R.S.D. of 2.86-5.63%. Quantitation is relative to external standards. The results showed that each kind of beer examined contained at least three biogenic amines. Putrescine, histamine and tyramine were detected in all samples. Spermidine was detected in 89% of the beers. Spermine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine occurred in 78%, 61% and 44% of the beers examined, respectively. These levels were below the level that may elicit direct adverse reactions for most consumers.

  17. Influence of moderate pre-oxidation treatment on the physical, chemical and phosphate adsorption properties of iron-containing activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Shi, Mo; Li, Jihua; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    A novel adsorbent based on iron oxide dispersed over activated carbon (AC) were prepared, and used for phosphate removal from aqueous solutions. The influence of pre-oxidation treatment on the physical, chemical and phosphate adsorption properties of iron-containing AC were determined. Two series of ACs, non-oxidized and oxidized carbon modified by iron (denoted as AC-Fe and AC/O-Fe), resulted in a maximum impregnated iron of 4.03% and 7.56%, respectively. AC/O-Fe showed 34.0%-46.6% higher phosphate removal efficiency than the AC-Fe did. This was first attributed to the moderate pre-oxidation of raw AC by nitric acid, achieved by dosing Fe(II) after a pre-oxidation, to obtain higher iron loading, which is favorable for phosphate adsorption. Additionally, the in-situ formed active site on the surface of carbon, which was derived from the oxidation of Fe(II) by nitric acid dominated the remarkably high efficiency with respect to the removal of phosphate. The activation energy for adsorption was calculated to be 10.53 and 18.88 kJ/mol for AC-Fe and AC/O-Fe, respectively. The results showed that the surface mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion were simultaneously occurring during the process and contribute to the adsorption mechanism.

  18. Renin angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities in serum of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; del Pilar Carrera-González, María; Dueñas, Basilio; Mayas, María Dolores; García, María Jesús; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2011-10-01

    Angiotensin peptides regulate vascular tone and natriohydric balance through the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and are related with the angiogenesis which plays an important role in the metastatic pathway. Estrogen influences the aminopeptidases (APs) involved in the metabolism of bioactive peptides of RAS through several pathways. We analyze RAS-regulating AP activities in serum of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer to evaluate the putative value of these activities as biological markers of the development of breast cancer. We observed an increase in aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) activities in women with breast cancer; however, a decrease in aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAP) activity in premenopausal women. These results suggest a slow metabolism of angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III (Ang III) in premenopausal women and a rapid metabolism of Ang III to angiotensin IV (Ang IV) in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. An imbalance in the signals activated by Ang II may produce abnormal vascular growth with different response between pre- and postmenopausal women depending on the hormonal profile and the development of the disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous pre-stimulus fluctuations in the activity of right fronto-parietal areas influence inhibitory control performance

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Camille F.; Manuel, Aurelie L.; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitory control refers to the ability to suppress planned or ongoing cognitive or motor processes. Electrophysiological indices of inhibitory control failure have been found to manifest even before the presentation of the stimuli triggering the inhibition, suggesting that pre-stimulus brain-states modulate inhibition performance. However, previous electrophysiological investigations on the state-dependency of inhibitory control were based on averaged event-related potentials (ERPs), a method eliminating the variability in the ongoing brain activity not time-locked to the event of interest. These studies thus left unresolved whether spontaneous variations in the brain-state immediately preceding unpredictable inhibition-triggering stimuli also influence inhibitory control performance. To address this question, we applied single-trial EEG topographic analyses on the time interval immediately preceding NoGo stimuli in conditions where the responses to NoGo trials were correctly inhibited [correct rejection (CR)] vs. committed [false alarms (FAs)] during an auditory spatial Go/NoGo task. We found a specific configuration of the EEG voltage field manifesting more frequently before correctly inhibited responses to NoGo stimuli than before FAs. There was no evidence for an EEG topography occurring more frequently before FAs than before CR. The visualization of distributed electrical source estimations of the EEG topography preceding successful response inhibition suggested that it resulted from the activity of a right fronto-parietal brain network. Our results suggest that the fluctuations in the ongoing brain activity immediately preceding stimulus presentation contribute to the behavioral outcomes during an inhibitory control task. Our results further suggest that the state-dependency of sensory-cognitive processing might not only concern perceptual processes, but also high-order, top-down inhibitory control mechanisms. PMID:23761747

  20. Environmental Education Activities Manual, Book 5: Junior High Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B., Ed.; Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.

    This activities book for the junior high level is the fifth book of a series of six books designed to provide developmental K-12 experiences designed to support the basic environmental philosophy of spaceship earth presented in Book 1. The aims of the four activity sections of this book are to aid in developing students to make them more sensitive…

  1. Environmental Education Activities Manual, Book 6: Senior High Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B., Ed.; Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.

    This activities book for the senior high school level is the sixth book of a series of six books designed to provide developmental K-12 experiences designed to support the basic environmental philosophy of spaceship earth presented in Book 1. The aims of the four activity sections of this book are to aid in developing students to make them more…

  2. High temperature thermocline TES - effect of system pre-charging on thermal stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavattoni, Simone A.; Barbato, Maurizio C.; Zanganeh, Giw; Pedretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate, by means of a computational fluid dynamics approach, the effect of performing an initial charging, or pre-charging, on thermal stratification of an industrial-scale thermocline TES unit, based on a packed bed of river pebbles. The 1 GWhth TES unit under investigation is exploited to fulfill the energy requirement of a reference 80 MWe concentrating solar power plant which uses air as heat transfer fluid. Three different scenarios, characterized by 4 h, 6 h and 8 h of pre-charging, were compared with the reference case of TES system operating without pre-charging. For each of these four scenarios, a total of 30 consecutive charge/discharge cycles, of 12 h each, were simulated and the effect of TES pre-charging on thermal stratification was qualitatively evaluated, by means of a stratification efficiency, based on the second-law of thermodynamics. On the basis of the simulations results obtained, the effect of pre-charging, more pronounced during the first cycles, is not only relevant in reducing the time required by the TES to achieve a stable thermal stratification into the packed bed but also to improve the performance at startup when the system is charged for the first time.

  3. Production of volatile fatty acids by fermentation of waste activated sludge pre-treated in full-scale thermal hydrolysis plants.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Pratt, S; Karlsson, A; Cirne, D; Lant, P; Werker, A

    2011-02-01

    This work focuses on fermentation of pre-treated waste activated sludge (WAS) to generate volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Pre-treatment by high-pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) was shown to aid WAS fermentation. Compared to fermentation of raw WAS, pre-treatment enabled a 2-5x increase in VFA yield (gVFA(COD)gTCOD(-1)) and 4-6x increase in VFA production rate (gVFA(COD) L(-1) d(-1)). Three sludges, pre-treated in full-scale HPTH plants, were fermented. One was from a plant processing a mix of primary sludge and WAS and the other two from plants processing solely WAS. The HPTH plants solubilised suspended matter, evidenced by a 20-30% decrease in suspended solids and an increase of soluble COD : total COD from 0.04 to 0.4. Fermentation of the three sludges yielded similar VFA concentrations (15-20gVFA(COD) L(-1)). The yields were largely independent of retention time (1 d-6 d) and temperature (42°C, 55°C). Also, the product spectrum depended mostly on the composition of the sludge rather than on operating conditions.

  4. Pre-game perceived wellness highly associates with match running performances during an international field hockey tournament.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Mohammed; Tan, Frankie; Sahrom, Sofyan; Choo, Hui Cheng; Chia, Michael; Aziz, Abdul Rashid

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the associations between pre-game wellness and changes in match running performance normalised to either (i) playing time, (ii) post-match RPE or (iii) both playing time and post-match RPE, over the course of a field hockey tournament. Twelve male hockey players were equipped with global positioning system (GPS) units while competing in an international tournament (six matches over 9 days). The following GPS-derived variables, total distance (TD), low-intensity activity (LIA; <15 km/h), high-intensity running (HIR; >15 km/h), high-intensity accelerations (HIACC; >2 m/s(2)) and decelerations (HIDEC; >-2 m/s(2)) were acquired and normalised to either (i) playing time, (ii) post-match RPE or (iii) both playing time and post-match RPE. Each morning, players completed ratings on a 0-10 scale for four variables: fatigue, muscle soreness, mood state and sleep quality, with cumulative scores determined as wellness. Associations between match performances and wellness were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Combined time and RPE normalisation demonstrated the largest associations with Δwellness compared with time or RPE alone for most variables; TD (r = -0.95; -1.00 to -0.82, p = .004), HIR (r = -0.95; -1.00 to -0.83, p = .003), LIA (r = -0.94; -1.00 to -0.81, p = .026), HIACC (r = -0.87; -1.00 to -0.66, p = .004) and HIDEC (r = -0.90; -0.99 to -0.74, p = .008). These findings support the use of wellness measures as a pre-match tool to assist with managing internal load over the course of a field hockey tournament. Highlights Fixtures during international field hockey tournaments are typically congested and impose high physiological demands on an athlete. To minimise decrements in running performance over the course of a tournament, measures to identify players who have sustained high internal loads are logically warranted. The present study examined the association between changes in

  5. Implementation and Operational Research: High Loss to Follow-up Among Children on Pre-ART Care Under National AIDS Program in Madurai, South India.

    PubMed

    Ganga Devi, N Poorana; Ajay, Kumar M V; Palanivel, C; Sahu, Swaroop; Selvaraj, M; Valan, A S; Rewari, B B; Soumya, S

    2015-07-01

    Information on the follow-up of HIV-infected children enrolled into preantiretroviral therapy (Pre-ART) care under routine program settings is limited in India. Knowledge on the magnitude of loss to follow-up (LFU) and its reasons will help programs to retain children in HIV care. We aimed to assess the proportion of LFU among children in Pre-ART care and its associated factors. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the records of all HIV-infected children (aged <15 years) registered from 2005 to 2012 at an ART center, Madurai, South India. LFU during Pre-ART care was defined as having not visited the ART center within a year of registration. Of 426 children enrolled in Pre-ART care, 211 (49%) were females and 301 (71%) were in the 5- to 14-year age group. At 1 year of registration, 348 (82%) were lost to follow-up. Of 348, 81 returned to care after 1 year of enrollment, whereas 267 (63% of all children) were permanently lost to follow-up. The proportion of LFU remained high from 2005 to 2012. WHO staging, CD4 count, and opportunistic infection were the significant factors associated with lost to follow-up on multivariate analysis. LFU was alarmingly high indicating poor clinical and programmatic monitoring among HIV-infected children enrolled in Pre-ART care. A system for active tracing of those missing a clinic appointment intensified supervision, and monitoring along with qualitative research is urgently needed. This will help to understand the exact reasons for LFU based on which effective interventions may be planned for reducing such losses.

  6. The influence of whole-body vs. torso pre-cooling on physiological strain and performance of high-intensity exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Sleivert, G G; Cotter, J D; Roberts, W S; Febbraio, M A

    2001-04-01

    Little research has been reported examining the effects of pre-cooling on high-intensity exercise performance, particularly when combined with strategies to keep the working muscle warm. This study used nine active males to determine the effects of pre-cooling the torso and thighs (LC), pre-cooling the torso (ice-vest in 3 degrees C air) while keeping the thighs warm (LW), or no cooling (CON: 31 degrees C air), on physiological strain and high-intensity (45-s) exercise performance (33 degrees C, 60% rh). Furthermore, we sought to determine whether performance after pre-cooling was influenced by a short exercise warm-up. The 45-s test was performed at different (P<0.05) mean core temperature [(rectal+oesophageal)/2] [CON: 37.3+/-0.3 (S.D.), LW: 37.1+/-0.3, LC: 36.8+/-0.4 degrees C] and mean skin temperature (CON: 34.6+/-0.6, LW: 29.0+/-1.0, LC: 27.2+/-1.2 degrees C) between all conditions. Forearm blood flow prior to exercise was also lower in LC (3.1+/-2.0 ml 100 ml tissue(-1) x min(-1)) than CON (8.2+/-2.5, P=0.01) but not LW (4.3+/-2.6, P=0.46). After an exercise warm-up, muscle temperature (Tm) was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 37.3+/-1.5, LW: 37.3+/-1.2, LC: 36.6+/-0.7 degrees C, P=0.16) but when warm-up was excluded, T(m) was lower in LC (34.5+/-1.9 degrees C, P=0.02) than in CON (37.3+/-1.0) and LW (37.1+/-0.9). Even when a warm-up was performed, torso+thigh pre-cooling decreased both peak (-3.4+/-3.8%, P=0.04) and mean power output (-4.1+/-3.8%, P=0.01) relative to the control, but this effect was markedly larger when warm-up was excluded (peak power -7.7+/-2.5%, P=0.01; mean power -7.6+/-1.2%, P=0.01). Torso-only pre-cooling did not reduce peak or mean power, either with or without warm-up. These data indicate that pre-cooling does not improve 45-s high-intensity exercise performance, and can impair performance if the working muscles are cooled. A short exercise warm-up largely removes any detrimental effects of a cold muscle on

  7. Effect of thermal pre-treatment on co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge on biogas production.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Khan, Abid Ali; Suthar, Surindra

    2017-05-01

    The duckweeds (DW) are considered as a major problem in tropical aquatic system as they grow very fast and produce enormous rich-biomass, which can be harvested for renewable energy operations. But complex lignocellulosic compounds limit their utility in process like anaerobic digestion. This batch study aimed to analyse characteristics (proximate, ultimate and physico-chemical) and possible utility of DW for anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge (WAS) under mesophilic conditions for 35 d. Two sets of experiment were tested: substrate with and without thermal pre-treatment. Five combinations of DW: WAS (70:20, 60:20, 50:20, 40:20 and 30:20%) were established and biomethanation along with changes in pH, volatile solids (VS), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) of digestate were recorded. The total CH4 yield (mL CH4 g(-1) VS) ranged between 60 and 468 for pre-treated, and 9 and 76 for non-pre-treated. The maximum CH4 yield was 468 mL CH4g(-1) VS in DW: WAS (50:20). Thermally treated setups, showed about 13-, 24.1-, 21.1-, 1.4-, and 2.3-fold higher CH4 than non-treated setups. The treated mixtures showed high reduction of SCOD (>41-96) and VS (>59-98%) in co-digesters. The high degree of Gompertz curve fitting (R(2) > 0.99) has suggested pre-treatment of substrate for optimal outputs of co-digester. Based on results obtained, it is suggested that DW (50-60% in digester) can be used as renewable energy resource for biomethanation process after thermal pre-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P < 0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation.

  9. Microbial community dynamics linked to enhanced substrate availability and biogas production of electrokinetically pre-treated waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Maria; Crauwels, Sam; Houtmeyers, Sofie; Meerbergen, Ken; Van Geel, Maarten; Lievens, Bart; Appels, Lise

    2016-10-01

    The restricted hydrolytic degradation rate of complex organic matter presents a considerable challenge in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Within this context, application of pre-treatment of digester substrate has potential for improved waste management and enhanced biogas production. Anaerobic degradation of untreated or electrokinetically pre-treated WAS was performed in two pilot-scale digesters for 132days. WAS electrokinetically pre-treated with energy input 0.066kJ/kg sludge was used in a first phase of operation and WAS pre-treated with energy input 0.091kJ/kg sludge was used in a second phase (each phase lasted at least three hydraulic retention times). Substrate characteristics before and after pre-treatment and effects on biogas digester performance were comprehensively analysed. To gain insights into influences of altered substrate characteristics on microbial communities, the dynamics within the bacterial and archaeal communities in the two digesters were investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (pyrosequencing) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Specific primers targeting dominant operation taxonomic units (OTUs) and members of the candidate phylum Cloacimonetes were designed to further evaluate their abundance and dynamics in the digesters. Electrokinetic pre-treatment significantly improved chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrate solubility and increased biogas production by 10-11% compared with untreated sludge. Compositional similarity of the bacterial community during initial operation and diversification during later operation indicated gradual adaptation of the community to the higher solubility of organic material in the pre-treated substrate. Further analyses revealed positive correlations between gene abundance of dominant OTUs related to Clostridia and Cloacimonetes and increased substrate availability and biogas production. Among the methanogens, the genus Methanosaeta dominated in both digesters. Overall, the

  10. Ranging Behaviour of Verreaux's Eagles during the Pre-Breeding Period Determined through the Use of High Temporal Resolution Tracking.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Megan; Underhill, Les G; Bouten, Willem; Amar, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Information on movement ecology is key in understanding the drivers and limitations of life history traits and has a potential role in indicating environmental change. Currently we have a limited understanding of the parameters of movement of territory-bound raptors, which are sensitive to environmental change. In this study we used GPS tracking technology to obtain spatially (within 3 m) and temporally (c. 3 mins) high-resolution movement data on a small sample of Verreaux's eagle Aquila verreauxii during the pre-laying period (n = 4) with one additional example during the chick rearing period. We present GPS-derived home range estimates for this species and we examine temporal (timing, duration, frequency and speed) and spatial (total path length and maximum distance from nest) patterns of trips away from the nest. For eagles tagged in the agriculturally developed Sandveld region (n = 3), which is made up of a mosaic of land use types, we also undertook a habitat selection analysis. Home ranges were small and largely mutually exclusive. Trip activity was centred around midday, which is likely to be related to lift availability. Our habitat selection analysis found that eagles selected for near-natural and degraded habitat over natural or completely modified areas, suggesting that these eagles may have benefitted from some of the agricultural development in this region. Although our sample sizes are small, the resolution of our tracking data was essential in deriving this data over a relatively short time period and paves the way for future research.

  11. Detection of hidden pre-industrial charcoal kilns by high-resolution LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decade, systematic archaeological excavations in the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany) have revealed one of the largest, archaeologically excavated pre-industrial charcoal production area in Central Europe. Many of the charcoal kiln relics are easy to detect by survey as they lie close to the surface and charcoal pieces hint on their existence. In the excavations the remains of the charcoal kilns are distinct, black circles in the light-coloured sands. To date, in the former Königlich-Taubendorfer Forst c. 800 remains of charcoal hearths have been excavated and documented by archaeologists in an area of about 20 km2. Further c. 300 charcoal hearths are prospected by survey. Unfortunately, the spatial information about the charcoal kiln sites in Lower Lusatia (and elsewhere) is incomplete since we only have data from the archaeological excavation and prospection in the directly affected mining district. To fill this gap, we decided to test the applicability of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data for charcoal kiln prospection. The particularly improved quality of the recent high-resolution light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enabled the computer-aided detection of charcoal kilns and their evaluation using a geographical information system (GIS). Following data processing, the charcoal kilns are visible as buttons-like shapes in the shaded-relief maps (SRM). The characteristic shapes arise because the kiln plates are some centimetres to decimetres higher than the ditches around them. Numerous ground checks confirmed the applicability of the prospection by ALS data. But, we also assume that c. 10% of the charcoal kilns remain unidentified. A 26.6 km2 study area in the Tauerscher Forst, a forest about 10 km northwest of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde, was selected for prospection using a 1 m resolution ALS data set from the year 2011. Today, the area is forested with pine, and no archaeological excavation has been carried out so far

  12. Influence of high temperature pre-deformation on the dissolution rate of delta ferrites in martensitic heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junru; Liu, Jianjun; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Chaolei; Liu, Yazheng

    2017-03-01

    The dissolution process of delta ferrites and the influence of high temperature pre-deformation on the dissolution rate of delta ferrites in martensitic heat-resistant steel 10Cr12Ni3Mo2VN were studied by isothermal heating and thermal simulation experiments. The precipitation temperature of delta ferrites in experimental steel is about 1195 °C. M23C6-type carbides incline to precipitate and coarsen at the boundaries of delta ferrites below 930 °C, and can be rapidly dissolved by heating at 1180 °C. The percentage of delta ferrites gradually decreases with heating time. And a Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation was established to describe the dissolution process of delta ferrites at 1180 °C. High temperature pre-deformation can markedly increase the dissolution rate of delta ferrites. Pre-deformation can largely increase the interface area between delta ferrite and matrix and thus increase the unit-time diffusing quantities of alloying elements between delta ferrites and matrix. In addition, high temperature pre-deformation leads to dynamic recrystallization and increases the number of internal grain boundaries in the delta ferrites. This can also greatly increase the diffusing rate of alloying elements. In these cases, the dissolution of delta ferrites can be promoted.

