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Sample records for pre-anthesis ovary development

  1. Genetic variation for the duration of pre-anthesis development in durum wheat and its interaction with vernalization treatment and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Gavino; Giunta, Francesco; Motzo, Rosella; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-07-01

    A recombinant inbred durum wheat population was grown under three contrasting regimes: long days following vernalization (LDV), long days without vernalization (LD), and short days following vernalization (SDV). The length of several pre-anthesis stages and the number of leaves and the phyllochron were measured. Different groups of genes were involved in determining the phenology in the three treatments, as demonstrated by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. The length of the period required to reach the terminal spikelet stage was correlated with the time to anthesis only in the case of LDV- and LD-grown plants where the timing of anthesis depended on the final leaf number. However, for SDV-grown plants, anthesis date was more dependent on the length of the period between the terminal spikelet stage and anthesis and was independent of leaf number. The involvement of the phyllochron in determining the duration of pre-anthesis development was also treatment-dependent. QTL mapping of the various flowering time associated traits uncovered some novel loci (such as those associated with the phyllochron), in addition to confirming the presence of several well-established loci.

  2. Pre-Anthesis Reserve Utilization for Protein and Carbohydrate Synthesis in Grains of Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Gebbing, Thomas; Schnyder, Hans

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the contribution of pre-anthesis reserve C to protein and carbohydrate deposition in grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using a new approach comprised of steady-state 13C/12C labeling and separation of the protein and carbohydrate fractions of mature grains. Experiments were performed with two spring wheat cultivars (Kadett and Star) grown with differential N fertilizer supply over 2 years. Pre-anthesis reserves contributed between 30% and 47% of the C in protein and 8% to 27% of the C in carbohydrates of grains. Partitioning of pre-anthesis C among the grain fractions was strongly dependent on the C/N (w/w) ratio in mobilized pre-anthesis biomass (r2 = 0.92). There appeared to be no significant exchange of pre-anthesis C between amino acids and carbohydrates during redistribution. The mean apparent efficiency of mobilized carbohydrate-C use in grain filling (MECHO, estimated as the mass of pre-anthesis C deposited in grain carbohydrates per gram of pre-anthesis C mobilized from carbohydrates in vegetative plant parts) was 0.72, whereas that of protein-C (MEP) was 0.56. However, MEP and MECHO varied among treatments. MECHO increased with increasing contributions of water-soluble carbohydrates to total pre-anthesis carbohydrate mobilization. MEP decreased with increasing residence time of protein in vegetative biomass. Possible causes for variability of MEP and MECHO are discussed. PMID:10557235

  3. Variation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit size and shape results from multiple components acting pre-anthesis and post-pollination.

    PubMed

    Colle, Marivi; Weng, Yiqun; Kang, Yunyan; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Grumet, Rebecca

    2017-06-16

    Morphological, QTL, and gene expression analyses indicate variation in cucumber fruit size and shape results from orientation, timing, and extent of cell division and expansion, and suggest candidate gene factors. Variation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit size and shape is highly quantitative, implicating interplay of multiple components. Recent studies have identified numerous fruit size and shape quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, underlying factors remain to be determined. We examined ovary and fruit development of two sequenced cucumber genotypes with extreme differences in fruit size and shape, Chinese Long '9930' (CL9930), and pickling type 'Gy14'. Differences were observed in several independent factors that can influence size and shape: ovule number, rate and period of cell division in longitudinal and cross section in ovaries and fruit, timing and rate of fruit expansion in length and diameter, and cell shape. Level and timing of expression of select fruit growth stage marker genes and candidate fruit size gene homologs associated with cucumber fruit size and shape QTL were examined from 5-day pre-anthesis to 20-day post-pollination. Our results indicate that variation in fruit size and shape results from differences in cell number and shape in longitudinal and cross section, driven in turn by differences in orientation, timing, and duration of cell division and expansion, both pre- and post-anthesis, and suggest candidate genes contributing to determination of cucumber fruit size and shape.

  4. Genetic dissection of photoperiod response based on GWAS of pre-anthesis phase duration in spring barley.

    PubMed

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Sharma, Rajiv; Pasam, Raj K; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Heading time is a complex trait, and natural variation in photoperiod responses is a major factor controlling time to heading, adaptation and grain yield. In barley, previous heading time studies have been mainly conducted under field conditions to measure total days to heading. We followed a novel approach and studied the natural variation of time to heading in a world-wide spring barley collection (218 accessions), comprising of 95 photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) and 123 accessions with reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1) to long-day (LD) through dissecting pre-anthesis development into four major stages and sub-phases. The study was conducted under greenhouse (GH) conditions (LD; 16/8 h; ∼20/∼16°C day/night). Genotyping was performed using a genome-wide high density 9K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chip which assayed 7842 SNPs. We used the barley physical map to identify candidate genes underlying genome-wide association scans (GWAS). GWAS for pre-anthesis stages/sub-phases in each photoperiod group provided great power for partitioning genetic effects on floral initiation and heading time. In addition to major genes known to regulate heading time under field conditions, several novel QTL with medium to high effects, including new QTL having major effects on developmental stages/sub-phases were found to be associated in this study. For example, highly associated SNPs tagged the physical regions around HvCO1 (barley CONSTANS1) and BFL (BARLEY FLORICAULA/LEAFY) genes. Based upon our GWAS analysis, we propose a new genetic network model for each photoperiod group, which includes several newly identified genes, such as several HvCO-like genes, belonging to different heading time pathways in barley.

  5. Development of mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2014-06-01

    Pre-natal and early post-natal ovarian development has become a field of increasing importance over recent years. The full effects of perturbations of ovarian development on adult fertility, through environmental changes or genetic anomalies, are only now being truly appreciated. Mitigation of these perturbations requires an understanding of the processes involved in the development of the ovary. Herein, we review some recent findings from mice, sheep, and cattle on the key events involved in ovarian development. We discuss the key process of germ cell migration, ovigerous cord formation, meiosis, and follicle formation and activation. We also review the key contributions of mesonephric cells to ovarian development and propose roles for these cells. Finally, we discuss polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, and pre-natal undernutrition; three key areas in which perturbations to ovarian development appear to have major effects on post-natal fertility.

  6. Wheat floret survival as related to pre-anthesis spike growth.

    PubMed

    González, Fernanda G; Miralles, Daniel J; Slafer, Gustavo A

    2011-10-01

    Further improvements to wheat yield potential will be essential to meet future food demand. As yield is related to the number of fertile florets and grains, an understanding of the basis of their generation is instrumental to raising yield. Based on (i) a strong positive association between the number of fertile florets or grains and spike dry weight at anthesis; and (ii) the finding that floret death occurs when spikes grow at maximum rate, it was always assumed that floret survival depends on the growth of the spike. However, this assumption was recently questioned, suggesting that assimilates diverted to the spike do not determine the number of florets and grains and that the onset of floret death may instead be a developmental process that is not associated with spike growth. In this study, the relationships between the fate of floret primordia and spike growth from six independent experiments that included different growing conditions (greenhouse/field experiments, growing seasons, photoperiod/shading treatments during the floret primordia phase) and diverse cultivar types (winter/spring, semi-dwarf/standard-height, photoperiod sensitive/insensitive) were re-analysed together. Onset of floret death was associated with the beginning of spike growth at the maximum rate in c. 80% of the cases analysed; and the rate of floret death (the main determinant of floret survival) showed a negative quantitative relationship with spike weight at anthesis. As floret death and survival were shown to be linked to pre-anthesis spike growth, the strategy of focusing on traits associated with pre-anthesis spike growth when breeding to increase wheat yield potential further is valuable.

  7. Exogenous application of putrescine at pre-anthesis enhances the thermotolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Sharma, Sushil K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Khushboo; Choudhury, Madhumanthi; Dhawan Gaurav; Singh, Gyaneshwar P; Goswami, Suneha; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Raj D

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, besides being involved in various developmental processes, are known to be important for environmental stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the effect of treatment of 2.5 mM putrescine (Put), heat stress (HS -42 degrees C for 2 h) and their combination on the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes was studied at pre-anthesis in the leaves of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars--HDR77 (thermotolerant) and HD2329 (thermosusceptible). We observed that 2.5 mM Put before HS significantly enhanced the transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cytoplasmic and peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX, pAPX) in both the cultivars. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR), as well as accumulation of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and total thiol content) were higher in HDR77 than in HD2329 in response to the treatment 2.5 mM Put + HS. No significant change was observed in the proline accumulation in response to HS and combined treatment of 2.5 mM Put + HS. A decrease in the H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increase in cell membrane stability (CMS) were observed in response to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment, as compared to HS treatment alone in both the cultivars; HDR77 was, however, more responsive to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment. Put (2.5 mM) treatment at pre-anthesis thus modulated the defense mechanism responsible for the thermotolerance capacity of wheat under the heat stress. Elicitors like Put, therefore, need to be further studied for temporarily manipulating the thermotolerance capacity of wheat grown under the field conditions in view of the impending global climate change.

  8. Modelling Wheat Growth and Yield Losses from Late Epidemics of Foliar Diseases using Loss of Green Leaf Area per Layer and Pre-anthesis Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Robert, Corinne; Ney, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crop protection strategies, based on preventing quantitative crop losses rather than pest outbreaks, are being developed as a promising way to reduce fungicide use. The Bastiaans' model was applied to winter wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB; Mycosphaerella graminicola) under a range of crop management conditions. This study examined (a) whether green leaf area per layer accurately accounts for growth loss; and (b) whether from growth loss it is possible to derive yield loss accurately and simply. Methods Over 5 years of field experiments, numerous green leaf area dynamics were analysed during the post-anthesis period on wheat crops using natural aerial epidemics of leaf rust and STB. Key Results When radiation use efficiency (RUE) was derived from bulk green leaf area index (GLAI), RUEbulk was hardly accurate and exhibited large variations among diseased wheat crops, thus extending outside the biological range. In contrast, when RUE was derived from GLAI loss per layer, RUElayer was a more accurate calculation and fell within the biological range. In one situation out of 13, no significant shift in the RUElayer of diseased crops vs. healthy crops was observed. A single linear relationship linked yield to post-anthesis accumulated growth for all treatments. Its slope, not different from 1, suggests that the allocation of post-anthesis photosynthates to grains was not affected by the late occurring diseases under study. The mobilization of pre-anthesis reserves completely accounted for the intercept value. Conclusions The results strongly suggest that a simple model based on green leaf area per layer and pre-anthesis reserves can predict both growth and yield of wheat suffering from late epidemics of foliar diseases over a range of crop practices. It could help in better understanding how crop structure and reserve management contribute to tolerance of wheat genotypes to

  9. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  10. Phytohormonal Networks Promote Differentiation of Fiber Initials on Pre-Anthesis Cotton Ovules Grown In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Triplett, Barbara A.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Stelly, David M.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Moon, Hong S.; Gilbert, Matthew K.; Thyssen, Gregory N.; Turley, Rickie B.; Fang, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  11. Pre-anthesis CPPU low dosage application increases 'Hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Castillo, J G; Baldicchi, A; Frioni, T; Marocchi, F; Moscatello, S; Proietti, S; Battistelli, A; Famiani, F

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 μL L(-1) (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation alleviates damage to the flag leaf caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation on leaf physiology of winter wheat in response to post-anthesis heat stress. The results showed that both pre- and post-anthesis heat stresses significantly depressed flag leaf photosynthesis and enhanced cell membrane peroxidation, as exemplified by increased O₂⁻(·) production rate and reduction in activities of antioxiditave enzymes. However, under post-anthesis heat stress, plants with pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation (HH) showed much higher photosynthetic rates than those without pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation (CH). Leaves of HH plants exhibited a higher Chl a/b ratio and lower chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio and superoxide anion radical release rate compared with those of the CH plants. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities in HH plants were significantly higher than in CH. Coincidently, expressions of photosythesis-responsive gene encoding Rubisco activase B (RcaB) and antioxidant enzyme-related genes encoding mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and cytosolic glutathione reductase (GR) were all up-regulated under HH, whereas a gene encoding a major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab) was up-regulated by post-anthesis heat stress at 10 DAA, but was down-regulated at 13 DAA. The changes in the expression levels of the HH plants were more pronounced than those for the CH. Collectively, the results indicated that pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation could effectively alleviate the photosynthetic and oxidative damage caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat flag leaves, which was partially attributable to modifications in the expression of the photosythesis-responsive and antioxidant enzymes-related genes.

  13. Genotypic variation in spike fertility traits and ovary size as determinants of floret and grain survival rate in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zifeng; Slafer, Gustavo A; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Spike fertility traits are critical attributes for grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we examine the genotypic variation in three important traits: maximum number of floret primordia, number of fertile florets, and number of grains. We determine their relationship in determining spike fertility in 30 genotypes grown under two contrasting conditions: field and greenhouse. The maximum number of floret primordia per spikelet (MFS), fertile florets per spikelet (FFS), and number of grains per spikelet (GS) not only exhibited large genotypic variation in both growth conditions and across all spikelet positions studied, but also displayed moderate levels of heritability. FFS was closely associated with floret survival and only weakly related to MFS. We also found that the post-anthesis process of grain set/abortion was important in determining genotypic variation in GS; an increase in GS was mainly associated with improved grain survival. Ovary size at anthesis was associated with both floret survival (pre-anthesis) and grain survival (post-anthesis), and was thus believed to ‘connect’ the two traits. In this work, proximal florets (i.e. the first three florets from the base of a spikelet: F1, F2, and F3) produced fertile florets and set grains in most cases. The ovary size of more distal florets (F4 and beyond) seemed to act as a decisive factor for grain setting and effectively reflected pre-anthesis floret development. In both growth conditions, GS positively correlated with ovary size of florets in the distal position (F4), suggesting that assimilates allocated to distal florets may play a critical role in regulating grain set. PMID:27279276

  14. The gene pat-2, which induces natural parthenocarpy, alters the gibberellin content in unpollinated tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, M; Nuez, F; García-Martínez, J L

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA(3) application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA(3). Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA(3). The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(1), GA(3), GA(8), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(44), GA(53), and, tentatively, GA(81)) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(9) and GA(34)) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA(20) content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA(19) content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA(20) is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA(20), the precursor of an active GA.

  15. Expression profile analysis of early fruit development in iaaM-parthenocarpic tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Molesini, Barbara; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Spena, Angelo; Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Background Fruit normally develops from the ovary after pollination and fertilization. However, the ovary can also generate seedless fruit without fertilization by parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic fruit development has been obtained in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by genetic modification using auxin-synthesising gene(s) (DefH9-iaaM; DefH9-RI-iaaM) expressed specifically in the placenta and ovules. Findings We have performed a cDNA Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis on pre-anthesis tomato flower buds (0.5 cm long) collected from DefH9-iaaM and DefH9-RI-iaaM parthenocarpic and wild-type plants, with the aim to identify genes involved in very early phases of tomato fruit development. We detected 212 transcripts differentially expressed in auxin-ipersynthesising pre-anthesis flower buds, 65 of them (31%) have unknown function. Several differentially expressed genes show homology to genes involved in protein trafficking and protein degradation via proteasome. These processes are crucial for auxin cellular transport and signaling, respectively. Conclusion The data presented might contribute to elucidate the molecular basis of the fruiting process and to develop new methods to confer parthenocarpy to species of agronomic interest. In a recently published work, we have demonstrated that one of the genes identified in this screening, corresponding to #109 cDNA clone, regulates auxin-dependent fruit initiation and its suppression causes parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato. PMID:19619340

  16. The Gene pat-2, Which Induces Natural Parthenocarpy, Alters the Gibberellin Content in Unpollinated Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA3. Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA3. The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA3, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA53, and, tentatively, GA81) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA9 and GA34) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA20 content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA19 content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA20 is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA20, the precursor of an active GA. PMID:10677440

  17. Etoposide damages female germ cells in the developing ovary.

    PubMed

    Stefansdottir, Agnes; Johnston, Zoe C; Powles-Glover, Nicola; Anderson, Richard A; Adams, Ian R; Spears, Norah

    2016-08-11

    As with many anti-cancer drugs, the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide is considered safe for administration to women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, but assessment of effects on the developing fetus have been limited. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of etoposide on germ cells in the developing ovary. Mouse ovary tissue culture was used as the experimental model, thus allowing us to examine effects of etoposide on all stages of germ cell development in the same way, in vitro. Fetal ovaries from embryonic day 13.5 CD1 mice or neonatal ovaries from postnatal day 0 CD1 mice were cultured with 50-150 ng ml(-1) or 50-200 ng ml(-1) etoposide respectively, concentrations that are low relative to that in patient serum. When fetal ovaries were treated prior to follicle formation, etoposide resulted in dose-dependent damage, with 150 ng ml(-1) inducing a near-complete absence of healthy follicles. In contrast, treatment of neonatal ovaries, after follicle formation, had no effect on follicle numbers and only a minor effect on follicle health, even at 200 ng ml(-1). The sensitivity of female germ cells to etoposide coincided with topoisomerase IIα expression: in the developing ovary of both mouse and human, topoisomerase IIα was expressed in germ cells only prior to follicle formation. Exposure of pre-follicular ovaries, in which topoisomerase IIα expression was germ cell-specific, resulted in a near-complete elimination of germ cells prior to follicle formation, with the remaining germ cells going on to form unhealthy follicles by the end of culture. In contrast, exposure to follicle-enclosed oocytes, which no longer expressed topoisomerase IIα in the germ cells, had no effect on total follicle numbers or health, the only effect seen specific to transitional follicles. Results indicate the potential for adverse effects on fetal ovarian development if etoposide is administered to pregnant women when germ cells are not yet

  18. Identification of Novel Markers of Mouse Fetal Ovary Development

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajan, Rathi D.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Chiu, Hansheng; Schulz, Alexandra; Spiller, Cassy; Grimmond, Sean M.; Little, Melissa H.; Koopman, Peter; Wilhelm, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the developing testis, molecular pathways driving fetal ovarian development have been difficult to characterise. To date no single master regulator of ovarian development has been identified that would be considered the female equivalent of Sry. Using a genomic approach we identified a number of novel protein-coding as well as non-coding genes that were detectable at higher levels in the ovary compared to testis during early mouse gonad development. We were able to cluster these ovarian genes into different temporal expression categories. Of note, Lrrc34 and AK015184 were detected in XX but not XY germ cells before the onset of sex-specific germ cell differentiation marked by entry into meiosis in an ovary and mitotic arrest in a testis. We also defined distinct spatial expression domains of somatic cell genes in the developing ovary. Our data expands the set of markers of early mouse ovary differentiation and identifies a classification of early ovarian genes, thus providing additional avenues with which to dissect this process. PMID:22844512

  19. Posthatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Hamlin, Heather J; Botteri, Nicole L; Lawler, Ashley N; Mathavan, Ketan K; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-05-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first 5 months posthatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we used histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in 1-week, 1-month, 3-month, and 5-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff's (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS reactivity. We observed putative intersex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed "medullary rests" resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared with previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological

  20. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  1. [Histomorphology of the suslik ovary during postnatal development and hibernation].

    PubMed

    Khadzhiolov, A I; Tsarvulkova-Denkova, R T

    1977-10-01

    Morphogenetic and histogenetic changes in the ovaries of Citellus citellus during the postnatal period and hibernation (September- March) at the age of 10, 25, 45 days and 2 to 12 months after birth were studied. Significant cellular and tissue-organoid differentiation processes were established. After birth oogonia enter the prophase I of meiotic division. At the end of the first month, oocytes with enlarged cytoplasm and single layer of satellite cells form the primary follicles. The growing follicles with organizing antrum are formed in the third postnatal month. During the same time, theca foliculi is observed. Between the 3d and the 6th months after birth the authors demonstrate a "stage ox isofolliculia" when the follicles stop undergoing further development. During the winter hibernation, the ovarian follicles continue to grow slowly and at the end of this period, preovulatory follicles are formed. The results reported demonstrate Citellus citellus ovary to be an organ of intensive cell-tissue reconstruction during the postnatal development and hibernation period determined by the ovarian histophysiology, the ovarian steroid hormones production and the hormonal activity of other glands and organs of the endocrine system.

  2. Arginine Decarboxylase and Putrescine Oxidase in Ovaries of Pisum sativum L. (Changes during Ovary Senescence and Early Stages of Fruit Development).

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

    1995-01-01

    Enzymatic activities involved in putrescine metabolism in ovaries of Pisum sativum L. during ovary senescence and fruit set were investigated. Accumulation of putrescine was observed during incubation of extracts from gibberellic acid-treated unpollinated ovaries (young developing fruits) but not in extracts from untreated ovaries (senescent ovaries). Extracts from pea ovaries showed arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity, but ornithine decarboxylase and arginase activity were not detected. ADC activity decreased in presenescent ovaries and increased markedly after induction of fruit set with gibberellic acid. Increases in ADC activity were also observed with application of other plant growth substances (benzy-ladenine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), after pollination, and in the slender (la crys) pea mutant. By contrast, putrescine oxidase activity increased in presenescent ovaries but did not increase during early fruit development. All of these results suggest that ADC and putrescine oxidase are involved in the control of putrescine metabolism. Ovary senescence is characterized by the absence of putrescine biosynthesis enzymes and increased levels of putrescine oxidase and fruit development by an increase in ADC and a constant level of putrescine oxidase. PMID:12228409

  3. Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

  4. The structure of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during development.

    PubMed

    Hułas, M; Gawron, A

    2002-01-01

    The study presents the structure of the ovaries of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) during the first months of life. The ovaries in neonate females exhibit a large number of primordial and primary follicles, sometimes clustered in nests. The growing follicles were also observed within the ovary at that period. The first, early antral follicles appeared in the ovary during the second week of life. In the group of 60-day old females, the structure of the ovaries was characterized by a significant increase in the connective tissue elements. Moreover, ovarian follicles at various stages of development were observed, except for the antral ones with cumulus oophorus. The first mature follicles were identified in 3-month old females. In the ovarian follicles, apoptosis occurs at all stages of follicle development, especially in the early antral follicles. In the atretic follicles, apoptotic cells were identified in the layer of granulosa cells.

  5. Cryopreservation of the mouse ovary inhibits the onset of primordial follicle development.

    PubMed

    Choi, JongYeob; Lee, Jin-Young; Lee, EunYoung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Bae, DukSoo; Choi, DooSeok

    2007-02-01

    The cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been reported to affect the development of preantral follicles. However, the effect of cryopreservation of ovarian tissue on the development of primordial follicles remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on the development of frozen-thawed mouse primordial follicles. One-day-old mouse ovaries were cryopreserved by either slow-freezing or a vitrification method. The development of primordial follicles was evaluated histologically and also with markers for follicle development such as: GDF-9, inhibin-alpha subunit and ZP3 in fresh and frozen-thawed ovaries cultured for five days. The proportion of apoptotic and necrotic areas was analyzed in fresh and frozen-thawed ovaries at one and five days after culture, in order to examine the viability of ovarian cells that influence primordial follicle development. The development rate of primordial follicles was significantly lower in slow-frozen and vitrified ovaries than the fresh controls after five days of in vitro culture (P<0.05). The mRNA expression for all developmental markers was slightly decreased in the frozen-thawed ovaries; this difference was not significant. The proportion of apoptosis was significantly increased in the slow-frozen and vitrified ovaries compared to the fresh ovaries at one day (P<0.05); however, there was no difference at five days after culture. The proportion of the area of necrosis was significantly higher in slow-frozen and vitrified ovaries compared to the fresh ovaries at one and five days after culture (P<0.05). Our preliminary data suggest that ovarian tissue cryopreservation using slow-freezing and vitrification methods inhibits development of primordial follicles. This may be caused by the death of ovarian cells through apoptosis and necrosis after cryopreservation.

  6. Development of obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vilmann, Lea S; Thisted, Ebbe; Baker, Jennifer L; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in adolescents is prevalent worldwide. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with obesity in women, and it has serious metabolic and reproductive health implications. Although PCOS does not become clinically visible until early adolescence, its origins are likely much earlier. Therefore, we reviewed the recent literature regarding the mechanisms linking the development of PCOS and obesity in adolescent girls. We found that excess abdominal adipose tissue (AT) initiates metabolic and endocrine aberrations that are central in the progression of PCOS. As an example, abdominal AT impairs insulin action, which interacts with the progression of hyperandrogenism. In addition, excessive androgen levels lead to impaired glucose uptake, which also contributes to insulin resistance, which again increases the deposition of visceral fat. The body composition is influenced by testosterone, which decreases subcutaneous fat lipolysis and influences adipocyte distribution. These mechanisms may explain why PCOS girls have an increased visceral adipose mass independent of body mass index. Therefore, first-line treatment in adolescent PCOS is often lifestyle intervention to prevent the damaging effects of obesity. Pharmacological treatment of adolescent PCOS is not standardized because the long-term effects in adolescents have not yet been evaluated; therefore, drugs should be prescribed cautiously. Although the complex metabolic interrelationships between obesity and PCOS have yet to be fully understood, the co-occurrence of these conditions in adolescent girls tends to increase the severity of the negative health consequences of each condition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Changes in Polyamine Biosynthesis Associated with Postfertilization Growth and Development in Tobacco Ovary Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Robert D.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyamine (PA) titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17), enzymes which catalyze rate-limiting steps in PA biosynthesis, were monitored during tobacco ovary maturation. In the period between anthesis and fertilization, the protein content of ovary tissues rapidly increased by about 40% and was accompanied by approximately a 3-fold increase in ODC activity, while ADC activity remained nearly constant. PA titers also remained relatively unchanged until fertilization, at which time they increased dramatically and the DNA content of ovary tissues doubled. This increase in PA biosynthesis was correlated with a further 3-fold increase in ODC activity, reaching a maximum 3 to 4 days after fertilization. During this time, ADC activity increased only slightly and accounted for approximately 1% of the total decarboxylase activity when ODC activity peaked. The postfertilization burst of biosynthetic activities slightly preceded a period of rapid ovary enlargement, presumably due to new cell division. During later stages of ovary development, DNA levels fell precipitously, while PA titers and decarboxylase activities decreased to preanthesis levels more slowly. In this period, growth producing a 300% increase in ovary fresh weight appears to be the result of cell enlargement. Synchronous changes in PA titers and in the rates of PA biosynthesis, macromolecular synthesis, and growth in the tobacco ovary suggest that PAs may play a role in the regulation of postfertilization growth and development of this reproductive organ. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11540835

  8. [Ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)].

    PubMed

    Dossi, Fábio C A; Cônsoli, Fernando L

    2010-01-01

    As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles.

  9. Ovary Apical Abortion under Water Deficit Is Caused by Changes in Sequential Development of Ovaries and in Silk Growth Rate in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, François

    2016-01-01

    Grain abortion allows the production of at least a few viable seeds under water deficit but causes major yield loss. It is maximum for water deficits occurring during flowering in maize (Zea mays). We have tested the hypothesis that abortion is linked to the differential development of ovary cohorts along the ear and to the timing of silk emergence. Ovary volume and silk growth were followed over 25 to 30 d under four levels of water deficit and in four hybrids in two experiments. A position-time model allowed characterizing the development of ovary cohorts and their silk emergence. Silk growth rate decreased in water deficit and stopped 2 to 3 d after first silk emergence, simultaneously for all ovary cohorts, versus 7 to 8 d in well-watered plants. Abortion rate in different treatments and positions on the ear was not associated with ovary growth rate. It was accounted for by the superposition of (1) the sequential emergence of silks originating from ovaries of different cohorts along the ear with (2) one event occurring on a single day, the simultaneous silk growth arrest. Abortion occurred in the youngest ovaries whose silks did not emerge 2 d before silk arrest. This mechanism accounted for more than 90% of drought-related abortion in our experiments. It resembles the control of abortion in a large range of species and inflorescence architectures. This finding has large consequences for breeding drought-tolerant maize and for modeling grain yields in water deficit. PMID:26598464

  10. Ovary starch reserves and pistil development in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, M Librada; Hormaza, J Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2010-12-01

    In avocado, only a very small fraction of the flowers are able to set fruit. Previous work in other woody perennial plant species has shown the importance of carbohydrates accumulated in the flower in the reproductive process. Thus, in order to explore the implications of the nutritive status of the flower in the reproductive process in avocado, the starch content in the pistil has been examined in individual pollinated and non-pollinated flowers at anthesis and during the days following anthesis. Starch content in different pistilar tissues in each flower was quantified with the help of an image analysis system attached to a microscope. Flowers at anthesis were rich in highly compartmentalized starch. Although no external morphological differences could be observed among flowers, the starch content varied widely at flower opening. Starch content in the ovary is largely independent of flower size because these differences were not correlated with ovary size. Differences in the progress of starch accumulation within the ovule integuments between pollinated and non-pollinated flowers occurred concomitantly with the triggering of the progamic phase. The results suggest that starch reserves in the ovary could play a significant role in the reproductive process in avocado.

  11. Time indices of multiphasic development in genotypes of sweet cherry are similar from dormancy to cessation of pit growth.

    PubMed

    Gibeaut, David M; Whiting, Matthew D; Einhorn, Todd

    2017-02-01

    The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size. Volume was calculated from photographic measurements of reproductive buds, ovaries and pits at all phases of development. A population of unfertilized ovaries was produced using bee-exclusion netting to enable a statistical comparison with an open pollinated population to detect differences in size and shape between successful and failing fruit growth. Anthesis timing and fruiting-density were manipulated by floral extinction at the spur and whole-tree scales. Developmental time indices were analysed using polynomial curve fitting of log-transformed data supported by Richards and logistic functions of asymptotic growth of the pit and maturing fruit, respectively. Pre-anthesis growth began at the completion of eco-dormancy. A slight decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was observed during bud scale separation approx. -16 d from anthesis (DFA) before resumption of exponential growth to a maximum about 14 DFA. After anthesis, reduced growth of unfertilized or defective ovaries was partly discriminated from successful fruit at 5 DFA and completely at 25 DFA. Time indices of RGR inflections were similar among cultivars when adjusted for anthesis date alone, until the end of pit growth. Asymptotic growth of the pit underpinned the declining growth rate of fruit at the end of the first exponential

  12. Involvement of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in follicle development in the fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Hryhorskyj, Lynn; Tremewan, Hannah; Hogg, Kirsten; Thomson, Axel A; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2010-02-01

    In humans and domestic mammals, pivotal processes in ovary development, including primordial follicle assembly, occur prenatally. These events are essential for determining fertility in adult life; however, they remain poorly understood at the mechanistic level. In mammals, the SLITs (SLIT1, SLIT2 and SLIT3) and their ROBO (ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3/RIG-1 and ROBO4/MAGIC ROBO) receptors regulate neural, leukocyte, vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell migration. In addition, the SLIT/ROBO pathway has functional roles in embryonic development and in the adult ovary by inhibiting cell migration and promoting apoptosis. We therefore characterised follicle formation and investigated the expression and localisation of the ROBO/SLIT pathway in the ovine fetal ovary. Using RT-PCR, we identified SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ROBO4 in sheep ovaries harvested across gestation. The real-time quantitative PCR results implied that ROBO2 expression and ROBO4 expression were elevated during the early stages of follicle formation and stayed abundant during primordial follicle maturation (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry examination demonstrated that ROBO1 was localised to the pre-granulosa cells, while ROBO2, ROBO4 and SLIT2 were expressed in the oocytes of the developing primordial follicle. This indicates that in the fetal ovary, SLIT-ROBO signalling may require an autocrine and paracrine interaction. Furthermore, at the time of increased SLIT-ROBO expression, there was a significant reduction in the number of proliferating oocytes in the developing ovary (P<0.0001). Overall, these results suggest, for the first time, that the SLIT-ROBO pathway is expressed at the time of follicle formation during fetal ovary development.

  13. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-08-07

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction.

  14. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction. PMID:26262609

  15. Postnatal Ovary Development in the Rat: Morphologic Study and Correlation of Morphology to Neuroendocrine Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Picut, Catherine A.; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L.; Stump, Donald G.; Parker, George A.; Remick, Amera K.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0–7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of “atypical” follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8–14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15–20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their “atypical” appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21–32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33–37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat. PMID:25107574

  16. Postnatal ovary development in the rat: morphologic study and correlation of morphology to neuroendocrine parameters.

    PubMed

    Picut, Catherine A; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L; Stump, Donald G; Parker, George A; Remick, Amera K

    2015-04-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0-7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of "atypical" follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8-14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15-20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their "atypical" appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21-32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33-37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat.