  13. Influence of high temperature pre-deformation on the dissolution rate of delta ferrites in martensitic heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junru; Liu, Jianjun; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Chaolei; Liu, Yazheng

    2017-02-01

    The dissolution process of delta ferrites and the influence of high temperature pre-deformation on the dissolution rate of delta ferrites in martensitic heat-resistant steel 10Cr12Ni3Mo2VN were studied by isothermal heating and thermal simulation experiments. The precipitation temperature of delta ferrites in experimental steel is about 1195 °C. M23C6-type carbides incline to precipitate and coarsen at the boundaries of delta ferrites below 930 °C, and can be rapidly dissolved by heating at 1180 °C. The percentage of delta ferrites gradually decreases with heating time. And a Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation was established to describe the dissolution process of delta ferrites at 1180 °C. High temperature pre-deformation can markedly increase the dissolution rate of delta ferrites. Pre-deformation can largely increase the interface area between delta ferrite and matrix and thus increase the unit-time diffusing quantities of alloying elements between delta ferrites and matrix. In addition, high temperature pre-deformation leads to dynamic recrystallization and increases the number of internal grain boundaries in the delta ferrites. This can also greatly increase the diffusing rate of alloying elements. In these cases, the dissolution of delta ferrites can be promoted.

  14. Purpose and Meaning in Highly Active Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penick, Jeffrey M.; Fallshore, Marte

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the sources of meaning for active seniors. Results indicated that seniors who were most active were relatively high in a wide range of sources of meaning as well as in life satisfaction in general. The importance of meaning and purpose in relation to counseling with older adults is discussed.

  15. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  16. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  17. Independent predictors of neuronal adaptation in human primary visual cortex measured with high-gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-01-16

    Neuronal adaptation is defined as a reduced neural response to a repeated stimulus and can be demonstrated by reduced augmentation of event-related gamma activity. Several studies reported that variance in the degree of gamma augmentation could be explained by pre-stimulus low-frequency oscillations. Here, we measured the spatio-temporal characteristics of visually-driven amplitude modulations in human primary visual cortex using intracranial electrocorticography. We determined if inter-stimulus intervals or pre-stimulus oscillations independently predicted local neuronal adaptation measured with amplitude changes of high-gamma activity at 80-150 Hz. Participants were given repetitive photic stimuli with a flash duration of 20 μs in each block; the inter-stimulus interval was set constant within each block but different (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0s) across blocks. Stimuli elicited augmentation of high-gamma activity in the occipital cortex at about 30 to 90 ms, and high-gamma augmentation was most prominent in the medial occipital region. High-gamma augmentation was subsequently followed by lingering beta augmentation at 20-30 Hz and high-gamma attenuation. Neuronal adaptation was demonstrated as a gradual reduction of high-gamma augmentation over trials. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a larger number of prior stimuli, shorter inter-stimulus interval, and pre-stimulus high-gamma attenuation independently predicted a reduced high-gamma augmentation in a given trial, while pre-stimulus beta amplitude or delta phase had no significant predictive value. Association between pre-stimulus high-gamma attenuation and a reduced neural response suggests that high-gamma attenuation represents a refractory period. The local effects of pre-stimulus beta augmentation and delta phase on neuronal adaptation may be modest in primary visual cortex.

  18. The effects of pre-obesity on quality of life, disease activity, and functional status in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Seyma; Ozbag, Davut; Altay, Zuhal

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was an investigation of effects of pre-obesity on clinical characteristics and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Total of 28 AS patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients and controls with any systemic inflammatory disease and/or cognitive and mental problems were excluded. Disease activity and functional capacity were measured using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. For quality of life assessment, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was used in both groups, and AS group also responded to Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life questionnaire. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in sociodemographic characteristics between AS patients and healthy controls (p>0.05). Mean quality of life scores were significantly lower in the pre-obese AS patients compared with controls (p<0.05). Functional capacity was positively and significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (p=0.024) and disease activity was significantly associated with female gender (p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Increased BMI in patients with AS is factor that affects quality of life, disease activity, and functional capacity. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs will support improved quality of life for pre-obese patients with AS. PMID:28752143

  19. Pre-menarcheal physical activity predicts post-menarcheal lean mass and core strength, but not fat mass.

    PubMed

    Day, M A; Dowthwaite, J N; Rosenbaum, P F; Roedel, G G; Brocker, A A; Scerpella, T A

    2015-12-01

    Youth exercise is associated with improved body composition, but details regarding timing and persistence are limited. We examined pre- and circum-menarcheal organized physical activity exposure (PA) as a factor in development of early post-menarcheal lean mass, fat mass and muscle strength. Participants in a longitudinal study of musculoskeletal growth using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included based on: 1) Whole body DXA scans: 0.5-1.5 years pre-menarche, 0.5-1.5 years post-menarche; 2) PA records for ⋝6 months preceding the first DXA (prePA) and for the inter-DXA interval (circumPA). Dominant arm grip strength and sit-ups tests coincided with DXA scans; PA, height and maturity were recorded semi-annually. Regressions correlated PA with lean mass/fat mass/strength, accounting for maturity, body size, and baseline values. Seventy girls [baseline: 11.8 yrs (sd 1.0), follow-up: 13.9 years (sd 1.0)] demonstrated circum-menarcheal gains of 25-29% for lean and fat mass and 33% for grip strength. PREPA correlated with pre- and post-menarcheal lean mass, sit-ups and pre-menarcheal fat mass (p<0.05), but not grip strength. CIRCUMPA correlated with only post-menarcheal sub-head lean mass (p=0.03). Lean mass and core strength at 1-year post-menarche were more strongly predicted by pre-menarcheal organized PA than by recent circum-menarcheal PA.

  20. Teaching Active Listening Skills to Pre-Service Speech-Language Pathologists: A First Step in Supporting Collaboration with Parents of Young Children Who Require AAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Jennifer J.; McNaughton, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of instruction in an active listening strategy on the communication skills of pre-service speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: Twenty-three pre-service SLPs in their 2nd year of graduate study received a brief strategy instruction in active listening skills. Participants were videotaped during a…

  1. Teaching Active Listening Skills to Pre-Service Speech-Language Pathologists: A First Step in Supporting Collaboration with Parents of Young Children Who Require AAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Jennifer J.; McNaughton, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of instruction in an active listening strategy on the communication skills of pre-service speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: Twenty-three pre-service SLPs in their 2nd year of graduate study received a brief strategy instruction in active listening skills. Participants were videotaped during a…

  2. The Impacts of Mathematical Representations Developed through Webquest and Spreadsheet Activities on the Motivation of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halat, Erdogan; Peker, Murat

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of instruction using WebQuest activities with the influence of an instruction using spreadsheet activities on the motivation of pre-service elementary school teachers in mathematics teaching course. There were a total of 70 pre-service elementary school teachers involved in this study. Thirty…

  3. Supporting High Quality Teacher-Child Interactions in Pre-K Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation is to add value to the limited knowledge base of research surrounding the quality of teacher-child interactions in pre-k mathematics contexts. The first paper, based on an extensive review of literature, presents a theoretical basis for using five-frames to support children's development of…

  4. Supporting High Quality Teacher-Child Interactions in Pre-K Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation is to add value to the limited knowledge base of research surrounding the quality of teacher-child interactions in pre-k mathematics contexts. The first paper, based on an extensive review of literature, presents a theoretical basis for using five-frames to support children's development of…

  5. High Schools That Work Presents a Pre-Engineering Program of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    The Southern Regional Education Board partnered with the not-for-profit organization Project Lead the Way (PLTW) to develop a program connecting challenging academic courses with a pre-engineering program of study. The programs goal is to increase the number and quality of engineers and engineering technologists by providing the following items:…

  6. Developing a Pre-Engineering Curriculum for 3D Printing Skills for High School Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Yu-Hung

    2017-01-01

    This study developed an integrated-STEM CO[subscript 2] dragster design course using 3D printing technology. After developing a pre-engineering curriculum, we conducted a teaching experiment to assess students' differences in creativity, race forecast accuracy, and learning performance. We compared student performance in both 3D printing and…

  7. A Pre-Engineering Program Using Robots to Attract Underrepresented High School and Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Pauline Helen; Liu, Yun; Hargrove, S. Keith; Doswell, Jayfus T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a new pre-engineering program--Robotics Technician Curriculum--that uses robots to solicit underrepresented students pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The curriculum uses a project-based learning environment, which consists of part lecture and part laboratory. This program…

  8. Building Pre-Service Teacher's Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching of High School Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somayajulu, Ravi Bhamidipati

    2012-01-01

    There were two primary goals of the research conducted for this dissertation study. Firstly, to fill a gap in the research literature and begin a discussion around secondary pre-service teachers Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) as it pertains to geometry. Although a multitude of studies exist for elementary teachers' MKT, few exist at the…

  9. High School Pre-Engineering Programs: Do They Contribute to College Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Belinda; High, Karen; Weinland, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the retention of students in the College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology at Oklahoma State University that enter college with a defined course sequence in a pre-engineering program from a regional career technology center as compared with the retention rates of university engineering students for the same time…

  10. Early Care and Education: Policy Considerations for Ensuring High-Quality Pre-K Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Cohen, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Interest in early care and education (ECE), also referred to as an early childhood education, has escalated in recent years. The interest is bipartisan, as evidenced by the multiple ECE-related bills already introduced by the 113th Congress. Further, 39 states have implemented prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. In 2013, 27 governors mentioned ECE…

  11. Sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in pre-pubertal and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Marassi, Michelle P; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; da Silva, Alba C Matos; Pereira, Valmara S; Carvalho, Denise P; Rosenthal, Doris; da Costa, Vânia M Corrêa

    2007-01-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinase activities are regulated by sex steroids; however, the mechanisms underlying the reported sexual dimorphism are poorly defined. In the present report, we aimed to investigate whether type 1 deiodinase (D1) sexual dimorphism exists early in sexual development by studying pre-pubertal male (Pm) and female (Pf) rats, as well as adult controls (C) and gonadectomized male and females rats. Adult male Wistar rats were studied 21 days after orchiectomy (Tex), and adult females were studied 21 days after ovariectomy (Ovx), and after estradiol benzoate (Eb) replacement. Serum total triiodothyronine (T3) was higher in pre-pubertal (P) rats than in the matching adults, with no difference between genders, although in adult males T3 was significantly lower than in females. There were no sex or age differences in serum total T4. Serum TSH in pre-pubertal (P) rats was within the adult female range, and both were significantly lower than in adult males. D1 activity in liver was greater in Pm than in Pf. In adult females, liver D1 activity was lower, while in adult males it was higher than in P rats. The same pattern of D1 activity was found in kidney. In thyroid and pituitary, D1 activity was similar in Pm, Pf, and adult females, which were all significantly lower than in the adult male. There were no differences in serum T3 and T4 between C and Tex males, but serum TSH was significantly decreased in Tex rats. Hepatic and renal D1 activities were lower in Tex than in C, but no changes were detected in thyroid and pituitary. In Ovx females, T3 was significantly lower than in the C group. Serum T4 was significantly decreased by estradiol replacement therapy in Ovx rats, in both doses used, whereas TSH was unchanged. Eb replacement increased liver and thyroid D1 activity, but in the kidney, only the highest estradiol dose promoted a significant D1 increase. In conclusion, in males, hepatic and renal D1 activity appears to be significantly influenced by

  12. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mee, John F.; Grant, Jim; Sánchez-Miguel, Cosme; Doherty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Mortality of full-term calves at calving is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. Multiple herd management factors contribute to such losses. This case-control study identified factors which differed between herds with high and low calf mortality. These included breeding, dietary, health and calving factors. It was concluded that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality. This indicates that farmers and their veterinarians need to focus on calving management when investigating such problems and when attempting to reduce losses in herds with high rates of bovine perinatal mortality. Abstract Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case) or low (control) calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases) and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management

  13. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage.

  14. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  15. Pre-treatment high-resolution rectal MRI and treatment response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, George J.; You, Y. Nancy; Park, In Ja; Kaur, Harmeet; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Skibber, John M.; Ernst, Randy D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of rectal MRI evaluation of patients with rectal cancer for primary tumor staging and for identification for poor prognostic features is increasing. MR imaging permits precise delineation of tumor anatomy and assessment of mesorectal tumor penetration and radial margin risk. Objective To evaluate the ability of pre-treatment rectal MRI to classify tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Design Retrospective, consecutive cohort study, central review. Setting Tertiary academic hospital. Patients 62 consecutive patients with locally advanced (stage cII-cIII)rectal cancer who underwent rectal cancer protocol high resolution MRI prior to surgery(12/09-3/11). Main Outcome Measures Probability of good (ypT0-2N0) vs. poor (≥ypT3N0) response as a function of mesorectal tumor depth, lymph node status, extramural vascular invasion, and grade assessed by uni- and multi-variate logistic regression. Results Tumor response was good in 25, 40.3% and poor in 37, 59.7%.Median interval from MRI to OP was 7.9weeks (IQR: 7.0–9.0). MRI tumor depth was <1 mm in 10 (16.9%), 1–5 mm in 30 (50.8%), and >5 mm in 21(33.9%). LN status was positive in 40 (61.5%) and vascular invasion was present in 16 (25.8%). Tumor response was associated with MRI tumor depth (P=0.001), MRI lymph nodes status (P=<0.001)and vascular invasion (P=0.009). Multivariate regression indicated >5mm MRI tumor depth (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.01–0.93, p=0.04) and MRI LN positivity (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.03–0.53, p=0.005) were less likely to achieve a good response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Limitations Uncertain generalizability in centers with limited experience with MRI staging for rectal cancer. Conclusion MRI assessment of tumor depth and lymph node status in rectal cancer is associated to tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. These factors should therefore be considered for stratification of patients for novel treatment strategies reliant on pathologic response to treatment or for

  16. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-Type 1 (-675 4G/5G) Polymorphism with Pre-Eclampsia: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jessie A.; Bombell, Sarah; McGuire, William

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive generation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and related conditions. The PAI-1 (−675 4G/5G) promoter polymorphism (rs1799889) affects transcriptional activity and is a putative genetic risk factor for pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study was identify, appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the association of the PAI-1 (−675 4G/5G) polymorphism with pre-eclampsia. Methods Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of genetic association studies. Results We found 12 eligible genetic association studies in which a total of 1511 women with pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP syndrome and 3492 controls participated. The studies were generally small (median number of cases 102, range 24 to 403) and underpowered to detect plausible association sizes. Meta-analysis of all of the studies detected statistically significant gene-disease associations in the recessive [pooled odds ratio 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.09, 1.50); population attributable risk 7.7%] and dominant [pooled odds ratio 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.44); population attributable risk 13.7%] models. We did not find evidence of statistical heterogeneity, funnel plot asymmetry or small study bias. Conclusions These data suggest that the fibrinolytic pathway regulated by the PAI-1 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and related conditions. This association, if confirmed in larger genetic association studies, may inform research efforts to develop novel interventions or help to prioritise therapeutic targets that merit evaluation in randomised clinical trials. PMID:23457639

  17. Anchorage performance of a high-pressure pre-tightening resin anchor with a compressed grouting body

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiansheng; Hu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Supports for deep mine roadways located in soft surrounding rock face several problems: difficulty in applying pre-tightening force, low bearing capacity, and poor initial support. To solve these problems, this study proposes a high-pressure pre-tightening resin anchor with a compressed grouting body for use in soft and fractured rock surrounding a deep roadway. Using model experiments, we analyzed the anchorage performance of the proposed anchor and a conventional tensile-type anchor for three different values of the elastic modulus of the surrounding rock. The results showed that regardless of the surrounding rock type, the peak micro-strain (642–541) and displacement (6.09–6.5 mm) at the pull-out end of the proposed anchor were always smaller than the peak micro-strain (1433–1105) and displacement (8.77–9.2 mm) at the pull-out end of the conventional anchor. Furthermore, as the anchor’s pre-tightening force increased from 20 kN to 120 kN, the anchor’s strain remained concentrated over a length of 0.4 m from the bearing end. Compared with conventional tensile-type anchors, the proposed high-pressure pre-tightening resin anchor with a compressed grouting body has a higher ultimate bearing capacity, allows the grouting length to be decreased to 0.4 m, and provides initial support resistance. PMID:28196084

  18. The influence of extra-curricular physical activities in the development of coordination in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Silva Batista, Marco A; Almeida Honório, Samuel A; Jones, Gareth W; Matos Serrano, João J; Duarte Petrica, João M

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study is to provide information in relation to the coordination ability of pre-school children. The study aimed to investigate the influence of pre-school physical activity, as part of the enrichment curriculum, on the coordination of the pupils. A sample of 120 preschool children (M=63; F=58) aged 4 and 5 years old (M = 4.47, SD = 0.5), with differing levels of physical activity carried out by the Children Body Coordination Test instrument (TCCI), Soares (1993). Proceeded to descriptive statistical analysis of coordinative benefits students, depending on the variables gender, age group, practical activities, years of practice, number of workouts and total weekly sessions of physical activity. We conducted an inferential analysis of data for comparison of means in the variables under study. Practicing enrichment activities has been demonstrated to assist in the development of children's motor skills with those having engaged in such activities achieving a higher level of performance. The practice of extracurricular physical activities significantly enhances the general coordinative abilities in children aged 4 and 5 years of age, but it was found that 5 year old children had a significantly higher performance compared to 4 year old children.

  19. The bioflavonoid galangin blocks aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced pre-B cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Quadri, S A; Qadri, A N; Hahn, M E; Mann, K K; Sherr, D H

    2000-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancers induced by common environmental chemicals. Much of the biologic activity of one such class of pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/transcription factor (AhR). For example, the AhR regulates PAH immunotoxicity that manifests as pre-B cell apoptosis in models of B cell development. Because bioflavonoids block PAH-induced cell transformation and are structurally similar to AhR ligands, it was postulated that some of them would suppress PAH-induced, AhR-dependent immunotoxicity, possibly through a direct AhR blockade. This hypothesis was tested using a model of B cell development in which pre-B cells are cultured with and are dependent on bone marrow stromal or hepatic parenchymal cell monolayers. Of seven bioflavonoids screened, galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) blocked PAH-induced but not C(2)-ceramide- or H(2)O(2)-induced pre-B cell apoptosis. Because galangin blocked AhR-dependent reporter gene expression, AhR complex-DNA binding, and AhR nuclear translocation, inhibition of a relatively early step in AhR signaling was implicated. This hypothesis was supported by the ability of galangin to bind the AhR and stabilize AhR-90-kDa heat shock protein complexes in the presence of AhR agonists. These studies demonstrate the utility of pre-B cell culture systems in identifying compounds capable of blocking PAH immunotoxicity, define at least one mechanism of galangin activity (i.e., repression of AhR activation), and motivate the use of this and similar dietary bioflavonoids as relatively nontoxic inhibitors of AhR agonist activity and as pharmacologic agents with which to dissect AhR signaling pathways.

  20. Cold dynamic compaction of pre-alloyed titanium and activated sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Raybould, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of dynamic compaction has been found to allow the cold consolidation of Ti-6Al-4V to densities of 99% T.D. Although full interparticle welding was not attained, bonding was found to occur during a low temperature sintering operation; below the ..beta.. transition. The high strengths and toughness values thus obtained are due to an activation of the sintering operation caused by the removal of surface oxide and good metal to metal bonds formed during dynamic compaction, when extensive local shearing of the particles surface occurs. This activation of sintering allows a control of microstructure and in particular, avoidance of embrittling phases. During compaction the passage of the shock wave results in the formation of a shocked structure. Spherical powders usually compact dynamically to characteristic shapes. The shock hardening allows the particle through which the shock has passed to deform the subsequent particle it impacts. This is rarely observed with the titanium alloy, indicating the low shock hardening or high initial hardness of the powders. Areas of interparticle melting were observed, but appeared to be the melting of a third particle rather than melting and bonding between particles.