  17. Foxl2 functions in sex determination and histogenesis throughout mouse ovary development

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ortiz, José Elias; Pelosi, Emanuele; Omari, Shakib; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Karmazin, Jesse; Uda, Manuela; Cao, Antonio; Cole, Steve W; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David; Ottolenghi, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of female sex determination independently of other critical genes, e.g., Rspo1. Here we report expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit/c-Kit. Results Following Foxl2 loss, early testis genes (including Inhbb, Dhh, and Sox9) and several novel ovarian genes were consistently dysregulated during embryonic development. In the absence of Foxl2, expression changes affecting a large fraction of pathways were opposite those observed in Wnt4-null ovaries, reinforcing the notion that these genes have complementary actions in ovary development. Loss of one copy of Foxl2 revealed strong gene dosage sensitivity, with molecular anomalies that were milder but resembled ovaries lacking both Foxl2 alleles. Furthermore, a Foxl2 transgene disrupted embryonic testis differentiation and increased the levels of key female markers. Conclusion The results, including a comprehensive principal component analysis, 1) support the proposal of dose-dependent Foxl2 function and anti-testis action throughout ovary differentiation; and 2) identify candidate genes for roles in sex determination independent of FOXL2 (e.g., the transcription factors IRX3 and ZBTB7C) and in the generation of the ovarian reserve downstream of FOXL2 (e.g., the cadherin-domain protein CLSTN2 and the sphingomyelin synthase SGMS2). The gene inventory is a first step toward the identification of the full range of pathways with partly autonomous roles in ovary development, and thus provides a framework to analyze the genetic bases of female fertility. PMID:19538736

  18. Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor γ (mPRγ) and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPRγ was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-α was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-α content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds.

  19. Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N.

    1995-03-01

    The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight.

  1. Yolk proteins during ovary and egg development of mature female freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Vitellins from ovaries and eggs at different stages of development in freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were examined by chromatography, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. With these methods, two forms of vitellin (Vt1 and Vt2) were observed in ovaries and eggs (stages I and V). In ovaries in secondary vitellogenesis, native molecular mass was 470 (Vt1) and 440 (Vt2) kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the eggs proved to be more complex. The protein molecular mass depend on the development stage of the egg: stage I, 650 kDa (Vt1) and 440 kDa (Vt2); stage V, 390 kDa (Vt1) and 340 kDa (Vt2). The identified vitellins appear to be lipo-glycocarotenoprotein. A similar vitellin polypeptide composition was observed in the two forms of vitellin from ovaries and eggs in stage V. In ovaries the SDS-PAGE analysis showed four subunits with molecular weights of approximately 180, 120, 95 and 80 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2). The polypeptide composition in the two forms of vitellins in stage I and stage III eggs were different at 195, 190, 130 and 110 kDa (Vt1) and 116 and 107 kDa (Vt2). On the other hand, in stage V eggs, 110, 95, 87 and 75 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2) were identified. Two antibodies (Ab1 and Ab2) were prepared against the purified proteins of stage V eggs and their specificity was demonstrated by radial immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting analysis. Two forms of vitellins were also found in stage V eggs after chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B column and hydroxylapatite and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  2. Ovary-derived precursor gibberellin A9 is essential for female flower development in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Lange, Theo

    2016-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are hormones that control many aspects of plant development, including flowering. It is well known that stamen is the source of GAs that regulate male and bisexual flower development. However, little is known about the role of GAs in female flower development. In cucumber, high levels of GA precursors are present in ovaries and high levels of bioactive GA4 are identified in sepals/petals, reflecting the expression of GA 20-oxidase and 3-oxidase in these organs, respectively. Here, we show that the biologically inactive precursor GA9 moves from ovaries to sepal/petal tissues where it is converted to the bioactive GA4 necessary for female flower development. Transient expression of a catabolic GA 2-oxidase from pumpkin in cucumber ovaries decreases GA9 and GA4 levels and arrests the development of female flowers, and this can be restored by application of GA9 to petals thus confirming its function. Given that bioactive GAs can promote sex reversion of female flowers, movement of biologically inactive precursors, instead of the hormone itself, might help to maintain floral organ identity, ensuring fruit and seed production. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Neuroendocrine androgen action is a key extraovarian mediator in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Aimee S L; Edwards, Melissa C; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Gilchrist, Robert B; Handelsman, David J; Walters, Kirsty A

    2017-03-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder characterized by reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities. As the origins of PCOS remain unknown, mechanism-based treatments are not feasible and current management relies on treatment of symptoms. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent PCOS characteristic; however, it is unclear whether androgen excess, which is treatable, is a cause or a consequence of PCOS. As androgens mediate their actions via the androgen receptor (AR), we combined a mouse model of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PCOS with global and cell-specific AR-resistant (ARKO) mice to investigate the locus of androgen actions that mediate the development of the PCOS phenotype. Global loss of the AR reveals that AR signaling is required for all DHT-induced features of PCOS. Neuron-specific AR signaling was required for the development of dysfunctional ovulation, classic polycystic ovaries, reduced large antral follicle health, and several metabolic traits including obesity and dyslipidemia. In addition, ovariectomized ARKO hosts with wild-type ovary transplants displayed normal estrous cycles and corpora lutea, despite DHT treatment, implying extraovarian and not intraovarian AR actions are key loci of androgen action in generating the PCOS phenotype. These findings provide strong evidence that neuroendocrine genomic AR signaling is an important extraovarian mediator in the development of PCOS traits. Thus, targeting AR-driven mechanisms that initiate PCOS is a promising strategy for the development of novel treatments for PCOS.

  4. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (< 1200 Da) cytosolic materials. These channels are a growing family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Demonstration of cytokeratin intermediate filaments in oocytes of the developing and adult human ovary.

    PubMed

    Santini, D; Ceccarelli, C; Mazzoleni, G; Pasquinelli, G; Jasonni, V M; Martinelli, G N

    1993-04-01

    The intermediate filaments (IF) present in the various cells of human ovaries were studied by immunolocalization using antibodies to cytokeratins (CKs), vimentin, desmin and alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-SM) actin. Oocytes revealed a single paranuclear aggregate, which reacted with antibodies to CKs 8, 18 and 19 both in adult and fetal ovaries. The existence of this aggregate was also documented by electron microscopy. Ovarian surface epithelium and granulosa cells consistently coexpressed CKs 8, 18, 19 and vimentin. During follicle maturation vimentin remained unchanged in the granulosa layer while CKs content decreased, showing variation in the amount and distribution of the different CK-types. Thecal cells of secondary and mature follicles showed alpha-SM actin positivity. These contractile fibres increased in mature follicles. Ordinary fibrous stromal cells showed isolated cells which were desmin and alpha-SM actin positive. A similar pattern of IF expression and distribution existed in all stages of development in fetal and embryonic ovaries. These results indicate that CKs are present in human oocytes and that the coexpression of vimentin and CKs can be regarded as a peculiar feature of all ovarian cell types except oocytes and ordinary stromal cells. Contractile properties have been documented associated with a modification in expression of IF proteins. This is likely to represent an integral part of folliculogenesis along with the functional hormone-dependent changes.

  6. Hormonal regulation of early follicle development in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, A J; McGee, E A; Hayashi, M; Hsu, S Y

    2000-05-25

    Although earlier studies focused on the hormonal regulation of antral and preovulatory follicles, recent studies indicate the importance of the hormonal control mechanism for preantral follicles. The endocrine hormone FSH is not only a survival factor for early antral follicles but also a potent growth and differentiation factor for preantral follicles. In addition, KGF secreted by theca cells and c-kit ligand secreted by granulosa cells play paracrine roles in the regulation of preantral follicle growth and development. Furthermore oocyte-derived GDF-9 promotes the growth and differentiation of early follicles by acting on somatic cells in the follicle. It is likely that the genetic makeup of an oocyte could determine the secretion of oocyte hormones which would, in turn, regulate the growth and differentiation of the surrounding somatic cells of that follicle. A better understanding of the hormonal mechanisms underlying early follicle development could provide a refined culture system for the in vitro maturation of fertilizable oocytes and future design of fertility and contraceptive agents.

  7. Cytokine activation during embryonic development and in hen ovary and vagina during reproductive age and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of 11 proinflammatory cytokines in the chicken embryos during embryonic development, as well as in the hen ovary and vagina in vivo, to investigate whether sexual maturation affects their ovarian and vaginal mRNA abundance and to determine whether cytokine expression was constitutive or induced in the ovary and vagina as a response to SE infection. RT-PCR analysis revealed that several cytokines were expressed in the chicken embryos, and in the ovary and vagina of healthy birds. Expression of various cytokines during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated. In addition, a significant up-regulation of several cytokines in the ovary and vagina of sexually mature SE infected birds compared to healthy birds of the same age was observed. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the hen reproductive organs.

  8. Roles and regulation of cytokinins in tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kaori; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Imanishi, Shunsuke

    2012-09-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are thought to play important roles in fruit development, especially cell division. However, the mechanisms and regulation of CK activity have not been well investigated. This study analysed CK concentrations and expression of genes involved in CK metabolism in developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ovaries. The concentrations of CK ribosides and isopentenyladenine and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT3, SlIPT4, SlLOG6, and SlLOG8 were high at anthesis and decreased immediately afterward. In contrast, trans-zeatin concentration and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT1, SlIPT2, SlCYP735A1, SlCYP735A2, and SlLOG2 increased after anthesis. The expression of type-A response regulator genes was high in tomato ovaries from pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the CK signal transduction pathway is active in the cell division phase of fruit development. This study also investigated the effect of CK application on fruit set and development. Application of a synthetic CK, N-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), to unpollinated tomato ovaries induced parthenocarpic fruit development. The CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits were smaller than pollinated fruits, because of reduction of pericarp cell size rather than reduced cell number. Thus, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was attributable to the promotion of cell division, not cell expansion. Overall, the results provide evidence that CKs are involved in cell division during development of tomato fruit.

  9. Roles and regulation of cytokinins in tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Honda, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are thought to play important roles in fruit development, especially cell division. However, the mechanisms and regulation of CK activity have not been well investigated. This study analysed CK concentrations and expression of genes involved in CK metabolism in developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ovaries. The concentrations of CK ribosides and isopentenyladenine and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT3, SlIPT4, SlLOG6, and SlLOG8 were high at anthesis and decreased immediately afterward. In contrast, trans-zeatin concentration and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT1, SlIPT2, SlCYP735A1, SlCYP735A2, and SlLOG2 increased after anthesis. The expression of type-A response regulator genes was high in tomato ovaries from pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the CK signal transduction pathway is active in the cell division phase of fruit development. This study also investigated the effect of CK application on fruit set and development. Application of a synthetic CK, N-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-N’-phenylurea (CPPU), to unpollinated tomato ovaries induced parthenocarpic fruit development. The CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits were smaller than pollinated fruits, because of reduction of pericarp cell size rather than reduced cell number. Thus, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was attributable to the promotion of cell division, not cell expansion. Overall, the results provide evidence that CKs are involved in cell division during development of tomato fruit. PMID:22865911

  10. The role of ovarian surface epithelium in folliculogenesis during fetal development of the bovine ovary: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, R A M; Vermehren, M; Ebach, K; Sinowatz, F

    2013-01-01

    Although many aspects of ovarian differentiation have been established, comparatively little is known about prenatal follicle formation and differentiation of bovine ovaries. The objective of this investigation was to study the role of the surface epithelium during the development of germ cell nests, germ cell cords and follicle formation in the fetal bovine ovary. Associated important proliferation and apoptotic features were further investigated. Additionally, the expression pattern of the S100 protein was detected. A strong increase of mitotic figures was detected in the surface epithelium, germ cell nests and germ cell cords of ovaries with a crown-rump length (CRL) of 13.0-58.0 cm. Oocytes were positively stained with S100 in bovine ovaries from fetuses with a CRL of 21.0 cm. The staining intensity enhanced parallel to increasing oocyte and follicle sizes during the ovary development. In later stages, a strong staining for S100 was observed in healthy oocytes in contradistinction to atretic oocytes where no expression of the S100 protein could be found. In conclusion, increasing mitosis index of surface epithelium cells, as well as oogonia directly beneath the surface epithelium, in combination with open surface connection during stages from a CRL of 11.0-94.0 cm of bovine fetal ovaries could play an important role in the period of time of ongoing folliculogenesis and derivation of granulosa cells. Additionally, S100-positive oocytes in primordial and later follicle stages joined by a high rate of Ki67-positive index in surrounding granulosa cells indicate that in the oocytes the S100 protein can perhaps be a useful marker for intact oocytes in bovine ovaries. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Expression of the le Mutation in Young Ovaries of Pisum sativum and Its Effect on Fruit Development.

    PubMed Central

    Santes, C. M.; Hedden, P.; Sponsel, V. M.; Reid, J. B.; Garcia-Martinez, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the le mutation on the growth and gibberellin (GA) content of developing fruits was investigated using the near-isogenic lines of Pisum sativum L. 205+ (LeLe) and 205- (lele). Although stem elongation is known to be reduced in 205- plants by approximately 65%, the growth of pods and seeds was unaffected by the le mutation. GA1, GA3, and GA20 stimulated parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries on both 205+ and 205- plants. GA20 was less active on 205- ovaries than on 205+, whereas GA1 had similar, high activity in both lines. The activity of GA3 was even higher than that of GA1 in both lines. Decapitation of 205+ plants induced parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries, but this treatment was much less effective on 205- plants. The contents of GA1 and GA8 in entire ovaries 6 d after anthesis, as well as in the pod and fertilized ovules, were substantially lower in 205- than in 205+ plants, whereas the reverse was true for the levels of GA20 and GA29. These results suggest that 3[beta]-hydroxylation of GA20 to GA1 is reduced in ovaries as well as in vegetative tissues. Thus, the le mutation appears to be expressed in young reproductive organs of the 205- line, even though it does not affect the fruit phenotype. Because the content of GA3 in the ovary was similar in the two lines, one explanation for the normal fruit size in the 205- line is that GA3 is the native regulator of pod growth. Alternatively, sufficient GA1 may still be produced in 205- fruits to maintain normal pod growth. PMID:12231727

  12. The two classes of primordial follicles in the mouse ovary: their development, physiological functions and implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Kui

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian follicles are the basic functional units in the mammalian ovary. This review summarizes early pioneering studies and focuses on recent progress that has shown that there are two distinct classes of primordial follicles in the ovary: the first wave of primordial follicles that are activated immediately after they are formed and the adult primordial follicles that are activated gradually in later life. These two separate classes have been proposed for two decades, but sufficient experimental evidence to support this hypothesis has only been obtained recently using newly developed follicular tracing techniques in genetically modified mouse models. These two follicle populations differ from each other primarily in terms of their developmental dynamics and their contributions to ovarian physiology. It is apparent now that these two follicle populations should be treated separately, and such knowledge will hopefully lead to a more in-depth understanding of how distinct types of primordial follicles contribute to physiologic and pathologic alterations of the mammalian ovary.

  13. The Influence of LepR Tyrosine Site Mutations on Mouse Ovary Development and Related Gene Expression Changes

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiaoyu; Kuang, Zhichao; Gong, Xia; Shi, Yan; Yu, Lin; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    Leptin exerts many biological functions, such as in metabolism and reproduction, through binding to and activating the leptin receptor, LepRb, which is expressed in many regions of the brain. To better understand the roles of LepR downstream signaling pathways, Y123F mice, which expressed mutant leptin receptors with phenylalanine (F) substituted for three tyrosines (Y) (Tyr985, Tyr1077 and Tyr1138), were generated. The body weight and abdominal fat deposits of Y123F homozygous mice (HOM) were higher than those of wild-type mice (WT). HOM ovaries were atrophic and the follicles developed abnormally; however, the HOM ovaries did not exhibit polycystic phenotypes. Moreover, Y123F HOM adults had no estrous cycle and the blood estrogen concentration remained stable at a low level below detection limit of 5 pg/ml. LepR expression in HOM ovaries was higher than in WT ovaries. Using cDNA Microarrays, the mRNA expressions of 41 genes were increased, and 100 were decreased in HOM vs. WT ovaries, and many signaling pathways were evaluated to be involved significantly. The expressions of 19 genes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR, most of which were consistent with the microarray results. Thus, Y123F HOM mice were suggested as a new animal model of PCOS for research that mainly emphasizes metabolic disorders and anovulation, but not the polycystic phenotype. Meanwhile, using the model, we found that JAK-STAT and hormone biosynthesis pathways were involved in the follicular development and ovulation disorders caused by LepR deficiency in ovaries, although we could not exclude indirect actions from the brain. PMID:26529315

  14. Development of a method for long-term preservation of Bombyx mori silkworm strains using frozen ovaries.

    PubMed

    Banno, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Kiyomi; Tsukada, Marino; Minohara, Yuko; Banno, Junko; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Tamura, Kei; Fujii, Tsuguru

    2013-06-01

    Development of long-term preservation is essential for conservation of stocks of silkworm genetic resources. Thus far, a few methods have been reported, but more improvement is required for practical use. We have developed two effective modifications of a method for long-term preservation using frozen ovaries. One was slow cooling (1 °C per min) until -80 °C of the donor ovaries made possible by use of a BICELL freezing vessel. Using donor ovaries of 4th instar larvae, the average number of eggs laid per moth increased significantly from 110.7 ± 53.4 eggs per moth by slow cooling with the BICELL vessel vs 12.3 ± 10.3 eggs per moth by direct cooling in liquid nitrogen. A second improvement was connecting the thread bodies of the donor ovaries with those of the host in the transplantation step. Females operated on with the new method yielded a significantly higher percentage of moths that laid fertilized eggs than those transplanted with the standard procedure (70.4 ± 21.6% vs 22.9 ± 9.3%).

  15. Sexual bipotentiality of developing ovaries in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1997-07-01

    The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically in Armadillidium vulgare given a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that were in stages 5 and 6 of development. Partial formation of testes was induced after implantation of an AG into stage 7 and 8 females. When an AG was implanted into a stage 9 female, development of a functional testis was not observed, but the ovaries were partially masculinized. These results show that after the onset of sex differentiation female gonads retain sexual bipotentiality through several stages of postembryonic development. Implantation of one AG into a female is enough to induce gonadal masculinization and sex reversal in this species. The AG implant up to stage 6 (3.4 mm in body length) is an experimental procedure certain to transform a genetic female into a functional male. The process of gonadal development in female A. vulgare is discussed.

  16. Sequential, Divergent and Cooperative Requirements of Foxl2a and Foxl2b in Ovary Development and Maintenance of Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Jing; Wang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-02-13

    Foxl2 is essential for mammalian ovary maintenance. Although sexually dimorphic expression of foxl2 was observed in many teleost, its role and regulative mechanism in fish remained largely unclear. In this study, we first identified two transcript variants of foxl2a and its homologous gene foxl2b in zebrafish, and revealed their specific expression in follicular layer cells in a sequential and divergent fashion during ovary differentiation, maturation and maintenance. Then, homozygous foxl2a mutants (foxl2a(-/-)) and foxl2b mutants (foxl2b(-/-)) were constructed, and detailed comparisons, such as sex ratio, gonadal histological structure, transcriptome profiling and dynamic expression of gonadal development-related genes, were carried out. Initial ovarian differentiation and oocyte development occur normally both in foxl2a(-/-) and foxl2b(-/-) mutants, but foxl2a and foxl2b disruptions result in premature ovarian failure and partial sex reversal in adult females respectively. In foxl2a(-/-) female mutants, sox9a-amh/cyp19a1a signaling was up-regulated at 150 day post fertilization (dpf) and subsequently triggers oocyte apoptosis after 180 dpf. In contrast, dmrt1 expression was greater at 105 dpf and increased several hundred fold in foxl2b(-/-) mutated ovaries at 270 dpf, along with other testis-related genes. Finally, homozygous foxl2a(-/-)/foxl2b(-/-) double mutants were constructed, in which complete sex reversal occurs early and testis-differentiation genes robustly increase at 60 dpf. Given mutual compensation between foxl2a and foxl2b in foxl2b(-/-) and foxl2a(-/-) mutants, we proposed a model, in which foxl2a and foxl2b cooperate to regulate zebrafish ovary development and maintenance, with foxl2b potentially having a dominant role in preventing the ovary from differentiating as testis, as compared to foxl2a.

  17. Comparison of ultrastructure, pollen tube growth pattern and starch content in developing and abortive ovaries during the progamic phase in hazel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Wang, Ju; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting

    2014-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS In an abortive ovary of hazel, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed.In an abortive ovary of hazel, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded.Ovary abortion in the four hybrid cultivars was indicated to be associated with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla was at least partly determined by pollen availability. In Northeast China, a high frequency of ovary abortion contributes to serious losses in yield of hazelnut. The development of pistillate inflorescences and fruit clusters of four large-fruited hybrid hazel cultivars and the small-fruited Corylus heterophylla were used to study ovary abortion and its possible causes during the progamic phase in hazel. The average number of pistillate (ANP) flowers per inflorescence and average number of fruit (ANF) per cluster of four hybrid hazel cultivars were 7.6–8.5 and 2.4–3.0 respectively; in C. heterophylla, its ANP and ANF was 5.8–6.2 and 3.5, respectively. The total drop varied from 50 to 67%. Ovary abortion in hazel initiated from about 30 days after blooming. The percentage of abortive ovaries (PAO) in the four hybrid hazel cultivars ranged from 63 to 72%, and was significantly higher than that of C. heterophylla (29–42%). Only the abortive ovary ratio of C. heterophylla was significantly reduced after artificial pollination. Fruit number per cluster was positively and negatively correlated with yield and nut mass, respectively. In abortive ovaries, the diameter remained less than 2 mm during the entire fruit development, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed. In addition, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded. Compared with abortive ovary, starch content in developing ovary

  18. Comparison of ultrastructure, pollen tube growth pattern and starch content in developing and abortive ovaries during the progamic phase in hazel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Wang, Ju; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting

    2014-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTSIn an abortive ovary of hazel, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed.In an abortive ovary of hazel, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded.Ovary abortion in the four hybrid cultivars was indicated to be associated with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla was at least partly determined by pollen availability. In Northeast China, a high frequency of ovary abortion contributes to serious losses in yield of hazelnut. The development of pistillate inflorescences and fruit clusters of four large-fruited hybrid hazel cultivars and the small-fruited Corylus heterophylla were used to study ovary abortion and its possible causes during the progamic phase in hazel. The average number of pistillate (ANP) flowers per inflorescence and average number of fruit (ANF) per cluster of four hybrid hazel cultivars were 7.6-8.5 and 2.4-3.0 respectively; in C. heterophylla, its ANP and ANF was 5.8-6.2 and 3.5, respectively. The total drop varied from 50 to 67%. Ovary abortion in hazel initiated from about 30 days after blooming. The percentage of abortive ovaries (PAO) in the four hybrid hazel cultivars ranged from 63 to 72%, and was significantly higher than that of C. heterophylla (29-42%). Only the abortive ovary ratio of C. heterophylla was significantly reduced after artificial pollination. Fruit number per cluster was positively and negatively correlated with yield and nut mass, respectively. In abortive ovaries, the diameter remained less than 2 mm during the entire fruit development, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed. In addition, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded. Compared with abortive ovary, starch content in developing ovary of four

  19. First step in developing a 3D biodegradable fibrin scaffold for an artificial ovary

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients, it is not advisable for women at risk of ovarian involvement due to the threat of reintroducing malignant cells. The aim of this study was therefore to find an alternative for these patients by development of an artificial ovary. Methods For construction of the artificial ovary matrix, we used a central composite design to investigate nine combinations of fibrinogen (mg/ml) and thrombin (IU/mL) (F/T): F1/T4, F12.5/T1, F12.5/T20, F25/T0.1, F25/T4, F25/T500, F50/T1, F50/T20 and F100/T4. From the first qualitative analyses (handling and matrix size), five combinations (F12.5/T1, F25/T4, F50/T20, F50/T1 and F100/T4) yielded positive results. They were further evaluated in order to assess fibrin matrix degradation and homogeneous cell encapsulation (density), survival and proliferation (Ki67), and atresia (TUNEL) before and after 7 days of in vitro culture. To determine the best compromise between maximizing the dynamic density (Y1) and minimizing the apoptosis rate (Y2), we used the desirability function approach. Results Two combinations (F12.5/T1 and F25/T4) showed greater distribution of cells before in vitro culture, reproducible degradation of the fibrin network and adequate support for isolated human ovarian stromal cells, with a high proportion of Ki67-positive cells. SEM analysis revealed a network of fibers with regular pores and healthy stromal cells after in vitro culture with both F/T combinations. Conclusion This study reports two optimal F/T combinations that allow survival and proliferation of isolated human ovarian cells. Further studies are required to determine if such a scaffold will also be a suitable environment for isolated ovarian follicles. PMID:24274108

  20. Effects of Periodically Repeated Heat Events on Reproduction and Ovary Development of Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Ting; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Wang, Ren; Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Insect development occurs within a specific temperature range. Constant temperature studies may produce misleading information on the eco-physiological impacts of temperature on the population dynamics of an insect species, as in most natural environments, temperature usually undergoes daily variation. In China, field surveys showed that the decline in the Agasicles hygrophila (Selman & Vogt) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population from early August to late September in summer resulted in difficulties in effectively controlling the population of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb (Amaranthaceae). Previous studies have largely ignored more natural, fluctuating conditions. In our study, we first investigated the impacts of different temperature conditions (25°C constant temperature for 20 h with a 4-h period of a high temperature of either 30°C, 33°C, 36°C, or 39°C) on adult reproduction and longevity, egg development time, egg hatch rate, female ovarian development, and oogenesis of A. hygrophila. Our results indicated that high temperatures of 30°C and 33°C did not affect the female ovarian development and oogenesis of A. hygrophila Contrarily, high temperatures of 36°C and 39°C negatively affected the population development of A. hygrophila. At 36°C and 39°C, the egg hatch rates were very low, and the egg development times significantly lengthened. The frequency of abnormal ovaries significantly rose at 39°C. We concluded that the decline in the A. hygrophila population during August and September may be related to the extreme high temperatures that frequently occur in summer. These results help provide a better understanding of A. hygrophila population dynamics under natural conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Integrated application of transcriptomics and metabolomics yields insights into population-asynchronous ovary development in Coilia nasus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gangchun; Du, Fukuan; Li, Yan; Nie, Zhijuan; Xu, Pao

    2016-01-01

    Populations of Coilia nasus demonstrate asynchronous ovarian development, which severely restricts artificial breeding and large-scale cultivation. In this study, we used a combination of transcriptomic and metabolomic methods to identify the key signaling pathways and genes regulation affecting ovarian development. We identified 565 compounds and generated 47,049 unigenes from ovary tissue. Fifteen metabolites and 830 genes were significantly up-regulated, while 27 metabolites and 642 genes were significantly down-regulated from stage III to stage IV of ovary development. Meanwhile, 31 metabolites and 1,932 genes were significantly up-regulated, and four metabolites and 764 genes were down-regulated from stage IV to stage V. These differentially expressed genes and metabolites were enriched by MetScape. Forty-three and 50 signaling pathways had important functions from stage III–IV and from stage IV–V in the ovary, respectively. Among the above signaling pathways, 39 played important roles from ovarian stage III–V, including “squalene and cholesterol biosynthesis”, “steroid hormone biosynthesis”, and “arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin formation” pathways which may thus have key roles in regulating asynchronous development. These results shed new light on our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for population-asynchronous development in fish. PMID:27545088

  2. CD90 and CD105 expression in the mouse ovary and testis at different stages of postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Tepekoy, Filiz; Ozturk, Saffet; Sozen, Berna; Ozay, Recep S; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Demir, Necdet

    2015-12-01

    CD90 (i.e., THY1) and CD105 (i.e., endoglin) are glycoproteins known as mesenchymal stem cell markers that are expressed in various cell types including male and female gonadal cells. We aimed to determine ovarian and testicular expression of CD90 and CD105 in various cell types during postnatal development in mice. The present study was carried out on male (C57BL/6) and female (Balb/C) mice during critical stages of gonadal development. Immunohistochemical localization of CD90 and CD105 was determined in the ovaries obtained at postnatal days (PND) -1, -7, -21 and -60 and in the testes obtained at PND6, -8, -16, -20, -29, -32 and -88. The relative expression of CD90 and CD105 was evaluated by ImageJ software and data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The relative expression of CD90 and CD105 varied during postnatal development and increased significantly in the adult ovary (PND60) and testis (PND88) compared to the early postnatal gonads. In the ovaries, the expression of CD90 was significantly higher in somatic cells in comparison to germ cell compartments. In the testis, CD90 expression was greater in germ cells and Sertoli cells compared to other cell types. Expression of CD105 was higher in germ cells than somatic cells of both the ovary and testis. In addition to different expression of CD90 and CD105 during various developmental stages, also their altered expression in particular cell types suggests specific roles of these glycoproteins in physiological processes of mouse gonads.

  3. NR5A1/SF-1 and development and function of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Bashamboo, A; McElreavey, K

    2010-05-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as cessation of menstruation with associated elevation of gonadotropin levels as a result of decreased ovarian function before the age of 40. The incidence of POI is 1% in women prior to age 40, and 0.1% prior to age 30. There is evidence of a strong genetic component associated with POI. However, the gene mutations/variations influencing POI still remain uncharacterized. NR5A1, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a key transcriptional regulator of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal steroidogenic axis. Newborn mice deficient in NR5A1 lack both gonads and adrenal glands and have impaired expression of pituitary gonadotrophins. NR5A1 is also expressed in multiple cell types in the fetal, postnatal, prepubertal and mature ovary. Until 2008, 18 NR5A1 mutations were described in the human. Three of these were identified in individuals with adrenal insufficiency, two associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) and the third a 46,XX female with conserved ovarian function. Other mutations were associated with various anomalies of testis development with no evidence of adrenal failure. We have identified further 19 mutations in NR5A1 including mutations in four familial cases having individuals with 46,XY DSD as well as POI. A further analysis of 25 sporadic cases of POI revealed two additional mutations. Functional analysis revealed that each mutant protein had altered transactivational properties on gonadal promoters. These data reveal novels insights into the role of NR5A1 in ovarian developmental and function and indicate that mutations of the NR5A1 gene may be a significant cause of human ovarian insufficiency. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Successful boll development after ovary damage during emasculation of upland cotton flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gossypium hirsutum flowers are easily emasculated by splitting the staminal column with the fingernail and removing the corolla and androecium. However, any damage to the ovary is considered detrimental to successful boll formation and damaged flowers are typically discarded. This study evaluated ...

  5. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-11-10

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p < 0.001), and high lipid accumulation product (LAP) (OR = 1.009, CI: 1.003; 1.016, p = 0.005). Furthermore, prediabetes was associated with low 25-OHD (OR = 0.795, CI: 0.724; 0.880, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p < 0.001). We showed association of prediabetes with high BMI, IR, markers of inflammation, LAP, and low serum 25-OHD concentration. IR appears to be more relevant than the other predictors of prediabetes risk in this study. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes.

  6. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p < 0.001), and high lipid accumulation product (LAP) (OR = 1.009, CI: 1.003; 1.016, p = 0.005). Furthermore, prediabetes was associated with low 25-OHD (OR = 0.795, CI: 0.724; 0.880, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p < 0.001). We showed association of prediabetes with high BMI, IR, markers of inflammation, LAP, and low serum 25-OHD concentration. IR appears to be more relevant than the other predictors of prediabetes risk in this study. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes. PMID:27648989

  7. Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control germline stem cell lineage development in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Su; Do, Trieu; Song, Xiaoqing; Inaba, Mayu; Nishimoto, Yoshiya; Liu, Lu-ping; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Li, Hui; McDowell, William; Park, Jungeun; Malanowski, Kate; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Haug, Jeff; Yamashita, Yukiko; Lin, Haifan; Ni, Jian-quan; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The piRNA pathway plays an important role in maintaining genome stability in the germ line by silencing transposable elements (TEs) from fly to mammals. As a highly conserved piRNA pathway component, Piwi is widely expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells in the Drosophila ovary and is required for piRNA production in both cell types. In addition to its known role in somatic cap cells to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs), this study has demonstrated that Piwi has novel functions in somatic cells and germ cells of the Drosophila ovary to promote germ cell differentiation. Piwi knockdown in escort cells causes a reduction in escort cell (EC) number and accumulation of undifferentiated germ cells, some of which show active BMP signaling, indicating that Piwi is required to maintain ECs and promote germ cell differentiation. Simultaneous knockdown of dpp, encoding a BMP, in ECs can partially rescue the germ cell differentiation defect, indicating that Piwi is required in ECs to repress dpp. Consistent with its key role in piRNA production, TE transcripts increase significantly and DNA damage is also elevated in the piwi knockdown somatic cells. Germ cell-specific knockdown of piwi surprisingly causes depletion of germ cells before adulthood, suggesting that Piwi might control primordial germ cell maintenance or GSC establishment. Finally, Piwi inactivation in the germ line of the adult ovary leads to gradual GSC loss and germ cell differentiation defects, indicating the intrinsic role of Piwi in adult GSC maintenance and differentiation. This study has revealed new germline requirement of Piwi in controlling GSC maintenance and lineage differentiation as well as its new somatic function in promoting germ cell differentiation. Therefore, Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control GSC lineage development in the Drosophila ovary.