  1. Quantify neuromagnetic network changes from pre-ictal to ictal activities in absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Caiyun; Xiang, Jing; Sun, Jintao; Huang, Shuyang; Tang, Lu; Miao, Ailiang; Zhou, Yuchen; Chen, Qiqi; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2017-08-15

    The cortico-thalamo-cortical network plays a key role in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). However, the exact interaction between the cortex and the thalamus remains incompletely understood. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes of frequency-dependent neural networks during the initialization of absence seizures. Magnetoencephalography data from 14 patients with CAE were recorded during and between seizures at a sampling rate of 6000Hz and analyzed in seven frequency bands. Neuromagnetic sources were volumetrically scanned with accumulated source imaging. Effective connectivity networks of the entire brain, including the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, were evaluated at the source level through Granger causality analysis. The low-frequency (1-80Hz) activities showed significant frontal cortical and parieto-occipito-temporal junction source localization around seizures. The high-frequency (80-250Hz) oscillations showed predominant activities consistently localized in deep brain areas and medial frontal cortex. The increased cortico-thalamic effective connectivity was observed around seizures in both low- and high-frequency ranges. The direction was predominantly from the cortex to the thalamus at the early time, although the cortex that drove connectivity varied among subjects. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in driving the cortico-thalamic connections at the early portion of the initialization of absence seizures. The oscillatory activities in the thalamus could be triggered by networks from various regions in the cortex. The dynamic changes of neural network provide evidences that absence seizures are probably resulted from cortical initialized cortico-thalamic network. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-hospital physical activity status affects in-hospital course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Takamichi; Obayashi, Tohru; Hattori, Eijirou; Yamauchi, Yasuteru; Niwa, Akihiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2010-03-01

    The clinical course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can sometimes unexpectedly result in an adverse outcome even when therapy appears to be successful. We suspect that specific factors may characterize this worsening of status during hospitalization. This study examines whether the pre-hospital physical activity status of the elderly treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI affects their in-hospital course. We studied 110 consecutive patients, aged 80 or older, who had undergone emergent PCI for AMI. Patients were divided into two groups based on clinical presentation: Better Killip class (Killip classes I and II) and Worse Killip class (Killip classes III and IV). Patients were also divided into two groups based on pre-hospital physical activity status, determined retrospectively by review of medical records: Good physical activity (n=57) comprising those able to go out alone independently and Poor physical activity comprising those mainly confined to home (n=53). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 9.1% for the study population. The Worse Killip class group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Better Killip class group (27.8% vs 5.4%, respectively; p=0.0102). In addition, the Poor physical activity group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Good physical activity group (15.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively; p=0.047). These data suggest that pre-hospital physical activity status in elderly patients with AMI may affect in-hospital mortality as well as Killip class.

  3. Active Akt and Functional p53 Modulate Apoptosis in Abelson Virus-Transformed Pre-B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li; Unnikrishnan, Indira; Raghavan, Anuradha; Parmar, Kalindi; Rosenberg, Naomi

    2004-01-01

    Suppression of apoptosis is an important feature of the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) transformation process. During multistep transformation, Ab-MLV-infected pre-B cells undergo p53-dependent apoptosis during the crisis phase of transformation. Even once cells are fully transformed, an active v-Abl protein tyrosine kinase is required to suppress apoptosis because cells transformed by temperature-sensitive (ts) kinase mutants undergo rapid apoptosis after a shift to the nonpermissive temperature. However, inactivation of the v-Abl protein by a temperature shift interrupts signals transmitted via multiple pathways, making it difficult to identify those that are critically important for the suppression of apoptosis. To begin to dissect these pathways, we tested the ability of an SH2 domain Ab-MLV mutant, P120/R273K, to rescue aspects of the ts phenotype of pre-B cells transformed by the conditional kinase domain mutant. The P120/R273K mutant suppressed apoptosis at the nonpermissive temperature, a phenotype correlated with its ability to activate Akt. Apoptosis also was suppressed at the nonpermissive temperature by constitutively active Akt and in p53-null pre-B cells transformed with the ts kinase domain mutant. These data indicate that an intact Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is not critical for apoptosis suppression and suggest that signals transmitted through Akt and p53 play an important role in the response. PMID:14747529

  4. Methane enhancement through oxidative cleavage and alkali solubilization pre-treatments for corn stover with anaerobic activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Bi, Jinhua; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Talha, Zahir Ahmed Ali; Huang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, thermo-chemical pre-treatment was adopted to evaluate methane production potential from corn stover by co-digesting it with anaerobic activated sludge. Three chemicals H2O2, Ca(OH)2 and NaOH were selected with two levels of concentration. All thermo-chemical pre-treatments were found significant (P<0.05) to enhance lignocellulosic digestibility and methane production. The results indicated that the methane yield by H2O2-1, H2O2-2, and NaOH-2 treated corn stover were 293.52, 310.50 and 279.42ml/g.VS which were 57.18%, 66.27% and 49.63% higher than the untreated corn stover respectively. In the previous studies pre-treatment time was reported in days but our method had reduced it to about one hour. H2O2-2 and NaOH-2 treatments remained prominent to increase lignocellulosic degradation vigorously up to 45% and 42% respectively. Process biochemistry during the anaerobic digestion process was taken into consideration to optimize the most feasible thermo-chemical pre-treatment for corn stover.

  5. Relative validity of the pre-coded food diary used in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Vibeke K; Gille, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Trine H; Christensen, Tue; Fagt, Sisse; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relative validity of the pre-coded food diary applied in the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity. A cross-over study among seventy-two adults (aged 20 to 69 years) recording diet by means of a pre-coded food diary over 4 d and a 4 d weighed food record. Intakes of foods and drinks were estimated, and nutrient intakes were calculated. Means and medians of intake were compared, and cross-classification of individuals according to intake was performed. To assess agreement between the two methods, Pearson and Spearman's correlation coefficients and weighted kappa coefficients were calculated. Validation study of the pre-coded food diary against a 4 d weighed food record. Seventy-two volunteer, healthy free-living adults (thirty-five males, thirty-seven females). Intakes of cereals and vegetables were higher, and intakes of fruit, coffee and tea were lower, in the weighed food record compared with the food diary. Intakes of nutrients were grossly the same in the two methods, except for protein, where a higher intake was recorded in the weighed record. In general, moderate agreement between the two methods was found. Participants were classified moderately correct according to food and nutrient intakes assessed in the pre-coded food diary; however values of absolute food intakes should be used and interpreted with caution. Improvement of the methods to estimate portion size may increase the accuracy of the dietary intake estimates.

  6. Midline section of the medulla abolishes inspiratory activity and desynchronizes pre-inspiratory neuron rhythm on both sides of the medulla in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Onimaru, Hiroshi; Tsuzawa, Kayo; Nakazono, Yoshimi; Janczewski, Wiktor A

    2015-04-01

    Each half of the medulla contains respiratory neurons that constitute two generators that control respiratory rhythm. One generator consists of the inspiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC); the other, the pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) neurons in the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), rostral to the preBötC. We investigated the contribution of the commissural fibers, connecting the respiratory rhythm generators located on the opposite side of the medulla to the generation of respiratory activity in brain stem-spinal cord preparation from 0- to 1-day-old rats. Pre-I neuron activity and the facial nerve and/or first lumbar (L1) root activity were recorded as indicators of the pFRG-driven rhythm. Fourth cervical ventral root (C4) root and/or hypoglossal (XII) nerve activity were recorded as indicators of preBötC-driven inspiratory activity. We found that a midline section that interrupted crossed fibers rostral to the obex irreversibly eliminated C4 and XII root activity, whereas the Pre-I neurons, facial nerve, and L1 roots remained rhythmically active. The facial and contralateral L1 nerve activities were synchronous, whereas right and left facial (and right and left L1) nerves lost synchrony. Optical recordings demonstrated that pFRG-driven burst activity was preserved after a midline section, whereas the preBötC neurons were no longer rhythmic. We conclude that in newborn rats, crossed excitatory interactions (via commissural fibers) are necessary for the generation of inspiratory bursts but not for the generation of rhythmic Pre-I neuron activity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic pre-treatment of high fat content dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Adulkar, Tejal V; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-05-01

    This paper illustrates the application of ultrasound in a dairy waste water treatment for the removal of fat using enzyme as a catalyst. Lipase Z was used to perform the enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of a synthetic dairy wastewater containing around 2000 mg/L of fat content coupled with ultrasound irradiation. Different process parameters like effect of enzyme loading, temperature, ultrasound power, frequency, duty cycle and speed of agitation are optimized. The maximum hydrolysis of 78% is achieved at 0.2% enzyme loading (w/v), 30°C temperature, 165 W of ultrasonication power at 25 kHz and 66% duty cycle. It was observed that the enzymatic pre-hydrolysis under the influence of ultrasound drastically reduces the reaction time from 24h to 40 min as compared to conventional stirring with improved yield.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Physics Students' Conceptions on Energy in Pre-Service Training for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    1998-12-01

    How physics students teachers' understanding of energy develops during their pre-service high school teacher university program? How do their physics and Didactics courses influence their energy conceptions? Do university physics students in pre-service training to be high-school teachers finally hold correct scientific views that will eventually allow them to plan and implement instructional strategies that, in turn, will lead their future high school students to achieve a scientific concept of energy? The results of a longitudinal study dealing with this issues will be discussed in this manuscript. The energy conceptions of the Physics students were analyzed by means of a two-part written questionnaire that was presented to the same group on their first day of class for four years running. The most important findings of this study can be summarized as follows. Despite their pre-service training, future physics high school teachers: Hold a number of different alternative conceptual frameworks when describing physical situations, instead or besides the accepted scientific concept. Mostly think that energy is a concrete entity and not an abstract idea. Mostly do not accept the idea of energy degradation. Mostly confuse the concepts of energy and force.

  9. Pre-SMA actively engages in conflict processing in human: a combined study of epicortical ERPs and direct cortical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Usami, Kiyohide; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Shimotake, Akihiro; Matsuhashi, Masao; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2013-04-01

    Previous non-invasive studies have proposed that the deeply seated region of the medial frontal cortex engages in conflict processing in humans, but its core region has remained to be elucidated. By means of direct cortical stimulation, which excels other techniques in temporal and spatial resolutions and in the capacity of producing transient, functional impairment even in the deeply located cortices, we attempted to obtain direct evidence that the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) actively engages in conflict processing. Subject was a patient with right frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent invasive presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes placed on the medial and lateral frontal cortices. During a conflict task--modified Eriksen flanker task, direct cortical stimulation was delivered time-locked to the task at the inferior part of the medial superior frontal gyrus (inferior medial SFG), the superior part of the medial SFG, and the middle frontal gyrus. By adopting the session of sham stimulation that was employed as a within-block control, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the medial and lateral frontal cortices. The inferior medial SFG showed a significant ERP difference between trials with more and less conflict, while the other frontal cortices did not. Among the three stimulus sites, only stimulation of the inferior medial SFG significantly prolonged reaction time in trials with more conflict. Anatomically, the inferior medial SFG corresponded with the pre-SMA (Brodmann area 8). It was located 1-2 cm rostral to the vertical anterior commissure line where cortical stimulation elicited arrest of motion (the supplementary negative motor area). Functionally, this area corresponded to the dorso-rostral portion of the activation loci in previous neuroimaging studies focusing on conflict processing. By combining epicortical ERP recording and direct cortical stimulation in a human brain, this study, for the first time, presented one direct

  10. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation. Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.

  11. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE PAGES

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; ...

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  12. 61 REVERSIBLE INHIBITION OF BOVINE MINOR EMBRYONIC GENOME ACTIVATION IMPAIRS PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Nociti, R P; Sampaio, R V; de Lima, V F M H; Schultz, R M; Ross, P J

    2016-01-01

    Bovine pre-implantation embryos can develop in the absence of gene expression up to the 8/16-cell stage, the time when the major embryonic genome activation (EGA) occurs. Some embryonic genes, however, are transcribed before EGA (minor EGA). This study used a reversible inhibitor of RNA Polymerase II (5,6 dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside; DRB) to assess the importance of minor EGA for development to the blastocyst stage. Oocytes were matured and inseminated in vitro, and the fertilized eggs were cultured in supplemented KSOMaa and allocated to different treatments 16h post-insemination (hpi). Development was recorded at 44 and 72 hpi, and the incidence of blastocyst formation on Day 7 (IVF=Day 0) was recorded. Data were analysed by ANOVA followed by Duncan test. First, we tested different DRB concentrations [50μM (D50), 75μM (D75), 100μM (D100), and dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control (CTRL)] to block development to blastocyst when continuously present. Only embryos in CTRL produced blastocysts (45.0±5.8%; 4 replicates with a total of 391 oocytes examined). No difference in development was observed at 44h (57.9±16.5, 53.3±10.5, 60.5±19.0, and 52.3±5.8% for D50, D75, D100, and CTRL, respectively) and 72h (78.9±8.8, 66.1±11.7, 71.5±16.5, and 70.8±5.6% for D50, D75, D100, and CTRL, respectively). Next, in 7 replicates (751 oocytes) we determined the effect of blocking transcription (50μM DRB) spanning 2 embryo stages (periods of 28h), initiated at 16hpi (1&2C), 30hpi (2&4C), and 44hpi (4&8C). Controls included DRB treatment from 16 to 72hpi (1-8C) and CTRL. There was no difference in development at 44 and 72h. The incidence of blastocyst formation, however, was significantly decreased in all treatment groups compared with CTRL (27.7±4.7; 15.1±3.5; 23.3±3.1; 20.5±1.9; and 42.1±3.2% for 1&2C, 2&4C, 4&8C, 1-8C, and CTRL, respectively). Finally, in 12 replicates (1499 oocytes), the effect of blocking transcription for 14-h periods, spanning

  13. Origin of life: hypothesized roles of high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation, thermosynthesis and pre-photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that during the organization of pre-biotic bacterial cell(s), high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation (IR), thermosynthesis and possibly pre-photosynthesis were central to the origin of life. High-energy electrical discharges generated some simple organic molecules available for the origin of life. Infrared radiation, both incoming to the Earth and generated on the cooling Earth with day/night and warming/cooling cycles, was a component of heat engine thermosynthesis before enzymes and the genetic code were present. Eventually, a primitive forerunner of photosynthesis and the capability to capture visible light emerged. In addition, the dual particle-wave nature of light is discussed from the perspective that life requires light acting both as a wave and particle.

  14. Pre- and post-exploitation variations in hydrothermal activity in Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prol-Ledesma, R. M.

    1998-08-01

    Los Humeros geothermal field is a remarkable example of the lack of water-rock equilibrium. Significant variations of hydrothermal activity have occurred before and after exploitation started. Presently, discharged water is not in equilibrium with the alteration suite observed in the reservoir rocks. Hydrothermal minerals identified in core and cuttings define the occurrence of several stages of hydrothermal activity. Cooling at depth is inferred from fluid inclusion and alteration mineralogy data from the wells located nearby Los Humeros fault. Most wells produce a two-phase fluid with excess enthalpy, this accounts for the high CO 2 content observed in the discharged fluid. Sulfur and carbon isotopic data indicate that volatile species in the geothermal fluid have magmatic as well as sedimentary components, while strontium isotopic composition shows that calcium is provided by the andesitic rocks that form the reservoir. As exploitation of the field started, concentration of HCl increased in the discharged fluids. This shows that recharge of the reservoir is not enough to balance the output for production, and drying out of the field may be taking place at depth. The lack of chemical equilibrium and the presence of gases of magmatic origin suggest that Los Humeros is a relatively young geothermal field related to a recent magmatic intrusion.

  15. A dairy-based high calcium diet improves glucose homeostasis and reduces further weight gain in high fat fed mice in the context of pre-existing obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: High dietary calcium (Ca) in the context of a dairy food matrix has been shown to reduce obesity development and associated inflammation in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. However, the influence of Ca and dairy on these phenotypes in the context of pre-existing obesity is not known. Met...

  16. Protein kinase CK2 contributes to diminished small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel activity of hypothalamic pre-sympathetic neurons in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pachuau, Judith; Li, De-Pei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2014-09-01

    Small conductance calcium-activated K(+) (SK) channels regulate neuronal excitability. However, little is known about changes in SK channel activity of pre-sympathetic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in essential hypertension. SK channels, calmodulin, and casein kinase II (CK2) form a molecular complex. Because CK2 is up-regulated in the PVN in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), we hypothesized that CK2 increases calmodulin phosphorylation and contributes to diminished SK channel activity in PVN pre-sympathetic neurons in SHRs. Perforated whole-cell recordings were performed on retrogradely labeled spinally projecting PVN neurons in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHRs. Blocking SK channels with apamin significantly increased the firing rate of PVN neurons in WKY rats but not in SHRs. CK2 inhibition restored the stimulatory effect of apamin on the firing activity of PVN neurons in SHRs. Furthermore, apamin-sensitive SK currents and depolarization-induced medium after-hyperpolarization potentials of PVN neurons were significantly larger in WKY rats than in SHRs. CK2 inhibition significantly increased the SK channel current and medium after-depolarization potential of PVN neurons in SHRs. In addition, CK2-mediated calmodulin phosphorylation level in the PVN was significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Although SK3 was detected in the PVN, its expression level did not differ significantly between SHRs and WKY rats. Our findings suggest that CK2-mediated calmodulin phosphorylation is increased and contributes to diminished SK channel function of PVN pre-sympathetic neurons in SHRs. This information advances our understanding of the mechanisms underlying hyperactivity of PVN pre-sympathetic neurons and increased sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Small conductance calcium-activated K(+) (SK) channels, calmodulin, and protein kinase CK2 form a molecular complex and regulate neuronal excitability. Our study suggests that augmented

  17. Management of synchronized network activity by highly active neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, Mark; Volman, Vladislav; Raichman, Nadav; Hanein, Yael; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2008-09-01

    Increasing evidence supports the idea that spontaneous brain activity may have an important functional role. Cultured neuronal networks provide a suitable model system to search for the mechanisms by which neuronal spontaneous activity is maintained and regulated. This activity is marked by synchronized bursting events (SBEs)—short time windows (hundreds of milliseconds) of rapid neuronal firing separated by long quiescent periods (seconds). However, there exists a special subset of rapidly firing neurons whose activity also persists between SBEs. It has been proposed that these highly active (HA) neurons play an important role in the management (i.e. establishment, maintenance and regulation) of the synchronized network activity. Here, we studied the dynamical properties and the functional role of HA neurons in homogeneous and engineered networks, during early network development, upon recovery from chemical inhibition and in response to electrical stimulations. We found that their sequences of inter-spike intervals (ISI) exhibit long time correlations and a unimodal distribution. During the network's development and under intense inhibition, the observed activity follows a transition period during which mostly HA neurons are active. Studying networks with engineered geometry, we found that HA neurons are precursors (the first to fire) of the spontaneous SBEs and are more responsive to electrical stimulations.

  18. PET-CT observations of cortical activity in pre-lingually deaf adolescent and adult patients with cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Haruo; Takahashi, Haruo; Kanda, Yukihiko; Chiba, Kenya

    2017-05-01

    The present study yielded useful information concerning pre-lingually deaf adolescents and adults who try or manage to understand languages. PET-CT can provide insights into brain plasticity and elucidate which mode of communication is the most effective for education of such patients. To study the cortical activity in pre-lingually deaf adolescent and adult cochlear implants (CI) users who have been trained in auditory-verbal/oral communication since childhood. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), brain activities in six pre-lingually and two post-lingually deaf CI users (mean age at CI surgery = , 20.3 years; three males, five females) were compared with those of 10 normal age-matched controls (mean age = 27.1 years). Regional cerebral blood flow changes were measured during an acoustic presentation of a story. In compliant CI users, the number of hypermetabolic auditory-related areas was greater in those who had a CI in their 20s than in those who did so in their adolescence. In poor and non-compliant users, hypermetabolism was not seen in the auditory association area, but in the primary auditory areas (BA41) and the Broca's area (BA45). In post-lingually deaf CI users, no increase in the number of hypermetabolic areas was found in auditory-related regions.

  19. High-resolution seismic analysis of the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (North German Basin): the pre-Alpine evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöllner, H.; Reicherter, K.; Schikowsky, P.

    2008-09-01

    The pre-Alpine structural and geological evolution in the northern part of the North German Basin have been revealed on the basis of a very dense reflection seismic profile grid. The study area is situated in the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), part of the southwestern Baltic Sea. From the central part of the North German Basin to the northern basin margin in the Grimmen High area a series of high-resolution maps show the evolution from the base Zechstein to the Lower Jurassic. We present a map of basement faults affecting the pre-Zechstein. The pre-Alpine structural evolution of the region has been determined from digital mapping of post-Permian key horizons traced on the processed seismic time sections. The geological evolution of the North German Basin can be separated into four distinct periods in the Rerik study area. During Late Permian and Early Triassic evaporites and clastics were deposited. Salt movement was initiated after the deposition of the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk. Salt pillows, which were previously unmapped in the study area, are responsible for the creation of smaller subsidence centers and angular unconformities in the Late Triassic Keuper, especially in the vicinity of the fault-bounded Grimmen High. In this area, partly Lower Jurassic sediments overlie the Keuper unconformably. The change from extension to compression in the regional stress field remobilized the salt, leading to a major unconformity marked at the base of the Late Cretaceous.

  20. Promoting Inclusivity in STEM through Active Recruiting and Mentoring: The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Binder, Breanna A.; Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    2016-01-01

    The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) is a research and mentoring program for entering undergraduate students offered by the University of Washington Astronomy Department since 2005. The primary goal of Pre-MAP is to recruit and retain students from groups traditionally underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through early exposure to guided research projects. The Pre-MAP seminar is the core component of the program and offers instruction in computing skills, data manipulation, science writing, statistical analysis, and scientific speaking and presentation skills. Students choose research projects proposed by faculty, post-docs and graduate students in areas related to astrophysics, planetary science, and astrobiology. Pre-MAP has been successful in retaining underrepresented students in STEM fields relative to the broader UW population, and we've found these students are more likely to graduate and excel academically than their peers. As of fall 2015, more than one hundred students have taken the Pre-MAP seminar, and both internal and external evaluations have shown that all groups of participating students report an increased interest in astronomy and science careers at the end of the seminar. This talk will provide an overview of the program and the structure of the core seminar. In particular, the talk will focus on additions and revisions to the seminar course over the last few years, such as the introduction of a public speaking coach, career and internship modules, and the formalization of external lab tours.

  1. Osteocytes exposed to far field of therapeutic ultrasound promotes osteogenic cellular activities in pre-osteoblasts through soluble factors.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-07-01

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was reported to accelerate the rate of fracture healing. When LIPUS is applied to fractures transcutaneously, bone tissues at different depths are exposed to different ultrasound fields. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). Moreover, we have reported that the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of ultrasound beam in rat fracture model. However, the mechanisms of how different axial distances of LIPUS influence the mechanotransduction of bone cells are not understood. To understand the cellular mechanisms underlying far field LIPUS on enhanced fracture healing in rat model, the present study investigated the effect of ultrasound axial distances on (1) osteocyte, the mechanosensor, and (2) mechanotransduction between osteocyte and pre-osteoblast (bone-forming cell) through paracrine signaling. We hypothesized that far field LIPUS could enhance the osteogenic activities of osteoblasts via paracrine factors secreted from osteocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of axial distances of LIPUS on osteocytes and osteocyte-osteoblast mechanotransduction. In this study, LIPUS (plane; 2.2 cm in diameter, 1.5MHz sine wave, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was applied to osteocytes (mechanosensor) at three axial distances: 0mm (near field), 60mm (mid-near field) and 130 mm (far field). The conditioned medium of osteocytes (OCM) collected from these three groups were used to culture pre-osteoblasts (effector cell). In this study, (1) the direct effect of ultrasound fields on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes; and (2) the osteogenic effect of different OCM treatments on pre-osteoblasts were assessed. The immunostaining results indicated the ultrasound beam at far field resulted in more β-catenin nuclear translocation in osteocytes than all other groups. This indicated that osteocytes could detect the

  2. Anti-tumor activity of calcitriol: pre-clinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Hershberger, Pamela A; Bernardi, Ronald J; Ahmed, Sharmilla; Muindi, Josephia; Fakih, Marwan; Yu, Wei-Dong; Johnson, Candace S

    2004-05-01

    1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) is recognized widely for its effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Epidemiological data suggest that low Vitamin D levels may play a role in the genesis of prostate cancer and perhaps other tumors. Calcitriol is a potent anti-proliferative agent in a wide variety of malignant cell types. In prostate, breast, colorectal, head/neck and lung cancer as well as lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma model systems calcitriol has significant anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Calcitriol effects are associated with an increase in G0/G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, modulation of expression of growth factor receptors. Glucocorticoids potentiate the anti-tumor effect of calcitriol and decrease calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia. Calcitriol potentiates the antitumor effects of many cytotoxic agents and inhibits motility and invasiveness of tumor cells and formation of new blood vessels. Phase I and II trials of calcitriol either alone or in combination with carboplatin, taxanes or dexamethasone have been initiated in patients with androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer and advanced cancer. Data indicate that high-dose calcitriol is feasible on an intermittent schedule, no dose-limiting toxicity has been encountered and optimal dose and schedule are being delineated. Clinical responses have been seen with the combination of high dose calcitriol+dexamethasone in androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and apparent potentiation of the antitumor effects of docetaxel have been seen in AIPC. These results demonstrate that high intermittent doses of calcitriol can be administered to patients without toxicity, that the MTD is yet to be determined and that calcitriol has potential as an anti-cancer agent.

  3. High concordance of molecular tumor alterations between pre-operative curettage and hysterectomy specimens in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stelloo, Ellen; Nout, Remi A; Naves, Lisanne C L M; Ter Haar, Natalja T; Creutzberg, Carien L; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Bosse, Tjalling

    2014-05-01

    Molecular alterations in endometrial cancer have been shown to be prognostically significant but have not yet been implemented in the current clinical risk assessment. Few studies have investigated the reliability of molecular alterations in pre-operative specimens. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether molecular analysis of pre-operative endometrial cancer samples accurately reflects those alterations in the subsequent hysterectomy specimens. Paired pre-operative and hysterectomy specimens of 48 patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma, 42 endometrioid (EEC) and 6 non-endometrioid (NEEC) carcinomas, were analyzed for immunohistochemical expression of p53, PTEN and β-catenin. Tumor DNA was isolated and analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI), TP53 mutations and somatic hot spot mutations in 13 genes. In EEC patients, loss of PTEN, nuclear β-catenin and p53-mutant expression was found in 43%, 7% and 12%, respectively. No nuclear β-catenin was found in 5 of 6 NEEC patients, all serous cancers, whereas a p53-mutant expression was present in all serous cases. MSI was found in 19.5%, all EEC. Concordance for PTEN, β-catenin, p53 expression and MSI status was found in 79%, 92%, 79% and 93.5%, respectively. We detected 65 hot spot mutations in 39/48 (81%) tumors. Overall concordance of the GynCarta multigene analysis was 99.8%. The results confirm the reliability of immunohistochemical and DNA-based techniques in the evaluation of molecular alterations in pre-operative endometrial specimens and high concordance rates with the definitive hysterectomy specimens. The resulting molecular signature provides initial pre-operative diagnostic information on the status of oncogenic pathways, which may contribute to individualized treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-synaptic striatal dopaminergic function in people at high risk of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Oliver D; Montgomery, Andrew J; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Murray, Robin M; Grasby, Paul M; McGuire, Philip K

    2013-01-01

    Background The dopamine hypothesis has been the major pathophysiological theory of psychosis in recent decades. Molecular imaging studies have provided in vivo evidence of increased dopamine synaptic availability and increased pre-synaptic dopamine synthesis in the striata of people with psychotic illnesses. These studies support the predictions of the dopamine hypothesis, but it remains to be determined whether dopaminergic abnormalities pre-date or are secondary to the development of psychosis. Method We selectively review the molecular imaging studies of the striatal dopaminergic system in psychosis and link this to models of psychosis and the functional sub-divisions of the striatum to make predictions for dopaminergic system in the prodromal phase of psychosis. Results A fairly consistent body of evidence indicates that pre-synaptic dopamine synthesis and synaptic dopamine availability is increased in the striata of people with psychotic illnesses. There may also be a small increase in striatal D2 dopamine receptor levels, although the evidence is less consistent. No studies to date have investigated striatal dopaminergic function longitudinally in people with psychosis or who are in the prodromal phase of psychosis. Evidence indicates that people with psychosis and at risk of psychosis show characteristic cognitive biases which support models of psychosis that link cognitive processes underlying appraisal to the development of delusions. Conclusions Current findings indicate an association between dopaminergic abnormalities and psychosis, which supports the dopamine hypothesis. However it is not possible to infer a causal relationship from these data. Studies of the dopaminergic system in the prodromal phase of psychosis and over the course of the developing psychotic illness are needed to determine whether dopaminergic abnormalities are secondary or primary, and whether dopaminergic abnormalities underlie the cognitive biases and impairments associated with

  5. Active phenomena in the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae star HD 163296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catala, C.; Praderie, F.; Simon, T.; Talavera, A.; The, P. S.

    1989-01-01

    Observations by IUE of the short-term variability of the Mg II and Ca II resonance lines in the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 are presented. Evidence that these lines show a phenomenon of rotational modulation, similar to the one observed in AB Aur, another Herbig Ae star is found. The variations in the spectrum of HD 163296 are even more conspicuous than in the spectrum of AB Aur. Magnetically structured winds may thus be a widespread phenomenon among the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars.

  6. Pre-Launch Risk Reduction Activities Conducted at KSC for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In the development of any large scale space-based multi-piece assembly effort, planning must include provisions for testing and verification; not only of the individual pieces but also of the pieces together. Without such testing on the ground, the risk to cost, schedule and technical performance increases substantially. This paper will review the efforts undertaken by the International Space Station (ISS), including the International Partners, during the pre-launch phase, primarily at KSC, to reduce the risks associated with the on-orbit assembly and operation of the ISS.

  7. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  8. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  9. Therapy of highly active pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huppke, Peter; Huppke, Brenda; Ellenberger, David; Rostasy, Kevin; Hummel, Hannah; Stark, Wiebke; Brück, Wolfgang; Gärtner, Jutta

    2017-09-01

    Study aims were to determine the frequency of highly active disease in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), the response to natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) treatment, and the impact of current treatment modalities on the clinical course. Retrospective single-center study in the German Center for MS in Childhood and Adolescence. Of 144 patients with first MS manifestation between 2011 and 2015, 41.6% fulfilled the criteria for highly active MS. In total, 55 patients treated with NTZ and 23 with FTY demonstrated a significant reduction in relapse rate (NTZ: 95.2%, FTY: 75%), new T2 lesions (NTZ: 97%, FTY: 81%), and contrast-enhancing lesions (NTZ: 97%, FTY: 93%). However, seven patients switched from NTZ to FTY experienced an increase in disease activity. Comparing pediatric MS patients treated in 2005 with those treated in 2015 showed a 46% reduction in relapse rate and a 44% reduction in mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The rate of highly active disease among pediatric MS patients is high; more than 40% in our cohort. Response to NTZ and FTY treatment is similar if not better than observed in adults. Current treatment modalities including earlier treatment initiation and the introduction of NTZ and FTY have significantly improved the clinical course of pediatric MS.

  10. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J

    2015-11-01

    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P<0.05) and HF and total power were higher (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women. In all groups, LBNP decreased (P<0.05) SBP, HF and total power and increased (P<0.05) HR and LF/HF ratio. However, HF and total power remained higher (P<0.05) and HR, SBP and LF/HF ratio remained lower (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women, in whom measures did not differ (P>0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (P<0.05) with HF. In conclusion, ExFHA women demonstrate augmented vagal yet unchanged sympathetic HR modulation, both at rest and during orthostatic stress. Although the role of oestrogen deficiency is unclear, these findings are in contrast with studies reporting decreased HRV in hypoestrogenic post-menopausal women.

  11. Effects of strain-rate and pre-fatigue on tensile properties of laser welded joint of high strength steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Daimaruya, M.; Tsuda, H.; Horikawa, K.

    2006-08-01

    The impact tensile properties of laser welded butt joints of two kinds of high strength steel plates with the tensile strength level of 590 MPa and 780 MPa (denoted by HR590 and HR780, respectively), were investigated using split Hopkinson bar tensile testing apparatus. Impact tension tests for the joint specimens pre-fatigued were also carried out to examine the effect of pre-fatigue. There were no significant effects of strain-rate and pre-fatigue on the dynamic and quasi-static tensile strength of laser welded butt joints. However, the decrease in the elongation of HR780 welded joints subjected high cycle pre-fatigue was observed only at a high strain-rate. From the observation of fracture surface, it was found that the decrease in the elongation may be caused by a number of damages due to the combination of high cycle pre-fatigue and high strain-rate.

  12. Chromatographic purification of highly active yeast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2011-10-24

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes.

  13. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  14. Advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis: A high-risk population for pre-liver transplant portal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Stine, Jonathan G; Argo, Curtis K; Pelletier, Shawn J; Maluf, Daniel G; Caldwell, Stephen H; Northup, Patrick G

    2017-01-01

    AIM To examine if liver transplant recipients with high-risk non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk for pre-transplant portal venous thrombosis. METHODS Data on all liver transplants in the United States from February 2002 through September 2014 were analyzed. Recipients were sorted into three distinct groups: High-risk (age > 60, body mass index > 30 kg/m2, hypertension and diabetes), low-risk and non-NASH cirrhosis. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. RESULTS Thirty-five thousand and seventy-two candidates underwent liver transplantation and of those organ recipients, 465 were transplanted for high-risk and 2775 for low-risk NASH. Two thousand six hundred and twenty-six (7.5%) recipients had pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis; 66 (14.2%) of the high-risk NASH group had portal vein thrombosis vs 328 (11.8%) of the low-risk NASH group. In general, all NASH recipients were less likely to be male or African American and more likely to be obese. In adjusted multivariable regression analyses, high-risk recipients had the greatest risk of pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis with OR = 2.11 (95%CI: 1.60-2.76, P < 0.001) when referenced to the non-NASH group. CONCLUSION Liver transplant candidates with high-risk NASH are at the greatest risk for portal vein thrombosis development prior to transplantation. These candidates may benefit from interventions to decrease their likelihood of clot formation and resultant downstream hepatic decompensating events. Prospective study is needed. PMID:28217250

  15. High Power RF Tests on WR650 Pre-Stressed Planar Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Stirbet, Mircea; Davis, G. Kirk; Elliott, Thomas S.; King, Larry; Powers, Thomas J.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Walker, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    A new planar, ceramic window intended to be used with WR650 waveguide fundamental power couplers at 1300 MHz or 1500 MHz has been developed. It is based on the pre-stressed planar window concept tested in PEP II and LEDA. A test stand that made use of the 100kW CW 1500 MHz RF system in the JLAB FEL was commissioned and used to apply up to 80 kW traveling wave (TW)to the windows. Two different types of RF windows (brazed and diffusion bonded ceramics) with design specification of 50 kW CW in TW mode were successfully tested both as a gas barrier (intended to operate up to 2 psi) and as a vacuum barrier. The vacuum windows were able to maintain UHV quality vacuum and were successfully operated in the 10{sup -9} mbar range. An overview of the pre-stressed power windows, RF test stand, procedures and RF power testing results will be presented.

  16. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, Pre-Launch Activities, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Tom; Csatho, Beata M.

    2011-01-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPee and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICES at. In contrast to ICES at, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using approximately 532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  17. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, pre-launch activities, and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Csatho, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPCC and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICESat. In contrast to ICESat, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using ~532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  18. Anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects of Nelumbo nucifera seed ethanol extract in human pre-adipocytes and rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    We conducted this investigation in order to examine the anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects of Nelumbo nucifera seed ethanol extract (NSEE) in vitro and in vivo. To study the anti-obesity effect of NSEE in vitro and in vivo, human pre-adipocytes were treated with NSEE, and male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat diet with or without NSEE, respectively. In vitro treatment with NSEE resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and leptin in cultured human adipocytes, indicating that it inhibited the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes. Administration of NSEE resulted in significantly reduced body weight gain and adipose tissue weights in rats. Serum triglyceride and leptin level of the high-fat diet + NSEE group was significantly lower, compared to the high-fat group. These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of NSEE on adipogenesis. In addition, NSEE had a beneficial effect, reducing adipose tissue weights, ameliorating blood lipid profile, and modulating serum leptin level in rats fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, we suggest that lotus seed has a potential to be developed as an effective agent against obesity-related diseases. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm.

  20. Ligand Binding at the α4-α4 Agonist-Binding Site of the α4β2 nAChR Triggers Receptor Activation through a Pre-Activated Conformational State

    PubMed Central

    Indurthi, Dinesh C.; Lewis, Trevor M.; Ahring, Philip K.; Balle, Thomas; Chebib, Mary; Absalom, Nathan L.

    2016-01-01

    The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant subtype in the brain and exists in two functional stoichiometries: (α4)3(β2)2 and (α4)2(β2)3. A distinct feature of the (α4)3(β2)2 receptor is the biphasic activation response to the endogenous agonist acetylcholine, where it is activated with high potency and low efficacy when two α4-β2 binding sites are occupied and with low potency/high efficacy when a third α4-α4 binding site is occupied. Further, exogenous ligands can bind to the third α4-α4 binding site and potentiate the activation of the receptor by ACh that is bound at the two α4-β2 sites. We propose that perturbations of the recently described pre-activation step when a third binding site is occupied are a key driver of these distinct activation properties. To investigate this, we used a combination of simple linear kinetic models and voltage clamp electrophysiology to determine whether transitions into the pre-activated state were increased when three binding sites were occupied. We separated the binding at the two different sites with ligands selective for the α4-β2 site (Sazetidine-A and TC-2559) and the α4-α4 site (NS9283) and identified that when a third binding site was occupied, changes in the concentration-response curves were best explained by an increase in transitions into a pre-activated state. We propose that perturbations of transitions into a pre-activated state are essential to explain the activation properties of the (α4)3(β2)2 receptor by acetylcholine and other ligands. Considering the widespread clinical use of benzodiazepines, this discovery of a conserved mechanism that benzodiazepines and ACh potentiate receptor activation via a third binding site can be exploited to develop therapeutics with similar properties at other cys-loop receptors. PMID:27552221

  1. Comparative study of non-high density lipoproteins cholesterol level and lipid profile in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Firoz, C K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Khan, Mohammad S; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-04-01

    The present study compares the role and significance of non-high density lipoproteins (non-HDL) cholesterol level in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients. This study also compares non-HDL cholesterol level between males and females and with different age groups as well. An observational study was conducted among 3830 randomly selected individuals to envisage the association of non-HDL cholesterol and other lipid parameters with age, gender, and diabetic status. On the basis of health status, the subjects were classified as diabetic, pre-diabetic and normal. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed on Roche p-800 modular system. Total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and fasting triglycerides were also measured. From the above mentioned parameters, the level of non-HDL cholesterol level was also calculated. Significant association was observed with non-HDL cholesterol level and all other studied lipid parameters (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides) compared with age and gender of the subjects studied. Moreover, the calculated non-HDL level, total cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly co-related with diabetic status of the patients involved in the study. However, HDL and LDL values did not show any significant association with diabetic status of the patients. In this study, we found that age and gender of the studied subjects are associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Moreover, our data clearly indicates the positive association of non-HDL cholesterol level with pre-diabetic and diabetic status of the patients. Based on our study, we recommend estimation of non-HDL level in routine clinical practice to differentiate pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

  2. Cognitive-behavioural physical activity treatment in African-American pre-schoolers: effects of age, sex, and BMI.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Tennant, Gisèle

    2013-02-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children of 5 years and younger has greatly increased in countries including Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA, with African-Americans most affected in the USA. Low amounts of physical activity may be a primary cause. Interventions intended to increase physical activity during pre-school have had minimal effects. A physical activity intervention derived from self-efficacy and social cognitive theory administered by pre-school teachers in the USA (Start For Life) was contrasted with typical care over 8 weeks. The 30-min-per-day treatment incorporated structured gross motor skill physical activities and training in self-management and self-regulation skills. The African-American children in the treatment (n = 154, 21 classrooms) and control (n = 121, 11 classrooms) groups ranged in age from 3.5 to 5.6 years. Mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variances indicated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in the treatment group when both the children and classrooms were the unit of analysis. Time in sedentary activities was not affected. Together, age, sex and body mass index (BMI) percentile significantly predicted treatment-related changes in MVPA (R(2) = 0.11) and VPA (R(2) = 0.11), with age (β = -0.22 and β = -0.23, respectively) and BMI percentile (β = -0.24 and β = -0.23, respectively) contributing uniquely to the explained variances indicating greater treatment effects for participants who were younger and had a lower BMI percentile. The Start For Life treatment was associated with increased MVPA by approximately 1 h per week, with most of that change being in VPA. After sufficient replication, adjustments may be made to maximise treatment effects. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Putative relationship between hormonal status and serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in pre- and post- menopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrera-González, María del Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Dueñas, Basilio; Martínez-Ferrol, Julia; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In breast cancer, hormonal changes are rather constant in post-menopausal women since they tend to vary only over long time spans. However, in pre-menopausal women, the development of breast cancer is associated with hormonal physiological variations. The aim of the present work was to analyse the changes in circulating levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in pre- and post-menopausal women that were healthy or with breast cancer, and their connection to serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase (Pcp) activity. We observed significant changes in the hormonal profile in post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to the control group. In pre-menopausal women, we found significant changes in circulating GnRH levels with respect to the healthy group. Our present results support the existence of neuroendocrine misregulation that could be involved in tumour progression, with Pcp being a potentially new pharmacological target in breast cancer treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant ‘Cdc6-E224Q’ promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05795.001 PMID:26305410

  5. Project ExPreSS: Social studies and science remediation program for the Georgia High School Graduation Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearouse, Randy

    Over half of the states now require students to pass a high stakes exit exam before being allowed to graduate from high school. No Child Left Behind requires that standardized testing be included to determine whether or not a school makes Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). The purpose of this study is to examine the results of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) of students who participated in the remedial program Project ExPreSS with those students who did not participate. Using a quantitative research design, the question that will be answered is whether Project ExPreSS makes a difference in passing the GHSGT in science and social studies among three groups: all Georgia students, African American students in one Georgia school system, and all students in one Georgia school system. A chi-square test was conducted and a determination was made that there is a statistically significant relationship between project participation and pass-fail status in all but one area. The majority of students in this study were 17--18 years of age and were taking the science or social studies section of the GHSGT for the second time. The findings of this study will be important not only for Georgia and the school system examined, but also for other states and systems that give High Stakes Exit Exams (HSEEs). The results indicate that highly focused remedial programs like Project ExPreSS make a difference for students who may not be successful on their first attempt at passing a HSEE.