  8. Piwi Is Required in Multiple Cell Types to Control Germline Stem Cell Lineage Development in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Su; Do, Trieu; Song, Xiaoqing; Inaba, Mayu; Nishimoto, Yoshiya; Liu, Lu-ping; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Li, Hui; McDowell, William; Park, Jungeun; Malanowski, Kate; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Haug, Jeff; Yamashita, Yukiko; Lin, Haifan; Ni, Jian-quan; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The piRNA pathway plays an important role in maintaining genome stability in the germ line by silencing transposable elements (TEs) from fly to mammals. As a highly conserved piRNA pathway component, Piwi is widely expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells in the Drosophila ovary and is required for piRNA production in both cell types. In addition to its known role in somatic cap cells to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs), this study has demonstrated that Piwi has novel functions in somatic cells and germ cells of the Drosophila ovary to promote germ cell differentiation. Piwi knockdown in escort cells causes a reduction in escort cell (EC) number and accumulation of undifferentiated germ cells, some of which show active BMP signaling, indicating that Piwi is required to maintain ECs and promote germ cell differentiation. Simultaneous knockdown of dpp, encoding a BMP, in ECs can partially rescue the germ cell differentiation defect, indicating that Piwi is required in ECs to repress dpp. Consistent with its key role in piRNA production, TE transcripts increase significantly and DNA damage is also elevated in the piwi knockdown somatic cells. Germ cell-specific knockdown of piwi surprisingly causes depletion of germ cells before adulthood, suggesting that Piwi might control primordial germ cell maintenance or GSC establishment. Finally, Piwi inactivation in the germ line of the adult ovary leads to gradual GSC loss and germ cell differentiation defects, indicating the intrinsic role of Piwi in adult GSC maintenance and differentiation. This study has revealed new germline requirement of Piwi in controlling GSC maintenance and lineage differentiation as well as its new somatic function in promoting germ cell differentiation. Therefore, Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control GSC lineage development in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:24658126

  9. Expression of Intermediate Filaments and Germ Cell Markers in the Developing Bovine Ovary: An Immunohistochemical and Laser-Assisted Microdissection Study.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, Rebecca Anna-Maria; Sauer, Ulrich; Vermehren, Margarete; Sinowatz, Fred

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, bovine ovary prenatal development was studied using immunohistochemistry and laser-assisted microdissection (LAM). A major aim of this study was to evaluate the protein expression pattern of intermediate filaments (IF) and distinguish S100 protein (S100 alpha and S100 beta protein) isoforms during prenatal follicle differentiation, subsequently correlating them with germ cell marker expression. A development-specific expression pattern of different keratins as well as vimentin was detected in the prenatal bovine ovary; K18-specific expression was found during all developmental stages (i.e. in surface epithelium, germ cell cord somatic cells, and follicle cells), and keratins 5, 7, 8, 14, and 19 and vimentin had a stage-specific expression pattern in the different cell populations of the prenatal ovaries. Additionally, our results represent new data on the expression pattern of germ cell markers during bovine ovary prenatal development. S100 alpha and beta protein was localized to oocyte cytoplasm of different follicle stages, and S100 alpha staining could be observed in granulosa cells. Furthermore, through isolation of characteristic ovary cell populations using LAM, specific confirmation of some genes of interest (KRT8, KRT18, S100 alpha, S100 beta, and OCT4, DDX4) could be obtained by RT-PCR in single cell groups of the developing bovine ovary. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Development of Incompletely Fused Carpels in Maize Ovary Revealed by miRNA, Target Gene and Phytohormone Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongping; Peng, Ting; Wang, Qun; Wu, Yufeng; Chang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Moubiao; Tang, Guiliang; Li, Chaohai

    2017-01-01

    Although the molecular basis of carpel fusion in maize ovary development remains largely unknown, increasing evidence suggests a critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, a combination of miRNA sequencing, degradome and physiological analyses was used to characterize carpel fusion development in maize ovaries showing incompletely (IFC) and completely fused carpels (CFC). A total of 162 known miRNAs distributed across 33 families were identified, of which 20 were differentially expressed. In addition, 53 miRNA candidates were identified, of which 10 were differentially expressed in the IFC and CFC ovaries. In degradome analysis, a total of 113 and 11 target genes were predicted for the known and novel miRNAs, respectively. Moreover, 24 (60%) target genes of the differentially expressed known miRNAs were found to code transcription factors, including auxin response factor (ARF), TB1-CYC-PCFs (TCP), APETALA2 (AP2), growth regulating factor (GRF), MYB, NAC, and NF-YA, all of which have been shown to play a role in carpel fusion development. Correlation analysis of these differentially expressed known miRNAs and their targets with phytohormone signals revealed significant correlations with at least one phytohormone signal, the main regulator of carpel fusion development. These results suggest that incomplete carpel fusion is partly the result of differential expression of certain miRNAs and their targets. Overall, these findings improve our knowledge of the effect of miRNA regulation on target expression, providing a useful resource for further analysis of the interactions between miRNAs, target genes and phytohormones during carpel fusion development in maize. PMID:28421097

  11. Vasoactive intestinal peptide enhanced aromatase activity in the neonatal rat ovary before development of primary follicles or responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    George, F.W.; Ojeda, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have investigated the factors that regulate aromatase activity in fetal-neonatal rat ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity (assessed by measuring the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed from (1..beta..-/sup 3/H)testosterone) is low prior to birth and increases to values greater than 30 pmol/hr per mg of protein between days 8 and 12 after birth. The appearance of ovarian aromatase coincides with the development of primordial follicles. Fetal-neonatal ovaries maintained in serum-free organ culture do not develop aromatase activity at the expected time. Ovine follicle-stimulating hormone, ovine luteinizing hormone, or their combination failed to induce the enzyme activity in cultured fetal ovaries, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone is effective in preventing the decline in aromatase activity when postnatal day 8 ovaries are placed in culture. In contrast to follicle-stimulating hormone, dibutyryl-cAMP markedly enhances ovarian aromatase in cultured fetal ovaries. Likewise, enhancement of endogenouse cAMP formation with forskolin or cholera toxin caused an increase in enzyme activity within 24 hr. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a peptide known to occur in ovarian nerves, caused a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity in fetal ovaries prior to folliculogenesis. Of related peptides tested, only the peptide having N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine amide was capable of inducing aromatase activity in fetal ovaries. The fact that VIP can induce aromatase activity in fetal rat ovaries prior to follicle formation and prior to responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone suggests that this neuropeptide may play a critical role in ovarian differentiation.

  12. Vasoactive intestinal peptide enhances aromatase activity in the neonatal rat ovary before development of primary follicles or responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed Central

    George, F W; Ojeda, S R

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the factors that regulate aromatase activity in fetal-neonatal rat ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity (assessed by measuring the amount of 3H2O) formed from [1 beta-3H]testosterone) is low prior to birth (less than 0.5 pmol/hr per mg of protein) and increases to values greater than 30 pmol/hr per mg of protein between days 8 and 12 after birth. The appearance of ovarian aromatase (postnatal days 2-4) coincides with the development of primordial follicles. Fetal-neonatal ovaries maintained in serum-free organ culture do not develop aromatase activity at the expected time. Ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (0.1-1 microgram/ml), ovine luteinizing hormone (0.1 microgram/ml), or their combination failed to induce the enzyme activity in cultured fetal ovaries, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone is effective in preventing the decline in aromatase activity when postnatal day 8 ovaries are placed in culture. In contrast to follicle-stimulating hormone, dibutyryl-cAMP markedly enhances ovarian aromatase in cultured fetal ovaries. Likewise, enhancement of endogenous cAMP formation with forskolin or cholera toxin caused an increase in enzyme activity within 24 hr. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a peptide known to occur in ovarian nerves, caused a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity in fetal ovaries prior to folliculogenesis. Of related peptides tested, only the peptide having N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine amide was capable of inducing aromatase activity in fetal ovaries. The fact that VIP can induce aromatase activity in fetal rat ovaries prior to follicle formation and prior to responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone suggests that this neuropeptide may play a critical role in ovarian differentiation. Images PMID:3039508

  13. Evidence of metachronous development of ovarian teratomas: a case report of bilateral mature cystic teratomas of the ovaries and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-03-14

    Mature cystic teratomas are usually found in the ovaries. They are bilateral in 10 to 15% of cases and multiple cystic teratomas may be present in one ovary. The aim of this study is to clarify if development of mature cystic teratomas of the ovaries in a single host is metachronous or due to autoimplant or recurrence. We report a woman with bilateral mature cystic teratomas of the ovaries. DNA profiles of these teratomas were investigated via short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and methylation statuses were determined via methylation sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification methods. The results showed that the cystic teratomas originated from different stages of oogonia or primary oocyte before germinal vesicle stage failure of meiosis I in female gametogenesis. Potentially relevant literature was searched in PubMed database. Cases of bilateral or multiple mature cystic teratomas of the ovaries were analyzed. To date, there has been no reported case of multiple mature cystic teratomas in which clarification of the origin was achieved using molecular genetic methods. The results of this case study provide evidence of metachronous development of mature cystic teratomas of the ovaries and may serve as a reference in the management of patients following laparoscopic cystectomy.

  14. Growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J; Nöthling, Johan O; Allen, William R

    2012-07-23

    Follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the African elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. These have not been previously quantified in any studies. The collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2 months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2 months and 9 years of age during routine management off-takes of complete family groups in private conservancies in Zimbabwe provided an opportunity for a detailed study of this period. The changing morphology of the ovary is described as the presumptive cortex and medulla components of the fetal ovary settled into their adult form. Interstitial tissue dominated the ovary in late fetal life and these cells stained strongly for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This staining continued postnatally through to 4.5 years of age suggesting continued secretion of progestagens by the ovary during this period. The considerable growth of antral follicles peaked at 28% of ovarian volume at around 16.7 months of fetal age. The numbers of small follicles (primordial, early primary and true primary), counted in the cortex using stereological protocols, revealed fewer small follicles in the ovaries of animals aged 0 to 4.5 years of age than during either late fetal life or prepubertal life. The small follicle populations of the late-fetal and prepubertal ovaries of the African elephant were described along with the changing morphology of these organs. The changes noted represent a series of events that have been recorded only in the elephant and the giraffe species to date. The expansion of the interstitial tissue of the fetal ovary and its continued presence in early post natal life may well contribute to the control of follicle development in these early years. Further research is required to determine the reasons behind the variation

  15. New insights into implication of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in the prehierarchical follicle development of hen ovary.

    PubMed

    Qin, N; Fan, X C; Zhang, Y Y; Xu, X X; Tyasi, T L; Jing, Y; Mu, F; Wei, M L; Xu, R F

    2015-09-01

    The SLIT/Roundabout (ROBO) pathway is involved in follicle development of mammalian ovary, and 2 secreted hormones activin A and inhibin A have potential roles in modulation of the SLIT/ROBO system, but the related actions remain poorly understood in bird. The aims of the present study were to examine the spatial and temporal expression of the SLIT ligand genes (SLIT1, SLIT2, and SLIT3) and their receptor ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3, and ROBO4 genes in various-sized prehierarchical follicles during hen ovary development and the effects of activin A and inhibin A on the expression of these genes in the cultured hen follicles. Our result demonstrated that the transcripts of the 3 SLIT genes were highly expressed in the developing follicles and expression patterns of the SLIT transcripts were different from those of ROBO genes detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Both SLIT and ROBO transcripts were predominantly expressed in oocytes and granulosa cells from the prehierarchichal follicles examined by in situ hybridization. The localization for SLIT and ROBO proteins was revealed by immunohistochemistry similar to the spatial distribution of their transcript. In cultured follicles (4 to 8 mm in diameter), the expression levels of SLIT and ROBO members are hormonally regulated by activin A (10 ng/mL) and/or inhibin A (20 ng/mL) after treatment for 24 h. However, the expression of only SLIT2, SLIT3, and ROBO3 mRNA presented a directly opposite response to activin A and inhibin A hormones. These results indicate that SLIT/ROBO pathway is implicated in the prehierarchical follicular development of the hen ovary by an intrafollicular autocrine and/or paracrine action, and is influenced by activin A and inhibin A hormones.

  16. Analysis of LIN28A in early human ovary development and as a candidate gene for primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    El-Khairi, Ranna; Parnaik, Rahul; Duncan, Andrew J; Lin, Lin; Gerrelli, Dianne; Dattani, Mehul T; Conway, Gerard S; Achermann, John C

    2012-04-04

    Lin28 proteins are emerging as important regulators of microRNAs in endocrine systems. Lin28a regulates primordial germ cell development and puberty timing in mice, whereas the related protein LIN28B is associated with age at menarche in genome-wide association studies in humans. Here, we studied expression of LIN28A and LIN28B in early human gonad development. LIN28A increased in the developing ovary between 6 and 9weeks post conception, but not in the developing testis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated LIN28A in peripheral germ cells. LIN28B was expressed at lower levels in both tissues and did not increase with time. As disruption of Lin28a affects germ cell development in mice, LIN28A was considered a candidate gene for primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in humans. However, no significant changes were found in 50 women studied. These findings show LIN28A is strongly expressed in germ cells during early human ovary development, but disruption of LIN28A is not a common cause of POI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of LIN28A in early human ovary development and as a candidate gene for primary ovarian insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    El-Khairi, Ranna; Parnaik, Rahul; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Gerrelli, Dianne; Dattani, Mehul T.; Conway, Gerard S.; Achermann, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Lin28 proteins are emerging as important regulators of microRNAs in endocrine systems. Lin28a regulates primordial germ cell development and puberty timing in mice, whereas the related protein LIN28B is associated with age at menarche in genome-wide association studies in humans. Here, we studied expression of LIN28A and LIN28B in early human gonad development. LIN28A increased in the developing ovary between 6 and 9 weeks post conception, but not in the developing testis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated LIN28A in peripheral germ cells. LIN28B was expressed at lower levels in both tissues and did not increase with time. As disruption of Lin28a affects germ cell development in mice, LIN28A was considered a candidate gene for primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in humans. However, no significant changes were found in 50 women studied. These findings show LIN28A is strongly expressed in germ cells during early human ovary development, but disruption of LIN28A is not a common cause of POI. PMID:22240064

  18. [Neurotrophic control in the development and function of two endocrine organs: the ovary and the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vásquez, Siraam

    2007-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) are important for the survival, differentiation and function of sympathetic and sensorial neurons of central and peripheral nervous system. However, similar functions have been described of NTs in non-neural organs. Nerve Growth factor (NGF) participates in the foliculogenesis and ovulation in the ovary, as well as in the islet morphogenesis and insulin secretion of the pancreatic beta cell. The NTs act by binding to two distinct classes of transmembranal receptors: p75 and Trks. Both receptor types lead to activation of intracellular signaling cascades that end with cell survival or apoptosis. In this review different actions of the NTs in the ovarian and the pancreas are described.

  19. PeMADS6, a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene in Phalaenopsis equestris involved in petaloid formation, and correlated with flower longevity and ovary development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Fang; Chen, Hong-Ie; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wei, Wan-Ju; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Chuang, Ming-Hsiang; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the function of a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene, PeMADS6, from a native Phalaenopsis species, P. equestris. Southern blot analysis showed PeMADS6 as a single copy in the Phalaenopsis genome. Results of the determination of temporal and spatial expression showed that PeMADS6 was expressed and thus participated in the development of the sepals, petals, labellum and column in Phalaenopsis. Further confirmation of the expression pattern of PeMADS6 was carried out with in situ hybridization. Repressed expression of PeMADS6 in the orchid ovary was found to be pollination regulated, which suggests that the gene may have an inhibitory effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. In addition, auxin acted as the candidate signal to regulate the repression of PeMADS6 expression in the ovary. Furthermore, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically overexpressing PeMADS6 showed the morphology of petaloid sepals, with a 3- to 4-fold increase in flower longevity. Concomitantly, delayed fruit maturation was also observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis, which is consistent with the inhibitory effect of PeMADS6 on the development of the ovary. Thus, as a B-function gene, PeMADS6, not only specifies floral organ identity but has functions in flower longevity and ovary development in orchids.

  20. [Role of hormonal disturbances in sterility development for patients with benign formations of ovaries].

    PubMed

    Abdullaeva, L M; Babadzhanova, G S; Nazarova, D B; Muratova, N D; Ashurova, U A

    2012-01-01

    The article presents hormonal analysis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovaries system of 14 patients with sterility as well as of other 15 patients without sterility suffering from benign tumors or tumorous formations. The control group included 6 healthy women. The concentration of hormones in blood serum (FSH-follicle stimulating hormone, LH-lutein hormone, Prolactinum, Testosteronum, Oestradiolum, Progesterone) has been tested in dynamics of a menstrual cycle. Correlation of results of hormonal and histological analysis of a capsule of formation and a biopsy of a tissue of an ovary of these patients has revealed that formation occurrence irrespective of its histological type leads to suppression of the follicular apparatus. These disturbances are more symptomatic for patients with both epithelial cystomas and sterility. It gives evidence that these disturbances can cause sterility. Hormonal disturbances of patients with benign tumors or tumorous formations depend on formation presence, rather than of its histological type. Spontaneous recovery of reproductive function is marked at 35 % of patients. Efficiency of surgery treatment and rehabilitation therapy within the first year after surgery made up 60 %.

  1. MYBL2 guides autophagy suppressor VDAC2 in the developing ovary to inhibit autophagy through a complex of VDAC2-BECN1-BCL2L1 in mammals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Sheng, Yue; Fu, Xiazhou; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    Oogenesis is essential for female gamete production in mammals. The total number of ovarian follicles is determined early in life and production of ovarian oocytes is thought to stop during the lifetime. However, the molecular mechanisms underling oogenesis, particularly autophagy regulation in the ovary, remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal an important MYBL2-VDAC2-BECN1-BCL2L1 pathway linking autophagy suppression in the developing ovary. The transcription factors GATA1 and MYBL2 can bind to and activate the Vdac2 promoter. MYBL2 regulates the spatiotemporal expression of VDAC2 in the developing ovary. Strikingly, in the VDAC2 transgenic pigs (Sus scrofa/Ss), VDAC2 exerts its function by inhibiting autophagy in the ovary. In contrast, Vdac2 knockout promotes autophagy. Moreover, VDAC2-mediated autophagy suppression is dependent on its interactions with both BECN1 and BCL2L1 to stabilize the BECN1 and BCL2L1 complex, suggesting VDAC2 as an autophagy suppressor in the pathway. Our findings provide a functional connection among the VDAC2, MYBL2, the BECN1-BCL2L1 pathway and autophagy suppression in the developing ovary, which is implicated in improving female fecundity.

  2. Sequence and Expression Characteristics of Long Noncoding RNAs in Honey Bee Caste Development – Potential Novel Regulators for Transgressive Ovary Size

    PubMed Central

    Humann, Fernanda C.; Tiberio, Gustavo J.; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Division of labor in social insect colonies relies on a strong reproductive bias that favors queens. Although the ecological and evolutionary success attained through caste systems is well sketched out in terms of ultimate causes, the molecular and cellular underpinnings driving the development of caste phenotypes are still far from understood. Recent genomics approaches on honey bee developmental biology revealed a set of genes that are differentially expressed genes in larval ovaries and associated with transgressive ovary size in queens and massive cell death in workers. Amongst these, two contigs called special attention, both being over 200 bp in size and lacking apparent coding potential. Herein, we obtained their full cDNA sequences. These and their secondary structure characteristics placed in evidence that they are bona fide long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) differentially expressed in larval ovaries, thus named lncov1 and lncov2. Genomically, both map within a previously identified QTL on chromosome 11, associated with transgressive ovary size in honey bee workers. As lncov1 was over-expressed in worker ovaries we focused on this gene. Real-time qPCR analysis on larval worker ovaries evidenced an expression peak coinciding with the onset of autophagic cell death. Cellular localization analysis through fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed perinuclear spots resembling omega speckles known to regulate trafficking of RNA-binding proteins. With only four lncRNAs known so far in honey bees, two expressed in the ovaries, these findings open a novel perspective on regulatory factors acting in the fine tuning of developmental processes underlying phenotypic plasticity related to social life histories. PMID:24205350

  3. Sequence and expression characteristics of long noncoding RNAs in honey bee caste development--potential novel regulators for transgressive ovary size.

    PubMed

    Humann, Fernanda C; Tiberio, Gustavo J; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Division of labor in social insect colonies relies on a strong reproductive bias that favors queens. Although the ecological and evolutionary success attained through caste systems is well sketched out in terms of ultimate causes, the molecular and cellular underpinnings driving the development of caste phenotypes are still far from understood. Recent genomics approaches on honey bee developmental biology revealed a set of genes that are differentially expressed genes in larval ovaries and associated with transgressive ovary size in queens and massive cell death in workers. Amongst these, two contigs called special attention, both being over 200 bp in size and lacking apparent coding potential. Herein, we obtained their full cDNA sequences. These and their secondary structure characteristics placed in evidence that they are bona fide long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) differentially expressed in larval ovaries, thus named lncov1 and lncov2. Genomically, both map within a previously identified QTL on chromosome 11, associated with transgressive ovary size in honey bee workers. As lncov1 was over-expressed in worker ovaries we focused on this gene. Real-time qPCR analysis on larval worker ovaries evidenced an expression peak coinciding with the onset of autophagic cell death. Cellular localization analysis through fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed perinuclear spots resembling omega speckles known to regulate trafficking of RNA-binding proteins. With only four lncRNAs known so far in honey bees, two expressed in the ovaries, these findings open a novel perspective on regulatory factors acting in the fine tuning of developmental processes underlying phenotypic plasticity related to social life histories.

  4. WNT/β-catenin and p27/FOXL2 differentially regulate supporting cell proliferation in the developing ovary.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sonja E; Hogg, Kirsten; Stringer, Jessica M; Rastetter, Raphael H; Pelosi, Emanuele; Miles, Denise C; Sinclair, Andrew H; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Western, Patrick S

    2016-04-15

    Sexual development is initiated through differentiation of testicular Sertoli cells or ovarian granulosa cells. Although these supporting cells are considered to develop from common bipotential precursors, recent evidence suggests that distinct supporting cell populations are present in the ovary, with one providing granulosa cells of the medullary follicles and the other providing granulosa cells of the cortical follicles, the latter of which support lifelong fertility. Here, we demonstrate that XX fetal gonads contain GATA4 expressing supporting cells that either enter mitotic arrest, or remain proliferative. Blocking WNT signalling reduces XX supporting cell proliferation, while stabilising β-catenin signalling promotes proliferation, indicating that the renewal of pre-granulosa cells is dependent on WNT/β-catenin signalling in the proliferative supporting cell population. In contrast, XX supporting cells express p27 and FOXL2 and are maintained in mitotic arrest. Although FOXL2 is required for maintaining high levels of p27 expression, it is dispensable for entry and maintenance of mitotic arrest in XX supporting cells. Combined our data suggest that both medullary and cortical precursors arise from a common GATA4 expressing cell type. In addition, this work indicates that a balance between supporting cell self-renewal and differentiation is maintained in the developing ovary by relative WNT/β-catenin and p27/FOXL2 activities. This study provides significant new insights into the origin and formation of ovarian follicles and evidence supporting a common fetal origin of medullary and cortical granulosa cells. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization. PMID:27966611

  6. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-12-14

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization.

  7. Simultaneous Gene Deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 Leads to Early Disruption of Follicular Development and Germ Cell Loss in the Murine Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Maria B.; Fox, Shawna C.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Tevosian, Sergei G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Granulosa cell formation and subsequent follicular assembly are important for ovarian development and function. Two members of the GATA family of transcription factors, GATA4 and GATA6, are expressed in ovarian somatic cells early in development, and their importance in adult ovarian function has been recently highlighted. In this study, we demonstrated that the embryonic loss of Gata4 and Gata6 expression within the ovary results in a strong down-regulation of genes involved in the ovarian developmental pathway (Fst and Irx3) as well as diminished expression of the pregranulosa and granulosa cell markers SPRR2 and FOXL2, respectively. Postnatal ovaries deficient in both Gata genes show impaired somatic cell proliferation and arrested follicular development at the primordial stage, where oocytes are either enclosed by one layer of squamous granulosa cells or remain in germ cell nests/clusters. Furthermore, germ cell nests and primordial follicles are predominantly localized to the central region of the Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox ovaries, where the boundary between the medulla and cortex is almost nonexistent. Lastly, most of the oocytes are lost early in development in conditional double mutant ovaries, which confirms the importance of normally differentiated granulosa cells as supporting cells for oocyte survival. Thus, both GATA4 and GATA6 proteins are fundamental regulators of granulosa cell differentiation and proliferation, and consequently of proper follicular assembly during normal ovarian development and function. PMID:24899573

  8. Transcriptomics of differential vector competence: West Nile virus infection in two populations of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus linked to ovary development.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongyoung; Civana, Ayse; Acevedo, Carolina; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2014-06-22

    Understanding mechanisms that contribute to viral dissemination in mosquito vectors will contribute to our ability to interfere with the transmission of viral pathogens that impact public health. The expression of genes in two Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus populations from Florida with known differences in vector competence to West Nile virus (WNV) were compared using high throughput sequencing. A total of 15,176 transcripts were combined for comparison of expression differences between the two populations and 118 transcripts were differentially expressed (p < 0.05). The fold change in expression of the differentially expressed genes ranged from -7.5 - 6.13. The more competent population for WNV (Gainesville) over expressed 77 genes and down regulated 44 genes, compared with the less competent population for WNV (Vero Beach). Also, splicing analysis identified 3 transcripts with significantly different splice forms between the two populations. The functional analysis showed that the largest proportion of transcripts was included in the catalytic activity and transporter activity groups except for those in the unknown group. Interestingly, the up- regulated gene set contained most of the catalytic activity function and the down- regulated gene set had a notable proportion of transcripts with transporter activity function. Immune response category was shown in only the down regulated gene set, although those represent a relatively small portion of the function. Several different vitellogenin genes were expressed differentially. Based on the RNAseq data analysis, ovary development was compared across the populations and following WNV infection. There were significant differences among the compared groups. This study suggests that ovary development is correlated to vector competence in two Culex populations in Florida. Both populations control energy allocations to reproduction as a response to WNV. This result provides novel insight into the defense mechanism used by

  9. Development of ovary structures in the last larval and adult stages of psyllids (Insecta, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Büning, Jürgen; Jankowska, Władysława; Drohojowska, Jowita; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    The development and organization of the ovaries of ten species from four Psylloidea families (Psyllidae, Triozidae, Aphalaridae and Liviidae) have been investigated. The ovaries of the last larval stage (i.e. fifth instar) of all examined species are filled with numerous clusters of cystocytes which undergo synchronous incomplete mitotic division. Cystocytes of the given cluster are arranged into a rosette with polyfusome in the centre. These clusters are associated with single somatic cells. At the end of the fifth instar, the clusters begin to separate from each other, forming spherical ovarioles which are surrounded by a single layer of somatic cells. In the ovarioles of very young females all cystocytes enter the prophase of meiosis and differentiate shortly thereafter into oocytes and trophocytes (nurse cells). Meanwhile, somatic cells differentiate into cells of the inner epithelial sheath surrounding the trophocytes and into the prefollicular cells that encompass the oocytes. During this final differentiation, the trophocytes lose their cell membranes and become syncytial. Oocytes remain cellular and most of them (termed arrested oocytes) do not grow. In the ovarioles of older females, one oocyte encompassed by its follicle cells starts growing, still connected to the syncytial tropharium by a nutritive cord. After the short phase of previtellogenesis alone, the oocyte enters its vitellogenic the growth phase in the vitellarium. At that time, the second oocyte may enter the vitellarium and start its previtellogenic growth. In the light of the obtained results, the phylogeny of psyllids, as well as phylogenetic relationships between taxa of Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of obesity in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common endocrine diseases that affects women in their reproductive age. PCOS has diverse clinical implications that include reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). The exact patho-physiology of PCOS is complex and remains largely unclear. The prevalence of PCOS is estimated at 4-18%, depending on diverse factors discussed ahead. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and body weight. During the last decades, obesity and excess weight are major chronic diseases all around the word. Obesity increases some features of PCOS such as hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy complications. Both obesity and insulin resistance increase diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, obesity impairs insulin resistance and exacerbates reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. It is well known that obesity is associated with anovulation, pregnancy loss and late pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes). Obesity in PCOS is also linked to failure or delayed response to the various treatments including clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. It has been reported that, after losing as little as 5 % of initial body weight obese women with PCOS improved spontaneous ovulation rates and spontaneous pregnancy. Therefore, the weight loss prior to conception improves live birth rate in obese women with or without PCOS. The treatment of obesity may include lifestyle therapy (diet and exercise), pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery. In summary, weight loss is considered the first-line therapy in obese women with PCOS. In the present review, the consequence and

  11. Roles of leptin in reproduction, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome: consensus knowledge and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    As an essential function for perpetuation of species, reproduction, including puberty onset, is sensitive to the size of body energy stores and the metabolic state of the organism. Accordingly, impaired energy homeostasis, ranging from extreme leanness, such as in anorexia or cachexia, to morbid obesity has an impact on the timing of puberty and is often associated to fertility problems. The neuroendocrine basis for such phenomenon is the close connection between numerous metabolic hormones and nutritional cues with the various elements of the so-called hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Yet, despite previous fragmentary knowledge, it was only the discovery of the adipose-hormone, leptin, in 1994 what revolutionized our understanding on how metabolic and reproductive systems closely interplay and allowed the definition of the neurohormonal causes of perturbations of puberty and fertility in conditions of impaired body energy homeostasis. In this article, we aim to provide a synoptic view of the mechanisms whereby leptin engages in the regulation of different elements of the HPG axis, with special attention to its effects and mechanisms of action on the different elements of the reproductive brain and its proven direct effects in the gonads. In addition, we will summarize the state-of-the-art regarding the putative roles of leptin during gestation, including its potential function as placental hormone. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual leptin alterations in reproductive disorders, with special attention to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disease in which reproductive, metabolic and neuroendocrine alterations are commonly observed. All in all, we intend to provide an updated account of our knowledge on the physiological roles of leptin in the metabolic regulation of the reproductive axis and its eventual pathophysiological implications in prevalent reproductive disorders, such as PCOS.

  12. Ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Brummett, A.R.; Dumont, J.N.; Larkin, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with dissection and light microscopy, have produced heretofore unavailable structural detail of the ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus. Structural and functional interrelationships among developing follicles and other histological elements, particularly as they might relate to vascularization of follicles, oocyte development, and ovulation, are described and discussed. Mature eggs, ovulated into the ovarian lumen, accumulate in the posterior ovisac region of the ovary prior to oviposition. This ovisac region is thin-walled and apparently nongerminal. The temporary retention of ovulated eggs permits cyclical oviposition even though oogenesis and ovulation are asynchronous. The histological differences between the ovisac and the anterior ovigerous region of the ovary are described. The lumenal epithelium of the ovisac displays a localized population of unusual cells with long cytoplasmic extensions. The ultrastructure of these cells suggests that they might function in the transport of ovulated eggs into the oviduct and/or in secreting the substance (jelly) which forms the surface coat of extruded eggs.