  6. Influence of pre-hydration and pharmacogenetics on plasma methotrexate concentration and renal dysfunction following high-dose methotrexate therapy.

    PubMed

    Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Goto, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Naruto, Takuya; Sasaki, Koji; Takeuchi, Masanobu; Tanoshima, Reo; Kato, Hiromi; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hisaki; Tanaka, Fumiko; Goto, Shoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Kai, Sumio; Yokota, Shumpei

    2013-12-01

    High-dose methotrexate therapy (HD-MTX) has been well established for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this study were to investigate whether clinical and pharmacogenetic factors influence plasma MTX concentration and renal dysfunction in patients treated with HD-MTX. In a total of 127 courses of HD-MTX in 51 patients with childhood ALL, influence of clinical and pharmacogenetic factors on plasma MTX concentration and HD-MTX-related renal dysfunction was evaluated. Clinical factors included age, gender, duration of HD-MTX continuous-infusion and duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX. Pharmacogenetic factors included 5 gene polymorphisms within the MTX pathway genes, namely, SLC19A1, MTHFR, ABCC2 and ABCG2. Short duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX is the most important risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p < 0.001, OR 6.40, 95 % CI 2.39-17.16) and renal dysfunction (p = 0.013, OR 3.15, 95 % CI 1.27-7.80). The T allele at MTHFR C677T was the risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p = 0.009, OR 5.54, 95 % CI 1.54-19.85), but not for renal dysfunction. We found the influence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on prolonged high MTX concentration. We reconfirmed the importance of adequate pre-hydration before HD-MTX to prevent prolonged high MTX concentration and MTX-related renal dysfunction.

  7. Facilitation and inhibition in attention: Functional dissociation of pre-stimulus alpha activity, P1, and N1 components.

    PubMed

    Slagter, H A; Prinssen, S; Reteig, L C; Mazaheri, A

    2016-01-15

    Attention--the ability to attend to some things while ignoring others - can be best described as an emergent property of many neural mechanisms, facilitatory and inhibitory, working together to resolve competition for processing resources and control of behavior. Previous EEG and MEG studies examining the neural mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition of stimulus processing typically used paradigms requiring alternating shifts of attention in the spatial domain, with stimuli occurring at both attended and unattended locations. These studies generally observed greater pre-stimulus alpha oscillations over task-irrelevant vs. relevant posterior regions and bilateral attentional modulations of early sensory processing. In contrast, in the current series of experiments, participants continuously attended to only one hemifield and stimuli were only presented at the attended location, affording us an opportunity to elucidate the inhibitory and facilitatory effects of attention in the brain in a context in which spatial relevance was fixed. We found that continuous attention to one hemifield did not modulate prestimulus alpha activity in ipsilateral regions but did result in a perfectly lateralized P1 attention effect to ipsilateral posterior regions. Moreover, we found a bilateral N1 effect. These findings suggest that pre-stimulus alpha activity, the P1 and the N1 reflect qualitatively different aspects of attention; While pre-stimulus alpha-band activity may reflect a top-down inhibitory mechanism that critically depends on functional competition between task-relevant and irrelevant sensory regions, the ipsilateral P1 effect may reflect stimulus-triggered blocking of sensory processing in irrelevant networks, and the N1 effect facilitation of task-relevant processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  9. Peroneal tendon pathology: Pre- and post-operative high resolution US and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Alian, Ali; Ahlawat, Shivani; Wukich, Dane K; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-07-01

    Peroneal tendon pathology is an important cause of lateral ankle pain and instability. Typical peroneal tendon disorders include tendinitis, tenosynovitis, partial and full thickness tendon tears, peroneal retinacular injuries, and tendon subluxations and dislocations. Surgery is usually indicated when conservative treatment fails. Familiarity with the peroneal tendon surgeries and expected postoperative imaging findings is essential for accurate assessment and to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Cross-sectional imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI provide accurate pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of the peroneal tendon pathology. In this review article, the normal anatomy, clinical presentation, imaging features, pitfalls and commonly performed surgical treatments for peroneal tendon abnormalities will be reviewed. The role of dynamic ultrasound and kinematic MRI for the evaluation of peroneal tendons will be discussed. Normal and abnormal postsurgical imaging appearances will be illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving the Performance of Electrically Activated NiTi Shape Memory Actuators by Pre-Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmann1, Christian; Fleczok1, Benjamin; Otibar1, Dennis; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloys possess an array of unique functional properties which are influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Due to thermal sensitivity, slight changes in temperature may cause the properties to change significantly. This poses a huge challenge especially for the use of shape memory alloys as actuators. The displacement is the key performance indicator, which has to be of equal or better quality compared to conventional actuators. One problem of shape memory alloys is the change in functional fatigue in the first cycles, which makes it rather difficult to design the actuator. Therefore, the reduction of this shakedown effect is crucial. For this reason, this paper investigates the effect of electrical heat treatment as a method for pre-aging. This topic has so far been little investigated so that the investigations focus on identifying important factors and effects by using the design of experiments.

  11. The effect of science demonstrations as a community service activity on pre-service science teachers' teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci

    2016-03-01

    In the scope of this study, pre-service science teachers (PSST) developed and carried out science demonstrations with everyday materials for elementary school students as a community service activity. 17 PSST enrolled in the community services practices course at Kocaeli University comprised the sample of the present study. Community service practices aim to develop consciousness of social responsibility and professional skills, as well as to gain awareness of social and community problems and find solutions for pre-service teachers. With this aim, each PSST developed five science demonstration activities and their brochures during a semester. At the end of the semester, a total of 85 demonstrations were carried out at public elementary schools, which are especially located in socioeconomically poor districts of Kocaeli, Turkey. In the present case study, the effect of developing and carrying out science demonstrations for elementary school students on six of the PSST' teaching practices on density and buoyancy concept was investigated. 30-minute interviews conducted with each PSST, videos recorded during their demonstration performances, brochures they prepared for their demonstration activities, and reflection papers were used as data collection tools of the study. The results showed that community service practices with science demonstrations had positive effects on PSST' science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.

  12. Pre-adsorption of protein on electrochemically grooved nanostructured stainless steel implant and relationship to cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Nune, K C; Misra, R D K

    2014-07-01

    The successful integration of a biomedical device is governed by the surface properties of the material and also depends on the interaction with the physiological fluid involving adsorption of proteins on the surface. Pre-adsorbed proteins act as pilots for cell adhesion and subsequently govern cellular activity. In this regard, nanograined materials are excellent vehicles to obtain an unambiguous understanding of protein adsorption, which regulate cell adhesion and cellular activity. Toward this end, we have used the concept of phase reversion-induced nanograined structure to understand grain structure-induced self-assembly of a model protein, bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, in the context of bio-mechanical interlocking between implant and bone, and osseointegration of the implant, grain boundaries were electrochemically grooved and studied for osteoblast functions. Experiments indicated that the significant differences in cell attachment, proliferation, and expression level of prominent proteins (actin, vinculin, and fibronectin) is related to synergistic effects of grain structure, pre-adsorbed protein, and grooving of grain boundaries such that the osteoblasts functions and cellular activity is promoted on the nanostructured surface in relation to the coarse-grained counterpart.

  13. High pre-diagnosis attrition among patients with presumptive MDR-TB: an operational research from Bhopal district, India.

    PubMed

    Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Kokane, Arun M; Singh, Akash Ranjan; Verma, Manoj; Parmar, Malik; Chauhan, Ashish; Chahar, Sanjay Singh; Tiwari, Manoj; Khan, Sheeba Naz; Gupta, Vivek; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Nagar, Mukesh; Singh, Sanjai Kumar; Mehra, Pradeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajay Mv

    2017-04-04

    Pre-diagnosis attrition needs to be addressed urgently if we are to make progress in improving MDR-TB case detection and achieve universal access to MDR-TB care. We report the pre-diagnosis attrition, along with factors associated, and turnaround times related to the diagnostic pathway among patient with presumptive MDR-TB in Bhopal district, central India (2014). Study was conducted under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting. It was a retrospective cohort study involving record review of all registered TB cases in Bhopal district that met the presumptive MDR-TB criteria (eligible for DST) in 2014. In quarter 1, Line Probe Assay (LPA) was used if sample was smear/culture positive. Quarter 2 onwards, LPA and Cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CbNAAT) was used for smear positive and smear negative samples respectively. Pre-diagnosis attrition was defined as failure to undergo DST among patients with presumptive MDR-TB (as defined by the programme). Of 770 patients eligible for DST, 311 underwent DST and 20 patients were diagnosed as having MDR-TB. Pre-diagnosis attrition was 60% (459/770). Among those with pre-diagnosis attrition, 91% (417/459) were not identified as 'presumptive MDR-TB' by the programme. TAT [median (IQR)] to undergo DST after eligibility was 4 (0, 10) days. Attrition was more than 40% across all subgroups. Age more than 64 years; those from a medical college; those eligible in quarter 1; patients with presumptive criteria 'previously treated - recurrent TB', 'treatment after loss-to-follow-up' and 'previously treated-others'; and patients with extra-pulmonary TB were independent risk factors for not undergoing DST. High pre-diagnosis attrition was contributed by failure to identify and refer patients. Attrition reduced modestly with time and one factor that might have contributed to this was introduction of CbNAAT in quarter 2 of 2014. General health system strengthening which includes improvement in

  14. Effect of active pre-shortening on isometric and isotonic performance of single frog muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Granzier, H L; Pollack, G H

    1989-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of shortening history on isometric force and isotonic velocity in single intact frog fibres. Fibres were isometrically tetanized. When force reached a plateau, shortening was imposed, after which the fibre was held isometric again. Isometric force after shortening could then be compared with controls in which no shortening had taken place. 2. Sarcomere length was measured simultaneously with two independent methods: a laser-diffraction method and a segment-length method that detects the distance between two markers attached to the surface of the fibre, about 800 microns apart. 3. The fibre was mounted between two servomotors. One was used to impose the load clamp while the other cancelled the translation that occurred during this load clamp. Thus, translation of the segment under investigation could be minimized. 4. Initial experiments were performed at the fibre level. We found that active preshortening reduced isometric force considerably, thereby confirming earlier work of others. Force reductions as large as 70% were observed. 5. Under conditions in which there were large effects of shortening at the fibre level, we measured sarcomere length changes in the central region of the fibre. These sarcomeres shortened much less than the fibre's average. In fact, when the load was high, these sarcomeres lengthened while the fibre as a whole shortened. Thus, while the fibre-length signal implied that sarcomeres might have shortened to some intermediate length, in reality some sarcomeres were much longer, others much shorter. 6. Experiments performed at the sarcomere level revealed that isometric force was unaffected by previous sarcomere shortening provided the shortening occurred against either a low load or over a short distance. However, if the work done during shortening was high, force after previous shortening was less than if sarcomeres had remained at the final length throughout contraction. The correlation between the force deficit and

  15. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  16. Psychological factors are important to return to pre-injury sport activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: expect and motivate to satisfy.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna; Ardern, Clare; Österberg, Annika; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2017-05-01

    To describe individuals' expectations, motivation, and satisfaction before, during, and after rehabilitation for ACL reconstruction and to explore how these factors were associated with return to pre-injury sport activity at 1-year follow-up. Sixty-five individuals (34 males), median age 22 (15-45) years, scheduled for ACL reconstruction participated. Participants completed the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF) and questions about expectations, satisfaction, and motivation pre-operatively and at 16 and 52 weeks after surgery. Prior to surgery, 86 % of participants stated that their goal was to return to their pre-injury sport activity. Those who had returned to their pre-injury sport activity at 52 weeks were more motivated during rehabilitation to return to their pre-injury activity level, more satisfied with their activity level and knee function at 52 weeks, and scored significantly higher on the IKDC-SKF [median 92.0 (range 66.7-100.0)] at 52 weeks, compared to those who had not returned [median 77.6 (range 50.6-97.7)]. Prior to ACL reconstruction, most participants expected to return to their pre-injury activity level. Higher motivation during rehabilitation was associated with returning to the pre-injury sport activity. The participants who had returned to their pre-injury sport activity were more satisfied with their activity level and knee function 1 year after the ACL reconstruction. Facilitating motivation might be important to support individuals in achieving their participation goals after ACL reconstruction. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  17. Polyenylcyclopropane carboxylic esters with high insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Claudia; Bassetti, Lucio; Borzatta, Valerio; Capparella, Elisa; Gobbi, Carlotta; Guerrini, Alberto; Varchi, Greta

    2015-05-01

    Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of naturally occurring pyrethrum. These molecules are widely used in agriculture for ant, fly and mosquito control and for lawn and garden care. Pyrethroids are the optically active esters of 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid, also known as chrysanthemic acid. However, their intense use has resulted in the development of resistance in many insect species. Herein, specific structural modifications of the pyrethroid scaffold and their effect on insecticidal activity, especially on resistant pests strains, are reported. The exposure to (1R)-trans-(E/Z)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl-3-(buta-1,3-dienyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate and its diastereomers produced 100% mortality in yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), house mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) and houseflies (Musca domestica). Moreover, this compound provided complete knockdown within 15 min of exposure against cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and maintained an excellent knockdown activity at 10 days after treatment. Novel pyrethroid derivatives obtained from 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid are described. These derivatives display high insecticidal activity, a wide spectrum of action and no toxicity towards mammalians. The proposed synthetic procedures are highly efficient and inexpensive, and therefore suitable for industrial scale-up. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Mechanisms of behavioral activation for late adolescents: Positive reinforcement mediate the relationship between activation and depressive symptoms from pre-treatment to post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Takagaki, Koki; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Jinnin, Ran; Mori, Asako; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Takanao; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Shiota, Syouichi; Okamoto, Yuri; Miyake, Yoshie; Ogata, Akiko; Shimoda, Haruki; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-11-01

    It is suggested that there is some support for notion that frequency of activity can lead to improved mood in behavioral activation, but this research is relatively imprecise. We investigated whether positive reinforcement mediates the relationship between activation and alleviation of depressive symptoms Late adolescents with sub-threshold depressive symptoms participated in the study. We conducted an intervention using behavioral activation with the participants. Then, pre-and post-treatment results of behavioral activation were compared. We used mediation analysis using the bootstrapping method to examine whether changes in reinforcement mediated the relationship between changes in activation and improvements in depressive symptoms. Participants improved significantly at the post-intervention assessment, compared to the baseline assessment. Results of mediation analysis indicated that reinforcement significantly mediated the relationship between activation and depressive symptoms, whereas activation alone had no a direct effect on depressive symptoms. Further studies with more diverse samples of participants are required in order to generalize the results of this study to more diverse populations. The study provides the first full mediational test of behavioral activation model including both measures of activation and positive reinforcement, and we found support for behavioral activation's presumed mechanism of action that contact with positive reinforcement mediates the relation between activity and depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-like receptor pre-stimulation protects mice against lethal infection with highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Kyoko; Okamura, Tadashi; Sueta, Setsuko; Kasai, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Motoko; Ginting, Teridah E; Makino, Akiko; Eisfeld, Amie J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-03-04

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, humans have experienced four influenza pandemics, including the devastating 1918 'Spanish influenza'. Moreover, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are currently spreading worldwide, although they are not yet efficiently transmitted among humans. While the threat of a global pandemic involving a highly pathogenic influenza virus strain looms large, our mechanisms to address such a catastrophe remain limited. Here, we show that pre-stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 increased resistance against influenza viruses known to induce high pathogenicity in animal models. Our data emphasize the complexity of the host response against different influenza viruses, and suggest that TLR agonists might be utilized to protect against lethality associated with highly pathogenic influenza virus infection in humans.

  20. Report: Review of Hotline Complaint on EPA’s Pre-Award Activities for Multiple Award Contracts at the National Computer Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #13-P-0220, April 15, 2013. We found no evidence to support allegations made in the complaint. However, we determined that the EPA could improve communications with vendors during pre-award activities.

  1. Revised Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the revised version of the Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule.

  2. Using Problem-Based Pre-Class Activities to Prepare Students for In-Class Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayont, Feryal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a problem-based approach that prepares students for future learning in the classroom. In this approach, students complete problem-based activities before coming to class to familiarize themselves with the topics to be covered. After the discussion on how the use of these activities relate to the learning and transfer…

  3. Science Activities Pre-K-3: The Leaves are Falling in Rainbows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michael; Graham, Terry

    Opportunities to learn and discover surround a young child every day. The activities and ideas within this book have been formulated to encourage a child's natural curiosity and sense of wonder and to engage all the child's senses in learning and discovery. The activities focus on the child as a natural explorer and involve children in identifying…

  4. Pre-encoding gamma-band activity during auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jochen; Rieder, Maria; Abel, Cornelius; Peters, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding. MEG spectral activity was analyzed with cluster randomization tests (N = 15). Whereas there were no differences in frequencies below 40 Hz, gamma-band spectral amplitude (about 50–65 and 90–100 Hz) was higher for the lateralization than the pitch task. This activity was localized at right posterior and central sensors and present for several hundred ms after task cue offset. Activity at 50–65 Hz was also increased throughout the delay phase for the lateralization compared with the pitch task. Apparently cortical networks related to auditory spatial processing were activated after participants had been informed about the task. PMID:28198413

  5. Affordances in Outdoor Environments and Children's Physically Active Play in Pre-School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storli, Rune; Hagen, Trond Loge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively and qualitatively explore children's physically active play outdoors in a traditional playground and natural (nature) environment and discuss how these environments influence children's physical activity. Fjortoft has previously explored the relationship between environmental affordances and…

  6. A feasibility study of wearable activity monitors for pre-adolescent school-age children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding physical activity is the key to fighting childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certian wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 yearsto assess acceptabi...

  7. A feasibility study of wearable activity monitors for pre-adolescent school-aged children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess ac...

  8. Pre-encoding gamma-band activity during auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jochen; Rieder, Maria; Abel, Cornelius; Peters, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2017-02-15

    Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding. MEG spectral activity was analyzed with cluster randomization tests (N = 15). Whereas there were no differences in frequencies below 40 Hz, gamma-band spectral amplitude (about 50-65 and 90-100 Hz) was higher for the lateralization than the pitch task. This activity was localized at right posterior and central sensors and present for several hundred ms after task cue offset. Activity at 50-65 Hz was also increased throughout the delay phase for the lateralization compared with the pitch task. Apparently cortical networks related to auditory spatial processing were activated after participants had been informed about the task.

  9. A Qualitative Research on Active Learning Practices in Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Kanak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    In educational environments prepared based on the active learning method, children learn with interest and pleasure, doing and experiencing, and directly through their own experiences. Considering the contributions of the active learning method and the educational environments designed based on it to children's development, it can be said that…

  10. Mammographic parenchymal texture as an imaging marker of hormonal activity: a comparative study between pre- and post-menopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daye, Dania; Bobo, Ezra; Baumann, Bethany; Ioannou, Antonios; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture patterns have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk. Yet, little is known about the biological basis underlying this association. Here, we investigate the potential of mammographic parenchymal texture patterns as an inherent phenotypic imaging marker of endogenous hormonal exposure of the breast tissue. Digital mammographic (DM) images in the cranio-caudal (CC) view of the unaffected breast from 138 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Menopause status was used as a surrogate marker of endogenous hormonal activity. Retroareolar 2.5cm2 ROIs were segmented from the post-processed DM images using an automated algorithm. Parenchymal texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, grey-level spatial correlation, and fractal dimension were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance in distinguishing between 72 pre- and 66 post-menopausal women. Logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of each texture feature in predicting menopause status. ROC analysis showed that texture features have inherent capacity to distinguish between pre- and post-menopausal statuses (AUC>0.5, p<0.05). Logistic regression including all texture features yielded an ROC curve with an AUC of 0.76. Addition of age at menarche, ethnicity, contraception use and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) use lead to a modest model improvement (AUC=0.78) while texture features maintained significant contribution (p<0.05). The observed differences in parenchymal texture features between pre- and post- menopausal women suggest that mammographic texture can potentially serve as a surrogate imaging marker of endogenous hormonal activity.

  11. Objective Assessment of Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Pre-through 3-Years Post- Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Bond, Dale S; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Patterson, Emma J; Mitchell, James E; Inabnet, William B; Dakin, George F; Flum, David R; Cook, Brian; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate change in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) over three years following bariatric surgery. Methods A subset of participants in an observational study (n=473 of 2458; 79% female, median body mass index 45kg/m2) wore an activity monitor pre-surgery and at 1–3 annual post-surgery assessments. Results Over the first year, on average, sedentary time decreased from 573 (95%CI 563–582) to 545 (95%CI 534–555) min/d and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) increased from 77 (95%CI: 71–84) to 106 (95%CI: 98–116) min/wk, or 7 (95%CI: 5–10) to 24 (95%CI: 18–29) min/wk in MVPA bouts ≥10 minutes. There were no changes in these parameters from years 1 to 3 (P for all>.05). The percentage of participants achieving ≥150 min/wk of bout-related MVPA was not different at year 3 [6.5% (95%CI: 3.1–12.7)] vs. pre-surgery [3.4% (95%CI: 1.8–5.0); p=.45]. Most participants followed SB and PA trajectories that paralleled mean change and were consistent with their pre-surgery position in relation to the group. Conclusions On average, bariatric surgical patients make small reductions in SB and increases in PA during the first post-surgery year, which are maintained through 3 years. Still, post-surgery PA levels fall short of PA guidelines for general health or weight control. PMID:26010326

  12. Obesity and use of compensatory strategies to perform common daily activities in pre-clinically disabled older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Higgins, Torrance J; Manini, Todd M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the use of compensatory strategies to successfully complete common daily activities-an indicator of pre-clinical disability-and body mass in pre-clinically disabled older adults. Cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred and fifty-nine pre-clinically disabled older adults defined as having changed the frequency or manner of performing daily tasks without reporting any difficulty. The use of compensatory strategies were objectively evaluated using the Modification (MOD) scale-a reliable and valid scale for assessing the manner in which common daily activities were completed. Height and weight were measured to classify participants into the following body mass index (BMI) categories: (1) normal: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), (2) overweight: 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), (3) obese class I: 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2), and (4) obese class II: 35.0-39.9 kg/m(2). Compared to other BMI categories, individuals with class II obesity demonstrated a significantly higher probability of using ≥1 compensatory strategies when rising from a chair (30 cm height), kneel to stand, stair ascent, stair descent, and supine to stand tasks. When summarized over all tasks, individuals with class II obesity were 18 times more likely to use extensive compensatory strategies (≥6 on MOD scale) compared to normal weight older adults. Similar trends at a lesser magnitude were found in obese and overweight compared to normal weight older adults. Obesity is associated with extensive use of compensatory strategies when performing common daily tasks prior to the onset of perceived difficulty, thus placing them at higher risk of disability compared to their peers with lower body mass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-stack full waveform inversion of ultra-high-frequency marine seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzano, Giuseppe; Vardy, Mark E.; Henstock, Timothy J.

    2017-06-01

    The full waveform inversion (FWI) of seismic reflection data aims to reconstruct a detailed physical properties model of the subsurface, fitting both the amplitude and the traveltime of the reflections generated at physical discontinuities in the propagation medium. Unlike reservoir-scale seismic exploration, where seismic inversion is a widely adopted remote characterization tool, ultrahigh-frequency (UHF, 0.2-4.0 kHz) multichannel marine reflection seismology is still most often limited to a qualitative interpretation of the reflections' architecture. Here we propose an elastic FWI methodology, custom-tailored for pre-stack UHF marine data in vertically heterogeneous media to obtain a decimetric-scale distribution of P-impedance, density and Poisson's ratio within the shallow subseabed sediments. We address the deterministic multiparameter inversion in a sequential fashion. The complex trace instantaneous phase is first inverted for the P-wave velocity to make up for the lack of low frequency in the data and reduce the nonlinearity of the problem. This is followed by a short-offset P-impedance optimization and a further step of full offset range Poisson's ratio inversion. Provided that the seismogram contains wide reflection angles (>40°), we show that it is possible to invert for density and decompose a posteriori the relative contribution of P-wave velocity and density to the P-impedance. A broad range of synthetic tests is used to prove the potential of the methodology and highlights sensitivity issues specific to UHF seismic. An example application to real data is also presented. In the real case, trace normalization is applied to minimize the systematic error deriving from an inaccurate source wavelet estimation. The inverted model for the top 15 m of the subseabed agrees with the local lithological information and core-log data. Thus, we can obtain a detailed remote characterization of the shallow sediments using a multichannel sub-bottom profiler within a

  14. P element temperature-specific transposition: a model for possible regulation of mobile elements activity by pre-mRNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Gultyaev, A; Redchuk, T; Korolova, A; Kozeretska, I

    2014-01-01

    P element is a DNA transposon, known to spread in genome using transposase activity. Its activity is tissue-specific and normally observed at high temperatures within 24 degrees C to 29 degrees C. Here, we present a predicted RNA secondary structure domain of P element pre-mRNA which could potentially regulate the temperature sensitivity of the P element activity. In canonical P elements, the structure is a small hairpin with double-helical part interrupted by a symmetric loop and a mismatch. In M type P elements, the A.A mismatch is substituted by an A-U base pair, stabilizing the structure. The hairpin structure covers the region involving the IVS-3 5' splice site and both pseudo-splice sites F1 and F2. While the IVS-3 and F1 binding sites of U1 snRNA are located in the double-stranded part of the structure, the F2 site is exposed in the hairpin loop. The formation of this structure may interfere with landing of U1 snRNA on IVS-3 site, while F2 is positioned for the interaction. Alignment of P element sequences supports the proposed existence of the hairpin, showing high similarity for this region. The hairpin structure, stable at low temperatures, may prevent correct IVS-3 splicing. Conversely, temperature-induced destabilization of the hairpin structure may result in the splicing at the proper IVS-3 splice site. Taking into account the increasing amount of data demonstrating the important influence of RNA folding on phenotypes determined by alternative splicing a model for possible regulation of the activity of mobile elements by pre-mRNA secondary structure seems intriguing.

  15. Lipases That Activate at High Solvent Polarities.

    PubMed

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Svendsen, Allan; Bjerrum, Morten J

    2016-01-12

    Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL) and related lipases become activated in low-polarity environments that exist at the water-lipid interface where a structural change of the "lid" region occurs. In this work, we have investigated the activation of TlL (Lipase_W89) and certain lid mutants, containing either a single positive charge mutation, E87K (Lipase_K87_W89), within the lid region or a lid residue composition of both lipase and esterase character (Hybrid_W89) as a function of solvent polarity. Activation differences between the variants and TlL were studied by a combination of biophysical and theoretical methods. To investigate the structural changes taking place in the lid region upon lipase activation, we used a fluorescence-based method measuring the efficiency of Trp89 in the lid to quench the fluorescence of a bimane molecule attached in front (C255) and behind (C61) the lid. These structural changes were compared to the enzymatic activity of each variant at the water-substrate interface and to theoretical calculations of the energies associated with lid opening as a function of the dielectric constant (ε) of the environment. Our results show that the lid in Lipase_K87_W89 undergoes a pronounced structural transition toward an open conformation around ε = 50, whereas only small changes are detected for Lipase_W89 ascribed to the stabilizing effect of the positive charge mutation on the open lid conformation. Interestingly, Hybrid_W89, with the same charge as Lipase_W89, shows a stabilization of the open lid even more pronounced at high solvent polarities than that of Lipase_K87_W89, allowing activation at ε < 80. This is further indicated by measurement of the lipase activity for each variant showing that Hybrid_W89 is more quickly activated at the water-lipid interface of a true, natural substrate. Combined, we show that a correlation exists between structural changes and enzymatic activities detected on one hand and theoretical calculations on lid

  16. High rates of metal allergy amongst Nuss procedure patients dictate broader pre-operative testing.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhairav; Cohee, Amy; Deyerle, Ashley; Kelly, Cynthia S; Frantz, Frazier; Kelly, Robert E; Kuhn, Marcia A; Lombardo, Michele; Obermeyer, Robert; Goretsky, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A previous study from our group estimated that as few as 2.2% of pectus excavatum patients suffered from allergy to the implanted metal bar. We sought to assess recent changes in incidence of metal allergy and identify the benefit of metal allergy testing prior to surgery. A retrospective review was performed of all consenting patients undergoing pectus repair during the six years between 9/2004 and 12/2010 at our institution. Incidence was based on clinical symptoms and/or T.R.U.E.® patch testing. Demographic data, history of atopy and history of metal allergy were collected. Type and number of bars used, suture site infection, skin rash and wound infection rates were reviewed. Forty one of 639 patients (6.4%) had clinical or patch test evidence of metal allergy. Family history of metal allergy and pre-operative history of metal sensitivity were found to be statistically significant correlates. The rate of metal allergy in the pectus excavatum population may be higher than previously reported. Patient or family history of metal allergy or metal sensitization may indicate increased risk. Metal allergy testing should be performed before Nuss procedure. © 2014.

  17. Females, younger patients and patients with high BMI have the highest pre-operative knee awareness measured using the Forgotten Joint Score.

    PubMed

    Li, Dana; Troelsen, A; Ingelsrud, L; Husted, H; Gromov, K

    2017-02-16

    The Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) is a novel measurement for patients' awareness of their knee in daily life. By identifying factors that could explain pre-operative FJS levels, the clinician could better prioritize and single out patients who would benefit most from TKA. The aim of this study was to identify possible factors that may explain the variance of pre-operative FJS levels and evaluate the relationship between pre-operative FJS and pre-operative Oxford Knee Score (OKS). Four-hundred and six individual knees undergoing primary TKA between 2014 and 2016 were included in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), pre-operative FJS and pre-operative OKS were obtained maximum 2 weeks prior to surgery. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade, alignment and joint space width (JSW) were evaluated on pre-operative radiographs. Mean FJS was 21.1 ± 15.6. Females, younger patients and patients with high BMI had significantly the worst pre-operative FJS (p < 0.005). Females scored 6.5 FJS points lower than males. A 0.2-point increase in FJS for every added year indicated improvement in knee awareness with age. A 0.4-point decrease in FJS points for every added BMI point indicated worse knee awareness with higher BMI. There was a strong positive correlation between pre-operative FJS and pre-operative OKS according to the Spearman's rank order test (p < 0.005). Females, younger patients and patients with high BMI had significantly the worst pre-operative joint awareness. FJS had a strong positive correlation to OKS in pre-operative patients for primary TKA. This information can be used for improved patient selection; clinically continuous low FJS despite weight loss and/or the passing of time may be indication for TKA. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  18. Unraveling the association between genetic integrity and metabolic activity in pre-implantation stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Fiona; Pudakalakatti, Shivanand M.; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Honguntikar, Sachin; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Pasricha, Renu; Appajigowda, Divya; Atreya, Hanudatta S.; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Early development of certain mammalian embryos is protected by complex checkpoint systems to maintain the genomic integrity. Several metabolic pathways are modulated in response to genetic insults in mammalian cells. The present study investigated the relationship between the genetic integrity, embryo metabolites and developmental competence in preimplantation stage mouse embryos with the aim to identify early biomarkers which can predict embryonic genetic integrity using spent medium profiling by NMR spectroscopy. Embryos carrying induced DNA lesions (IDL) developed normally for the first 2.5 days, but began to exhibit a developmental delay at embryonic day 3.5(E3.5) though they were morphologically indistinguishable from control embryos. Analysis of metabolites in the spent medium on E3.5 revealed a significant association between pyruvate, lactate, glucose, proline, lysine, alanine, valine, isoleucine and thymine and the extent of genetic instability observed in the embryos on E4.5. Further analysis revealed an association of apoptosis and micronuclei frequency with P53 and Bax transcripts in IDL embryos on the E4.5 owing to delayed induction of chromosome instability. We conclude that estimation of metabolites on E3.5 in spent medium may serve as a biomarker to predict the genetic integrity in pre-implantation stage embryos which opens up new avenues to improve outcomes in clinical IVF programs. PMID:27853269

  19. Multiple pre-edge structures in Cu K -edge x-ray absorption spectra of high- Tc cuprates revealed by high-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gougoussis, C.; Rueff, J.-P.; Calandra, M.; D'Astuto, M.; Jarrige, I.; Ishii, H.; Shukla, A.; Yamada, I.; Azuma, M.; Takano, M.

    2010-06-01

    Using high-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy and state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations we demonstrate that the pre-edge region at the Cu K edge of high- Tc cuprates is composed of several excitations invisible in standard x-ray absorption spectra. We consider in detail the case of Ca2-xCuO2Cl2 and show that the many pre-edge excitations (two for c -axis polarization, four for in-plane polarization and out-of-plane incident x-ray momentum) are dominated by off-site transitions and intersite hybridization. This demonstrates the relevance of approaches beyond the single-site model for the description of the pre edges of correlated materials. Finally, we show the occurrence of a doubling of the main edge peak that is most visible when the polarization is along the c axis. This doubling, that has not been seen in any previous absorption data in cuprates, is not reproduced by first-principles calculations. We suggest that this peak is due to many-body charge-transfer excitations while all the other visible far-edge structures are single particle in origin. Our work indicates that previous interpretations of the Cu K -edge x-ray absorption spectra in high- Tc cuprates can be profitably reconsidered.

  20. Pre-hospital identification and post-recovery challenges of intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid containing legal high products such as 'Exodus Damnation'.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, David; O'Meara, Patrick; Cunningham, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    This short report describes the case of a young adult male who had smoked a synthetic cannabinoid legal high product called 'Exodus Damnation'. The patient's presentation was atypical from that described in the literature, with hypotension and hypoxaemia. Of note was the rapid recovery after pre-hospital intervention with high-flow oxygen therapy and intravenous fluids. The patient refused on-going care, despite repeated advice to attend the Emergency Department. The distinct lack of specialist support and referral to drug treatment for this patient population, with whom ambulance services are coming into contact with increasing frequency, is reported. For those patients with the capacity to refuse on-going care, ambulance services may be in an opportune position to actively promote referral to support services for these vulnerable individuals.

  1. FORMALDEHYDE AND METHANOL DEUTERATION IN PROTOSTARS: FOSSILS FROM A PAST FAST HIGH-DENSITY PRE-COLLAPSE PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Taquet, V.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.

    2012-03-20

    Extremely high deuteration of several molecules has been observed around low-mass protostars for a decade. Among them, formaldehyde and methanol present particularly high deuteration, with observations of abundant doubly and triply deuterated forms. Both species are thought to be mainly formed on interstellar grains during the low-temperature and dense pre-collapse phase by H and D atom additions on the iced CO. We present here a theoretical study of the formaldehyde and methanol deuteration obtained with our gas-grain model, GRAINOBLE. This model takes into account the multilayer nature of the mantle and explores the robustness of the results against the uncertainties of poorly constrained chemical and surface model parameters. The comparison of the model predictions with the observations leads to two major results: (1) the observed high deuteration is obtained during the last phase of the pre-collapse stage, when the density reaches {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, and this phase is fast, lasting only several thousands years; and (2) D and H abstraction and substitution reactions are crucial in making up the observed deuteration ratios. This work shows the power of chemical composition as a tool to reconstruct the past history of protostars.

  2. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orito, N.; Umekage, S.; Sato, K.; Kawauchi, S.; Tanaka, H.; Sakai, E.; Tanaka, T.; Kikuchi, Y.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be KD = 2.25×10-9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  3. The association of pre-operative physical fitness and physical activity with outcome after scheduled major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dronkers, J J; Chorus, A M J; van Meeteren, N L U; Hopman-Rock, M

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether reported physical activity and measurements of fitness (hand, leg and inspiration) were associated with postoperative in-hospital mortality, length of stay and discharge destination in 169 patients after major oncological abdominal surgery. In multivariate analysis, adequate activity level (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.4-21.9) and inspiratory muscle endurance (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.4-19.1) were independently associated with short-term mortality, whereas conventional factors, such as age and heart disease, were not. Adequate activity level (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.4-3.0) was also independently associated with discharge destination. The factors that were independently associated with a shorter length of hospital stay were as follows: absence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1); adequate activity level (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8); and inspiratory muscle strength (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). For all postoperative outcomes physical activity and fitness significantly improved the predictive value compared with known risk factors, such as age and comorbidities. We conclude that pre-operative questionnaires of physical activity and measurements of fitness contribute to the prediction of postoperative outcomes.

  4. Intensity and Timing in Life of Recreational Physical Activity in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk Among Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Regular recreational physical activity has been found to be associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk in women in the majority of epidemiologic studies, but research findings are inconsistent regarding the intensity of activity and timing in life. To address these issues the relations of moderate and vigorous intensity recreational physical activity during ages 14-20, 21-34, 35-50, and over age 50 years to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were examined. A case-control study of 858 women, with histological confirmation of invasive breast cancer, and 1085 controls, free of any cancer diagnosis, all subjects aged 28-79 years was conducted in the Region of Western Pomerania (Poland). Physical activity was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire with questions on type of activity, duration, frequency, and intensity for each type of activity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer associated with physical activity were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Vigorous physical activity at ages 14-20 and 21-34 years lowered breast cancer risk by at least 35% in premenopausal women and by at least 51% in postmenopausal women for the highest versus lowest quartiles of the activity. The risk was also reduced in postmenopausal women who reported on average more than 1.74 hours per week of vigorous intensity recreational activity in ages >50 years (OR = 0.58; 95%CI = 0.27-0.97; P for trend = 0.013). For moderate activity the relationships remained statistically significant only in postmenopausal women active during ages 14- 20 years. The results indicate also a plausible risk reduction among premeno-pausal women. These results support the hypothesis that recrea-tional activity, particularly done early in life, is associated with a decrease in the invasive breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, only vigorous forms of activity may significantly decrease the risk. Key points

  5. THE PRE-PERIHELION ACTIVITY OF DYNAMICALLY NEW COMET C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING) AND ITS CLOSE ENCOUNTER WITH MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewits, Dennis; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Li, Jian-Yang E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu

    2015-03-20

    We used the UltraViolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to systematically follow the dynamically new comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) on its approach to the Sun. The comet was observed from a heliocentric distance of 4.5 AU pre-perihelion to its perihelion at 1.4 AU. From our observations, we estimate that the water production rate during closest approach to Mars was 1.5 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup −1}, that peak gas delivery rates where between 4.5 and 8.8 kg s{sup −1}, and that in total between 3.1 and 5.4 × 10{sup 4} kg cometary gas was delivered to the planet. Seasonal and evolutionary effects on the nucleus govern the pre-perihelion activity of comet Siding Spring. The sudden increase of its water production between 2.46 and 2.06 AU suggests the onset of the sublimation of icy grains in the coma, likely driven by CO{sub 2}. As the comet got closer to the Sun, the relative contribution of the nucleus’ water production increased, while CO{sub 2} production rates decreased. The changes in the comet’s activity can be explained by a depletion of CO{sub 2}, but the comet’s high mass loss rate suggests they may reflect primordial heterogeneities in the nucleus.

  6. The Pre-perihelion Activity of Dynamically New Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and Its Close Encounter with Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Li, Jian-Yang; Farnham, Tony L.; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    2015-03-01

    We used the UltraViolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to systematically follow the dynamically new comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) on its approach to the Sun. The comet was observed from a heliocentric distance of 4.5 AU pre-perihelion to its perihelion at 1.4 AU. From our observations, we estimate that the water production rate during closest approach to Mars was 1.5 ± 0.3 × 1028 molecules s-1, that peak gas delivery rates where between 4.5 and 8.8 kg s-1, and that in total between 3.1 and 5.4 × 104 kg cometary gas was delivered to the planet. Seasonal and evolutionary effects on the nucleus govern the pre-perihelion activity of comet Siding Spring. The sudden increase of its water production between 2.46 and 2.06 AU suggests the onset of the sublimation of icy grains in the coma, likely driven by CO2. As the comet got closer to the Sun, the relative contribution of the nucleus’ water production increased, while CO2 production rates decreased. The changes in the comet’s activity can be explained by a depletion of CO2, but the comet’s high mass loss rate suggests they may reflect primordial heterogeneities in the nucleus.