  13. Chinese hamster ovary cell performance enhanced by a rational divide-and-conquer strategy for chemically defined medium development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaya; Zhang, Weiyan; Deng, Xiancun; Poon, Hong Fai; Liu, Xuping; Tan, Wen-Song; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Li

    2015-12-01

    Basal medium design is considered one of the most important steps in process development. To optimize chemically defined (CD) media efficiently and effectively for the biopharmaceutical industry, a two-step rational strategy was applied to optimize four antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. In the first step, 48 of 52 components of our in-house medium were divided into three groups according to their characteristics. In the next step, these groups were optimized by spent medium analysis, response surface methodology and mixture design. Because these steps in our strategy involved dividing medium components into groups and subsequently adjusting the concentration of the components, we termed this medium development strategy "divide and conquer". By applying the strategy, we were able to improve the titers of CHO-S, CHO-DG44 and two CHO-K1 cell lines 1.92, 1.86, 2.92 and 1.62-fold, respectively, in 8 weeks with fewer than 60 tests. This divide-and-conquer strategy was efficient, effective, scalable and universal in our current study and offered a new approach to CD media development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Development of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Huang-tz; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. Eighty women who met the criteria were enrolled: female, age range of 18–45 years, competent in the Chinese language, had been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and were regularly followed at outpatient clinics (defined as at least two outpatient visits before enrollment). The PCOSQ was translated and culturally adapted according to standard procedures. A semi-structured interview was applied to assess face validity. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to determine scale constructs. Measurements of internal consistency via Cronbach’s α, test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), construct validity, and discriminative validity were performed. Results Five additional items, representing the issues of acne, hair loss, and fear of getting diabetes, were incorporated into the original scale. A six-factor structure emerged as a result of the EFA, explaining 71.9% of the variance observed. The reliability analyses demonstrated satisfactory results for Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.78–0.96, and for ICC ranging from 0.73–0.86. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlation between the domains of the Chi-PCOSQ and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures (WHOQOL-BREF, EQ-5D) and clinical parameters (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure). The known-group analysis indicated that the Chi-PCOSQ is a discriminative tool that differentiates patients according to their HRQoL. Conclusion The Chi-PCOSQ seems internally consistent, culturally acceptable, and our preliminary evidence suggests that it may be reliable and valid. The Chi-PCOSQ is a promising assessment tool to address the HRQoL of women affected by PCOS in Chinese-speaking countries and to

  15. Soluble Invertase Expression Is an Early Target of Drought Stress during the Critical, Abortion-Sensitive Phase of Young Ovary Development in Maize1

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Asch, Folkard; Wu, Yong; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Næsted, Henrik; Mogensen, Vagn Overgaard; Koch, Karen Elaine

    2002-01-01

    To distinguish their roles in early kernel development and stress, expression of soluble (Ivr2) and insoluble (Incw2) acid invertases was analyzed in young ovaries of maize (Zea mays) from 6 d before (−6 d) to 7 d after pollination (+7 d) and in response to perturbation by drought stress treatments. The Ivr2 soluble invertase mRNA was more abundant than the Incw2 mRNA throughout pre- and early post-pollination development (peaking at +3 d). In contrast, Incw2 mRNAs increased only after pollination. Drought repression of the Ivr2 soluble invertase also preceded changes in Incw2, with soluble activity responding before pollination (−4 d). Distinct profiles of Ivr2 and Incw2 mRNAs correlated with respective enzyme activities and indicated separate roles for these invertases during ovary development and stress. In addition, the drought-induced decrease and developmental changes of ovary hexose to sucrose ratio correlated with activity of soluble but not insoluble invertase. Ovary abscisic acid levels were increased by severe drought only at −6 d and did not appear to directly affect Ivr2 expression. In situ analysis showed localized activity and Ivr2 mRNA for soluble invertase at sites of phloem-unloading and expanding maternal tissues (greatest in terminal vascular zones and nearby cells of pericarp, pedicel, and basal nucellus). This early pattern of maternal invertase localization is clearly distinct from the well-characterized association of insoluble invertase with the basal endosperm later in development. This localization, the shifts in endogenous hexose to sucrose environment, and the distinct timing of soluble and insoluble invertase expression during development and stress collectively indicate a key role and critical sensitivity of the Ivr2 soluble invertase gene during the early, abortion-susceptible phase of development. PMID:12376627

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Overview Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods ...

  17. Arrhenoblastoma of ovary

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001507.htm Arrhenoblastoma of ovary To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arrhenoblastoma of the ovary is an ovarian tumor that releases the male ...

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or ...

  19. The expression of cell proliferation-related genes in early developing flowers is affected by a fruit load reduction in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Baldet, Pierre; Hernould, Michel; Laporte, Frédéric; Mounet, Fabien; Just, Daniel; Mouras, Armand; Chevalier, Christian; Rothan, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Changes in photoassimilate partitioning between source and sink organs significantly affect fruit development and size. In this study, a comparison was made of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown under a low fruit load (one fruit per truss, L1 plants) and under a standard fruit load (five fruits per truss, L5 plants), at morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Fruit load reduction resulted in increased photoassimilate availability in the plant and in increased growth rates in all plant organs analysed (root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit). Larger flower and fruit size in L1 plants were correlated with higher cell number in the pre-anthesis ovary. This was probably due to the acceleration of the flower growth rate since other flower developmental parameters (schedule and time-course) remained otherwise unaffected. Using RT-PCR, it was shown that the transcript levels of CYCB2;1 (cyclin) and CDKB2;1 (cyclin-dependent kinase), two mitosis-specific genes, strongly increased early in developing flower buds. Remarkably, the transcript abundance of CYCD3;1, a D-type cyclin potentially involved in cell cycle regulation in response to mitogenic signals, also increased by more than 5-fold at very early stages of L1 flower development. By contrast, transcripts from fw2.2, a putative negative regulator of cell division in tomato fruit, strongly decreased in developing flower bud, as confirmed by in situ hybridization studies. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in carbohydrate partitioning could control fruit size through the regulation of cell proliferation-related genes at very early stages of flower development.

  20. Heart type fatty acid binding protein response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia.Wet ested whether HFABP is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods This was a prospective, cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital.The study population consisted of 46 reproductive-age PCOS women and 28 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, carotid intima media thickness and HFABP levels in both PCOS patients and control group. Results Mean fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free testosterone, total testosterone, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients. Although HFABP levels were higher in PCOS patients, the difference did not reach statistically significant in early age groups. After adjustment for age and body mass index, HFABP level was positive correlated with hsCRP, free testosterone levels, CIMT and HOMA-IR. Conclusions Heart type free fatty acid binding protein appeared to have an important role in metabolic response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant, hyperandrogenemic PCOS patients. PMID:23249450

  1. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E.; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production. PMID:26871705

  2. General and species-specific impacts of a neonicotinoid insecticide on the ovary development and feeding of wild bumblebee queens.

    PubMed

    Baron, Gemma L; Raine, Nigel E; Brown, Mark J F

    2017-05-17

    Bumblebees are essential pollinators of crops and wild plants, but are in decline across the globe. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a potential driver of these declines, but most of our evidence base comes from studies of a single species. There is an urgent need to understand whether such results can be generalized across a range of species. Here, we present results of a laboratory experiment testing the impacts of field-relevant doses (1.87-5.32 ppb) of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on spring-caught wild queens of four bumblebee species: Bombus terrestris, B. lucorum, B. pratorum and B. pascuorum. Two weeks of exposure to the higher concentration of thiamethoxam caused a reduction in feeding in two out of four species, suggesting species-specific anti-feedant, repellency or toxicity effects. The higher level of thiamethoxam exposure resulted in a reduction in the average length of terminal oocytes in queens of all four species. In addition to providing the first evidence for general effects of neonicotinoids on ovary development in multiple species of wild bumblebee queens, the discovery of species-specific effects on feeding has significant implications for current practices and policy for pesticide risk assessment and use. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies.

  4. Development and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in a nationwide population of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Glintborg, Dorte; Nybo, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-08-29

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Prospective population-based data regarding development and possible predictors of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in PCOS are limited. National Register-based study. Patients with PCOS (PCOS Denmark and embedded cohort; PCOS OUH) and a control population with no previous diagnosis of T2D. PCOS OUH (N=1,162) included premenopausal women with PCOS and standardized clinical and biochemical examination. PCOS Denmark (N=18,477) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age-matched controls were included per patient (N=54,680). T2D events according to diagnosis codes and filled medicine prescriptions. The median (quartiles) follow up was 11.1 (6.9 - 16.0) years. The Hazard ratio (95% CI) for development of T2D in PCOS Denmark was 4.0 (3.7; 4.3) (p<0.001) and the total event rate of T2D was 8.0 per 1000 patient years in PCOS Denmark vs. 2.0 per 1000 patient years in controls (p<0.001). The median age at diagnosis of T2D was 31 (26-37) years in PCOS Denmark vs. 35 (27-44) years in controls (p<0.001). In multiple regression analyses, body mass index, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, 2 hour blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and triglycerides were positively associated with development of T2D, whereas higher number of births was negatively associated with development of T2D. The event rate of T2D was higher in PCOS compared to controls and T2D was diagnosed at a younger age.

  5. Effect of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the Akt/FoxO/Smad signaling pathway and the follicular development of the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Qi, Lingbin; Liu, Yiping; Wang, Zhengchao

    2016-10-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on ovarian functions, which is reported to increase the risk of infertility. The mechanism underlying obesity‑induced infertility is not yet clear. The present study established a high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity mouse model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of HFD‑induced obesity on follicular development in the mouse ovary. The 4‑week‑old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control (NC) diet for 15 or 20 weeks. Body mass index was used to demonstrate that the mice were obese following HFD treatment. The follicular development of the ovaries from the HFD group mice was retarded in a time‑dependent manner, as demonstrated by morphological and histological examination of the ovaries. Further investigation via western blot analysis demonstrated that the activity of the transcription factor, forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a), was increased by HFD through downregulated FoxO3a phosphorylation, which may contribute to the inhibited development of ovarian follicles. To determine the regulatory mechanism of FoxO3 on the follicular development, the expression levels of FoxO3a target protein, Smad1/5/8, were also determined and there was significant decrease in phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 in the ovaries from the HFD group compared with the NC group, indicating that FoxO3a/Smad1/5/8 may be important in the regulation of follicular development. The expression levels of the upstream regulator of FoxO3a, Akt, were also examined and it was demonstrated that Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced in the HFD group compared with the NC group, indicating that Akt/FoxO3a may be also involved in follicular development. Together, the experiments demonstrated that HFD‑induced obesity affected the activity of the Akt/FoxO3a/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway in a time‑dependent manner during the follicular development of the mouse ovary, leading to abnormal follicular development. These findings may provide part of a

  6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Topics > Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a health problem ... of infertility. Expand all | Collapse all What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Polycystic (pah-lee-SIS-tik) ovary syndrome ( ...

  7. Health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOSQ-50): development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Nasiri-Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Montazeri, Ali; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali

    2016-07-01

    The determinants of the health-related quality of life of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive instrument to assess the health-related quality of life of Iranian women with PCOS and to assess its psychometric properties. We used a mixed-method, sequential, exploratory design including both qualitative [in-depth interview to define the components of health-related quality of life questionnaire (PCOSQ)] and quantitative approaches (to assess the psychometric properties of PCOSQ). A preliminary questionnaire was developed including 147 items which emerged from the qualitative phase of the study. Considering the optimum cutoff points for content validity ratio (CVR), content validity index (CVI), and impact score, items of the preliminary questionnaire were reduced from 147 to 88 items. Finally, by excluding highly correlated items using the exploratory factor analysis, a 50-item questionnaire was obtained. The Kaiser criteria (eigenvalues >1) and Scree plot tests demonstrated that six factors were optimum with an estimated 47.3 % of variance. Assessment of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire demonstrated a mean CVI = 0.92, CVR = 0.91, Cronbach's alpha for whole questionnaire = 0.88 (0.61-0.88 for subscales), Spearman's correlation coefficients of test-retest = 0.75, and the intra-class correlation coefficient for the PCOS questionnaire subscales ranging from 0.57 to 0.88. Eventually the final questionnaire included 50 items in six domains, 'psychosocial and emotional,' 'fertility,' 'sexual function,' 'obesity and menstrual disorders,' 'hirsutism,' and 'coping' and rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The PCOSQ-50 is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of quality of life of women with PCOS, capable of assessing some obscure aspects overlooked by previous HRQL questionnaires.

  8. A Novel Null Mutation in P450 Aromatase Gene (CYP19A1) Associated with Development of Hypoplastic Ovaries in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Akçurin, Sema; Türkkahraman, Doğa; Kim, Woo-Young; Durmaz, Erdem; Shin, Jae-Gook; Lee, Su-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The CYP19A1 gene product aromatase is responsible for estrogen synthesis and androgen/estrogen equilibrium in many tissues, particularly in the placenta and gonads. Aromatase deficiency can cause various clinical phenotypes resulting from excessive androgen accumulation and insufficient estrogen synthesis during the pre- and postnatal periods. In this study, our aim was to determine the clinical characteristics and CYP19A1 mutations in three patients from a large Turkish pedigree. Methods: The cases were the newborns referred to our clinic for clitoromegaly and labial fusion. Virilizing signs such as severe acne formation, voice deepening, and clitoromegaly were noted in the mothers during pregnancy. Preliminary diagnosis was aromatase deficiency. Therefore, direct DNA sequencing of CYP19A1 was performed in samples from parents (n=5) and patients (n=3). Results: In all patients, a novel homozygous insertion mutation in the fifth exon (568insC) was found to cause a frameshift in the open reading frame and to truncate the protein prior to the heme-binding region which is crucial for enzymatic activity. The parents were found to be heterozygous for this mutation. Additionally, all patients had hypoplastic ovaries instead of cystic and enlarged ovaries. Conclusion: A novel 568C insertion mutation in CYP19A1 can lead to severe aromatase deficiency. Homozygosity for this mutation is associated with the development of hypoplastic ovaries. This finding provides an important genetic marker for understanding the physiological function of aromatase in fetal ovarian development. PMID:27086564

  9. Ovary development in two genetic strains of Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olfactory reception and behavioral responses to semiochemicals are influenced by an insect's physiological state, including sexual maturity. For tephritid fruit flies, reliable methods are needed for assessing maturity status of field-caught adults. Previously, we developed a six-stage system to cla...

  10. Measures of the ovaries and uterus during development of gilts selected for differences in uterine capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Direct selection for uterine capacity (UC) increased the number of live pigs born. A method to indirectly estimate UC in developing gilts is needed for this trait to be incorporated into commercial selection strategies. We tested the hypothesis that selection for UC alters phenotypic characteristics...

  11. Roles of thyroid hormones in follicular development in the ovary of neonatal and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Zheng, Kaizhi; Wei, Quanwei; Kong, Lingfa; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a critical role in ovarian follicular development, maturation and the maintenance of various endocrine functions. However, whether TH can affect ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of TH on ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats. Thirty female post-lactation mothers of Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into three groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper), and hypothyroid (hypo). On postnatal days (PND) 10 and 21, body weights, serum hormones, ovarian histologic changes, and immunohistochemistry of thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRα1) and nitric oxide synthase types (NOS), and NOS activities, were determined. The data showed that body weights significantly decreased in both hyper and hypo groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the hyper group had increased serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2; whereas the hypo group manifested reduced serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2 on PND 10 and 21. The hyper and hypo groups showed significantly reduced total number of primordial, primary and secondary follicles on PND 10 and 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, antral follicle numbers in the hyper and hypo groups were significantly decreased on PND 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Immunostaining indicated that TRα1 and NOS were expressed in ovarian surface epithelium and oocytes of growing and antral follicles, with strong staining of the granulosa and theca cells of follicles. NOS activities were significantly augmented in the hyper, but diminished in the hypo groups on PND 10 and 21. In summary, our findings suggest that TH play important roles in ovarian functions and in the regulation of NOS activity. Our results also indicate that a relationship exists between the TH and NO signaling pathways during the process of ovarian follicular

  12. Expression and clinical significance of the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway during the development and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Zhenghong; Wang, Zhaokai; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wang, Qing; Su, Jingqian; Wang, Zhengchao

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major health problem in reproductive-aged women worldwide, but the precise pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our previous study revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a mediated endothelin (ET)-2 signaling plays an important role in ovulation in rats. Therefore, the present study used a PCOS rat model to test the hypotheses that HIF-1a signaling is expressed and inhibited in ovaries during PCOS formation and that the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway is a target of dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) in the clinical treatment of PCOS. First, the development of a PCOS model and the effect of DMBG treatment were examined through ovarian histology and serum hormone levels, which were consistent with previous reports. Second, HIF-1a and ET-2 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed decreased HIF-1a/ET-2 expression in the ovaries of PCOS rats, whereas DMBG treatment reversed the protein decreases and improved the PCOS symptoms. Third, to understand the molecular mechanism, HIF-1a/ET-2 mRNA expression was also examined. Interestingly, HIF-1a mRNA increased in the ovaries of PCOS rats, while ET-2 mRNA decreased, indicating that HIF-1a protein degradation may be involved in POCS development and treatment. Finally, HIF prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity was examined to further clarify the contribution of HIF-1a signaling to the development and treatment of PCOS. The results suggested that the inhibition of HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling may be caused by increased PHD activity in PCOS. DMBG-treated PCOS may further activate HIF-1a signaling at least partly through inhibiting PHD activity. Taken together, these results indicate that HIF-1a signaling is inhibited in a PCOS rat model through increasing PHD activity. DMBG treatment improved PCOS by rescuing this pathway, suggesting that HIF-1a signaling plays an important role in the development and treatment of PCOS. This HIF-1a-mediated ET-2 signaling pathway

  13. Endocrine differentiation of fetal ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta): timing of androgen-independent versus androgen-driven genital development.

    PubMed

    Browne, P; Place, N J; Vidal, J D; Moore, I T; Cunha, G R; Glickman, S E; Conley, A J

    2006-10-01

    Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) have an erectile peniform clitoris and a pseudoscrotum but no external vagina, all established by day 35 of a 110-day gestation. Recent studies indicate that these events are androgen-independent, although androgen secretion by fetal ovaries and testis was hypothesized previously to induce phallic development in both sexes. We present the first data relating to the capacity of the ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena to synthesize androgens at different stages of fetal life. Specifically, spotted hyena fetal gonads were examined by immunohistochemistry at GD 30, 45, 48, 65, and 95 for androgen-synthesizing enzymes, as related to the morphological development. Enzymes included 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17), cytochrome b5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc). Anti-Müllerian-hormone (AMH) expression was also examined. AMH was strongly expressed in fetal Sertoli cells from GD 30 and after. P450c17 expression was detected in Leydig cells of developing testes and surprisingly in Müllerian duct epithelium. Fetal ovaries began to organize and differentiate by GD 45, and medullary cells expressed P450c17, cytochrome b5, 3betaHSD, and P450scc. The findings support the hypothesis that external genital morphology is probably androgen-independent initially, but that fetal testicular androgens modify the secondary, male-specific phallic form and accessory organs. Fetal ovaries appear to develop substantial androgen-synthesizing capacity but not until phallic differentiation is complete, i.e. after GD 45 based on circulating androstenedione concentrations. During late gestation, fetal ovaries and testes synthesize androgens, possibly organizing the neural substrates of aggressive behaviors observed at birth in spotted hyenas. These data provide an endocrine rationale for sexual dimorphisms in phallic structure and reveal a potential

  14. Involvement of insulin and growth hormone (GH) during follicular development in the bovine ovary.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takashi; Murayama, Chiaki; Sudo, Natsuko; Kawashima, Chiho; Tetsuka, Masa; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-06-01

    Insulin and growth hormone (GH) play critical roles in the process of follicular development and maturation. However, the involvement of insulin receptor (IR) and GH receptor (GHR) during follicular development is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of IR and GHR mRNAs in the granulosa cells (GCs) and theca tissues (TCs) of the follicle at different developmental stages (preovulatory dominant follicles, POFs; estrogen-active dominant follicles, EADs; estrogen-inactive dominant follicles, EIDs; and small follicles, SFs), and second, to examine the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) on the expression of IR and GHR genes in cultured bovine GCs. Although the concentration of insulin in follicular fluid (FF) was constant at all developmental stages, the GH concentration in FF was significantly increased in the EAD and POF compared with the EID. IR mRNA in GCs and TCs was significantly increased in the POF compared with other follicles. Regarding GHR expression, significant increases of mRNA expression were observed in GCs of EAD compared to those of SF, EID and POF. GHR mRNA in TCs was significantly decreased in the SF compared with other follicles. In cultured GCs, FSH, but not E2, stimulated the expression of IR and GHR genes. Our results suggest that the increase in the expression of GHR may be a turning point for follicles to enter the ovulatory phase during final follicular development and that the insulin system may support the maturation of preovulatory follicles.

  15. Participation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in ovarian steroids production during the rat estrous cycle and in the development of estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovary.

    PubMed

    Parra, Claudio; Fiedler, Jenny L; Luna, S Leticia; Greiner, Monika; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lara, Hernán E

    2007-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) stimulates estradiol and progesterone release from ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. Very little information is available as to the role VIP plays in the control of steroid secretion during reproductive cyclicity and in ovarian pathologies involving altered steroid secretion. In this study, we determined the involvement of VIP in regulating ovarian androgen and estradiol release during estrous cyclicity and estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovarian development in rats. Our findings show that androgen and estradiol release from ovaries obtained during different stages of rat estrous cycle mimic cyclic changes in steroid release observed in vivo with maximal release occurring during late proestrus. VIP increased androgen release from ovaries of all cycle stages except late proestrus and estradiol release from all cycle stages. Increases in VIP-induced androgen and estradiol release were maximal at early proestrus. Inclusion of saturating concentrations of androstenedione increased magnitude of VIP-induced estradiol release at diestrus and estrus but not proestrus. Magnitude of VIP-induced androgen and estradiol release tended to be greater in the ovaries from EV-treated rats with polycystic ovary compared with estrous controls. At the tissue level, ovarian VIP concentration was cycle stage dependent with highest level seen in diestrus. Maximum concentration of VIP was found in EV-treated rats. Changes in VIP were inversely related to changes in ovarian nerve growth factor, a neuropeptide involved in ovarian androgen secretion. These results strongly suggest that intraovarian VIP participates in the control of estradiol secretion during the rat estrous cycle and possibly in the maintenance of increased ovarian estradiol secretory activity of EV-treated rats.

  16. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice V. The effects of PMSG upon the numbers and growth of follicles in the early juvenile ovary.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    The composition and growth patterns of the ovarian follicle population have been determined in early juvenile athymic nude mice and their phenotypically normal littermates. Nude ovaries contained significantly more primordial follicles and fewer trilaminar follicles at 10 days of age. The rate of growth of the oocyte nucleolus was significantly less than in control ovaries. Treatment with PMSG from days 7 to 9 restored the rate of oocyte nucleolar growth in nudes to control levels. PMSG also increased the number of follicles commencing growth in both nudes and controls and the differences in the numbers of primordial and trilaminar follicles were no longer detectable. The data demonstrate that abnormalities in the ovarian follicle population of the nude are detectable as early as the 10th day of life and can be reversed by treatment with exogenous gonadotrophin. These results are discussed in relation to the role of the thymus gland in ovarian development and the competence of the early juvenile ovary to respond to gonadotrophin.

  17. Follicular development and expression of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 alpha in ovaries of fetal and neonatal doelings.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Wan, Y; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Jia, R; Fan, Y; Nie, H; Ying, S; Huang, P; Wang, F

    2012-11-01

    In livestock, the ovarian reserve of follicles is established during the fetal stage. However, at least two-thirds of the oocytes present in the reserve die because of apoptosis before birth. Notably, mitochondria have been reported to play a crucial role in the fate (life/death) of oocytes. In this study, mitochondrial regulators nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and PPAR γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) were examined during this period of follicle development to investigate their effects on follicular development and apoptosis. Fetal and neonatal Capra haimen were used, ranging in age from 60 d postcoitum (dpc) to 30 d postpartum (dpp). Our data demonstrated that egg nests were the earliest recognizable gamete cells in ovaries of fetal and neonatal doelings. Proportions of egg nests decreased from 92.68 to 25.08% whereas single follicles increased from 7.32 to 74.92% between 60 and 120 dpc. Subsequently, between 90 and 120 dpc, the proportion of primordial follicles increased from 9.98 to 61.56% (P < 0.01). However, it did not change between 1 and 30 dpp (P = 0.12). The proportion of primary follicles increased from 1.23 to 37.93% between 90 dpc to 1 dpp (P = 0.01) but did not change between 1 and 30 dpp (P = 0.11). Meanwhile, proportions of secondary and tertiary follicles increased in an age-dependent manner. In addition, results of this study suggested that NRF-1 and PGC-1α proteins are mainly localized in germ cells of egg nests, cytoplasm of oocytes, and granulosa cells of follicles ranging from primordial to tertiary follicles. The transcript abundance of NRF-1 mRNA was up-regulated in 60-dpc-old ovaries compared with 1-dpp-old ovaries (P < 0.05), but the PGC-1α mRNA expression pattern did not change (P = 0.05). Nevertheless, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase UTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells and caspase-3 activity in 60-dpc-old ovaries was less than those in 1-dpp-old ovaries (P < 0.01, P = 0.01). In conclusion, our results

  18. Surgical transposition of the ovary: Radiologic appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Bashist, B.; Friedman, W.N.; Killackey, M.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of the pelvis of a young female patient will result in loss of ovarian function. In a surgical technique termed ovarian transposition, the ovary is repositioned to the iliac fossa or paracolic gutter outside the radiation field. The computed tomographic (CT) scans and sonograms of five patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent this procedure were reviewed. The normal transposed ovary was of soft-tissue attenuation, often with one or more small cysts. Large cysts developed in the ovaries of three patients. One cyst was functional, another was due to a mesothelial inclusion cyst, and the third was most probably related to the transposition itself. Since the transposed ovary is difficult to palpate, CT or sonography can be used to demonstrate and follow up a cystic mass. Recognition of the appearance and location of the transposed ovary is important to avoid misinterpretation of a solid or cystic mass in patients who are at risk for tumor recurrence.

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Polycystic Ovary Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Polycystic Ovary Syndrome A A ... condition called polycystic ovary sydrome (PCOS) . What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome? Polycystic (pronounced: pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovary syndrome ...

  20. Differential regulation of the lipoxygenase pathway in shrimp hepatopancreases and ovaries during ovarian development in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Intaraudom, Chakapong; Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Nithithanasilp, Sutichai; Wongtripop, Somjai; Phomklad, Suwanchai; Chaitongsakul, Panomkorn; Vichai, Vanicha

    2017-05-27

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to the success of ovarian development in marine crustaceans, especially for domesticated species such as the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These fatty acids are stored in a midgut gland called the hepatopancreas and subsequently serve as an energy source or are incorporated in yolk during ovarian development. PUFAs are known precursors of hydroxy fatty acids, including hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), which are catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX). In previous studies, 8-HEPE has been shown to regulate female reproduction and adipogenesis in marine crustaceans. However, whether the biosynthesis of 8-HEPE in these species is the result of LOX activity has yet to be investigated. In this study, 8-HEPE was identified exclusively in P. monodon hepatopancreases using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment with nordihydroguaiaretic acid resulted in the reduction of 8-HEPE, suggesting the enzyme-dependent catalysis of 8-HEPE in hepatopancreases. Additionally, a full-length P. monodon LOX (PmLOX) was amplified from shrimp ovary cDNA. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative PmLOX contains domains and catalytic residues required for LOX catalytic function. Furthermore, PmLOX expression increased steadily as shrimp ovary maturation progressed, while PmLOX expression and the amount of 8-HEPE decreased in shrimp hepatopancreases. These findings not only suggest differential requirements for hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis in shrimp ovaries and hepatopancreases during the P. monodon ovarian development, but also provide insights into the LOX pathway in marine crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression patterns and regulatory functions of microRNAs during the initiation of primordial follicle development in the neonatal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuhong; Wang, Shuo; Luo, Aiyue; Ding, Ting; Lai, Zhiwen; Shen, Wei; Ma, Xiangyi; Cao, Chen; Shi, Liangyan; Jiang, Jingjing; Rong, Fangfang; Ma, Lanfang; Tian, Yong; Du, Xiaofang; Lu, Yunping; Li, Ya; Wang, Shixuan

    2013-11-01

    The initiation of primordial follicle development is essential for female fertility, but the signals that trigger this process are poorly understood. Given the potentially important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the ovary, we aimed to study the expression patterns and regulatory functions of miRNAs during the initiation of primordial follicle development. Expression patterns of miRNA in the neonatal mouse ovary were profiled by microarray, and 24 miRNAs whose abundances differed significantly between ovaries from 3- and 5-day-old mice were identified. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 48 signal transduction pathways are modulated by the up-regulated miRNAs and 29 pathways are modulated by the down-regulated miRNAs (P-value and false discovery rate < 0.001). A miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was established for TGF-beta signaling pathway-related genes. Among the miRNAs involved in this pathway, miR-145 was chosen for further analysis. Down-regulation of miR-145 using an antagomir (AT) decreased the proportion and number of the primordial follicles and increased that of the growing follicles in the cultured ovaries (P < 0.05). The mean oocyte diameter in the primordial follicles was significantly greater in the AT group relative to the AT-negative control group (P < 0.05), whereas the mean oocyte diameter in growing follicles was smaller in the AT group than in the AT-negative control group. In addition, we confirmed that miR-145 targets Tgfbr2. The miR-145 AT caused an increase in TGFBR2 expression and activation of Smad signaling but did not affect the p38 MAPK or JNK pathway. These data suggest that miRNAs and the signaling pathways they modulate are involved in the initiation of primordial follicle development, and miR-145 targets Tgfbr2 to regulate the initiation of primordial follicle development and maintain primordial follicle quiescence.

  2. Polycystic ovary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones. This may lead to changes in the menstrual cycle, cysts in the ovaries , trouble getting pregnant, and ... Symptoms Symptoms of PCOS include changes in the menstrual cycle, such as: Not getting a period after you ...

  3. Overproductive ovaries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... imbalance can be caused by tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands, or by polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hyperandrogenism may include growth of excess body and facial hair, acne, amenorrhea (loss of menstrual periods), and changes in ...

  4. The Hippo/MST Pathway Member SAV1 Plays a Suppressive Role in Development of the Prehierarchical Follicles in Hen Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Dehui; Yuan, Shuguo; Xu, Rifu

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo/MST signaling pathway is a critical player in controlling cell proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of most tissues and organs in diverse species. Previous studies have shown that Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein which functions in the signaling system is expressed in mammalian ovaries and play a vital role in governing the follicle development. But the exact biological effects of chicken SAV1 in prehierarchical follicle development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SAV1 protein is predominantly expressed in the oocytes and undifferentiated granulosa cells in the various sized prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary, and the endogenous expression level of SAV1 mRNA appears down-regulated from the primordial follicles to the largest preovulatory follicles (F2-F1) by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Moreover, we found the intracellular SAV1 physically interacts with each of the pathway members, including STK4/MST1, STK3/MST2, LATS1 and MOB2 using western blotting. And SAV1 significantly promotes the phosphorylation of LATS1 induced by the kinase of STK4 or STK3 in vitro. Furthermore, SAV1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased proliferation of granulosa cells from the prehierarchical follicles (6–8 mm in diameter) by BrdU-incorporation assay, in which the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA was notably enhanced. Meanwhile, these findings were consolidated by the data of SAV1 overexpression. Taken together, the present results revealed that SAV1 can inhibit proliferation of the granulosa cells whereby the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA were negatively regulated. Accordingly, SAV1, as a member of the hippo/MST signaling pathway plays a suppressive role in ovarian follicle development by promoting phosphorylation and activity of the downstream LATS1, may consequently lead to prevention of the follicle

  5. In vitro embryo development and blastocyst hatching rates following vitrification of river buffalo embryos produced from oocytes recovered from slaughterhouse ovaries or live animals by ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Gupta, P S P; Ravindra, J P; Devaraj, M; Nandi, S

    2008-03-03

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether the source of oocytes (ovum pick up versus slaughterhouse ovaries) affected in vitro embryo production and embryo survival (as measured by blastocyst hatching rates) following vitrification in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Oocytes recovered from live buffaloes (n=6) by ovum pick up (OPU) and by manual aspiration from slaughterhouse ovaries were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured to blastocyst stage under same culture conditions. Vitrification of blastocysts was carried out in two steps at 24 degrees C. Embryos were equilibrated in 10% EG+10% DMSO+0.3 M sucrose in base medium for 4 min. Subsequently, the embryos were transferred into 25% EG+25% DMSO+0.3 M sucrose in base medium for 45 s and then the embryos were loaded into straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following warming, blastocysts were cultured in vitro for 48 h to assess hatching. Oocytes derived from live animals by OPU resulted in a significantly higher blastocyst yield then those derived from slaughterhouse ovaries (30.6+/-4.3 versus 18.5+/-1.8). Blastocyst hatching rates following vitrification of buffalo embryos produced from the oocytes collected from live animals by OPU was significantly higher than the oocytes collected from slaughterhouse ovaries (52.8+/-4.2 versus 40.2+/-4.4). In conclusion, the present study showed that source of oocytes (OPU versus slaughterhouse ovaries) affects the in vitro embryo development and blastocyst hatching rates following vitrification of embryos in buffaloes.

  6. Knockout of RNA Binding Protein MSI2 Impairs Follicle Development in the Mouse Ovary: Characterization of MSI1 and MSI2 during Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jessie M.; Sobinoff, Alexander P.; Gunter, Kara M.; Fraser, Barbara A.; Pye, Victoria; Bernstein, Ilana R.; Boon, Evan; Siddall, Nicole A.; De Andres, Luisa I.; Hime, Gary R.; Holt, Janet E.; Graf, Thomas; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanisms underlying follicle development in the ovary is crucial to understanding female fertility and is an area of increasing research interest. The RNA binding protein Musashi is essential for post-transcriptional regulation of oocyte maturation in Xenopus and is expressed during ovarian development in Drosophila. In mammals Musashi is important for spermatogenesis and male fertility, but its role in the ovary has yet to be characterized. In this study we determined the expression of mammalian Musashi proteins MSI1 and MSI2 during mouse folliculogenesis, and through the use of a MSI2-specific knockout mouse model we identified that MSI2 is essential for normal follicle development. Time-course characterization of MSI1 and MSI2 revealed distinct differences in steady-state mRNA levels and protein expression/localization at important developmental time-points during folliculogenesis. Using a gene-trap mouse model that inactivates Msi2, we observed a significant decrease in ovarian mass, and change in follicle-stage composition due to developmental blocking of antral stage follicles and pre-antral follicle loss through atresia. We also confirmed that hormonally stimulated Msi2-deficient mice produce significantly fewer MII oocytes (60.9% less than controls, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the majority of these oocytes are of poor viability (62.2% non-viable/apoptotic, p < 0.05), which causes a reduction in female fertility evidenced by decreased litter size in Msi2-deficient animals (33.1% reduction to controls, p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that MSI1 and MSI2 display distinct expression profiles during mammalian folliculogenesis and that MSI2 is required for pre-antral follicle development. PMID:26131972

  7. The ontogenetic bases for variation in ovary position in Melastomataceae.

    PubMed

    Basso-Alves, João Paulo; Goldenberg, Renato; Teixeira, Simone Pádua

    2017-08-21

    Although the ovary position is considered a stable character in angiosperms, Melastomataceae species have perigynous flowers in which the ovary varies from superior to inferior. Thus, we investigated the ontogenetic process involved in variation of the ovary position in Melastomataceae. We focused on histogenesis of the floral apex in search of developmental patterns for each type of ovary position. Six species in which the ovary varies from superior to inferior were chosen: Henriettea saldanhae, Leandra melastomoides, Miconia dodecandra, Microlicia euphorbioides, Rhynchanthera grandiflora, and Tibouchina clinopodifolia. Buds and flowers were processed for surface and histological examinations. The floral apex changes from convex to concave, resulting in a perigynous hypanthium. Cell divisions in the margins of the floral apex form an annular intercalary meristem that elevates the base of the primordia of almost all whorls. The joint growth of the carpel base with the gynoecial hypanthium originates semi-inferior ovaries in Leandra melastomoides, Miconia dodecandra, and Tibouchina clinopodifolia and inferior ovaries in Henriettea saldanhae. In Microlicia euphorbioides and Rhynchanthera grandiflora, the carpels are not affected by this hypanthial growth; flowers have a superior ovary. Changes in ovary position of Melastomataceae are due to intercalary meristematic activity, which is one of the main mechanisms for the origin of morphological innovations among plants. Our data illustrate the importance of the intercalary meristems in floral development, and we discuss the implications of this ontogenetic model for understanding the evolution of ovary position in Melastomataceae. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy.

  9. Development, qualification, validation and application of the neutral red uptake assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells using a VITROCELL® VC10® smoke exposure system.

    PubMed

    Fields, Wanda; Fowler, Kathy; Hargreaves, Victoria; Reeve, Lesley; Bombick, Betsy

    2017-04-01

    Cytotoxicity assessment of combustible tobacco products by neutral red uptake (NRU) has historically used total particulate matter (TPM) or solvent captured gas vapor phase (GVP), rather than fresh whole smoke. Here, the development, validation and application of the NRU assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, following exposure to fresh whole smoke generated with the VITROCELL® VC10® system is described. Whole smoke exposure is particularly important as both particulate and vapor phases of tobacco smoke show cytotoxicity in vitro. The VITROCELL® VC10® system provides exposure at the air liquid interface (ALI) to mimic in vivo conditions for assessing the toxicological impact of smoke in vitro. Instrument and assay validations are crucial for comparative analyses.

  10. Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Resistance, Not Changes in Body Weight, Mediate the Development of Endothelial Dysfunction in a Female Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Hurliman, Amanda; Keller Brown, Jennifer; Maille, Nicole; Mandala, Maurizio; Casson, Peter; Osol, George

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to differentiate the contributions of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance (IR), and body weight to the development of endothelial dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome and determine the effectiveness of insulin sensitization and antiandrogenic therapy after the establishment of vascular and metabolic dysfunction using a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. We hypothesized that the observed endothelial dysfunction was a direct steroidal effect, as opposed to changes in insulin sensitivity or body weight. Prepubertal female rats were randomized to the implantation of a pellet containing DHT or sham procedure. In phase 1, DHT-exposed animals were randomized to pair feeding to prevent weight gain or metformin, an insulin-sensitizing agent, from 5 to 14 weeks. In phase 2, DHT-exposed animals were randomized to treatment with metformin or flutamide, a nonsteroidal androgen receptor blocker from 12 to 16 weeks. Endothelial function was assessed by the vasodilatory response of preconstricted arteries to acetylcholine. Serum steroid levels were analyzed in phase 1 animals. Fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin were analyzed and homeostasis model assessment index calculated in all animals. Our data confirm the presence of endothelial dysfunction as well as increased body weight, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, and greater IR among DHT-treated animals. Even when normal weight was maintained through pair feeding, endothelial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia, and IR still developed. Furthermore, despite weight gain, treatment with metformin and flutamide improved insulin sensitivity and blood pressure and restored normal endothelial function. Therefore, the observed endothelial dysfunction is most likely a direct result of hyperandrogenism-induced reductions in insulin sensitivity, as opposed to weight gain.

  11. A combined treatment of ionomycin with ethanol improves blastocyst development of bovine oocytes harvested from stored ovaries and microinjected with spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, H; Shimoda, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2009-09-01

    Regardless of the presence of sperm-borne oocyte-activating factors, activation of bovine oocytes with exogenous activation stimuli is required for further development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The current study was designed to develop a new activation regimen for improving the blastocyst yield after ICSI of bovine oocytes harvested from ovaries stored at 10 to 12 degrees C for 24h. After ICSI, oocytes were treated with 5microM ionomycin for 5 min, 7% ethanol for 5 or 10min, ionomycin followed by ethanol (5 or 10 min), ionomycin followed by 10 microg/mL cycloheximide for 5h, or ionomycin followed by 1.9 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 3h. Across the activation regimens, the cleavage rates of ICSI oocytes (45% to 77%) were higher than those of parthenogenetically activated oocytes (11% to 21%; P<0.05). Activating the ICSI oocytes with ionomycin plus ethanol improved the blastocyst yield (29% to 30%) compared with that of nontreated oocytes (12%; P<0.05), but the other regimens did not improve the blastocyst yield (9% to 18%; P>0.05). Higher blastocyst yields were due to increasing the proportion of ICSI oocytes that passed through the early postfertilization events until cleavage. None of the regimens have any adverse effect on the quality of the blastocysts regarding the total cell number or the proportion of the inner cell mass cells. Thus, a new activation regimen using two triggers for single calcium increase effectively improved blastocyst yield after bovine ICSI using oocytes harvested from stored ovaries.

  12. Developing clinical practice guidelines for Chinese herbal treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: A mixed-methods modified Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lily; Flower, Andrew; Moore, Michael; Lewith, George

    2015-06-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) could be a viable treatment option for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prior to conducting a clinical trial it is important to consider the characteristics of good clinical practice. This study aims to use professional consensus to establish good clinical practice guidelines for the CHM treatment of PCOS. CHM practitioners participated in a mixed-methods modified Delphi study involving three rounds of structured group communication. Round 1 involved qualitative interviews with practitioners to generate statements regarding good clinical practice. In round 2, these statements were distributed online to the same practitioners to rate their agreement using a 7-point Likert scale, where group consensus was defined as a median rating of ≥5. Statements reaching consensus were accepted for consideration onto the guideline whilst those not reaching consensus were re-distributed for consideration in round 3. Statements presented in the guidelines were graded from A (strong consensus) to D (no consensus) determined by median score and interquartile range. 11 CHM practitioners in the UK were recruited. After three Delphi rounds, 91 statement items in total had been considered, of which 89 (97.8%) reached consensus and 2 (2.2%) did not. The concluding set of guidelines consists of 85 items representing key features of CHM prescribing for PCOS. These guidelines can be viewed as an initial framework that captures fundamental principles of good clinical practice for CHM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrient-Induced Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role in the Development of Metabolic Aberration and Ovarian Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    González, Frank

    2015-07-01

    A pathophysiology paradigm shift has emerged with the discovery that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a proinflammatory state. Despite the dogma that the compensatory hyperinsulinemia of insulin resistance is the promoter of hyperandrogenism, physiological insulin infusion has no effect on androgen levels in PCOS. The dogma also does not explain the cause of hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction in the 30 to 50% of women with PCOS who are of normal weight and lack insulin resistance. Inflammation is the underpinning of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and may also be the cause of insulin resistance when present in PCOS. The origin of inflammation in PCOS has been ascribed to excess abdominal adiposity or frank obesity. However, nutrients such as glucose and saturated fat can incite inflammation from circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) of women with PCOS independent of excess adiposity and insulin resistance, and can also promote atherogenesis. Hyperandrogenism activates MNC in the fasting state to increase MNC sensitivity to nutrients, and is a potential mechanism for initiating inflammation in PCOS. However, chronic ovarian androgen suppression does not reduce inflammation in normal-weight women with PCOS. Direct exposure of ovarian theca cells to proinflammatory stimuli in vitro increases androgen production. These findings may be corroborated in vivo with anti-inflammatory therapy to normal-weight insulin-sensitive women with PCOS without abdominal adiposity to observe for amelioration of ovarian dysfunction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Polycystic ovaries: MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D G; Gefter, W B; Spritzer, C E; Blasco, L; Nulson, J; Livolsi, V; Axel, L; Arger, P H; Kressel, H Y

    1986-08-01

    To determine the characteristic appearance of polycystic ovaries on magnetic resonance (MR) images, seven women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) underwent MR examination of the pelvis. These MR images were compared with sonograms. Histologic material was available in two patients. Six of the seven women had characteristic, small peripheral cysts, best seen on T2-weighted MR images; these cysts were seen sonographically in only one case. The centers of nine of 14 ovaries were of low intensity with all MR pulse sequences; this low intensity corresponded with low echogenicity in six cases. Histologically, these areas correlated with hypertrophic cellular stroma. Coexisting central teratomas were seen in three ovaries. The ability of MR to display the findings of PCOD better than ultrasound and its ability to demonstrate coexisting pathologic conditions are valuable in imaging the female pelvis.

  15. [Effects of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase b/bone morphogenetic protein-15 pathway on the follicular development in the mammalian ovary].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-qing; Chen, Li-yun; Zhang, Zheng-hong; wang, Zheng-chao

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, ovarian follicle is made of an oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells and theca cells. Follicular growth and development is a highly coordinated programmable process, which guarantees the normal oocyte maturation and makes it having the fertilizing capacity. The paracrine and autocrine between oocytes and granulosa cells are essential for the follicular development to provide a suitable microenvironment. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase /protein kinase B is one of these important regulatory signaling pathways during this developmental process, and bone morphogenetic protein-15 an oocyte-specific secreted signal molecule, which regulates the follicular development by paracrine in the mammalian ovary. The present article overviewed the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / protein kinase B signaling during the follicular development based on our previous investigation about protein kinase B /forkhead transcription factor forkhead family of transcription factors -3a, and then focused on the regulatory effects of bone morphogenetic protein-15, as a downstream signal molecule of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / forkhead family of transcription factors -3a pathway, on ovarian follicular development, which helped to further understand the molecular mechanism regulating the follicular development and to treat ovarian diseases like infertility.

  16. Analysis of the effects of increasing doses of ionizing radiation to the exteriorized rat ovary on follicular development, atresia, and serum gonadotropin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.; McMahon, A.

    1986-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the effects of environmental and therapeutic agents on the reproductive system, in particular, the ovary. To study the effects of controlled doses of ionizing radiation to the ovary, Sprague-Dawley rats had their ovaries exteriorized and subjected to increasing doses of radiation. There was a significant increase in ovarian follicular atresia, a significant increase in serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels, but no change in serum luteinizing hormone levels. This experimental protocol may facilitate the testing putative radioprotectants.

  17. [Peculiarities of the ovary structure in the rat offspring developing under conditions of the removed thyroid gland of female rat with the thyroxine replacement therapy and external radiation exposure in utero].

    PubMed

    Konoplia, E F; Pavlenko, V S; Banetskaia, N V; Krylova, I I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a single external gamma-radiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy (dose rate 9.08 x 10(-4) Gy/sec) on the 15th day of gestation in case of the removed complex of thyroid and parathyroid glands (thyroidparathyroidectomy) on the first day of gestation, as well as introduction of thyroxin and CaC12 on the structure of offspring ovary in postnatal ontogenesis (30-day old animals) was studied. It has been shown that thyroidparathyroidectomy of a female mother rat with thyroxine replacement therapy and irradiation, as well as the combination of these factors disturb the structure of ovarian tissues of the offspring. A single external irradiation on the 15th day of embryogenesis causes death of a considerable part of primordial follicles in the offspring ovary and growth of follicular layers in the secondary follicles. Thyroidparathyroidectomy of female rat on the first day of gestation with thyroxine replacement therapy causes delay in the development of follicles in the ovary at the early stages of maturation of 30-day old animals. The radiosensitivity of the ovarian tissues of the offspring that has been developed under the combined effect of the factors studied increases and results in an almost full loss of pool cells in the ovary of infant rats.

  18. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  19. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Portunus trituberculatus Ovary and Testis by RNA-Seq: Identification of Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xian-liang; Liu, Ping; Jia, Fu-long; Li, Jian; Gao, Bao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important crab species in East Asia countries. Gonadal development is a physiological process of great significance to the reproduction as well as commercial seed production for P. trituberculatus. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms governing the developmental processes of gonads in this species. To open avenues of molecular research on P. trituberculatus gonadal development, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was employed to develop deep-coverage transcriptome sequencing data for its gonads. Illumina sequencing generated 58,429,148 and 70,474,978 high-quality reads from the ovary and testis cDNA library, respectively. All these reads were assembled into 54,960 unigenes with an average sequence length of 879 bp, of which 12,340 unigenes (22.45% of the total) matched sequences in GenBank non-redundant database. Based on our transcriptome analysis as well as published literature, a number of candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development of P. trituberculatus were identified, such as FAOMeT, mPRγ, PGMRC1, PGDS, PGER4, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSDs. Differential expression analysis generated 5,919 differentially expressed genes between ovary and testis, among which many genes related to gametogenesis and several genes previously reported to be critical in differentiation and development of gonads were found, including Foxl2, Wnt4, Fst, Fem-1 and Sox9. Furthermore, 28,534 SSRs and 111,646 high-quality SNPs were identified in this transcriptome dataset. This work represents the first transcriptome analysis of P. trituberculatus gonads using the next generation sequencing technology and provides a valuable dataset for understanding molecular mechanisms controlling development of gonads and facilitating future investigation of reproductive biology in this species. The molecular markers obtained in this study will provide a fundamental basis for

  20. A comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of infant and adult mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Pan, Linlin; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaonuan; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2014-10-01

    Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD). We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development.

  1. Perfluorooctanoic acid effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of peripubertal mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Tan, Ying S.; Strynar, Mark J.; Perez, Gloria; Haslam, Sandra Z.; Yang, Chengfeng

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated compound and an agonist of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα), causes stunted mouse mammary gland development in various developmental stages. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that peripubertal PFOA exposure significantly inhibited mammary gland growth in both Balb/c and C57Bl/6 wild type mice, but not in C57Bl/6 PPARα knockout mice, and Balb/c mice were more sensitive to PFOA inhibition. PFOA caused 1) delayed or absence of vaginal opening and lack of estrous cycling during the experimental period; 2) decreases in ovarian steroid hormonal synthetic enzyme levels; and 3) reduced expression of estrogen- or progesterone-induced mammary growth factors. Supplementation with exogenous estrogen and/or progesterone reversed the PFOA inhibitory effect on mammary gland. These results indicate that PFOA effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice and that PPARα expression is a contributing factor. PMID:22414604

  2. Growth differentiation factor 9 of Megalobrama amblycephala: molecular characterization and expression analysis during the development of early embryos and growing ovaries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Xiao; Wei, Xin Lan; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Li Ping; Wang, Wei Min; Li, Jun Yan; Wang, Huan Ling

    2014-02-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factorβ superfamily and plays an essential role during follicle maturation in mammals. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of gdf9 was obtained from Megalobrama amblycephala. The cDNA sequence is 2,061 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,287 bp encoding 428 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared identities of about 42-86 % with the homologues of other vertebrates. During the early development of embryos, the gdf9 mRNA was detected in zygote with significantly high level and declined sharply by 47 and 87 % at 4 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and 6 hpf and even to an undetectable level through advancing stages. Expression analysis based on quantitative real-time PCR revealed that gdf9 mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary, but much lower levels were also found in some nonovarian tissues. Within the follicle, gdf9 mRNA was localized both in the oocytes and the follicle layer cells by in situ hybridization. During the ovarian cycle, gdf9 mRNA significantly decreased after the previtellogenic stage and became to increase again after the fully grown stage. The results imply that Gdf9 may play critical physiological functions in M. amblycephala early embryonic development and reproduction.

  3. 4: Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norman, Robert J; Wu, Ruijin; Stankiewicz, Marcin T

    2004-02-02

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition characterised by menstrual abnormalities and clinical or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism. Features of PCOS may manifest at any age, ranging from childhood (premature puberty), teenage years (hirsutism, menstrual abnormalities), early adulthood and middle life (infertility, glucose intolerance) to later life (diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease). While pelvic ultrasound examination is useful, many women without PCOS have polycystic ovaries; ultrasound evidence is not necessary for the diagnosis. Testing for glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia is wise, especially in obese women, as diabetes mellitus is common in PCOS. Lifestyle changes as recommended in diabetes are fundamental for treatment; addition of insulin-sensitising agents (eg, metformin) may be valuable in circumstances such as anovulatory infertility. Infertility can be treated successfully in most women by diet and exercise, clomiphene citrate with or without metformin, ovarian drilling, or ovulation induction with gonadotrophins; in-vitro fertilisation should be avoided unless there are other indications.

  4. Development of a standard protocol for in vitro cytogenetic testing with Chinese hamster ovary cells: comparison of results for 22 compounds in two laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, S.M.; Bloom, A.D.; Resnick, M.; Margolin, B.H.; Nakamura, F.; Archer, P.; Zeiger, E.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem of cytogenetics testing in mammalian cells is lack of agreement of results among laboratories. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive in vitro test protocol that was applicable to large-scale chemical screening and yielded comparable results in two laboratories. The authors used sister chromatid exchange (SEC) and chromosome aberration (CAb) tests in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Five clastogens were tested in the first two-laboratory comparison: mitomycin-C, triethylenemelamine, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cyclophosphamide, and benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. There was quite good agreement between laboratories. Seventeen compounds were then tested blind in the two laboratories. As testing proceeded, some discrepancies occurred between the laboratories, and the protocol was modified in attempts to improve the resolution of marginal responses and make dose selection more consistent. This protocol gave comparable results in the two laboratories in many cases and by testing up to a maximum dose, limited by solubility and/or toxicity, should detect a high proportion of clastogens and SCE inducers.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of basal and zygote-located tip regions of peanut ovaries provides insight into the mechanism of light regulation in peanut embryo and pod development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Han; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Gao, Chao; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-08-11

    Peanut zygotes typically divide a few times to form a pre-embryo before further embryonic development halts under normal day/night photoperiods. Ovary elongation, however, continuesforming a downward growing peg-like structure. When the peg is buried in the soil, embryo development resumes in the darkness. The embryo-located region (ER) of the peg begins to enlarge and form a pod, while the basal region (BR) of the peg has a distinct fate. The molecular mechanisms governing these unique embryo development processes are unknown. In this study, histological analysis demonstrated that from 4 days after pollination to 3 days after soil penetration, the peanut pre-embryo remained morphologically similar. By 9 days after soil penetration, the embryo had changed to a globular embryo. Transcriptome analysis revealed differentially expressed genes in the ER and BR before and after peg soil penetration. In addition to light signaling and plant hormone metabolism genes, we identified differentially expressed genes in the ER that contribute to embryo development and pod formation processes, including MADS-box transcription factors, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein, cellulose synthase, homeobox-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) protein family genes, amino acid permease, and seed growth and embryo morphogenesis regulators (DA1, TCP3, and YABBY). A large number of genes were found to be differentially expressed in the ER and BR across three developmental peg stages. Exact changes in gene expression were also identified in the ER during early embryo and pod development. This information provides an expanded knowledgebase for understanding the mechanisms of early peanut pod formation.

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracy; Mortada, Rami; Porter, Samuel

    2016-07-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patient presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to having multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Guidelines from the Endocrine Society recommend using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis, which mandate the presence of two of the following three findings- hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries-plus the exclusion of other diagnoses that could result in hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction. It is reasonable to delay evaluation for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent patients until two years after menarche. For this age group, it is also recommended that all three Rotterdam criteria be met before the diagnosis is made. Patients who have marked virilization or rapid onset of symptoms require immediate evaluation for a potential androgen-secreting tumor. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is individualized based on the patient's presentation and desire for pregnancy. For patients who are overweight, weight loss is recommended. Clomiphene and letrozole are first-line medications for infertility. Metformin is the first-line medication for metabolic manifestations, such as hyperglycemia. Hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for irregular menses and dermatologic manifestations.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Dewailly, D; Hieronimus, S; Mirakian, P; Hugues, J-N

    2010-02-01

    1. The Rotterdam classification should be used to define PCOS in the event of: menstrual cycle anomalies; amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or long cycles, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound appearance of polycystic ovaries. 2. The presence of two of these three criteria is sufficient once all other diagnoses have been ruled out. 3. Diagnosis of hirsutism should not be based on the Ferriman-Gallway score. 4. The ultrasound definition of PCOS contains precise criteria that must be included in the report: presence of at least 12 follicles in each ovary measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, and/or increase in ovary size>10 ml. 5. Screening for elevated plasma LH no longer necessary. Testing for GnRH serves no purpose. 6. Routine screening for metabolic abnormalities should be carried out systematically based on weight, height and BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and laboratory parameters: plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol. 7. In the case of obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)), oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is recommended where fasting serum glucose is normal. 8. Clomiphene citrate (CC) remains the first-line therapy for ovulation induction. In patients with BMI>30, it should be preceded by improvement of metabolic status through appropriate lifestyle modifications.

  8. The presence of an insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) and insulin-like peptide binding protein (ILPBP) in the ovary of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus and their roles in ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoshuai; Ye, Haihui; Chung, J Sook

    2017-08-01

    Insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) that is produced by the male androgenic gland (AG), plays a role in sexual differentiation and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics in decapod crustaceans. With an earlier finding of IAG expression in a female Callinectes sapidus ovary, we aimed to examine a putative role of IAG during the ovarian development of this species. To this end, the full-length cDNA sequence of the ovarian CasIAG (termed CasIAG-ova) has been isolated. The predicted mature peptide sequence of CasIAG-ova is identical to that of the IAG from the AG, except in their signal peptide regions. The CasIAG-ova contains an alternative initiation codon (UUG) as the start codon, which suggests that the translational regulation of CasIAG-ova may differ from that of the IAG from AG. To define the function of CasIAG-ova, the expressions of CasIAG-ova as well as its putative binding protein, insulin-like peptide binding protein (ILPBP), are measured in the ovaries at various developmental stages obtained from different seasons. Season affects both CasIAG and ILPBP expression in the ovary. Overall, summer females at earlier ovarian stages contain high levels of CasIAG and ILPBP than spring or fall females. These findings indicate that CasIAG-ova and CasILPBP may be involved in the ovarian development. When comparing the levels of CasIAG and CasILPBP in the ovary, the latter are much higher (∼10-10000 fold) than the former. Expression patterns of CasILPBP differ from those of CasIAG-ova during ovarian development and by season, suggesting that ILPBP may have an additional role in ovarian development rather than a function of a putative binding protein of IAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Mammalian Ovary from Genesis to Revelation

    PubMed Central

    Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Two major functions of the mammalian ovary are the production of germ cells (oocytes), which allow continuation of the species, and the generation of bioactive molecules, primarily steroids (mainly estrogens and progestins) and peptide growth factors, which are critical for ovarian function, regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and development of secondary sex characteristics. The female germline is created during embryogenesis when the precursors of primordial germ cells differentiate from somatic lineages of the embryo and take a unique route to reach the urogenital ridge. This undifferentiated gonad will differentiate along a female pathway, and the newly formed oocytes will proliferate and subsequently enter meiosis. At this point, the oocyte has two alternative fates: die, a common destiny of millions of oocytes, or be fertilized, a fate of at most approximately 100 oocytes, depending on the species. At every step from germline development and ovary formation to oogenesis and ovarian development and differentiation, there are coordinated interactions of hundreds of proteins and small RNAs. These studies have helped reproductive biologists to understand not only the normal functioning of the ovary but also the pathophysiology and genetics of diseases such as infertility and ovarian cancer. Over the last two decades, parallel progress has been made in the assisted reproductive technology clinic including better hormonal preparations, prenatal genetic testing, and optimal oocyte and embryo analysis and cryopreservation. Clearly, we have learned much about the mammalian ovary and manipulating its most important cargo, the oocyte, since the birth of Louise Brown over 30 yr ago. PMID:19776209

  10. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C on hexavalent chromium-induced delay in sexual maturation and oxidative stress in developing Wistar rat ovary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jawahar B; Stanley, Jone A; Vengatesh, Ganapathy; Princess, Rajendran A; Muthusami, Sridhar; Roopha, Dailiah P; Suthagar, Esakky; Kumar, Kathiresh M; Sebastian, Maria S; Aruldhas, Michael M

    2012-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a highly toxic metal and major environmental pollutant and is extensively used in more than 50 industries. The major route of CrVI exposure for the general population is oral intake. Chromium is considered an important nutrient responsible for carbohydrate metabolism. However, excess CrVI exposure is associated with various pathological conditions including reproductive dysfunction. CrVI can traverse the placental barrier and cause wide range of abnormalities in fetal development. Cr is transported to offspring through mother's milk in lactating women exposed to CrVI. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the toxic effects of lactational CrVI exposure on ovary and uterus and the beneficial role of vitamin C in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of CrVI in developing female Wistar rats. Generation of oxidative stress is considered one of the plausible mechanisms behind Cr-induced cellular deteriorations. The present study evidenced a decrease in the specific activities of antioxidants, serum testosterone and progesterone and an increase in the levels of H₂O₂, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and follicle stimulating hormone in rats exposed to CrVI when compared to control. CrVI exposure also delayed the sexual maturation and extended the estrous cycle. Simultaneous administration of vitamin C significantly prevented the increase in LPO and enhanced the antioxidant status. These results suggest the protective effect of vitamin C against the CrVI exposure-induced toxicity and attest the significance of antioxidants in diet.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the expression pattern of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in the Acomys cahirinus ovarian cells during its postnatal development. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of ERalpha and ERbeta in germinal epithelium cells and interstitial tissue. Both these ER subtypes were also seen in granulosa cells and oocytes of growing follicles, however, the level of ERbeta expression was higher in comparison with ERalpha. In contrast to ERbeta, ERalpha protein was also present in theca cells. The expression of ERs increased with animals' age, but it decreased during follicular maturation. Moreover, the immunolocalization of ER subtypes in luteal cells showed that not ERbeta, but ERalpha expression is up-regulated throughout corpus luteum development. These immunohistochemical studies demonstrate, for the first time, that ERalpha is also expressed in the mouse granulosa cells and it may be a mediator of estrogen action in granulosa cells proliferation and differentiation.

  12. Gestational and postnatal protein deficiency affects postnatal development and histomorphometry of liver, kidneys, and ovaries of female rats' offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda R C L; Silva, Gerluza A B; Fiúza, Aparecida T L; Chianca, Deoclécio A; Ferreira, Anderson J; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio

    2012-04-01

    Pre- and postnatal protein deficiency may lead to decreased foetal intra-uterine development and postnatal growth, which is common in developing countries. The present study aimed to investigate the consequences of a low-protein intake during gestation and postnatally on adult female rats' offspring. Female rats were given either a control or a protein-deficient diet throughout the gestation and lactation periods. A subset of females was killed at day 20 of pregnancy for foetal and placental measurements. Another subset of females farrowed and the number, length, and weight of the offspring were measured. After weaning, the offspring received the same diet as their dams until 70 days of age. They were sacrificed, and some organs were weighed and collected for histomorphometrical analyses. Placental weight and size and foetal weight were lower in protein-deficient dams. The weight and length of pups at birth were also lower in the deficient group. The organs to body weight ratio were higher in the deficient animals at 70 days of age. The protein-deficient female offspring had a smaller ovarian area, greater numbers of primordial follicles and developing follicles per square millimetres of ovarian cortex, and no corpora lutea. The liver showed smaller nuclear diameter of the hepatocytes and height of the hepatocytes cords. The kidneys showed smaller cortical area with reduced glomerular number and diameter. These results provide the first evidence of the histomorphological changes of the association between gestational and postnatal protein deficiency in female rats' offspring.

  13. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers.

  14. NPPC/NPR2 signaling is essential for oocyte meiotic arrest and cumulus oophorus formation during follicular development in the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Kiyosu, Chiyo; Tsuji, Takehito; Yamada, Kaoru; Kajita, Shimpei; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2012-08-01

    Natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) and its high affinity receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2), have been assumed to be involved in female reproduction and have recently been shown to play an essential role in maintaining meiotic arrest of oocytes. However, the overall role of NPPC/NPR2 signaling in female reproduction and ovarian function is still less clear. Here we report the defects observed in oocytes and follicles of mice homozygous for Nppc(lbab) or Npr2(cn), mutant alleles of Nppc or Npr2 respectively to clarify the exact consequences of lack of NPPC/NPR2 signaling in female reproductive systems. We found that: i) Npr2(cn)/Npr2(cn) female mice ovulated a comparable number of oocytes as normal mice but never produced a litter; ii) all ovulated oocytes of Npr2(cn)/Npr2(cn) and Nppc(lbab)/Nppc(lbab) mice exhibited abnormalities, such as fragmented or degenerated ooplasm and never developed to the two-cell stage after fertilization; iii) histological examination of the ovaries of Npr2(cn)/Npr2(cn) and Nppc(lbab)/Nppc(lbab) mice showed that oocytes in antral follicles prematurely resumed meiosis and that immediately before ovulation, oocytes showed disorganized chromosomes or fragmented ooplasm; and iv) ovulated oocytes and oocytes in the periovulatory follicles of the mutant mice were devoid of cumulus cells. These findings demonstrate that NPPC/NPR2 signaling is essential for oocyte meiotic arrest and cumulus oophorus formation, which affects female fertility through the production of oocytes with developmental capacity.

  15. Effect of a high fat diet on ovary morphology, in vitro development, in vitro fertilisation rate and oocyte quality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Maryam; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Alizadeh, Zohreh; Vahidinia, Aliasghar; Vahabian, Mehrangiz; Hosseini, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on oocyte maturation and quality in a mouse model. METHODS Female BALB/c mice were allocated to one of the following groups: (a) control group (n = 40), which received a controlled diet; or (b) HFD group (n = 40), which received an HFD for 12 weeks. Sections of the ovary were examined histologically. The number of follicles and corpora lutea were counted. In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) were assessed in germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes, respectively. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and leptin receptor genes in GV and MII oocytes was evaluated using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reactions. RESULTS In the HFD group, there was a decreased number of primordial and Graafian follicles, as well as corpora lutea (p < 0.05). The rate of oocyte development to the MII stage was also reduced (p < 0.001). Cumulus expansion was observed more frequently in the control group than the HFD group (p < 0.05). The IVF rate in the HFD group was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In the HFD group, BMP15 and leptin receptor genes were upregulated in the GV stage (p > 0.05) and MII stage (p < 0.05), compared to the control group. CONCLUSION An HFD reduces folliculogenesis in the primordial and Graafian stages, in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation rates, as well as oocyte quality in mice. PMID:26512150

  16. Sequences 5' of the basement membrane laminin beta 1 chain gene (LAMB1) direct the expression of beta-galactosidase during development of the mouse testis and ovary.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Gudas, L J

    1997-12-01

    The murine LAMB1 gene encoding laminin beta 1 is expressed in the developing male and female gonads and mesonephros. To identify the cis-acting elements regulating the expression of LAMB1, murine transgenic lines were generated by fusing regions of the LAMB1 gene to the Eschericia coli lacZ gene. The p3.9LAM beta gal construct contained approximately 4 kb of 5' flanking sequence and directed beta-galactosidase expression in many different organs including the kidney, mammary gland, and the male and female genital systems, the focus of this report. In male embryos, between gestational ages E 14.5 and birth beta-galactosidase was transiently expressed in the prospermatogonia cells of the testis and in the differentiating epithelial cells in the ductus deferens, ductus epididymis, and seminal vesicles. In female embryos, beta-galactosidase was not detected in the ovary until about 1 week after birth; at this time, beta-galactosidase was expressed by oocytes of primary and secondary follicles. In contrast, transgenic mice carrying the first 0.7 kb of LAMB1 fused to the lacZ gene expressed beta-galactosidase only in the prospermatogonia cells of the testis. Thus, the cis-acting element(s) necessary for the expression of the LAMB1 gene in prospermatogonia cells are located in the first 0.7 kb of LAMB1 5' flanking sequence; element(s) required for expression of the LAMB1 gene in oocytes and epithelial cells of the mesonephric ducts, mesonephric tubules, the ductus deferens, ductus epididymis, and seminal vesicles are located with 4 kb 5' of the transcription initiation site.