  7. Heterosynaptic GABAergic plasticity bidirectionally driven by the activity of pre- and postsynaptic NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfi, Daniela; Vilella, Antonietta; Zoli, Michele; Bigiani, Albertino

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic changes of the strength of inhibitory synapses play a crucial role in processing neural information and in balancing network activity. Here, we report that the efficacy of GABAergic connections between Golgi cells and granule cells in the cerebellum is persistently altered by the activity of glutamatergic synapses. This form of plasticity is heterosynaptic and is expressed as an increase (long-term potentiation, LTPGABA) or a decrease (long-term depression, LTDGABA) of neurotransmitter release. LTPGABA is induced by postsynaptic NMDA receptor activation, leading to calcium increase and retrograde diffusion of nitric oxide, whereas LTDGABA depends on presynaptic NMDA receptor opening. The sign of plasticity is determined by the activation state of target granule and Golgi cells during the induction processes. By controlling the timing of spikes emitted by granule cells, this form of bidirectional plasticity provides a dynamic control of the granular layer encoding capacity. PMID:27531957

  8. Audio-Visual Stories: Pre-Reading Activities for Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Oran J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses learning needs specific to bilingual students that may interfere with their understanding of what they read. Describes several instructional activities in which audiovisual stories are used as prereading exercises to increase student comprehension of English text. (FL)

  9. Circulating miRNA as fine regulators of the physiological responses to physical activity: Pre-analytical warnings for a novel class of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by specifically binding the target mRNA and by consequently inducing its degradation. miRNAs can be released into the circulation where they remain stable and they can be measured. Their changes reflect individual biologic adaptation to exposures to specific environmental conditions. As such, measurement of circulating microRNAs represents an opportunity to evaluate biologic changes associated with interventions such as exercise and diet. Physical activity is, indeed, a very important modifying factor for circulating miRNAs. Toward their use in clinical settings several issues should be still solved. Their clinical application is hindered by the high heterogeneity of the analytical procedures used for their measurements. Furthermore, several pre-analytical concerns equally reduce the clinical applicability of miRNA. Pre-analytical phase in sports medicine is an important issue both because, often the conditions in which sampling are performed are peculiar (and not always canonical) and because some of the tested parameters, in the case of professional athletes, enters in routine anti-doping testing and, as such, they should be treated according to precise rules in order to avoid any false positive results. Aim of this review is to give an overview of the main available knowledges about the pre-analytical management of the sample for circulating miRNA evaluation along with the importance of miRNA as regulators of the response to physical activity and their possible future use in anti-doping settings. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low Sleeping Time, High TV Viewing Time, and Physical Inactivity in School Are Risk Factors for Obesity in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children.

    PubMed

    Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual

    2016-03-01

    Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.

  11. The health-related quality of life among pre-diabetics and its association with body mass index and physical activity in a semi-urban community in Malaysia- a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with pre-diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among pre-diabetics enable the health care providers to understand their overall health status and planning of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Therefore we aimed to determine the HRQOL and physical activity level; and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI) among pre-diabetics. Methods This was a cross sectional study carried out in two primary care clinics in a semi-urban locality of Ampangan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires assessing the demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle and physical activity. The Short Form 36-items health survey was used to measure HRQOL among the pre-diabetics. Data entry and analysis were performed using the SPSS version 19. Results A total of 268 eligible pre-diabetics participated in this study. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity were 7.1%, 21.6% and 71.3% respectively. Their mean (SD) age was 52.5 (8.3) years and 64.2% were females. Among the obese pre-diabetics, 42.2% had both IFG and IGT, 47.0% had isolated IFG and 10.8% had isolated IGT, 36.2% had combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia and musculoskeletal diseases. More than 53.4% of the obese pre-diabetics had family history of diabetes, 15.7% were smokers and 60.8% were physically inactive with mean PA of < 600 MET-minutes/week. After adjusted for co-variants, Physical Component Summary (PCS) was significantly associated with BMI categories [F (2,262) = 11.73, p < 0.001] where pre-diabetics with normal weight and overweight had significantly higher PCS than those obese; normal vs obese [Mdiff = 9.84, p = 0.006, 95% CIdiff = 2.28, 17.40] and between overweight vs obese [Mdiff = 8.14, p < 0.001, 95% CIdiff = 3.46, 12.80]. Conclusion Pre-diabetics who were of normal weight reported higher HRQOL compared to those

  12. The health-related quality of life among pre-diabetics and its association with body mass index and physical activity in a semi-urban community in Malaysia--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Norliza; Moy, Foong Ming; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Ali, Zainudin; Ismail, Ikram Shah

    2014-04-01

    People with pre-diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among pre-diabetics enable the health care providers to understand their overall health status and planning of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Therefore we aimed to determine the HRQOL and physical activity level; and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI) among pre-diabetics. This was a cross sectional study carried out in two primary care clinics in a semi-urban locality of Ampangan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires assessing the demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle and physical activity. The Short Form 36-items health survey was used to measure HRQOL among the pre-diabetics. Data entry and analysis were performed using the SPSS version 19. A total of 268 eligible pre-diabetics participated in this study. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity were 7.1%, 21.6% and 71.3% respectively. Their mean (SD) age was 52.5 (8.3) years and 64.2% were females. Among the obese pre-diabetics, 42.2% had both IFG and IGT, 47.0% had isolated IFG and 10.8% had isolated IGT, 36.2% had combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia and musculoskeletal diseases. More than 53.4% of the obese pre-diabetics had family history of diabetes, 15.7% were smokers and 60.8% were physically inactive with mean PA of <600 MET-minutes/week. After adjusted for co-variants, Physical Component Summary (PCS) was significantly associated with BMI categories [F (2,262)=11.73, p<0.001] where pre-diabetics with normal weight and overweight had significantly higher PCS than those obese; normal vs obese [Mdiff=9.84, p=0.006, 95% CIdiff=2.28, 17.40] and between overweight vs obese [Mdiff=8.14, p<0.001, 95% CIdiff=3.46, 12.80]. Pre-diabetics who were of normal weight reported higher HRQOL compared to those overweight and obese. These results suggest a

  13. Pre- and postsynaptic activation of M-channels by a novel opener dampens neuronal firing and transmitter release.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Asher; Sheinin, Anton; Yue, Cuiyong; Degani-Katzav, Nurit; Gibor, Gilad; Nachman, Rachel; Gopin, Anna; Tam, Eyal; Shabat, Doron; Yaari, Yoel; Attali, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The M-type K(+) current (M-current), encoded by Kv7.2/3 (KCNQ2/3) K(+) channels, plays a critical role in regulating neuronal excitability because it counteracts subthreshold depolarizations. Here we have characterized the functions of pre- and postsynaptic M-channels using a novel Kv7.2/3 channel opener, NH6, which we synthesized as a new derivative of N-phenylanthranilic acid. NH6 exhibits a good selectivity as it does not affect Kv7.1 and I(KS) K(+) currents as well as NR1/NR2B, AMPA, and GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents. Superfusion of NH6 increased recombinant Kv7.2/3 current amplitude (EC(50) = 18 muM) by causing a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage activation curve and by markedly slowing the deactivation kinetics. Activation of native M-currents by NH6 robustly reduced the number of evoked and spontaneous action potentials in cultured cortical, hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons. In hippocampal slices, NH6 decreased somatically evoked spike after depolarization of CA1 pyramidal neurons and induced regular firing in bursting neurons. Activation of M-channels by NH6, potently reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Activation of M-channels also decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory (mEPSC) and inhibitory (mIPSC) postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude and waveform, thus suggesting that M-channels presynaptically inhibit glutamate and GABA release. Our results suggest a role of presynaptic M-channels in the release of glutamate and GABA. They also indicate that M-channels act pre- and postsynaptically to dampen neuronal excitability.

  14. Etiology of distinct membrane excitability in pre- and posthearing auditory neurons relies on activity of Cl− channel TMEM16A

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lee, Jeong-Han; Lv, Ping; Chen, Wei Chun; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Wei, Dongguang; Wang, Wenying; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Doyle, Karen Jo; Rock, Jason R.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental rehearsal for the debut of hearing is marked by massive changes in the membrane properties of hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Whereas the underlying mechanisms for the developing HC transition to mature stage are understood in detail, the maturation of SGNs from hyperexcitable prehearing to quiescent posthearing neurons with broad dynamic range is unknown. Here, we demonstrated using pharmacological approaches, caged-Ca2+ photolysis, and gramicidin patch recordings that the prehearing SGN uses Ca2+-activated Cl− conductance to depolarize the resting membrane potential and to prime the neurons in a hyperexcitable state. Immunostaining of the cochlea preparation revealed the identity and expression of the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A) in SGNs. Moreover, null deletion of TMEM16A reduced the Ca2+-activated Cl− currents and action potential firing in SGNs. To determine whether Cl− ions and TMEM16A are involved in the transition between pre- and posthearing features of SGNs we measured the intracellular Cl− concentration [Cl−]i in SGNs. Surprisingly, [Cl−]i in SGNs from prehearing mice was ∼90 mM, which was significantly higher than posthearing neurons, ∼20 mM, demonstrating discernible altered roles of Cl− channels in the developing neuron. The switch in [Cl−]i stems from delayed expression of the development of intracellular Cl− regulating mechanisms. Because the Cl− channel is the only active ion-selective conductance with a reversal potential that lies within the dynamic range of SGN action potentials, developmental alteration of [Cl−]i, and hence the equilibrium potential for Cl− (ECl), transforms pre- to posthearing phenotype. PMID:25675481

  15. The prospective search for highly ionized technetium in hot (pre-) white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kučas, S.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of technetium (Tc) in the atmospheres of red giants by Merrill (1952, ApJ, 116, 21) constituted convincing proof that s-process nucleosynthesis is indeed occurring in evolved stars. In principle, Tc should still be present in the atmospheres of hot post-AGB stars and (pre-) white dwarfs although, due to radioactive decay, it should be present in decreasing quantities along post-AGB evolution. The recent discovery of a large number of trans-iron group elements in hot white dwarfs with atomic numbers in the range A = 30-56 (Zn to Ba) raises the prospect that Tc (A = 43) may also be detected. However, this is currently not feasible because no atomic data exist for ionization stages beyond Tc ii. As an initial step, we calculated atomic energy levels and oscillator strengths of Tc iv-vi and used these data to compute non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres to estimate at which minimum abundance level Tc could be detected. We show that Tc lines can be found in ultraviolet spectra of hot white dwarfs provided Tc is as abundant as other detected trans-Fe elements. We find that radiative levitation can keep Tc in large, easily detectable quantities in the atmosphere. A direct identification of Tc lines is still not feasible because wavelength positions cannot be computed with necessary precision. Laboratory measurements are necessary to overcome this problem. Our results suggest that such efforts are beneficial to the astrophysical community. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666.Tables 1-6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A29

  16. Cardiovascular events and hospital resource utilization pre- and post-transcatheter mitral valve repair in high-surgical risk patients.

    PubMed

    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Lippmann, Steven J; Krucoff, Mitchell; Hernandez, Adrian F; Curtis, Lesley H; Foster, Elyse; Qasim, Atif; Wang, Andrew; Glower, Donald D; Feldman, Ted; Hammill, Bradley G

    2017-07-01

    MitraClip is an approved therapy for mitral regurgitation (MR); however, health care resource utilization pre- and post-MitraClip remains understudied. Patients with functional and degenerative MR at high surgical risk in the EVEREST II High-Risk Registry and REALISM Continued-Access Study were linked to Medicare data. Pre- and post-MitraClip all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure (HF), and bleeding hospitalizations were identified. Inpatient costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars, were calculated, and event rate ratios and cost ratios were estimated with multivariable modeling. Among 403 linked patients, the mean age was 80 years, 60% were male, mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 49.6%, 83.3% were New York Heart Association class III/IV, 78.2% were MR grade 3+/4+, and 63.3% had functional MR. All-cause hospitalization decreased from 1,854 to 1,435/1,000 person-years (P<.001). HF hospitalization decreased following MitraClip (749 vs 332/1000 person-years, P<.001), but bleeding increased (199 vs 298/1000 person-years, P<.001). Changes in stroke and myocardial infarction were not statistically significant. Overall mean Medicare costs per patient were similar pre- and post-MitraClip, although there was a significant decrease in mean costs among those that survived a full year after MitraClip ($18,131 [SD $25,130] vs $11,679 [SD $22,486], P=.02). MitraClip was associated with a reduced rate of all-cause and HF hospitalizations and an increased rate of bleeding hospitalizations. One-year Medicare costs were reduced in those who survived a full year after the MitraClip procedure. Payors and providers seeking to reduce HF hospitalizations and associated Medicare costs may consider MitraClip among appropriate patients likely to survive 1 year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study of Practicioners' Ideas on Pre-Service Competencies Needed for High School Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Mark Anthony

    This document reports the results of a survey of 200 inservice high school biology teachers to determine preservice competencies necessary for high school biology teachers. Forty competencies were identified as necessary including: laboratory experience, techniques for instruction, laboratory management, preparation of laboratory materials,…

  18. How an active-learning class influences physics self-efficacy in pre-service teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Usher, Ellen L.; Mamaril, Natasha A.

    2013-01-01

    Education majors in an inquiry-based physics content course were asked to reflect on the ways the course affected their self-efficacy for completing physics tasks, such as creating a circuit. Responses were coded according to the contributor of the influence and whether that influence was positive or negative. The group learning structure, hands-on activities in the class, and the constructed repertoire of science knowledge, processes, and activities, were all reported to be positive influences on self-efficacy, whereas the influence of the instructor was mixed. Overall, students' responses indicated both a desire for more guidance and lecture and an appreciation for their ability to construct their own understanding through the class activities.

  19. Effects of pre-natal and continued lead exposure on activity levels in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Zimering, R T; Burright, R G; Donovick, P J

    1982-01-01

    Binghamton heterogeneous (HET) stock mice were exposed to 0.5% lead acetate solution from conception through adulthood. Activity was measured in an open field, shuttle-box, and the home cage. Independent groups of animals were tested at several ages in the light (day) and dark (night). Despite significant blood-lead level differences between the control and lead treated animals, developmental and activity differences between groups were restricted to selected measures. The lead-treatment appeared to alter only jumping in the open field and some consummatory behaviors observed in the home cage. This research does not provide support for a model which proposes a simple, direct relationship between low-level lead toxicity and hyperactive behavior. It is suggested that future research focus on the specific conditions under which activity is measured. Animal parallels to a human "hyperactive disorder" may need to be reformulated in terms of attention deficits which mark the childhood disorder.

  20. Pre-treatment with ebselen and vitamin E modulate acetylcholinesterase activity: interaction with demyelinating agents.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Spanevello, Roselia; Ahmed, Musthaq; Pereira, Luciane B; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Corrêa, Maisa; Schmatz, Roberta; Stefanello, Naiara; Leal, Daniela B R; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Ramos, Adriano T; Martins, Tessie B; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Graça, Dominguita L; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C

    2009-02-01

    The ethidium bromide (EB) demyelinating model was associated with vitamin E (Vit E) and ebselen (Ebs) treatment to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), cerebral cortex (CC) and erythrocytes. Rats were divided into seven groups: I-Control (saline), II-(canola); III-(Ebs), IV-(Vit E); V-(EB); VI-(EB+Ebs) and VII-(EB+Vit E). At 3 days after the EB injection, AChE activity in the CC and HC was significantly reduced in groups III, IV, V, VI and VII (p<0.05) and in the ST it was reduced in groups III and V (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. At 21 days after the EB injection, AChE activity in the CC was significantly reduced in groups III, IV and V, while in groups VI and VII a significant increase was observed when compared to the control group. In the HC and ST, AChE activity was significantly reduced in groups V, VI and VII when compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the erythrocytes, at 3 days after the EB injection, AChE activity was significantly reduced in groups III, IV, V, VI and VII and at 21 days there was a significant reduction only in groups VI and VII (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Ebs and Vit E interfere with the cholinergic neurotransmission by altering AChE activity in the different brain regions and in the erythrocytes. Furthermore, treatment with Vit E and Ebs protected against the demyelination lesion caused by EB. In this context, we can suggest that ebselen and Vit E should be considered potential therapeutics and scientific tools to be investigated in brain disorders associated with demyelinating events.

  1. Pre-surgical cortical activation to food pictures is associated with weight loss following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Ness, Abigail; Bruce, Jared; Bruce, Amanda; Aupperle, Robin; Lepping, Rebecca; Martin, Laura; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha; Malley, Steve; Selim, Niazy; Savage, Cary R

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that preintervention functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may predict weight loss outcomes among patients who participate in a behavioral weight loss plan. No study has examined whether presurgical brain activation can predict outcomes following bariatric surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine if brain activations during a presurgical fMRI food-motivation paradigm are associated with weight loss 3 and 6 months following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Nineteen participants viewed food and nonfood pictures from a well-established food motivation paradigm during an fMRI scanning session before LAGB surgery. Weight was assessed presurgery and 3 and 6 months postsurgery; data for all participants was available at each time point. fMRI data were analyzed using the BrainVoyager QX statistical package. Whole brain voxelwise correlations of presurgery (food-nonfood) brain activation and weight, corrected for multiple comparisons, were performed to analyze the relationship between presurgical brain activation and subsequent weight loss. The settings were a medical university brain imaging center and 2 surgical weight loss centers in a major metropolitan area. Increased activity in frontal regions associated with cognitive control (medial, middle, superior frontal gyrus) and posterior cingulate cortex was associated with weight loss following LAGB. We found that neural activity in previously established regions associated with cognitive and behavioral self-regulation predicts weight loss following bariatric surgery. These preliminary findings highlight the role of neural circuitry in the success and maintenance of weight loss and suggest a possible future use of fMRI in screening LAGB surgery candidates. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Active Design changing the workplace? - A natural pre-post experiment looking at health behaviour and workplace perceptions.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Lina; Chau, Josephine; Bohn-Goldbaum, Erika; Young, Sarah; Hespe, Dominique; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Active Design is a relatively new concept and evaluation on its effects on healthy behaviour is lacking. To investigate Active Design influence on workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviour, musculoskeletal complaints, and perceptions of the workplace and productivity. Participants (n = 118 adults) moving from 14 workplaces into a new building completed an online questionnaire pre- and post-move. The questions related to health behaviours (physical activity, sitting time and sleep); musculoskeletal issues; perceptions of the office environment; productivity; and engagement. After the move, 68% of participants were located in an open plan building (21% before the move). In the new workplace participants tended to sit less during their work time (72% - 66%; p < 0.05) and stand more (15% - 19%; p < 0.05) while walking remained unchanged. Participants reported less lower-back pain. The new work environment was perceived as more motivating and providing better light, air quality and temperature, but less storage space. Participants reported looking forward to going to work more than before. No difference was reported in productivity related measures. Moving to a new Active Design building can have some physical health-promoting effects on occupants. Satisfaction with environmental characteristics tended to improve in the new building though perceptions of productivity measures were variable.