  17. Effect of a high fat diet on ovary morphology, in vitro development, in vitro fertilisation rate and oocyte quality in mice.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Maryam; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Alizadeh, Zohreh; Vahidinia, Aliasghar; Vahabian, Mehrangiz; Hosseini, Mahnaz

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on oocyte maturation and quality in a mouse model. Female BALB/c mice were allocated to one of the following groups: (a) control group (n = 40), which received a controlled diet; or (b) HFD group (n = 40), which received an HFD for 12 weeks. Sections of the ovary were examined histologically. The number of follicles and corpora lutea were counted. In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) were assessed in germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes, respectively. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and leptin receptor genes in GV and MII oocytes was evaluated using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reactions. In the HFD group, there was a decreased number of primordial and Graafian follicles, as well as corpora lutea (p < 0.05). The rate of oocyte development to the MII stage was also reduced (p < 0.001). Cumulus expansion was observed more frequently in the control group than the HFD group (p < 0.05). The IVF rate in the HFD group was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In the HFD group, BMP15 and leptin receptor genes were upregulated in the GV stage (p > 0.05) and MII stage (p < 0.05), compared to the control group. An HFD reduces folliculogenesis in the primordial and Graafian stages, in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation rates, as well as oocyte quality in mice.

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Cope With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome? en español Síndrome de ovario poliquístico What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome? ... PCOS. Medicines used to treat PCOS will slow down or stop excessive hair growth for many girls. ...

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome and acne.

    PubMed

    Chuan, Sandy S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. It is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS often experience dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, including hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. This article will review the treatments for acne due to androgen excess in PCOS women.

  20. Inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in human ovary in vitro results in increased activation of primordial follicles but compromises development of growing follicles.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Marie; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2014-08-01

    In the mammalian ovary a small number of follicles are steadily recruited from the quiescent pool to undergo development. Follicle loss, maintenance and growth are strictly controlled by complex molecular interactions including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathway. Stimulation of PI3K promotes phosphorylation of Akt resulting in follicle survival and activation of growth whereas this pathway is suppressed by the actions of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dipotassium bisperoxo(5-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxyl)oxovanadate (bpV), a reversible inhibitor of PTEN, on the activation, survival and development of human ovarian follicles in vitro. Biopsied ovarian tissue fragments were obtained from 17 women aged 23-46 years and exposed to 1 µM bpV(HOpic) (n = 146) or control medium (n = 128) for 24 h. Media were then replaced with control medium and all tissue incubated for a further 5 days. Ovarian tissue from each treatment group was fixed after the initial 24 h culture period and phosphorylated Akt was quantified by western blotting. After 6 days incubation all tissue fragments were inspected under light microscopy and any secondary follicles ≥100 µm isolated. Isolated follicles were cultured individually in control medium supplemented with 100 ng/ml recombinant human activin A. Tissue fragments without follicles suitable for isolation were fixed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. During 6 days culture, follicle activation occurred in tissue samples from both treatment groups but with significantly more follicles progressing to the secondary stage of development in the presence of 1 µM bpV(HOpic) compared with control (31 versus 16%; P < 0.05). Increased activation was associated with increased Akt phosphorylation and increased nuclear export of FOXO3. However isolated and cultured follicles that had been exposed to bpV(HOpic) showed

  1. Ovary and uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger G

    2008-12-01

    Ovarian and uterine transplantation are procedures gaining more attention again because of potential applications in respectively fertility preservation for cancer and other patients and, more tentatively, women with uterine agenesis or hysterectomy. Cryopreservation of tissue slices, and possibly whole organs, is providing opportunities for banking ovaries for indefinite periods before transplanting them back to restore fertility. The natural plasticity of this organ facilitates grafting to different sites where they can be revascularized and rapidly restore the normal physiology of secretion and ovulation. Ischemic damage is a chief limitation because many follicles are lost, at least in avascular grafts, and functional longevity is reduced. Nevertheless, grafts of young ovarian tissue, even after cryopreservation, can be highly fertile in laboratory rodents and, in humans, autografts have functioned for up to 3 years before needing replacement. Transplantation by vascular anastomosis provides potentially longer function but it is technically much more demanding and riskier for the recipient. It is the only practicable method with the uterus, and has enabled successful pregnancies in several species, but not yet in humans. Contrary to claims made many years ago, neither organ is privileged immunologically, and allografts become rapidly rejected except in hosts whose immune system is deficient or suppressed pharmacologically. All in all, transplantation of these organs, especially the ovary, provides a broad platform of opportunities for research and new applications in reproductive medicine and conservation biology.

  2. Computer-generated ovaries to assist follicle counting experiments.

    PubMed

    Skodras, Angelos; Marcelli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries), with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units.

  3. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and α-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): metformin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is classically characterised by an accumulation of incompletely developed follicles in the ovaries due to anovulation. However, since the publication of the Rotterdam criteria, there is acceptance that menstrual cycle and endocrine dysfunction with hyperandrogenism is more important in reaching the diagnosis than ultrasound findings. It is diagnosed in up to 10% of women attending gynaecology clinics, but the prevalence in the population as a whole varies from 10% to 20%, depending on which diagnostic criteria are used. PCOS has been associated with hirsutism, infertility, acne, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and endometrial hyperplasia. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of metformin on hirsutism and menstrual frequency in women with PCOS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: metformin compared with placebo/no treatment, metformin compared with weight loss intervention, or metformin compared with cyproterone acetate-ethinylestradiol. PMID:25814168

  5. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Homburg, Roy

    2008-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy, affecting 5-10% of the female population. It involves overproduction of ovarian androgens leading to a heterogeneous range of symptoms including hirsutism, acne, anovulation and infertility. Hyperinsulinaemia, exacerbated by obesity, is often a key feature. Treatment depends on the presenting symptoms, which may often be ameliorated by weight loss where relevant. Anti-androgen preparations are used for hyperandrogenic symptoms, and clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line treatment for anovulation and infertility. Aromatase inhibitors are being investigated as an alternative to CC. Failure to conceive with CC can be treated in a number of ways, including the addition of insulin-lowering agents (mainly metformin), low-dose gonadotrophin therapy or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Although the exact aetiology of PCOS is not known, the therapeutic alternatives provide reasonably successful symptomatic treatment.

  7. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, G; Gangadharan, V P; Elizabath, K A; Preetha, S; Chithrathara, K

    2000-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas are rare extramedullary tumors of malignant myeloid precursor cells. Exceedingly rare in childhood, it commonly involves skin, lymph nodes, bone, and the spine. Ovarian involvement is rare. It can arise de novo, precede the development of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, or be the sole manifestation of relapse. We describe a 26-year-old woman with granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary without any hematologic disorder.

  8. Comparative proteomics analysis of spermary and ovary in Hyriopsis schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwu; Wang, Dexia; Zhou, Yan; Gu, Yiran; Wu, Di; Wang, Junhua; Hong, Yijiang

    2017-03-01

    We provide the first large-scale quantitative proteomics analysis in Hyriopsis schlegelii. To investigate the proteins expressed in the gonads, a quantitative proteomics approach has been utilized to analyze differentially expressed proteins between the spermary and ovary. In this study, we identified and quantified 2416 proteins in the gonads of Hyriopsis schlegelii. Of these, 559 proteins showed significantly different expression between the spermary and ovary. Some specific proteins expressed in either the spermary or ovary were identified in Hyriopsis schlegelii. In addition, a series of proteins related to gametogenesis were also identified. Compared with previous reports, many proteins in Hyriopsis schlegelii identified here have different expression patterns between the spermary and ovary. The special hermaphroditism in Hyriopsis schlegelii may contribute to these inconsistent results. The provided proteomics data could be considered as a starting point for subsequent studies focusing on the proteins involved in sexual gland development and maturity.

  9. [Expressions of Livin and PTEN in Cancerous Tissues of Ovary Endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Ya; Wang, Hong-Jing; Xu, Pan; Chen, Jing; Pan, Hai-Ying; Liu, Ya

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the expressions of Livin and phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromsome ten (PTEN) protein in the cancerous tissues of ovary endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry EliVision was used to examine the expressions of Livin and PETN protein in 19 samples of ovary endometriosis cancerous tissues, 30 samples of ovary endometriosis tissues and 30 samples of ovarian benign tumor tissues. The positive expression rate of Livin in ovary endometriosis cancerous tissues (68%) was obviously higher than that in ovary endometriosis tissues (36%) and benign tumor tissues (13%)( P<0.05). The positive expression rate of PTEN in ovary endometriosis cancerous tissues (16%) was obviously lower than that in ovary endometriosis tissues (65%) and benign tumor tissues (80%)( P<0.01). There was no correlations between positive expressions of Livin and age, clinical stage, grading, histological type and lymphatic metastasis of ovary endometriosis cancer ( P>0.05), the same result was also found for PTEN. Livin and PTEN expression presented an obviously negative correlation in ovary endometriosis cancer ( r=-0.559, P=0.001). Up-regulation of Livin expression and down-regulation of PTEN may be involved in the occurrence and development of ovary endometriosis cancerization.

  10. [Polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2015-10-01

    For diagnosing of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) it is currently recommended to follow the ESHRE criteria. For diagnosis according to them two of the following three symptoms are sufficient: 1. morphology of polycystic ovaria, 2. clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or laboratory proof of hyperandrogenemia, and 3. oligo-anovulation. PCOS is a complex disorder in whose pathogenesis genetic and environmental effects interact. It is not a gynecological disorder alone, the syndrome is accompanied by insulin resistance which leads to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (4 times and twice, independently of BMI). Also gestational DM occurs more frequently. Dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, elevated CRP and homocysteine levels, endothelial dysfunction and greater intima-media thickness are also more frequent. It is not quite clear, however, whether women with PCOS suffer cardiovascular events more frequently as well. More often than is accidental PCOS is associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders, further with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and with the sleep apnoea syndrome - especially in obese women. Therapeutic measures include non-pharmacological methods - lifestyle adjustments focused on weight reduction in obese individuals, cosmetic measures for dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism, in particular laser and pharmacotherapy (combined hormonal contraceptives and antiandrogens). Menstrual irregularities can be treated with contraceptives or cyclical administration of gestagens, also metformin can be used.

  11. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. )

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  12. Obesity and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bermejo, E; Luque-Ramírez, M; Escobar-Morreale, H F

    2007-09-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a mostly hyperandrogenic disorder and is possibly the most common endocrinopathy of premenopausal women. The primary defect in PCOS appears to be an exaggerated androgen synthesis and secretion by the ovaries and the adrenal glands. In a substantial proportion of PCOS patients, the primary defect in androgen secretion is triggered by factors such as the hyperinsulinism resulting from insulin resistance and/or the secretion of metabolically active substances by visceral adipose tissue, because these factors may facilitate androgen synthesis at the ovaries and the adrenals of predisposed women. The prevalence of obesity in PCOS patients is increased when compared to the general female population and, conversely, the prevalence of PCOS is increased in overweight and obese women when compared to their lean counterparts. Obesity exerts a major impact on the PCOS phenotype, particularly on the metabolic associations and complications of the syndrome. Among others, the presence obesity is clearly related to the infertility of PCOS, and increases the risk for the metabolic syndrome and its constellation of cardiovascular risk factors in these women. This review will summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the association of obesity and PCOS, the impact of obesity on the PCOS phenotype and on the association of PCOS with metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors, and the new developments in the management of obese PCOS patients.

  13. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  14. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathi-one peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26545251

  15. Is Change in Ovary Carbon Status a Cause or a Consequence of Maize Ovary Abortion in Water Deficit during Flowering?

    PubMed

    Oury, Vincent; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Prodhomme, Duyên; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, François; Turc, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabolism, together with the concentrations and amounts of sugars, and with the activities of major enzymes of carbon metabolism. Photosynthesis and indicators of sugar export, measured during water deprivation, suggested sugar export maintained by the leaf. The first molecular changes occurred in silks rather than in ovaries and involved genes affecting expansive growth rather than sugar metabolism. Changes in the concentrations and amounts of sugars and in the activities of enzymes of sugar metabolism occurred in apical ovaries that eventually aborted, but probably after the switch to abortion of these ovaries. Hence, we propose that, under moderate water deficits corresponding to most European drought scenarios, changes in carbon metabolism during flowering time are a consequence rather than a cause of the beginning of ovary abortion. A carbon-driven ovary abortion may occur later in the cycle in the case of carbon shortage or under very severe water deficits. These findings support the view that, until the end of silking, expansive growth of reproductive organs is the primary event leading to abortion, rather than a disruption of carbon metabolism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance.

    PubMed

    Balen, Adam H; Morley, Lara C; Misso, Marie; Franks, Stephen; Legro, Richard S; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Fauser, Bart C J M; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena

    2016-11-01

    Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this paper was to present an evidence base for the management of anovulatory PCOS. The evidence to support providing recommendations involved a collaborative process for: (i) identification of priority questions and critical outcomes, (ii) retrieval of up-to-date evidence and exiting guidelines, (iii) assessment and synthesis of the evidence and (iv) the formulation of draft recommendations to be used for reaching consensus with a wide range of global stakeholders. For each draft recommendation, the methodologist evaluated the quality of the supporting evidence that was then graded as very low, low, moderate or high for consideration during consensus. Evidence was synthesized and we made recommendations across the definition of PCOS including hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle regulation and ovarian assessment. Metabolic features and the impact of ethnicity were covered. Management includes lifestyle changes, bariatric surgery, pharmacotherapy (including clomiphene citrate (CC), aromatase inhibitors, metformin and gonadotropins), as well as laparoscopic surgery. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) was considered as were the risks of ovulation induction and of pregnancy in PCOS. Approximately 80% of women who suffer from anovulatory infertility have PCOS. Lifestyle intervention is recommended first in women who are obese largely on the basis of general health benefits. Bariatric surgery can be considered where the body mass index (BMI) is ≥35 kg/m(2) and lifestyle therapy has failed. Carefully conducted and monitored pharmacological ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative pregnancy rates and multiple pregnancy rates can be

  17. Metformin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Omran, Maha Yousef Soliman

    2007-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility due to anovulation, affects 4–7% of women). Etiology of PCOS remains largely unknown, familial aggregation of cases suggests genetic susceptibility to the disorder. Though genes involved remain unknown, recent evidence points to a gene of the insulin receptor. Genes implicated in ovarian follicular development may also play a role. A fundamental aspect of the syndrome seems to be a defect in insulin metabolism. There is consistent evidence that increase of body weight may favour a more severe hyperandrogenism. Treatment of PCOS has been mostly symptomatic. Only recently has the use of insulinomimetic or insulin sensitizing agents provided an option to treat the presumed underlying cause of this disorder, which is insulin resistance. Metformin appears to improve risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, indicating that its use could be associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease in patients with PCOS. The use of metformin in hyperinsulinemic women with PCOS improved the lipid profile, including decreases in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration. PMID:21475454

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a relatively common disorder among adolescent women. The typical clinical features including menstrual irregularities and hirsutism are usually not apparent until middle to late adolescence. Yet studies suggest that PCOS may begin in early puberty. Young women with premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean Hispanic and African American ancestry, and/or obesity are more likely to develop PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS may have elevated total or free testosterone, androstenedione, and luteinizing hormone levels; insulin resistance; and hyperinsulinemia. The laboratory evaluation and management of the adolescent with suspected PCOS should be individualized on the basis of the clinical features and symptoms. The cornerstone of most treatment strategies includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin to decrease testosterone levels and regulate the menstrual cycle. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne and excess facial hair, and hair removal is dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. A healthy approach to eating, in some cases weight loss, and exercise is encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and often requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  19. Stress-related genes distinctly expressed in unfertilized wheat ovaries under both normal and water deficit conditions whereas differed in fertilized ovaries.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yajuan; Song, Wanlu; Xiao, Shuyang; Yin, Guangjun; Zhu, Yan; Yan, Yueming; Hu, Yingkao

    2014-05-06

    In this study, a proteomic approach was utilized to identify differentially accumulated proteins in developing wheat ovaries before and after fertilization and in response to water deficit. Proteins were extracted, quantified, and resolved by 2-DE at pH4-7. Statistical analysis of spot intensity was performed by using principal component analysis and samples were clustered by using Euclidean distance. In total, 136 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 88 unique proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Under normal conditions, stress-related proteins were abundant in unfertilized ovaries while proteins involved in the metabolism of energy and matter were enriched in fertilized ovaries just 48h after fertilization. Similar trends were observed in unfertilized and fertilized wheat ovaries under water deficit conditions, except for increased accumulation of stress-related proteins in fertilized ovaries. Some proteins required for normal development were not present in ovaries subjected to water deficit. Our comprehensive results provide new insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved in ovary development before and after fertilization and in tolerance to water deficit. Fertilization initiates the most dramatic changes that occur in the life cycle of higher plants; research into differences in gene expression before and after ovary pollination can make a substantial contribution to understanding the physiological and biochemical processes associated with fertilization. To date, a small number of studies have examined changes in transcriptional activity of the developing plant embryo sac before and after fertilization. However, comparative proteomic analysis of wheat ovary development before and after fertilization, and in response to water deficit, has not yet been reported. Our comprehensive results provide new insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved in ovary development before and after fertilization and in tolerance

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of endometrial cancer: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Tokmak, Aytekin; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Kara, Aydan; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Cavkaytar, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinological disorder of reproductive age women with a prevalence of 5 to 8 %. The most common diagnostic criteria used for polycystic ovary syndrome are oligo- or an-ovulation, clinical and/ or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Hyperandrogenism results in increased estrogen levels and lack of cyclic progesterone due to anovulation and persistent stimulation of the endometrium may lead to endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma development. In this mini review, we aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer.

  1. Morphology and function of cryopreserved whole ovine ovaries after heterotopic autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Banerjee, Jashoman; Yazici, Ilker; Borowczyk, Ewa; Bilski, Jerzy J; Sharma, Rakesh K; Siemionov, Maria; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to perform complex characterization of cryopreserved and then autotransplanted ovaries including determination of the ability to respond to in vivo follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-treatment, fertilizability of retrieved oocytes, and morphology, vascularization, cellular proliferation and apoptosis in sheep. Methods Mature crossbred ewes were divided into two groups; an intact (control) group (n = 4), and autotransplanted group (n = 4) in which oophorectomy was performed laparoscopically and ovaries with intact vascular pedicles frozen, thawed and transplanted back into the same animal at a different site. Approximately five months after autotransplantation, estrus was synchronized, ewes were treated with FSH, and ovaries were collected. For all ovaries, number of visible follicles was determined, and collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were matured and fertilized in vitro. Remaining ovarian tissues were fixed for evaluation of morphology, expression of factor VIII (marker of endothelial cells), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; expressed by pericytes and smooth muscle cells), and smooth muscle cell actin (SMCA; marker of pericytes and smooth muscle cells), and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Two fully functional ovaries were collected from each control ewe (total 8 ovaries). Results Out of eight autotransplanted ovaries, a total of two ovaries with developing follicles were found. Control ewes had 10.6 +/- 2.7 follicles/ovary, oocytes were in vitro fertilized and developed to the blastocyst stage. One autotransplanted ewe had 4 visible follicles from which 3 COC were collected, but none of them was fertilized. The morphology of autotransplanted and control ovaries was similar. In control and autotransplanted ovaries, primordial, primary, secondary, antral and preovulatory follicles were found along with fully functional vascularization which was manifested by expression of factor VIII, VEGF and SMCA

  2. Cryopreservation of ovaries from neonatal marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hideyuki H.; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ovary of neonatal nonhuman primates contains the highest number of immature oocytes, but its cryopreservation has not yet been sufficiently investigated in all life stages. In the current study, we investigated cryodamage after vitrification/warming of neonatal ovaries from a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A Cryotop was used for cryopreservation of whole ovaries. The morphology of the vitrified/warmed ovaries was found to be equivalent to that of fresh ovaries. No significant difference in the number of oocytes retaining normal morphology per unit area in histological sections was found between the two groups. In an analysis of dispersed cells from the ovaries, however, the cell viability of the vitrified/warmed group tended to be decreased. The results of a comet assay showed no significant differences in DNA damage. These results show that cryopreservation of neonatal marmoset ovaries using vitrification may be useful as a storage system for whole ovaries. PMID:26876597

  3. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    PubMed

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  4. Adipocyte biology in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barber, T M; Franks, S

    2013-07-05

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that is associated with an adverse metabolic profile including insulin resistance. There is a clear association between obesity, the development of PCOS and the severity of its phenotypic, biochemical and metabolic features. Evidence to support this link includes data from epidemiological, pathophysiological and genetic studies. Given the importance of obesity in the development and manifestation of PCOS, ongoing research into the many facets of adipocyte biology in women with the condition is important and should continue to be a priority. In this review article, we discuss the existing literature on fat distribution, adipokines, adipocyte hypertrophy and adipocyte steroid metabolism in women with PCOS.

  5. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  6. Female reproductive aging is master-planned at the level of ovary.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  7. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for...

  8. Sliding indirect hernia containing both ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol L

    2005-09-01

    Although sliding indirect inguinal hernias containing the ipsilateral ovary and fallopian tube are not uncommon in infant girls, sliding hernias containing both ovaries are rare. This report describes a large indirect inguinal hernia in a 1-year-old infant girl that contained the left uterine fundus, left bladder ear, as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.

  9. [Genetic and epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Herczeg, Zita; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Dézsi, Csilla; Nagy, Zsolt; Szabó, János

    2016-08-01

    The development of polycystic ovary syndrome and its exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear, but environmental and genetic factors likely play a role. Exposition to teratogenic effects during the prenatal development can lead to chronic diseases in the postnatal period. This finding confirms the common familial aggregation as well. A literature search was conducted up to January 1, 2016 for articles dealing with the genetic or epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome. This review will discuss the current understanding of the genetic basis and clinical presentation of this disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(32), 1275-1281.

  10. Mammalian ovary differentiation - a focus on female meiosis.

    PubMed

    Baillet, Adrienne; Mandon-Pepin, Béatrice

    2012-06-05

    Over the past 50 years, the ovary development has been subject of fewer studies as compare to the male pathway. Nevertheless due to the advancement of genetics, mouse ES cells and the development of genetic models, studies of ovarian differentiation was boosted. This review emphasizes some of new progresses in the research field of the mammalian ovary differentiation that have occurred in recent years with focuses of the period around prophase I of meiosis and of recent roles of small non-RNAs in the ovarian gene expression.

  11. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  12. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  13. Fasciola hepatica: a light and electron microscope study of the ovary and of the development of oocytes within eggs in the uterus provides an insight into reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R E B; Moffett, D; Forster, F I; Trudgett, A G; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2016-05-15

    The ultrastructure of the ovary of Fasciola hepatica collected from field-infected sheep, was compared with that of flukes from laboratory-infected rats harbouring the Oberon or the Cullompton fluke isolate. At the periphery of the ovarian tubules, in all flukes, interstitial tissue was identified that appears to provide physical support and facilitate the metabolism of the germinal-line cells. Oogonia undergo mitotic division to maintain the cell population and to produce oocytes. Early oocytes feature conspicuous synaptonemal complexes in the nucleoplasm, and these become less evident as the oocytes grow in size, move towards the core of the ovarian tubule, and synthesise osmiophilic bodies. The latter may represent cortical granules, and serve to block polyspermy. The identity of the synaptonemal complexes was confirmed by immunocytochemical labelling of synaptonemal proteins. The occurrence of synaptonemal complexes in the oocytes of all fluke types examined indicates that pairing of bivalent chromosomes, with the potential for genetic recombination and chiasmata formation, is a feature of the triploid aspermic parthenogenetic Cullompton flukes, as well as of the wild-type out-breeding field-derived and Oberon isolate flukes. In oocytes within shelled eggs in the proximal uterus of all flukes, condensed chromosomes align at meiotic metaphase plates. Following the reduction division, two equal pronuclei appear in each oocyte in the distal uterus. On the basis of these observations, a mechanism of facultative parthenogenesis for F. hepatica is proposed that accommodates the survival and clonal expansion of triploid aspermic isolates.

  14. Proteomic Profiling for Identification of Novel Biomarkers Differentially Expressed in Human Ovaries from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Zhang, Jiangyu; Deng, Qingshan; Li, Jieming; Li, Zhengfen; Xiao, Yao; Hu, Shuiwang; Li, Tiantian; Tan, Qiuxiao; Li, Xiaofang; Luo, Bingshu; Mo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify differential protein expression pattern associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Twenty women were recruited for the study, ten with PCOS as a test group and ten without PCOS as a control group. Differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis and mass spectroscopy were employed to identify proteins that were differentially expressed between the PCOS and normal ovaries. The differentially expressed proteins were further validated by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results DIGE analysis revealed eighteen differentially expressed proteins in the PCOS ovaries of which thirteen were upregulated, and five downregulated. WB and IHC confirmed the differential expression of membrane-associated progesterone receptor component 1 (PGRMC1), retinol-binding protein 1 (RBP1), heat shock protein 90B1, calmodulin 1, annexin A6, and tropomyosin 2. Also, WB analysis revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher expression of PGRMC1 and RBP1 in PCOS ovaries as compared to the normal ovaries. The differential expression of the proteins was also validated by IHC. Conclusions The present study identified novel differentially expressed proteins in the ovarian tissues of women with PCOS that can serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of PCOS using molecular interventions. PMID:27846214

  15. Pioglitazone reduces central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    PubMed

    Asadipooya, Kamyar; Kalantar-Hormozi, Mohammadreza; Nabipour, Iraj

    2012-01-01

    Based on the role of polycystic ovary syndrome as a cause of metabolic syndrome with chronic anovulation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism, development of effective treatment for its obesity is a priority. We designed a study, involving 52 patients of 19-36 years of age, to test the pioglitazone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Subjects were assigned to receive pioglitazone for 3 months. Body mass index, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured before and after 3 months of pioglitazone prescription. Fifty patients completed the study. No complication reported during the study period. Waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to height ratio decreased significantly. Body weight and body mass index increased. No significant improvement was seen in acne, acanthosis, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. Pioglitazone has beneficial effects on central obesity of the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome but other clinical consequences of the syndrome may not improve with the drug.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome - an update.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jacqueline; Teede, Helena J

    2012-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition, present in 12-21% of women of reproductive age. Up to 70% of women with PCOS remain undiagnosed. This article summarises the 2011 national PCOS guideline, Evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome, for the general practice context, with particular reference to the needs of Indigenous Australian women. Women with PCOS may present with a wide range of symptoms. The Rotterdam criteria are the most widely accepted for diagnosis and the national guideline references these criteria. Women with PCOS have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and its cardiovascular sequelae. This is particularly important for Indigenous women who are already at increased baseline risk. Management of PCOS involves attention to current symptoms, fertility and psychosocial issues, as well as prevention of related future health problems including diabetes. Resources are available to help guide management and patients may benefit most from a team approach to care.

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Stephanie S; Beverley, Rachel; Barnard, Emily; Baradaran-Shoraka, Massoud; Sanfilippo, Joseph S

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) typically manifests with a combination of menstrual dysfunction and evidence of hyperandrogenism in the adolescent population. No single cause has been identified; however, evidence suggests a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Polycystic ovary syndrome presents a particular diagnostic challenge in adolescents as normal pubertal changes can present with a similar phenotype. Management of PCOS in the adolescent population should focus on a multi-modal approach with lifestyle modification and pharmacologic treatment to address bothersome symptoms. This chapter outlines the pathogenesis of PCOS, including the effects of obesity, insulin resistance, genetic, and environmental factors. The evolution of the diagnostic criteria of PCOS as well as specific challenges of diagnosis in the adolescent population are reviewed. Finally, evidence for lifestyle modification and pharmacologic treatments are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [Natural history of ovary cancer].

    PubMed

    Novoa-Vargas, Arturo

    2014-09-01

    Ovary cancer is a disease charged of paradigms and a serious health problem. It's important to know its natural history, because has a multifactor origins, and understanding its behavior since risk factors until patient's death because metastatic disease is a challenger for oncology group. In this work we made a bibliographic, analytic review that brings up concepts related to its origin, evolution, risk factors, preclinical horizon, and clinical symptoms until the death of patient.

  19. [Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Belosi, C; Giuliani, M; Suriano, R; Sagnella, F; Lanzone, A

    2004-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorders among women in reproductive age, but diagnostic criteria used in clinical practice are still controversial. In 1990 the National Institute of HEALTH (NIH) conference on PCOS recommended that diagnostic criteria should include biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction (in the absence of non-classical adrenal hyperplasia) without considering the morphological diagnosis of polycystic ovary by ultrasound as an essential part of the diagnosis. In the Rotterdam PCOS workshop of May 2003, however, PCOS is diagnosed when 2 of the following criteria are recognized: oligomenorrhea and/or anovulation, clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, ultrasound findings of polycystic ovary. Further-more, it is underlined that the metabolic study is not necessary for PCOS diagnosis, while it is suggested for "at risk patients" (obesity, diabetes, familiar and obstetrical history) with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A recent study carried out by our group underlined the role of ultrasound parameter, in particular suggesting a ratio between ovarian stroma area and total area of the ovarian section (S/A), with a cut-off of 0.34, as "gold parameter" for PCOS diagnosis, because it shows high sensitivity and specificity (96.3%, 97.0% for the S/A).

  20. Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

  1. Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

  2. Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tsikouras, P; Spyros, L; Manav, B; Zervoudis, S; Poiana, C; Nikolaos, T; Petros, P; Dimitraki, M; Koukouli, C; Galazios, G; von Tempelhoff, GF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: To elucidate the prepubertal risk factors associated with the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and determine the special clinical manifestations of the syndrome in this transitional time of a woman’s life. Objective: To propose therapeutic targets and regimens, not only to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, but also to improve the self-esteem of a young girl who matures into womanhood. Methods and Results: A systematic review of literature was performed through electronic database searches (Pubmed, Medline and Embase). Studies published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals from 1996 to 2013 were included. The selected studies focused on the risk factors, the unique features and treatment options of the PCOS in puberty. The pathogenesis of the PCOS was hypothesized to be based on interactions between genetic and certain environmental factors. The diagnosis was usually difficult in young girls. The syndrome was related to a greater risk of future infertility, type II diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Early treatment was crucial to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, especially infertility and cardiovascular disease. Discussion:The recognition of the early signs of PCOS during or even before adolescence is of great importance. It is essential to establish the correct diagnosis for PCOS and rule out other causes of androgen excess in young women with hyperandrogenism. The type of treatment applied should be considered on an individual basis. Abbreviations: PCOS = Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PMID:26351529

  3. Neonatal exposure to single doses of estradiol or testosterone programs ovarian follicular development-modified hypothalamic neurotransmitters and causes polycystic ovary during adulthood in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Tiszavari, Michelle; Cruz, Gonzalo; Lara, Hernán E

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the hormones participating in early follicular development and hypothalamic neurotransmitters in rats during adulthood. Experimental basic study. University animal laboratory. Twenty-three neonatal rats injected with single subcutaneous injection of estradiol valerate (EV), testosterone propionate (TP), or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and killed by decapitation at 60 days of age. Measurements of neurotransmitter in ventromedial hypothalamus-arcuate nucleus (VMH-AN) and ovarian morphometry in the adult rat. Noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content by high performance liquid chromatography medial basal hypothalamus and ovarian morphology. EV exposure increased 5-HT, DA, NA, and Glu and decreased GABA levels in the VMH-AN. Exposure to TP increased Glu and decreased 5-HT in the VMH-AN. Neonatal EV and TP decreased the number of primordial follicles but EV increased the atresia of antral follicles and TP decreased it. Neonatal exposure to DHT did not cause morphologic changes in the adult ovary. Neonatal exposure to EV activated the reproductive hypothalamus and permanently modified ovarian follicular development. TP exposure had some similar effects as EV at the hypothalamus, and it modified ovarian development mimicking the effects of EV. This last effect could be through TP conversion to estradiol because DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not modify follicular development. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of α-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or α-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. α-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of α-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  5. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries.

  6. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  7. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  8. Developmental morphology of the neonatal alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) ovary.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Uribe-Aranzábal, Mari Carmen; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-03-01

    American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) ovary development is incomplete at hatching. During the months following hatching, the cortical processes of oogenesis started in ovo continues and folliculogenesis is initiated. Additionally, the medullary region of the gonad undergoes dramatic restructuring. We describe alligator ovarian histology at hatching, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age in order to characterize the timing of morphological development and compare these findings to chicken ovary development. At hatching, the ovarian cortex presents a germinal epithelium containing oogonia and a few primary oocytes irregularly scattered between somatic epithelial cells. The hatchling medulla shows fragmentation indicative of the formation of lacunae. By 1 week of age, oocytes form growing nests and show increased interactions with somatic cells, indicative of the initiation of folliculogenesis. Medullary lacunae increase in diameter and contain secretory material in their lumen. At 1 month, nest sizes and lacunar diameters continue to enlarge. Pachytene oocytes surrounded by somatic cells are more frequent. Trabeculae composed of dense irregular connective tissue divide cortical nests. Three months after hatching oocytes in meiotic stages of prophase I up to diplotene are present. The ovary displays many enlarged follicles with oocytes in diplotene arrest, thecal layers, lampbrush chromosomes, and complete layers of follicular cells. The medulla is an elaborated complex of vascularized lacunae underlying the cortex and often containing discrete lymphoid aggregates. While the general morphology of the alligator ovary is similar to that of the chicken ovary, the progression of oogenesis and folliculogenesis around hatching is notably slower in alligators. Diplotene oocytes are observed at hatching in chickens, but not until 3 months in alligators. Folliculogenesis is completed at 3 weeks in chickens whereas it is still progressing at 3 months in alligators.

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Christopher R.; Marshall, John C.

    2017-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman reports having hirsutism and irregular menses. She describes unpredictable and infrequent menses (five or six per year) since menarche at 11 years of age. Dark, coarse facial hair began to develop at 13 years of age. The symptoms worsened after she gained weight in college. The physical examination includes a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 29, blood pressure of 135/85 mm Hg, and moderate hirsutism without virilization. Laboratory tests reveal a total testosterone level of 65 ng per deciliter (2.3 nmol per liter) (assay reference range, 14 to 53 ng per deciliter [0.5 to 1.8 nmol per liter]), calculated free testosterone level of 15.3 pg per milliliter (53.1 pmol per liter) (assay reference range, 0.6 to 6.8 pg per milliliter [2.1 to 23.6 pmol per liter]), and glycated hemoglobin level of 5.7% (normal value, ≤5.6%). How should this case be evaluated and managed? PMID:27406348

  10. Bilateral Inguinal Hernias Containing Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Basrur, Gurudutt Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernias are rare in females. The authors report a case of bilateral inguinal hernias in a 10-year-old female. On exploration, the patient was found to be having a sliding hernia containing incarcerated ovary as contents on both sides. Peroperatively the contents were reduced, the sac was transfixed at its base and the redundant sac was excised. The repair of this form of hernias is more difficult because of adhesions between the contents and the wall of the sac and risk of damage during dissection. A description of this clinical presentation in the pre operative assessment and operative management are discussed in this report. PMID:25918632

  11. Progesterone Regulation of Primordial Follicle Assembly In Bovine Fetal Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    Fertility in mammals is dependant on females having an adequate primordial follicle pool to supply oocytes for fertilization. The formation of primordial follicles is called ovarian follicular assembly. In rats and mice progesterone and estradiol have been shown to inhibit follicle assembly with assembly occurring after birth when the pups are removed from the high-steroid maternal environment. In contrast, primordial follicle assembly in other species, such as cattle and humans, occurs during fetal development before birth. The objective of the current study is to determine if progesterone levels regulate primordial follicle assembly in fetal bovine ovaries. Ovaries and blood were collected from bovine fetuses. Interestingly, ovarian progesterone and estradiol concentrations were found to decrease with increasing fetal age and correlated to increased primordial follicle assembly. Microarray analysis of fetal ovary RNA suggests that progesterone membrane receptor and estrogen nuclear receptor are expressed. Treatment of fetal bovine ovary cultures with a higher progesterone concentration significantly decreased primordial follicle assembly. Observations indicate that progesterone affects ovarian primordial follicle assembly in cattle, as it does in rats and mice. PMID:19747959

  12. Modelling Wheat Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  13. The impact of vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity, and earliness per se on grain protein content of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  14. Struma ovarii with elevated ca-125 levels and ascites mimicking advanced ca ovary.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery.

  15. Struma Ovarii with Elevated Ca-125 Levels and Ascites Mimicking Advanced Ca Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

  16. Potential role of retinoids in ovarian physiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanwen; Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Wang, Fengge; Zhou, Xu

    2017-03-27

    Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, retinoid signaling plays a key role in initiating meiosis of germ cells of the mammalian fetal ovary. Recently, studies indicated that precise retinoid level regulation in the ovary provides a molecular control of ovarian development, steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. Besides, abnormal retinoid signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common ovarian endocrinopathies in reproductive-aged women worldwide. This review primarily summarizes recent advancements made in investigating the action of retinoid signaling in ovarian physiology as well as the abnormal retinoid signaling in PCOS.

  17. Removal of mouse ovary fat pad affects sex hormones, folliculogenesis and fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Hui; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Teng; Guo, Lei; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Hou, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Shen, Wei; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    As a fat storage organ, adipose tissue is distributed widely all over the body and is important for energy supply, body temperature maintenance, organ protection, immune regulation and so on. In humans, both underweight and overweight women find it hard to become pregnant, which suggests that appropriate fat storage can guarantee the female reproductive capacity. In fact, a large mass of adipose tissue distributes around the reproductive system both in the male and female. However, the functions of ovary fat pad (the nearest adipose tissue to ovary) are not known. In our study, we found that the ovary fat pad-removed female mice showed decreased fertility and less ovulated mature eggs. We further identified that only a small proportion of follicles developed to antral follicle, and many follicles were blocked at the secondary follicle stage. The overall secretion levels of estrogen and FSH were lower in the whole estrus cycle (especially at proestrus); however, the LH level was higher in ovary fat pad-removed mice than that in control groups. Moreover, the estrus cycle of ovary fat pad-removed mice showed significant disorder. Besides, the expression of FSH receptor decreased, but the LH receptor increased in ovary fat pad-removed mice. These results suggest that ovary fat pad is important for mouse reproduction.

  18. Is Change in Ovary Carbon Status a Cause or a Consequence of Maize Ovary Abortion in Water Deficit during Flowering?1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Prodhomme, Duyên; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, François

    2016-01-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabolism, together with the concentrations and amounts of sugars, and with the activities of major enzymes of carbon metabolism. Photosynthesis and indicators of sugar export, measured during water deprivation, suggested sugar export maintained by the leaf. The first molecular changes occurred in silks rather than in ovaries and involved genes affecting expansive growth rather than sugar metabolism. Changes in the concentrations and amounts of sugars and in the activities of enzymes of sugar metabolism occurred in apical ovaries that eventually aborted, but probably after the switch to abortion of these ovaries. Hence, we propose that, under moderate water deficits corresponding to most European drought scenarios, changes in carbon metabolism during flowering time are a consequence rather than a cause of the beginning of ovary abortion. A carbon-driven ovary abortion may occur later in the cycle in the case of carbon shortage or under very severe water deficits. These findings support the view that, until the end of silking, expansive growth of reproductive organs is the primary event leading to abortion, rather than a disruption of carbon metabolism. PMID:27208256

  19. The Polycystic Ovary Morphology-Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation. Two-thirds of PCOS patients have functionally typical PCOS, with typical functional ovarian hyperandrogenism manifest as 17-hydroxyprogesterone hyper-responsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation. Most, but not all, of the remainder have atypical functional ovarian hyperandrogenism. Many asymptomatic volunteers with polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM) have similar abnormalities. The objective of this paper is to review the relationship of biochemical ovarian function to the clinical spectrum observed in PCOS and in normal volunteers with PCOM. Adolescents and adults with PCOS are similar clinically and biochemically. Ninety-five percent of functionally typical PCOS have classic PCOS, ie, hyperandrogenic anovulation with PCOM. In addition to having more severe hyperandrogenism and a greater prevalence of PCOM than other PCOS, they have a significantly greater prevalence of glucose intolerance although insulin resistance is similarly reduced. Half of normal-variant PCOM have PCOS-related steroidogenic dysfunction, which suggests a PCOS carrier state. There is a spectrum of ovarian androgenic dysfunction that ranges from subclinical hyperandrogenemia in some normal-variant PCOM to severe ovarian hyperandrogenism in most classic PCOS. A minority of mild PCOS cases do not fall on this spectrum of ovarian androgenic dysfunction, but rather seem to have obesity as the basis of their hyperandrogenism, or, less often, isolated adrenal androgenic dysfunction. Half of normal-variant PCOM also do not fall on the PCOS spectrum, and some of these seem to have excessive folliculogenesis as a variant that may confer mild prolongation of the reproductive lifespan. Improved understanding of PCOM in young women is needed. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, hippo represses notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic ovaries, triggering the mitosis-endocycle switch in the follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2014-01-01

    During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system during follicle development in the bovine ovary: relationship among IGF-I, type 1 IGF receptor (IGFR-1) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A).

    PubMed

    Sudo, N; Shimizu, T; Kawashima, C; Kaneko, E; Tetsuka, M; Miyamoto, A

    2007-01-29

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system that is exerted mainly through the type 1 IGF receptor (IGFR-1) and releasing of free IGF-I is regulated by the proteases of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), an important factor in follicle development of bovine ovary. The aims of the present study were to examine the mRNA expressions of IGF-I, IGFR-1 and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in granulosa cells and theca tissues during bovine follicular development and the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) on the expression of these genes in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Follicles were classified into four groups such as small follicle (SF), estrogen inactive dominant follicle (EID), estrogen active dominant follicle (EAD) and preovulatory follicle (POF). The concentration of free IGF-I in follicular fluid of POF was significantly higher than those in EID, whereas the total IGF-I in follicular fluid did not change at all developmental stages. The expression of IGF-I mRNA was not detected in the granulosa cells at all at any developmental stages but the expression was detected in the theca tissues. The amount of IGFR-1 mRNA in granulosa cell showed the constant level at all developmental stages except EID. The expressions of IGFR-1 and PAPP-A in cultured bovine granulosa cells were stimulated with FSH but not with E2. The PAPP-A mRNA expression was stimulated by FSH in presence of 1 ng/ml E2. These results indicate that IGF-I in follicular fluid is mainly derived from the circulation and that FSH is an inducer for the expression of IGFR-1 and PAPP-A genes in granulosa cells. Therefore, we suggest that PAPP-A stimulated with FSH play a crucial role for IGF-I system in bovine follicular development.

  2. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kristin Nadine

    2011-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It affects 6% to 7% of the population and is characterized by hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction. Women with the disorder often present with insulin resistance and obesity, making it importance for health care providers to monitor closely for signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Treatments are targeted toward improving insulin tolerance, reducing signs and symptoms of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, anovulation, etc), restoring normal menstrual cycle function, and restoring fertility. Major treatment should include weight management through diet and exercise, regardless of body mass index and might include concurrent drug therapy. It is important that pharmacists understand the underlying pathophysiology of the disease and the available treatments, in addition to the importance of reducing risk of metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in these patients.

  4. Temporal mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members and inhibitors in the developing rainbow trout ovary

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily have critical roles in ovarian development in mammals, yet many of these peptides have not been characterized or even identified in fish. Although much is known about the endocrine control of ovarian development in fishes, little...

  5. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the “thrifty” phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  6. Weight Loss and Medication in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tolstoi, Linda G.; Josimovich, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a complex syndrome, affects approximately 6% of reproductive-age women. Many abnormalities are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, but confusion still exists about their causation. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome is by exclusion. Management of the metabolic aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome focuses on minimizing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia with diet therapy or insulin-lowering drugs.

  7. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  8. Perfluorooctanoic acid effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of peripubertal mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated compound and an agonist of peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), causes stunted mouse mammary gland development in various developmental stages. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly...

  9. Perfluorooctanoic acid effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of peripubertal mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated compound and an agonist of peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), causes stunted mouse mammary gland development in various developmental stages. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly...

  10. Regulation of neuroendocrine cells and neuron factors in the ovary by zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Hao, Ya-Nan; Song, Ran; Li, Lan; Feng, Yan-Ni; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Di; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    The pubertal period is an important window during the development of the female reproductive system. Development of the pubertal ovary, which supplies the oocytes intended for fertilization, requires growth factors, hormones, and neuronal factors. It has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause cytotoxicity of neuron cells. However, there have been no reports of the effects of ZnO NPs on neuronal factors and neuroendocrine cells in the ovary (in vivo). For the first time, this in vivo study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs on gene and protein expression of neuronal factors and the population of neuroendocrine cells in ovaries. Intact NPs were detected in ovarian tissue and although ZnO NPs did not alter body weight, they reduced the ovary organ index. Compared to the control or ZnSO4 treatments, ZnO NPs treatments differentially regulated neuronal factor protein and gene expression, and the population of neuroendocrine cells. ZnO NPs changed the contents of essential elements in the ovary; however, they did not alter levels of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. These data together suggest that intact ZnO NPs might pose a toxic effect on neuron development in the ovary and eventually negatively affect ovarian developmental at puberty.

  11. Free amino acid content and metabolic activities of setting and aborting soybean ovaries. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiasi, H.; Paech, C.; Dybing, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fruits of soybean (glycine max (L.) Merr.) that are destined to abscise shortly after anthesis grow more slowly than fruits that will be retained. In this work, amino acid composition, protein metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism were studied in setting and abscising soybean ovaries from anthesis to 6 days after anthesis. Principal free amino acids were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glutamine. Percent aspartate and glutamate declined as the ovaries grew, with aspartate declining more in abscising and glutamate more in setting ovaries. Percent glutamate was positively correlated to percent abscission throughout the period. Proline, serine, and leucine were positively correlated to abscission from 0 to 2 days after anthesis, whereas significant negative correlations were observed at these ages for ethanolamine and arginine. /sup 75/Se fed as selenate and /sup 14/C fed as sucrose, glycine, and alanine were readily incorporated into soluble and insoluble proteins in a 24-hour in vitro incubation. Radioactivity of total proteins, expressed on a per-ovary basis, was negatively correlated with percent abscission and positively correlated with ovary weight. (/sup 14/C)Glutamine and serine followed the opposite pattern, with greater protein labeling in abscising than in setting ovaries. When data were expressed as disintegrations per minute per milligram ovary fresh weight, protein labeling from alanine was seen to be significantly greater in abscising ovaries at anthesis and throughout the sampling period. Nucleic acid labeling from uridine was highly correlated to ovary weight; labeling from thymidine was greater in setting than abscising ovaries at anthesis and in abscising ovaries at later stages of development.

  12. Diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and a history of polycystic ovary syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Pace, R; Rahme, E; Dasgupta, K

    2017-08-07

    To investigate whether polycystic ovary syndrome further increases postpartum diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to explore relationships between polycystic ovary syndrome and incident diabetes in women who do not develop gestational diabetes. This retrospective cohort study (Quebec Physician Services Claims; Hospitalization Discharge Databases; Birth and Death registries) included 34 686 women with gestational diabetes during pregnancy (live birth), matched 1:1 to women without gestational diabetes by age group, year of delivery and health region. Diagnostic codes were used to define polycystic ovary syndrome and incident diabetes. Cox regression models were used to examine associations between polycystic ovary syndrome and incident diabetes. Polycystic ovary syndrome was present in 1.5% of women with gestational diabetes and 1.2% of women without gestational diabetes. There were more younger mothers and mothers who were not of white European ancestry among those with polycystic ovary syndrome. Those with polycystic ovary syndrome more often had a comorbidity and a lower proportion had a previous pregnancy. Polycystic ovary syndrome was associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio 1.52; 95% CI 1.27, 1.82) among women with gestational diabetes. No conclusive associations between polycystic ovary syndrome and diabetes were identified (hazard ratio 0.94; 95% CI 0.39, 2.27) in women without gestational diabetes. In women with gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome confers additional risk for incident diabetes postpartum. In women without gestational diabetes, an association between PCOS and incident diabetes was not observed. Given the already elevated risk of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes, a history of both polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes signal a critical need for diabetes surveillance and prevention. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  13. Early origins of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Schramm, R Dee; Abbott, David H

    2005-01-01

    The prenatally androgenised female rhesus monkey has become a model for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, with early prenatal androgenisation entraining a permanent PCOS-like phenotype characterised by luteinising hormone (LH) hypersecretion due to reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess associated with increased abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities occur in combination with ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular arrest in adulthood, and with premature follicle differentiation and impaired embryo development during gonadotrophin therapy for in vitro fertilization (IVF). The ability of prenatal androgen excess in fetal rhesus monkeys to entrain multiple organ systems in utero provides evidence that the hormonal environment of intrauterine life programmes target tissue differentiation, raising the possibility that hyperandrogenism in human fetal development promotes PCOS in adulthood. This hypothesis developed in prenatally androgenised female rhesus monkeys, however, also must include data from clinical studies of PCOS to clarify the homology between human and non-human primates in intrafollicular steroidogenesis and its impact on oocyte developmental competency. By doing so, future studies promise to develop new clinical strategies that will lead to improved pregnancy outcome and reduced pregnancy loss in women with disorders of insulin action, including PCOS, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  14. Treatment for Stromal Tumors of the Ovary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epithelial Tumors of Low Malignant Potential Treatment for Germ Cell Tumors of the Ovary Treatment for Stromal Tumors ... used is what’s used in the treatment of germ cell tumors (PEB: cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin). The combination ...

  15. Cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Martina; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The number of rat strains increased considerably in the last decade and will increase continuously during the next years. This requires enough space for maintaining vital strains and techniques for cryobanking, which can be applied not only in specialised rat resource centres but also in regular animal houses. Here we describe an easy and fast method for the cryopreservation and transplantation of frozen-thawed ovaries of the rat. With dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant rat ovaries can be stored at -196 degrees C for unlimited time. For revitalisation thawed ovaries have to be orthotopically transplanted into appropriate ovarectomised recipients. Reestablishment of the reproductive cycle in the recipients can be confirmed by vaginal cytology shortly after transplantation. The recipients are able to produce 2-3 litters after mating with males of an appropriate strain. Cyropreservation of ovaries thus can be considered a reliable method to preserve scientifically and economically important stocks and strains of rats that are currently not required.

  16. Ovary structure and early oogenesis in the remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus (Crustacea, Remipedia): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Iliffe, Thomas M; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Koenemann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Remipedia are enigmatic crustaceans of uncertain phylogenetic position with the general consensus that they are crucial for understanding the crustacean/arthropod evolution. It has been demonstrated previously that the features of the ovary organization and subcellular aspects of oogenesis are useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships in arthropods such as hexapods and onychophorans. The structure of the female gonads in Remipedia remains largely unknown; therefore, we examined the gross morphology and ultrastructural details of the ovary in a remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus, with special emphasis on characters relevant to phylogenetic reconstructions. The ovaries of G. frondosus are located in the anterior part of the body and are composed of a single anterior proliferative zone (the germarium) and paired ovarian tubes (the vitellarium). The oocytes undergo subsequent stages of development within the lumen of the ovarian tubes, hence the remipede ovaries can be classified as endogenous. During oogenesis, each oocyte is enveloped by a set of characteristic somatic follicular cells, which results in the formation of distinct ovarian follicles. Here, we demonstrate that Remipedia share significant similarities in the ovary organization with Cephalocarida, including the anterior location of the ovary, the anterior-most position of the germarium and the endogenous type of oocyte development. Phylogenetic implications of our findings are discussed.

  17. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a

  18. Molecular and morphological differentiation of testes and ovaries in relation to the thermosensitive period of gonad development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Rhen, Turk; Fagerlie, Ruby; Schroeder, Anthony; Crossley, Dane A; Lang, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Ambient temperatures during embryonic development determine gonadal sex in many reptiles. The temperature sensitive period for sex determination has been defined by shifting eggs between female- and male-producing temperatures in a few species. This phase spans 20-35% of embryogenesis in most species, which makes it difficult to define the mechanisms that transduce temperature into a signal for ovarian versus testicular development. We present an extensive set of studies that define a brief period when high temperature specifies, and then determines, ovarian fate in a northern population of snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. We shifted embryos from male to female temperatures, or vice versa, at various stages of development. Gonads in embryos incubated at female temperatures commit to ovarian fate earlier (by stage 18) than gonads in embryos incubated at male temperatures commit to testicular fate (by stages 19-21). In double shift studies, embryos were incubated at a female temperature, exposed to a male temperature for set times, and shifted back to the original temperature, or vice versa. The time required to induce ovarian development (≤6 days at female temperatures) was much shorter than the time required to induce testicular formation (>20 days at male temperatures). Differentiation of the gonads at the histological level occurred after the sex-determining period. Nevertheless, we found that a change in temperature rapidly (within 24h) influenced expression and splicing of WT1 mRNA: the absolute abundance of WT1 mRNA, the relative abundance of +KTS versus -KTS isoforms, as well as the ratio of +KTS:-KTS isoforms was higher in gonads at a male versus a female temperature. In conclusion, ovarian fate is more readily determined than testicular fate in snapping turtle embryos. The short sex-determining period in this species (6-8% of embryogenesis) will facilitate studies of molecular mechanisms for specification and determination of gonad fate by

  19. Glucose localization in maize ovaries when kernel number decreases at low water potential and sucrose is fed to the stems.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, John E; Boyer, John S

    2004-07-01

    Around the time of anthesis, young ovary development in maize (Zea mays) is vulnerable to 2 or 3 d of water deficits that inhibit photosynthesis. Abortion can result, and fewer kernels are produced. A breakdown of stored ovary starch is associated with the abortion and was investigated in the present study by localizing the breakdown product glucose in the ovaries. Ovary glucose was localized with fluorescent Resorufin. Insoluble invertase was localized in vivo and soluble invertase in situ. Sucrose was infused into the stems to vary the sugar flux to the ovaries. At high water potential (high Psi(w)), photosynthesis was rapid in the parent. The upper pedicel of the ovaries had a high activity of insoluble acid invertase and a large amount of glucose and starch. Because the invertase was wall-bound, sucrose hydrolysis appeared to occur in the pedicel apoplast. Soluble invertase was undetected inside the pedicel cells but was present in the nucellus cells where low concentrations of glucose occurred. This created a glucose gradient between pedicel and nucellus that favoured glucose uptake by the developing ovary. At low Psi(w), photosynthesis was inhibited, pedicel glucose and starch were depleted, the glucose gradient became negligible, and abortion occurred. When sucrose was fed, glucose, starch and the glucose gradient were maintained somewhat and were normally distributed in the ovaries. Abortion was diminished. The apoplast hydrolysis of sucrose unloaded from phloem is similar to that described by others during later development when embryo and endosperm are present and separated from the parent by an apoplast. The disappearance of the glucose gradient at low Psi(w) may have inhibited glucose movement into the ovary. The low glucose in the ovaries may have a role in the abortion response.

  20. Effect of 17 beta-estradiol on somatic and germ cell subpopulations in the ovary of the newly hatched chick.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Herrera, C; Hofmann, P; Pedernera, E

    1993-02-01

    The involvement of estrogens in avian ovary differentiation and morphogenesis has been previously demonstrated by several authors. The aim of the present study is to provide evidence regarding which cell subpopulations of the ovary are target cells for 17 beta-estradiol during chick development. White Leghorn chick embryos received 200 ng of the hormone or the vehicle on the chorioallantoic membrane at 11, 13, and 15 days of incubation. Within 24 hr after hatching, the left ovary was processed for total cell count, study of the meiotic prophase of oocytes, and the morphometric evaluation of the cortical and the medullary regions of the ovary. Germ cell number was not modified by the treatment. Similarly, no changes were observed in the stage of the prophase and the cellular area of oocytes. The total number of somatic cells was increased in the newly hatched chick ovary treated with 17 beta-estradiol. The number of undifferentiated cells in the juxtacortical medulla was higher in the treated ovary than in the control group. Moreover, the pregranulosa cells of the cortical region were hypertrophied in the 17 beta-estradiol treated ovary. However, no changes were observed in the typical steroidogenic cells after the estrogen treatment. In conclusion, two subpopulations of somatic cells are estrogen target cells in the prefollicular chicken ovary: the pregranulosa cells of the ovarian cortex and the undifferentiated cells in the juxtacortical medulla.

  1. Development of a fluorescent reporter system for monitoring ER stress in Chinese hamster ovary cells and its application for therapeutic protein production.

    PubMed

    Roy, Gargi; Zhang, Shu; Li, Lina; Higham, Eileen; Wu, Herren; Marelli, Marcello; Bowen, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cell expression systems have become a workhorse for the production of biotherapeutic proteins. As such, there is an ever increasing demand for higher productivity from these expression platforms to reduce manufacturing costs. While great advances have been made in the optimization of culture conditions and cell line selection to improve productivity, protein mis-folding remains a common limitation to high levels of production of therapeutic proteins. Accumulation of mis- and unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) that results in an activation of protein folding machinery, translation attenuation in an effort to proper folding of the newly synthesized peptides or may even lead to apoptosis if the correct folding is not restored. As a result, UPR associated apoptosis often results in lower protein expression. To better understand the molecular mechanisms in these pathways, we developed a reporter construct that detects Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-alpha mediated splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) to monitor the course of UPR activation in cell lines expressing monoclonal antibodies. Using this reporter we observed a clear activation of UPR in cells treated with known ER stress causing pharmacological agents, such as Tunicamycin (Tm) and Thapsigargin (Tg), as well as in stable IgG expressing cells during fed-batch cultures. Furthermore, we developed a stress metric that we term as ER stress index (ERSI) to gauge basal ER stress in cells which we used as a predictive tool for isolation of high IgG expressing cell lines. This reporter system, with its ability to monitor the stress involved in recombinant protein expression, has utility to assist in devising engineering strategies for improved production of biotherapeutic drugs.

  2. [Novel role of growth factors in ovary function].

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham

    2010-12-01

    The development of the DNA microarray technique facilitated systematic studies of the modulation of gene function. Considerable attention has been focused on members of the growth factor family to elucidate the main regulators of oocyte maturation and ovarian follicle rupture. Among these growth factors, it was found, both in rodents and in humans, that amphiregulin (Ar) and epiregulin (Ep) of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family were dramatically up-regulated by gonadotrophins in the intact ovary and in primary granulosa cells, respectively. Their role in cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation was established in rodents, and their synthesis under LH stimulation in granulosa cells was demonstrated in humans. To be activated, Ar and Ep must be cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) family. However, the precise processing of Ar and Ep by the cumulus cells is still obscure. Future investigations using DNA microarray technique may reveal the repertoire of genes activated in Ar- and Ep-stimulated cumulus cells and may help elucidate the molecular basis of ovulation. EFG-like factors are also involved in triggering ovarian cancer The author hypothesized that the normal ovary maintains cyclicity in the formation of these growth factors preventing the ovary from developing ovarian cancer In ovarian cancer these growth factors are continuously formed in an autocrine manner, leading to transformation and subsequently to ovarian cancer. These growth factors are essential for both normal and neoplastic transformation of the ovary. Taking into consideration these growth factors in the treatment of ovarian malfunction may be one way of curing ovarian cancer.

  3. [Body composition and polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zabuliene, Lina; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders of reproductive age women. The main signs of PCOS are as follows: androgen excess, menstrual dysfunction, infertility, obesity, and other numerous health problems. By different authors, the disorder affects 2-28% of reproductive age women. Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by presence of hyperandrogenism, anovulation, menstrual cycle disturbances, also by the other metabolic changes. The lack of well-defined and universally accepted diagnostic criteria makes identification of this syndrome confusing to many clinicians. There are only few studies concerning the correlations between phenotypic expression, body composition and PCOS, and relationship with the processes of growth and sexual maturation and various environmental factors (nutrition, physical activity, stress, and other factors). There is a lack of knowledge about further PCOS development and prognosis, considering the individual and environmental factors. Variation in human body composition and shape ranges considerably: many body size and shape indices (height, weight, body composition, and proportions) are the result of long evolution process and adaptation to environment. Obviously, the morphological body parameters, physiological and biochemical indices are complex and compound the interdependent system. By current literature, more than 50% of women are overweight or obese. If waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio of women with PCOS increase, reproductive function and metabolic state of a woman is altered more than in cases when there are no changes in these parameters. The investigations of the strongest sexual dimorphism sign--the subcutaneous and visceral fat topography--showed that women with PCOS have greater adipose tissue mass in the areas of the abdomen, waist, and upper arms than control women. It is known that some indices of sexual dimorphism may be considered as the morphological signs of

  4. Histological Changes of the Ovary in Pregnant Mice Vaginally Exposed to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Eslamirad, Zahra; Bayat, Parvin-Dokht; Babaei, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is one cause of abortion. Infection can disrupt ovarian cycles and because toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease may have a similar effect on the ovaries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathological changes in the ovaries due to toxoplasmosis. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were harvested from peritoneal fluid of mice, experimentally infected. Two females and one male mouse were housed per cage for mating in the overnight. The pregnant mice were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group were infected by parasite but the control group received the normal saline. The experimental and control mice were euthanized. Ovaries and uterine horns of animals were removed and prepared for light microscopy. Ovaries of infected pregnant mice presented gross morphological differences compared to the control groups. In ovaries of experimental groups, changes of corpus luteum were observed. The comparison of experimental and control groups revealed that the number of primary follicles, secondary follicle, atretic primary follicles and atretic secondary follicles had significant differences (P≤0.001). Toxoplasma gondii alters ovarian follicular growth and development in mice. In addition, it alters number of different phases of follicles and corpus luteum in ovaries of mice.

  5. Intravenous neutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor reduces vascular function/permeability of the ovary and prevents development of OHSS-like symptoms in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C V; Lee, D M; Slayden, O D; Li, X

    2017-07-06

    /junctional zone (P < 0.05). Avastin treatment before hCG prevents the development of symptoms associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In vitro data suggest neutralization of VEGFA alters expression of other vascular factors typically induced by hCG in the luteinizing follicle. Neutralization of VEGFA action alters the vascular function of the basalis zone of the uterus during simulated early pregnancy, indicating a potential effect on embryo implantation.