  3. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  4. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  5. Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Stentz, Frankie B; Brewer, Amy; Wan, Jim; Garber, Channing; Daniels, Blake; Sands, Chris; Kitabchi, Abbas E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Remission of pre-diabetes to normal is an important health concern which has had little success in the past. This study objective was to determine the effect on remission of pre-diabetes with a high protein (HP) versus high carbohydrate (HC) diet and effects on metabolic parameters, lean and fat body mass in prediabetic, obese subjects after 6 months of dietary intervention. Research design and methods We recruited and randomized 24 pre-diabetes women and men to either a HP (30% protein, 30% fat, 40% carbohydrate; n=12) or HC (15% protein, 30% fat, 55% carbohydrate; n=12) diet feeding study for 6 months in this randomized controlled trial. All meals were provided to subjects for 6 months with daily food menus for HP or HC compliance with weekly food pick-up and weight measurements. At baseline and after 6 months on the respective diets oral glucose tolerance and meal tolerance tests were performed with glucose and insulin measurements and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Results After 6 months on the HP diet, 100% of the subjects had remission of their pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance, whereas only 33.3% of subjects on the HC diet had remission of their pre-diabetes. The HP diet group exhibited significant improvement in (1) insulin sensitivity (p=0.001), (2) cardiovascular risk factors (p=0.04), (3) inflammatory cytokines (p=0.001), (4) oxidative stress (p=0.001), (5) increased percent lean body mass (p=0.001) compared with the HC diet at 6 months. Conclusions This is the first dietary intervention feeding study, to the best of our knowledge, to report 100% remission of pre-diabetes with a HP diet and significant improvement in metabolic parameters and anti-inflammatory effects compared with a HC diet at 6 months. Trial registration number NCT0164284. PMID:27843552

  6. High genetic diversity on a sample of pre-Columbian bone remains from Guane territories in northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Casas-Vargas, Andrea; Gómez, Alberto; Briceño, Ignacio; Díaz-Matallana, Marcela; Bernal, Jaime E; Rodríguez, José Vicente

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA was recovered from 17 individuals found in a rock shelter in the district of "La Purnia" (Santander, Colombia). This region is the homeland of pre-Columbian Guane, whom spread over the "Río Suarez" to the "Río de Oro", and were surrounded to the west by the Central Andes, south and east by foothills of Eastern Andes, and north by the "Chicamocha" river canyon. Guanes established in a region that straddles the Andes and the northern Amazon basin, possibly making it an unavoidable conduit for people moving to and from South America. We amplified mtDNA hypervariable region I (HVI) segments from ancient bone remains, and the resulting sequences were compared with both ancient and modern mitochondrial haplogroups from American and non-American populations. Samples showed a distribution of 35% for haplogroup A, 41% for haplogroup B and 24% for haplogroup D. Nine haplotypes were found in 17 samples, indicating an unusually high genetic diversity on a single site ancient population. Among them, three haplotypes have not been previously found in America, two are shared in Asia, and one is a private haplotype. Despite geographical barriers that eventually isolated them, an important influence of gene flow from neighboring pre-Columbian communities, mainly Muiscas, could explain the high genetic polymorphism of this community before the Spanish conquest, and argues against Guanes as being a genetic isolate.

  7. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain.

    PubMed

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sven; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved.

  8. Pre-conditioning the epigenetic response to high vapor pressure deficit increases the drought tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Penny; Rodríguez López, Carlos; Hadley, Paul; Wagstaff, Carol; Wilkinson, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic modification of the genome via cytosine methylation is a dynamic process that responds to changes in the growing environment. This modification can also be heritable. The combination of both properties means that there is the potential for the life experiences of the parental generation to modify the methylation profiles of their offspring and so potentially to "pre-condition" them to better accommodate abiotic conditions encountered by their parents. We recently identified high vapor pressure deficit (vpd)-induced DNA methylation at 2 gene loci in the stomatal development pathway and an associated reduction in leaf stomatal frequency. (1) Here, we test whether this epigenetic modification pre-conditioned parents and their offspring to the more severe water stress of periodic drought. We found that 3 generations of high vpd-grown plants were better able to withstand periodic drought stress over 2 generations. This resistance was not directly associated with de novo methylation of the target stomata genes, but was associated with the cmt3 mutant's inability to maintain asymmetric sequence context methylation. If our finding applies widely, it could have significant implications for evolutionary biology and breeding for stressful environments.

  9. Aberrant SSEA-4 upregulation mediates myofibroblast activity to promote pre-cancerous oral submucous fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2016-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), regarded as a precancerous condition, is characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibro-elastic change in the lamina properia and epithelial atrophy. The pathologic mechanisms of OSF still need to be further clarified. In the study, we investigated the functional expression of SSEA-4, which is a well-known stemness marker, in myofibroblast activity and the clinical significance in OSF tissues. The expression of SSEA-4 in OSF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Functional analysis of SSEA-4 on myofibroblast activity of OSF was achieved by lentiviral silencing ST3GAL2. Immunohisitochemistry demonstrated that SSEA-4 expression was significantly higher expression in areca quid chewing-associated OSF tissues than those of normal oral mucosa tissues. From flow cytometry analysis, arecoline dose-dependently activated SSEA-4 expression in primary human normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Sorted SSEA-4-positive cells from fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) have higher colony-forming unit, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression than SSEA-4-negative subset. Knockdown of ST3GAL2 in fBMFs suppressed SSEA-4 expression, collagen contraction, migration, invasiveness, and wound healing capability. Consistently, silencing ST3GAL2 was found to repress arecoline-induced myofibroblast activity in BMFs. The study highlights SSEA-4 as a critical marker for therapeutic intervention to mediate myofibroblast transdifferentiation in areca quid chewing-associated OSF.

  10. Human Development Program: Pre-School and Kindergarten Activity Guide, Revised 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold; Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for preschool and kindergarten students. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists. Major objectives of this program are to help children assume responsibility and build self-confidence. After a brief…

  11. Aberrant SSEA-4 upregulation mediates myofibroblast activity to promote pre-cancerous oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), regarded as a precancerous condition, is characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibro-elastic change in the lamina properia and epithelial atrophy. The pathologic mechanisms of OSF still need to be further clarified. In the study, we investigated the functional expression of SSEA-4, which is a well-known stemness marker, in myofibroblast activity and the clinical significance in OSF tissues. The expression of SSEA-4 in OSF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Functional analysis of SSEA-4 on myofibroblast activity of OSF was achieved by lentiviral silencing ST3GAL2. Immunohisitochemistry demonstrated that SSEA-4 expression was significantly higher expression in areca quid chewing-associated OSF tissues than those of normal oral mucosa tissues. From flow cytometry analysis, arecoline dose-dependently activated SSEA-4 expression in primary human normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Sorted SSEA-4-positive cells from fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) have higher colony-forming unit, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression than SSEA-4-negative subset. Knockdown of ST3GAL2 in fBMFs suppressed SSEA-4 expression, collagen contraction, migration, invasiveness, and wound healing capability. Consistently, silencing ST3GAL2 was found to repress arecoline-induced myofibroblast activity in BMFs. The study highlights SSEA-4 as a critical marker for therapeutic intervention to mediate myofibroblast transdifferentiation in areca quid chewing-associated OSF. PMID:27845370

  12. Promoting Peer Regard of an Autistic Child in a Mainstreamed Preschool Using Pre-Enrollment Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Melinda M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In activities designed to educate them about similarities and differences between disabled and nondisabled, disabling conditions in general, and a particular autistic child, six preschool children were compared to 12 control children on incident reports to teachers about the autistic child and in sociometric ratings concerning the child.…

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Quick Response (QR) Code Integration in Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Nagla; Santos, Ieda M.; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-01-01

    Quick Response (QR) codes have been discussed in the literature as adding value to teaching and learning. Despite their potential in education, more research is needed to inform practice and advance knowledge in this field. This paper investigated the integration of the QR code in classroom activities and the perceptions of the integration by…

  14. Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

    Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

  15. A Survey of Conceptions of Energy of Israeli Pre-Service High School Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    1997-01-01

    Identifies the conceptions of energy of preservice high school biology teachers. Findings indicate that this group of preservice teachers holds alternate conceptual frameworks when describing physical situations. Contains 35 references. (DDR)

  16. Trace level determination of beryllium in natural and flavored mineral waters after pre-concentration using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Ersin; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Yaman, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in natural and flavored mineral water samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) after pre-concentration based on the complexation of Be(+2) with a mixture of acetylacetone (pentane-2,4-dione) plus morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentaoxyflavone) and adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorbed complex was eluted with 1.5 ml of 2.0 M HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. After adding 1.5 ml of 2 M HNO(3) and centrifuging, Be in acid solution was determined by FAAS. To remove a number of metals present in water, EDTA was used as a chelating agent. Beryllium in mineral water samples was pre-concentrated by 500-fold, taking 750 ml as initial sample and 1.5 ml as the final volume. The relative standard deviations were sufficiently low for practical purposes and recoveries were up to 85%. Spiking experiments were performed in real samples to establish accuracy and recoveries. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 ng ml(-1), respectively. Twenty samples were analyzed for their beryllium content using optimum parameters. The highest concentration of beryllium was found to be 0.94 ± 0.15 ng ml(-1) in a natural mineral water, while beryllium was not detected in five samples.

  17. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  18. Pre-resonance enhancement of exceptional intensity in Aggregation-Induced Raman Optical Activity (AIROA) spectra of lutein derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajac, G.; Lasota, J.; Dudek, M.; Kaczor, A.; Baranska, M.

    2017-02-01

    Recently reported new phenomenon of Aggregation-Induced Raman Optical Activity is demonstrated here for the first time in the pre-resonance conditions for lutein diacetate and 3‧-epi-lutein supramolecular self-assembles. We demonstrate that minor alterations in the lutein structure (e.g. acetylation of hydroxyl groups or different configuration at one of the chiral center) can lead to definitely different spectral profiles and optical properties due to formation of aggregates of different structure and type. Lutein forms only H-aggregates, lutein diacetate only J-aggregates, while 3‧-epi-lutein can occur in both forms simultaneously. Variety of aggregates' structures is so large that not only the type of aggregation is different, but also their chirality. It is remarkable that even in the pre-resonance conditions, aggregation of lutein derivatives can lead to the intense ROA signal, and moreover, 3‧-epi-lutein demonstrated the highest resonance ROA CID ratio that has ever been reported.

  19. Pre-market clinical evaluations of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hulstaert, Frank; Neyt, Mattias; Vinck, Imgard; Stordeur, Sabine; Huić, Mirjana; Sauerland, Stefan; Kuijpers, Marja R; Abrishami, Payam; Vondeling, Hindrik; Flamion, Bruno; Garattini, Silvio; Pavlovic, Mira; van Brabandt, Hans

    2012-07-01

    High-quality clinical evidence is most often lacking when novel high-risk devices enter the European market. At the same time, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is often initiated as a requirement for obtaining market access in the US. Should coverage in Europe be postponed until RCT data are available? We studied the premarket clinical evaluation of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe compared with the US, and with medicines, where appropriate. The literature and regulatory documents were checked. Representatives from industry, Competent Authorities, Notified Bodies, Ethics Committees, and HTA agencies were consulted. We also discuss patient safety and the transparency of information. In contrast to the US, there is no requirement in Europe to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of high-risk devices in the premarket phase. Patients in Europe can thus have earlier access to a potentially lifesaving device, but at the risk of insufficiently documented efficacy and safety. Variations in the stringency of clinical reviews, both at the level of Notified Bodies and Competent Authorities, do not guarantee patient safety. We tried to document the design of premarket trials in Europe and number of patients exposed, but failed as this information is not made public. Furthermore, the Helsinki Declaration is not followed with respect to the registration and publication of premarket trials. For innovative high-risk devices, new EU legislation should require the premarket demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety, using an RCT if possible, and a transparent clinical review, preferably centralized.

  20. Pre-injury administration of morphine prevents development of neuropathic hyperalgesia through activation of descending monoaminergic mechanisms in the spinal cord in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Md Harunor; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether pre-injury administration of morphine can prevent partial sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in mice. We observed that pre-injury administration of subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) morphine dose-dependently prevented the development of both thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia at 7 days following nerve injury in mice. The pre-injury morphine (s.c.)-induced analgesia was significantly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone injected s.c. or i.c.v., but not i.t., suggesting that systemic morphine produced the pre-emptying effects mainly by acting at the supra-spinal sites. Since it is believed that activation of descending monoaminergic mechanisms in spinal cord largely contributes to the supra-spinal analgesic effects of morphine, we investigated the involvement of serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms in spinal cord in the pre-injury morphine-induced analgesic effects. We found that pre-injury s.c. morphine-induced analgesic effect was significantly blocked by i.t. pretreatment with serotonergic antagonist, methysergide and noradrenergic antagonist, phentolamine. In addition, pre-injury i.t. injection of serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine and α2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine significantly prevented the neuropathic hyperalgesia. We next examined whether pre-injury morphine prevented the expression of neuronal hyperactivity markers such as c-Fos and protein kinase C γ (PKCγ) in the spinal dorsal horn. We found that pre-injury administration of s.c. morphine prevented increased expressions of both c-Fos and PKCγ observed following nerve injury. Similar results were obtained with i.t. fluoxetine and clonidine. Altogether these results suggest that pre-injury administration of morphine might prevent the development of neuropathic pain through activation of descending monoaminergic pain inhibitory pathways. PMID:15932652

  1. High fidelity femtosecond pulses from an ultrafast fiber laser system via adaptive amplitude and phase pre-shaping.

    PubMed

    Prawiharjo, Jerry; Daga, Nikita K; Geng, Rui; Price, Jonathan H; Hanna, David C; Richardson, David J; Shepherd, David P

    2008-09-15

    The generation of high-fidelity femtosecond pulses is experimentally demonstrated in a fiber based chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system through an adaptive amplitude and phase pre-shaping technique. A pulse shaper, based on a dual-layer liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), was implemented in the fiber CPA system for amplitude and phase shaping prior to amplification. The LC-SLM was controlled using a differential evolution algorithm, to maximize a two-photon absorption detector signal from the compressed fiber CPA output pulses. It is shown that this approach compensates for both accumulated phase from material dispersion and nonlinear phase modulation. A train of pulses was produced with an average power of 12.6W at a 50MHz repetition rate from our fiber CPA system, which were compressible to high fidelity pulses with a duration of 170 fs.

  2. Analysis of high dimensional data using pre-defined set and subset information, with applications to genomic data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on available biological information, genomic data can often be partitioned into pre-defined sets (e.g. pathways) and subsets within sets. Biologists are often interested in determining whether some pre-defined sets of variables (e.g. genes) are differentially expressed under varying experimental conditions. Several procedures are available in the literature for making such determinations, however, they do not take into account information regarding the subsets within each set. Secondly, variables (e.g. genes) belonging to a set or a subset are potentially correlated, yet such information is often ignored and univariate methods are used. This may result in loss of power and/or inflated false positive rate. Results We introduce a multiple testing-based methodology which makes use of available information regarding biologically relevant subsets within each pre-defined set of variables while exploiting the underlying dependence structure among the variables. Using this methodology, a biologist may not only determine whether a set of variables are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions, but may also test whether specific subsets within a significant set are also significant. Conclusions The proposed methodology; (a) is easy to implement, (b) does not require inverting potentially singular covariance matrices, and (c) controls the family wise error rate (FWER) at the desired nominal level, (d) is robust to the underlying distribution and covariance structures. Although for simplicity of exposition, the methodology is described for microarray gene expression data, it is also applicable to any high dimensional data, such as the mRNA seq data, CpG methylation data etc. PMID:22827252

  3. Large fragment pre-S deletion and high viral load independently predict hepatitis B relapse after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Jung; Chen, Tse-Ching; Wang, Frank; Chan, Kun-Ming; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Lee, Wei-Chen; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated end-stage liver diseases are the leading causes of liver transplantation (LT) in Taiwan. Relapse of hepatitis B occurs after LT, raising the risk of graft failure and reducing patient survival. Although several oral antiviral agents have been approved for anti-HBV treatment, lamivudine (LAM) remained to be the most widely used preventive regimen in Taiwan. While several clinical predictors have been identified for hepatitis B relapse, the predictive roles of the histopathological characteristics in liver explants as well as the genotypic features of the viruses in pre-LT serum samples have not been assessed. Between September 2002 and August 2009, 150 consecutive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients undergoing LT were included for outcome analysis following assessment of the clinicopathological and virological factors prior to LT. Kaplan-Meier analyses discovered that pre-operative LAM treatment ≤3 months; membranous distribution and higher expression of tissue HBsAg in liver explants; preoperative viral load ≥10(6) copies/ml; and presence of large fragment (>100 base pairs) pre-S deletion (LFpreSDel) correlated significantly with hepatitis B relapse. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the presence of LFpreSDel (P = 0.001) and viral load ≥10(6) copies/mL (P = 0.023) were independent predictors for hepatitis B relapse. In conclusion, besides high viral load, LFpreSDel mutation is an important independent predictor for hepatitis B relapse after LT. More aggressive preventive strategies should be applied for patients carrying these risk factors.

  4. High-Resolution Mutational Profiling Suggests the Genetic Validity of Glioblastoma Patient-Derived Pre-Clinical Models

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Shawn E.; Pastorino, Sandra; Rozenzhak, Sophie; Smith, Erin N.; Chao, Ying S.; Jiang, Pengfei; Kesari, Santosh; Frazer, Kelly A.; Harismendy, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the ability to efficiently characterize tumor genomes is enabling targeted drug development, which requires rigorous biomarker-based patient selection to increase effectiveness. Consequently, representative DNA biomarkers become equally important in pre-clinical studies. However, it is still unclear how well these markers are maintained between the primary tumor and the patient-derived tumor models. Here, we report the comprehensive identification of somatic coding mutations and copy number aberrations in four glioblastoma (GBM) primary tumors and their matched pre-clinical models: serum-free neurospheres, adherent cell cultures, and mouse xenografts. We developed innovative methods to improve the data quality and allow a strict comparison of matched tumor samples. Our analysis identifies known GBM mutations altering PTEN and TP53 genes, and new actionable mutations such as the loss of PIK3R1, and reveals clear patient-to-patient differences. In contrast, for each patient, we do not observe any significant remodeling of the mutational profile between primary to model tumors and the few discrepancies can be attributed to stochastic errors or differences in sample purity. Similarly, we observe ∼96% primary-to-model concordance in copy number calls in the high-cellularity samples. In contrast to previous reports based on gene expression profiles, we do not observe significant differences at the DNA level between in vitro compared to in vivo models. This study suggests, at a remarkable resolution, the genome-wide conservation of a patient’s tumor genetics in various pre-clinical models, and therefore supports their use for the development and testing of personalized targeted therapies. PMID:23441165

  5. Donor-acceptor organo-imido polyoxometalates: high transparency, high activity redox-active NLO chromophores.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasari, Ahmed; Van Steerteghem, Nick; El Moll, Hani; Clays, Koen; Fielden, John

    2016-02-21

    We show that polyoxometalates (POMs) are an excellent redox-active acceptor on which to base high performance 2(nd) order non-linear optical (NLO) chromophores. This is demonstrated through three new organoimido-Lindqvist derivatives with HRS β0-values exceeding those of any dipolar organic system with comparable donor, π-system and absorption profile. Thus, organoimido POMs may provide a new generation of high performance, high transparency, and potentially redox-switchable NLO materials.

  6. Pre-clinical and Clinical Evaluation of High Resolution, Mobile Gamma Camera and Positron Imaging Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    sources were described previously [2]. The low energy collimator for Tc-99m has 23 mm hole length, 1.5 mm hole diameter, and 0.2 mm septal thickness... energy window was 20% centered on the photopeak. Relatively high count, low noise projection data were acquired for both the Tc-99m and F-18...system with Tc-99m, we acquired data of the dynamic cardiac phantom on a commercial SPECT system3 with low energy , ultra-high resolution collimators

  7. Prospective implementation of a software application for pre-disposal L/ILW waste management activities in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Fako, Raluca; Sociu, Florin; Stan, Camelia; Georgescu, Roxana; Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-07-01

    Romania is actively engaged to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Considering relevant documents to be further updated, about 122,000 m{sup 3} SL-LILW are to be disposed in a near surface facility that will have room, also, for quantities of VLLW. Planned date for commissioning is under revision. Taking into account that in this moment there are initiated several actions for the improvement of the technical capability for LILW treatment and conditioning, several steps for the possible use of SAFRAN software were considered. In view of specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are trying to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with the implementation of SAFRAN software for the foreseen pre-disposal waste management activities. There are challenges that have to be faced in the near future related with clear definition of the properties of each room, area and waste management activity. This work has the aim to address several LILW management issues in accordance with national and international regulatory framework for the assurance of nuclear safety. Also, authors intend to develop their institutional capability for the safety demonstration of the existent and future radioactive waste management facilities and activities. (authors)

  8. Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Wolkmer, Patrícia; Silva, Cássia B da; Paim, Francine C; Duarte, Marta M M F; Castro, Verônica; Palma, Heloisa E; França, Raqueli T; Felin, Diandra V; Siqueira, Lucas C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M

    2013-04-01

    The potent activity against Trypanosomes and health beneficial effects of curcumin (Cur) has been demonstrated in various experimental models. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of Cur as trypanocide and as potential anti-inflammatory agent, through the evaluation of immunomodulatory mechanisms in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Dail