  6. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  7. Follicle dynamics and global organization in the intact mouse ovary

    PubMed Central

    Faire, Mehlika; Skillern, Amanda; Arora, Ripla; Nguyen, Daniel H.; Wong, Jason; Chamberlain, Chester; German, Michael S.; Fung, Jennifer C.; Laird, Diana J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of tissues and organs can reveal large-scale patterning as well as the impact of perturbations and aging on biological architecture. Here we develop tools for imaging of single cells in intact organs and computational approaches to assess spatial relationships in 3D. In the mouse ovary, we use nuclear volume of the oocyte to read out quiescence or growth of oocyte-somatic cell units known as follicles. This in-ovary quantification of non-growing follicle dynamics from neonate to adult fits a mathematical function, which corroborates the model of fixed oocyte reserve. Mapping approaches show that radial organization of folliculogenesis established in the newborn ovary is preserved through adulthood. By contrast, inter-follicle clustering increases during aging with different dynamics depending on size. These broadly applicable tools can reveal high dimensional phenotypes and age-related architectural changes in other organs. In the adult mouse pancreas, we find stochastic radial organization of the islets of Langerhans but evidence for localized interactions among the smallest islets. PMID:25889274

  8. Role of ovary and adrenal glands in hyperandrogenemia in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamel, N; Tonyukuk, V; Emral, R; Corapçioğlu, D; Baştemir, M; Güllü, S

    2005-02-01

    Ovary is the main source of the hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adrenal glands may also be involved in the pathogenesis of the development of PCOS. To investigate this possibility and to find out if buserelin test is able to distinguish PCOS patients from the patients with idiopathic hirsutism (IH), ACTH and buserelin tests were performed in 29 women with PCOS, 21 women with IH, and 20 control subjects (CS). We also aimed to determine the role of dysregulation of 17 hydroxylase in the development of PCOS. Basal and stimulated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and stimulated cortisol (F) levels after ACTH administration were significantly higher in PCOS group than in IH and CS groups (p<0.0001 and p<0.05, respectively). PCOS patients also possessed significantly higher basal and stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH P) levels, including the peak levels (p<0.02), during buserelin testing when compared with IH patients and CS. There was no significant correlation between the ACTH-stimulated and the buserelin-stimulated peak 17-OH P values. In conclusion, significantly higher basal and ACTH-stimulated levels of F and DHEA-S in PCOS compared with controls and patients with IH, reflect that adrenal hyperactivity also plays a role in hyperandrogenemia seen in PCOS. Because of the lack of the correlation between ACTH-stimulated and buserelin-stimulated 17-OH P levels, it is hard to say that adrenal hyperactivity seen in PCOS is the result of the dysregulation of cytochrome P450c17-alpha enzyme. Our results suggest that buserelin test which is an GnRH analogue could distinguish at least some of the patients with PCOS from the other patients presenting with the common symptoms of hyperandrogenemia.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation across human polycystic ovary syndrome ovary granulosa cell

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhaofeng; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Niu, Wenbin; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 7% of the reproductive-age women. A growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic mechanisms contributed to the development of PCOS. The role of DNA modification in human PCOS ovary granulosa cell is still unknown in PCOS progression. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were detected between PCOS’ and controls’ granulosa cell. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled to investigate the putative function of DNA methylaiton. Selected genes expressions were analyzed between PCOS’ and controls’ granulosa cell. Our results showed that the granulosa cell global DNA methylation of PCOS patients was significant higher than the controls’. The global DNA hydroxymethylation showed low level and no statistical difference between PCOS and control. 6936 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified between control and PCOS-obesity. 12245 differential methylated CpG sites were detected between control and PCOS-nonobesity group. 5202 methylated CpG sites were significantly differential between PCOS-obesity and PCOS-nonobesity group. Our results showed that DNA methylation not hydroxymethylation altered genome-wide in PCOS granulosa cell. The different methylation genes were enriched in development protein, transcription factor activity, alternative splicing, sequence-specific DNA binding and embryonic morphogenesis. YWHAQ, NCF2, DHRS9 and SCNA were up-regulation in PCOS-obesity patients with no significance different between control and PCOS-nonobesity patients, which may be activated by lower DNA methylaiton. Global and genome-wide DNA methylation alteration may contribute to different genes expression and PCOS clinical pathology. PMID:27056885

  10. Night temperature and source–sink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Rebecca L.; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high source–sink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Methods Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 °C (HNT) or 12 °C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Key Results Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Conclusions Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low source–sink ratio or HNT and high source–sink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio. PMID:22933415

  11. Night temperature and source-sink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Rebecca L; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G

    2012-10-01

    Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high source-sink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and source-sink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and source-sink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 °C (HNT) or 12 °C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high source-sink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low source-sink ratio or HNT and high source-sink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high source-sink ratio.

  12. Changes in the Level of Peptidase Activities in Pea Ovaries during Senescence and Fruit Set Induced by Gibberellic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Pedro; Carbonell, Juan

    1990-01-01

    The activities and changes in the levels of exopeptidase and endopeptidase activities were characterized in unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska during senescence and early fruit development induced by gibberellic acid (GA3). Two aminopeptidases and one iminopeptidase were electrophoretically separated. These peptidases were sensitive to inhibitors of sulfhydryl proteases. Carboxypeptidase activity was inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride. An azocasein-degrading endopeptidase, sensitive to thiol protease inhibitors, was also found. An increase in the specific activity of aminopeptidase during both fruit development and ovary senescence was observed. In contrast, the specific activity of carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase increased only during senescence of the ovary. Changes in exopeptidase activity in senescing ovaries could be mainly the consequence of a greater stability to proteolysis while the rise in endopeptidase activity appeared to be due to new or increased synthesis of the enzyme. These results suggest that endopeptidase, and not amino or carboxypeptidase, plays a key role in the senescence of pea ovaries and that the changes in unpollinated ovaries leading to ovary senescence or fruit development can be controlled by gibberellins. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667372

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a “two-hit” hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment. PMID:20939704

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  15. Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

  16. An ultrastructural study of the ovary cord organization and oogenesis in Erpobdella johanssoni (Annelida, Clitellata: Hirudinida).

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, Raja; Tekaya, Saïda; Małota, Karol; Świątek, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the ovary cord structure and oogenesis in Erpobdella johanssoni under light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy and to compare the obtained results with other clitellate annelids, especially with other arhynchobdellid leeches. Each of the paired ovaries is composed of the ovary wall (ovisac) and several (7-8) short, cone-shaped ovary cords. The ovary cords are of the "Erpobdella" type, i.e. they are short and polarized and five zones containing germ cells at consecutives stages of their development can be distinguished along their long axis. One, huge somatic cell (the apical cell), oogonia and premeiotic germ cells occur at the tip of the apical part of the ovary cord - zone I. Below, in zone II germ cells enter meiosis, whereas in zone III only a few cells continue meiosis and gather nutrients (oocytes), while the rest become nurse cells. In zone IV, huge vitellogenic oocytes form protuberances on the surface of the cord, and degenerating germ cells were observed at the base of the ovary cord (zones IV and V). The germline cells form syncytial cysts in zones I-III. The germline cysts have broadly the same architecture as in the ovaries of all of the clitellate annelids that have been described to date. Each germ cell in a cyst has only one cytoplasmic bridge connecting it to the common cytoplasmic mass - the cytophore. The cytophore is poorly developed, and it has the form of thin, long cytoplasmic strands. The presence of two categories of germ cells suggests a meroistic mode of oogenesis. The germline cysts are closely associated with somatic, follicular cells. There are two subpopulations of follicular cells: one envelops the growing oocytes, while the second is distributed between other germ cells. The entire ovary cord is additionally enveloped by a layer of somatic cells with a spongy appearance - the spongiosa cells. A characteristic feature of vitellogenic oocytes is the condensation of the

  17. Ovary cryopreservation and transplantation for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Silber, S J

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian transplantation and cryopreservation. This field has progressed over the last half century from simple animal experiments to sophisticated application in humans. The initial poor results in humans began to improve when a series of nine monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for premature ovarian failure (POF) underwent ovary transplantation at one center. All of these fresh ovary transplants were successful, resulting in 11 healthy babies in 7 of the 9 recipients. The same surgical techniques were then applied to 3 frozen ovary tissue transplants, up to 14 years after the ovary had been frozen, resulting in 3 more healthy babies. Around the world, the number of healthy babies has now risen to 28. Even ovary allotransplantation is being attempted in the not so uncommon situation where a previous bone marrow donor is now willing to donate ovarian tissue to the same recipient. Recipients routinely reinitiated ovulatory menstrual cycles and normal Day 3 serum FSH levels by 4.5 months. Most conceived naturally (three of them twice or three times from the same graft). The duration of function of fresh ovarian grafts, contrary to initial expectations, indicated minimal oocyte loss from ischemia time. Grafts of just modest portions of ovarian tissue have lasted >7 years. In vitro studies suggest that vitrification of ovarian tissue may be an improvement over the 70% oocyte viability loss from slow freeze.

  18. Effects of talc on the rat ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T. C.; Fox, H.; Buckley, C. H.; Henderson, W. J.; Griffiths, K.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of rat ovaries to talc was accomplished by intrabursal injection. As early as 1 and up to 18 months after treatment, the ovaries and associated tissue were cystic in appearance; these changes were the result of bursal distention. Histologically the ovarian tissue was decreased in amount and spread as a remnant on the inner wall of the bursa. In four to 10 treated animals but in no controls, focal areas of papillary change were noted in the surface epithelium of the ovary. Polarized light and electron microscope microanalysis confirmed the presence of talc in the surface epithelium, ovarian cortex, and connective tissue matrix of the bursa. Although the changes in the ovarian surface may be related to direct effects of talc exposure, it is postulated that these changes might also be related to constant exposure to the high concentrations of steroid hormones which have undoubtedly accumulated in the intrabursal space. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6696826

  19. Targeting angiogenesis in the pathological ovary.

    PubMed

    Duncan, W Colin; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The ovary is a key tissue in the study of physiological neo-vascularisation in the adult and its study has highlighted important molecules involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in vivo. These include vascular endothelial growth factor, delta-like ligand 4, thrombospondin-1, prokineticin-1 and prostaglandin E2. Targeting these molecular pathways has therapeutic potential and their manipulation has an increasing preclinical and clinical role in the management of the pathological ovary. Targeting angiogenic pathways has utility in the promotion of ovarian angiogenesis to improve tissue and follicle survival and function as well as the prevention and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. There is a theoretical possibility that targeting angiogenesis may improve the function of the polycystic ovary and a real role for targeting angiogenesis in ovarian cancer.

  20. Hypersecretion of androstenedione by isolated thecal cells from polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Gilling-Smith, C; Willis, D S; Beard, R W; Franks, S

    1994-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that hypersecretion of ovarian androgens in polycystic ovary syndrome results from an intrinsic abnormality of androgen biosynthesis by thecal cells. Steroid accumulation by human thecal cells from normal and polycystic ovaries (PCO-theca) was examined under basal and LH-stimulated conditions. A method for dispersing and culturing human thecal cells as primary monolayers in serum-free medium was developed. LH increased androstenedione (A), progesterone (P), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol accumulation in the overlying medium in a dose-dependent manner at a maximum effective dose of 2.5 ng/mL. The principal variables affecting the magnitude of steroid accumulation were plating density, duration of incubation, and follicle size. Using only theca from follicles less than 10 mm and keeping plating density constant, 48-h steroid production by theca from five normal ovaries was compared to that from nine polycystic ovaries isolated from both anovulatory and ovulatory women. There was a significant increase in both basal (median, 32.1 pmol/1000 cells.48 h; range, 18.7-250) and LH-stimulated (56 pmol/1000 cells; range, 40.7-406) A accumulation by PCO-theca compared to basal (1.7 pmol/1000 cells; range, 1.1-4.3) and LH-stimulated (2.8 pmol/1000 cells; range, 2.0-8.1) A accumulation by normal theca, with no overlap in values between the two. Although P production was also increased in the PCO-theca, the A to P ratios under both basal and LH-stimulated conditions were significantly higher in the PCO-theca [A/P ratio normal; PCO basal, 0.1 and 0.53 (P < 0.01); LH-stimulated, 0.04 and 0.65 (P < 0.001)], suggesting increased conversion of P to A. The steroid response to LH was similar in both groups. This is the first report of a difference in thecal androgen production between normal and polycystic ovaries and supports the hypothesis that there is a primary abnormality in the regulation of

  1. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy in increasing live births for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Letrozole could provide a less expensive, more effective treatment for women with this syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of female infertility. ...

  2. Quantitative mutagenesis and mutagen screening with Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, A.W.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Tan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented on the development of a specific gene mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cells/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system, and the utilization of this system to study structure-activity relationship affecting cytotoxicity and gene mutation by various carcinogens. Then, preliminary development and validation of a Multiplex CHO System for the simultaneous determination of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange in addition to cytotoxicity and gene mutation is presented. The potential use of a CHO/human cell hybrid system for measuring chromosomal deletion and loss is discussed.

  3. Identification of the genes regulated by Wnt-4, a critical signal for commitment of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Naillat, Florence; Yan, Wenying; Karjalainen, Riikka; Liakhovitskaia, Anna; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Xu, Qi; Sun, Zhandong; Shen, Bairong; Medvinsky, Alexander; Quaggin, Susan; Vainio, Seppo J

    2015-03-15

    The indifferent mammalian embryonic gonad generates an ovary or testis, but the factors involved are still poorly known. The Wnt-4 signal represents one critical female determinant, since its absence leads to partial female-to-male sex reversal in mouse, but its signalling is as well implicated in the testis development. We used the Wnt-4 deficient mouse as a model to identify candidate gonadogenesis genes, and found that the Notum, Phlda2, Runx-1 and Msx1 genes are typical of the wild-type ovary and the Osr2, Dach2, Pitx2 and Tacr3 genes of the testis. Strikingly, the expression of these latter genes becomes reversed in the Wnt-4 knock-out ovary, suggesting a role in ovarian development. We identified the transcription factor Runx-1 as a Wnt-4 signalling target gene, since it is expressed in the ovary and is reduced upon Wnt-4 knock-out. Consistent with this, introduction of the Wnt-4 signal into early ovary cells ex vivo induces Runx-1 expression, while conversely Wnt-4 expression is down-regulated in the absence of Runx-1. We conclude that the Runx-1 gene can be a Wnt-4 signalling target, and that Runx-1 and Wnt-4 are mutually interdependent in their expression. The changes in gene expression due to the absence of Wnt-4 in gonads reflect the sexually dimorphic role of this signal and its complex gene network in mammalian gonad development.

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and its Developmental Origins

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, Daniel A.; Abbott, David H.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-01-01

    The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS–like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular arrest in adulthood, as well as premature follicle differentiation and impaired embryo development during gonadotropin therapy for in vitro fertilization (IVF). A second animal model for PCOS, the prenatal T-treated sheep also is characterized by LH hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback, persistent follicles and insulin resistance, but also is associated with intrauterine growth retardation and compensatory growth after birth. The ability of prenatal T excess in both species to alter the developmental trajectory of multiple organ systems in utero provides evidence that the hormonal environment of intrauterine life programs target tissue differentiation, raising the possibility that T excess in human fetal development promotes PCOS in adulthood. Such a hypothesis must include data from clinical studies of PCOS women to clarify the homology between these PCOS-like animal models and PCOS per se in reproductive and metabolic function. Future studies should develop new clinical strategies that improve pregnancy outcome and minimize pregnancy loss in women with disorders of insulin action, including PCOS, obesity and diabetes mellitus as well as minimize transgenerational susceptibility to adult PCOS and its metabolic derangements in male close relatives. PMID:17659447

  5. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Desai, Sanjay M.; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Somanath, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words — Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary), we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient. PMID:27904567

  6. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON) will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV) to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh) and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry. PMID:20723258

  7. Endogenous fluorescence emission of the ovary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzinger, Urs; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Brewer, Molly A.

    2005-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among the gynecologic cancers. Early detection would significantly improve survival and quality of life of women at increased risk to develop ovarian cancer. We have constructed a device to investigate endogenous signals of the ovarian tissue surface in the UV C to visible range and describe our initial investigation of the use of optical spectroscopy to characterize the condition of the ovary. We have acquired data from more than 33 patients. A table top spectroscopy system was used to collect endogenous fluorescence with a fiberoptic probe that is compatible with endoscopic techniques. Samples were broken into five groups: Normal-Low Risk (for developing ovarian cancer) Normal-High Risk, Benign, and Cancer. Rigorous statistical analysis was applied to the data using variance tests for direct intensity versus diagnostic group comparisons and principal component analysis (PCA) to study the variance of the whole data set. We conclude that the diagnostically most useful excitation wavelengths are located in the UV. Furthermore, our results indicate that UV B and C are most useful. A safety analysis indicates that UV-C imaging can be conducted at exposure levels below safety thresholds. We found that fluorescence excited in the UV-C and UV-B range increases from benign to normal to cancerous tissues. This is in contrast to the emission created with UV-A excitation which decreased in the same order. We hypothesize that an increase of protein production and a decrease of fluorescence contributions of the extracellular matrix could explain this behavior. Variance analysis also identified fluctuation of fluorescence at 320/380 which is associated with collagen cross link residues. Small differences were observed between the group at high risk and normal risk for ovarian cancer. High risk samples deviated towards the cancer group and low risk samples towards benign group.

  8. Primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries: a new experimental tool.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Silvia; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Sugni, Michela; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, primary cell cultures from ovaries of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were developed in order to provide a simple and versatile experimental tool for researches in echinoderm reproductive biology. Ovary cell phenotypes were identified and characterized by different microscopic techniques. Although cell cultures could be produced from ovaries at all stages of maturation, the cells appeared healthier and viable, displaying a higher survival rate, when ovaries at early stages of gametogenesis were used. In terms of culture medium, ovarian cells were successfully cultured in modified Leibovitz-15 medium, whereas poor results were obtained in minimum essential medium Eagle and medium 199. Different substrates were tested, but ovarian cells completely adhered only on poly-L-lysine. To improve in vitro conditions and stimulate cell proliferation, different serum-supplements were tested. Fetal calf serum and an originally developed pluteus extract were detrimental to cell survival, apparently accelerating processes of cell death. In contrast, cells cultured with sea urchin egg extract appeared larger and healthier, displaying an increased longevity that allowed maintaining them for up to 1 month. Overall, our study provides new experimental bases and procedures for producing successfully long-term primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries offering a good potential to study echinoid oogenesis in a controlled system and to investigate different aspects of echinoderm endocrinology and reproductive biology.

  9. Cyclic AMP in oocytes controls meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Li, Ge; Mu, Xinyi; Wang, Zhengpin; Feng, Lizhao; Niu, Wanbao; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

    2015-01-15

    In mammalian ovaries, a fixed population of primordial follicles forms during the perinatal stage and the oocytes contained within are arrested at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I. In the current study, we provide evidence that the level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in oocytes regulates oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary. Our results show that the early meiotic development of oocytes is closely correlated with increased levels of intra-oocyte cAMP. Inhibiting cAMP synthesis in fetal ovaries delayed oocyte meiotic progression and inhibited the disassembly and degradation of synaptonemal complex protein 1. In addition, inhibiting cAMP synthesis in in vitro cultured fetal ovaries prevented primordial follicle formation. Finally, using an in situ oocyte chromosome analysis approach, we found that the dictyate arrest of oocytes is essential for primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results suggest a role for cAMP in early meiotic development and primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. A quantitative assay of mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO/HGPRT system): development and definition of the system.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J P; Brimer, P A; Machanoff, R; Hirsch, G P; Hsie, A W

    1977-10-01

    An assay is described for the measurement of mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells utilizing resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG). Optimal selection conditions are defined for such parameters as phenotypic expression time prior to selection, and TG concentration and cell density which permits maximum mutant recovery. The nature of the TG-resistant mutants is characterized by several physiological and biochemical methods. The data demonstrate that more than 98% of the mutant clones isolated by this selection procedure contain altered HGPRTase activity. The CHO/HGPRT system thus shows the specificity necessary for a specific gene locus mutational assay.

  11. [Malignized dermoid cyst of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Bützow, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Mature germ cell derived cystic teratoma of the ovary, i.e. dermoid cyst, is a common ovarian neoplasm, seldom progressing to malignancy. Malignized dermoid cyst is most commonly diagnosed in a woman of approx. 50 years of age, either during or after an operation. Owing to the rarity of the disease, the lines of treatment are based on retrospective series of cases.

  12. A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

  13. Circadian clock function in the mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Sellix, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Rhythmic events in the female reproductive system depend on the coordinated and synchronized activity of multiple neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues. This coordination is facilitated by the timing of gene expression and cellular physiology at each level of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, including the basal hypothalamus and forebrain, the pituitary gland, and the ovary. Central to this pathway is the primary circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that, through its myriad outputs, provides a temporal framework for gonadotropin release and ovulation. The heart of the timing system, a transcription-based oscillator, imparts SCN pacemaker cells and a company of peripheral tissues with the capacity for daily oscillations of gene expression and cellular physiology. Although the SCN sits comfortably at the helm, peripheral oscillators (such as the ovary) have undefined but potentially critical roles. Each cell type of the ovary, including theca cells, granulosa cells, and oocytes, harbor a molecular clock implicated in the processes of follicular growth, steroid hormone synthesis, and ovulation. The ovarian clock is influenced by the reproductive cycle and diseases that perturb the cycle and/or follicular growth can disrupt the timing of clock gene expression in the ovary. Chronodisruption is known to negatively affect reproductive function and fertility in both rodent models and women exposed to shiftwork schedules. Thus, influencing clock function in the HPO axis with chronobiotics may represent a novel avenue for the treatment of common fertility disorders, particularly those resulting from chronic circadian disruption.

  14. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-06-10

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting.

  15. Caring for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Katherine; Kreider, Kathryn Evans

    2017-02-12

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting reproductive-age women. PCOS causes hyperandrogenism and anovulation and increases the risk of multiple health conditions including infertility, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. This article outlines current recommendations for diagnostic testing, treatment options, and holistic care of the woman with PCOS.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome and environmental toxins.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Zofia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-09-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, heterogeneous, and multifactorial endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. The pathophysiology of this endocrinopathy is still unclear; however, the heterogeneity of its features within ethnic races, geographic location, and families suggests that environment and lifestyle are of prime importance. This work is mainly focused on the possible role of the most common and studied environmental toxins for this syndrome in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates, which belong to the categories of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), affect humans' health in everyday, industrialized life; therefore special attention should be paid to such exposure. Timing of exposure to EDCs is crucial for the intensity of adverse health effects. It is now evident that fetuses, infants, and/or young children are the most susceptible groups, especially in the early development periods. Prenatal exposure to EDCs that mimic endogenous hormones may contribute to the altered fetal programming and in consequence lead to PCOS and other adverse health effects, potentially transgenerationally. Acute or prolonged exposure to EDCs and AGEs through different life cycle stages may result in destabilization of the hormonal homeostasis and lead to disruption of reproductive functions. They may also interfere with metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia that can exacerbate the PCOS phenotype and contribute to PCOS consequences such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since wide exposure to environmental toxins and their role in the pathophysiology of PCOS are supported by extensive data derived from diverse scientific models, protective strategies and strong recommendations should be considered to reduce human exposure to protect present and future generations from their adverse health effects. Copyright

  17. Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells in ovary and tubal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Annie; Tan, Shawna; Singh, Gurmit; Rizk, Pamela; Swathi, Yada; Tan, Tuan Zea; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Leushacke, Marc; Barker, Nick

    2014-08-01

    The ovary surface epithelium (OSE) undergoes ovulatory tear and remodelling throughout life. Resident stem cells drive such tissue homeostasis in many adult epithelia, but their existence in the ovary has not been definitively proven. Lgr5 marks stem cells in multiple epithelia. Here we use reporter mice and single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization to document candidate Lgr5(+) stem cells in the mouse ovary and associated structures. Lgr5 is broadly expressed during ovary organogenesis, but becomes limited to the OSE in neonate life. In adults, Lgr5 expression is predominantly restricted to proliferative regions of the OSE and mesovarian-fimbria junctional epithelia. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify embryonic and neonate Lgr5(+) populations as stem/progenitor cells contributing to the development of the OSE cell lineage, as well as epithelia of the mesovarian ligament and oviduct/fimbria. Adult Lgr5(+) populations maintain OSE homeostasis and ovulatory regenerative repair in vivo. Thus, Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells of the ovary and tubal epithelia.

  18. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana M; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A; Vallés, María P

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25-46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  19. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Ana M.; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A.; Vallés, María P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25–46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  20. Arginase, Arginine Decarboxylase, Ornithine Decarboxylase, and Polyamines in Tomato Ovaries (Changes in Unpollinated Ovaries and Parthenocarpic Fruits Induced by Auxin or Gibberellin).

    PubMed Central

    Alabadi, D.; Aguero, M. S.; Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) activity has been found in the ovaries and Young fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers).Changes in arginase, arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and ornithine decarboxylase activity (EC 4.1.1.17) and levels of free and conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were determined in unpollinated ovaries and in parthenocarpic fruits during the early stages of development induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or gibberellic acid (GA3). Levels of arginase, free spermine, and conjugates of the three polyamines were constant in unpollinated ovaries and characteristic of a presenescent step. A marked decrease in arginase activity, free spermine, and polyamine conjugates was associated with the initiation of fruit growth due to cell division, and when cell expansion was initiated, the absence of arginase indicated a redirection of nitrogen metabolism to the synthesis of arginine. A transient increase in arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase was also observed in 2,4-D-induced fruits. In general, 2,4-D treatments produced faster changes than GA3, and without treatment, unpollinated ovaries developed only slightly and senescence was hardly visible. Sensitivity to 2,4-D and GA3 treatment remained for at least 2 weeks postanthesis. PMID:12226441

  1. Growth hormone receptors in ovary and liver during gametogenesis in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gomez, J M; Mourot, B; Fostier, A; Le Gac, F

    1999-03-01

    Changes of growth hormone receptivity in the ovary during the reproductive cycle were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A method for characterizing growth hormone receptors in crude ovary homogenate was required for this. Binding of radiolabelled recombinant rainbow trout growth hormone (125I-labelled rtGH) to crude ovary preparation was dependent on ovarian tissue concentration. The sites were specific to growth hormone, with no affinity for prolactins and gonadotrophins. Similar high affinities for 125I-labelled rtGH were obtained with crude ovary (4.2 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 mol l-1) and crude liver preparations (4.9 x 10(9) +/- 0.1 mol l-1) at all stages of ovogenesis, and with ovarian membrane preparations (8.2 x 10(9) mol l-1) tested at the beginning of vitellogenesis. Ovarian growth hormone receptor concentration was highest during the early phases of follicular development (endogenous vitellogenesis: 315-310 fmol g-1 ovary) and decreased regularly during oocyte and follicular growth (exogenous vitellogenesis) to reach a minimal value at oocyte maturation (42 fmol g-1 ovary). In postovulated fish, binding was at a similar level (297 fmol g-1 ovary) to that found in endogenous vitellogenesis. Conversely, the absolute binding capacity of the whole ovary was low from immaturity to early exogenous vitellogenesis (0.1-0.6 pmol per pair of gonads), increased slowly during vitellogenesis and more markedly during rapid oocyte growth and at the time of final maturation (10.8 pmol per pair of gonads). In postovulated fish, the absolute binding capacity decreased partially (4.4 pmol per pair of gonads). Mean hepatic growth hormone receptor concentration did not vary with the reproductive stage for most of the cycle (3.0-4.5 pmol g-1 liver) except in endogenous vitellogenesis where significantly higher concentrations were observed (6.7 pmol g-1 liver). Individual ovarian growth hormone receptor concentrations were correlated with hepatic growth hormone receptor

  2. Transcriptome profiling of the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) ovary reveals genes involved in oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Wang, Lei; Yang, Yi-Fan; Zou, Ming-Min; He, Wei-Yi; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qing; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-09-12

    As a specialized organ, the insect ovary performs valuable functions by ensuring fecundity and population survival. Oogenesis is the complex physiological process resulting in the production of mature eggs, which are involved in epigenetic programming, germ cell behavior, cell cycle regulation, etc. Identification of the genes involved in ovary development and oogenesis is critical to better understand the reproductive biology and screening the potential molecular targets in Plutella xylostella, a worldwide destructive pest of economically major crops. Based on transcriptome sequencing, a total of 7.88Gb clean nucleotides was obtained, with 19,934 genes and 1861 new transcripts being identified. Expression profiling indicated that 61.7% of the genes were expressed (FPKM≥1) in the P. xylostella ovary. GO annotation showed that the pathways of multicellular organism reproduction and multicellular organism reproduction process, as well as gamete generation and chorion were significantly enriched. Processes that were most likely relevant to reproduction included the spliceosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, endocytosis, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, and focal adhesion were identified in the top 20 'highly represented' KEGG pathways. Functional genes involved in oogenesis were further analyzed and validated by qRT-PCR to show their potential predominant roles in P. xylostella reproduction. Our newly developed P. xylostella ovary transcriptome provides an overview of the gene expression profiling in this specialized tissue and the functional gene network closely related to the ovary development and oogenesis. This is the first genome-wide transcriptome dataset of P. xylostella ovary that includes a subset of functionally activated genes. This global approach will be the basis for further studies on molecular mechanisms of P. xylostella reproduction aimed at screening potential molecular targets for integrated pest

  3. Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period

    PubMed Central

    Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Ranjan Lenka, Dibya; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N.; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium. PMID:25664337

  4. The occurrence of spermatozoa in the ovary of the gynogenetic viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (POECILIIDAE).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; De la Rosa-Cruz, Gabino; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    The reproductive mode of the female viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (Poeciliidae) represents the phenomenon known as gynogenesis; that is, parthenogenetic development is initiated by spermatozoa which are needed for physiological activation of the egg and the initiation of gestation, but spermatozoa are prevented from contributing to the genome of the embryo. For the reason that no previous histological analyses of the ovary of this species during the reproductive cycle has been published the present study has been conducted. This study examined the histology of the ovary of P. formosa during nongestation and gestation phases and identified the presence of spermatozoa inside the ovary. Spermatozoa were observed in folds of the ovarian epithelium of P. formosa during both the nongestation and gestation phases. Sperm storage as documented in this study is a very important trait for the gynogenetic viviparous fish P. formosa contributing to the understanding of this species reproduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Fate of the grafted ovaries from female salamander Pleurodeles waltl embarked on the cosmos 2229 flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, A.; Houillon, Ch.; Aimar, C.; Mitashov, V.; Dournon, C.

    The flight procedure of ``Experience Triton'' on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progeny of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castred and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developping grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.

  6. The ovary is an alternative site of origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Coffey, Donna M; Ma, Lang; Matzuk, Martin M

    2015-06-01

    Although named "ovarian cancer," it has been unclear whether the cancer actually arises from the ovary, especially for high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), also known as high-grade serous ovarian cancer, the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer. In addition, the tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGSC. However, whether mutated p53 can cause HGSC remains unknown. In this study, we bred a p53 mutation, p53(R172H), into conditional Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model duplicating human HGSC, to generate triple-mutant (TKO) mice. Like DKO mice, these TKO mice develop metastatic HGSCs originating from the fallopian tube. Unlike DKO mice, however, even after fallopian tubes are removed in TKO mice, ovaries alone can develop metastatic HGSCs, indicating that a p53 mutation can drive HGSC arising from the ovary. To confirm this, we generated p53(R172H)-Pten double-mutant mice, one of the genetic control lines for TKO mice. As anticipated, these double-mutant mice also develop metastatic HGSCs from the ovary, verifying the HGSC-forming ability of ovaries with a p53 mutation. Our study therefore shows that ovaries harboring a p53 mutation, as well as fallopian tubes, can be a distinct tissue source of high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice.

  7. Localization of luteinizing hormone receptor protein in the human ovary.

    PubMed

    Yung, Y; Aviel-Ronen, S; Maman, E; Rubinstein, N; Avivi, C; Orvieto, R; Hourvitz, A

    2014-09-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a pivotal role during follicular development. Consequently, its expression pattern is of major importance for research and has clinical implications. Despite the accumulated information regarding LHR expression patterns, our understanding of its expression in the human ovary, specifically at the protein level, is incomplete. Therefore, our aim was to determine the LHR protein localization and expression pattern in the human ovary. We examined the presence of LHR by immunohistochemical staining of human ovaries and western blots of mural granulosa and cumulus cells aspirated during IVF treatments. We were not able to detect LHR protein staining in primordial or primary follicles. We observed equivocal positive staining in granulosa cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. The first appearance of a clear signal of LHR protein was observed in granulosa cells and theca cells of small antral follicles, and there was evidence of increasing LHR production as the follicles mature to the pre-ovulatory stage. After ovulation, LHR protein was ubiquitously produced in the corpus luteum. To confirm the expression pattern in granulosa cells and cumulus cells, we performed western blots and found that LHR expression was stronger in granulosa cells than in cumulus cells, with the later demonstrating low, but still significant, amounts of LHR protein. In summary, we conclude that LHR protein starts to appear on granulosa cells and theca cells of early antral follicles, and low but significant expression of LHR exists also in the cumulus cells. These results may have implications for the future design of clinical protocols and culture mediums for in vitro fertilization and especially in vitro maturation of oocytes.

  8. The importance of neuronal growth factors in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Streiter, S; Fisch, B; Sabbah, B; Ao, A; Abir, R

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the neuronal growth factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vasointestinal peptide (VIP). Although there are a few literature reviews, mainly of animal studies, on the importance of neurotrophins in the ovary, we aimed to provide a complete review of neurotrophins as well as neuronal growth factors and their important roles in normal and pathological processes in the ovary. Follicular assembly is probably stimulated by complementary effects of NGF, NT4/5 and BDNF and their receptors. The neurotrophins, GDNF and VIP and their receptors have all been identified in preantral and antral follicles of mammalian species, including humans. Transgenic mice with mutations in the genes encoding for Ngf, Nt4/5 and Bdnf and their tropomyosin-related kinase β receptor showed a reduction in preantral follicles and an abnormal ovarian morphology, whereas NGF, NT3, GDNF and VIP increased the in vitro activation of primordial follicles in rats and goats. Additionally, NGF, NT3 and GDNF promoted follicular cell proliferation; NGF, BDNF and VIP were shown to be involved in ovulation; VIP inhibited follicular apoptosis; NT4/5, BDNF and GDNF promoted oocyte maturation and NGF, NT3 and VIP stimulated steroidogenesis. NGF may also exert a stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low levels of NGF and BDNF in follicular fluid may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve and high levels with endometriosis. More knowledge of the roles of neuronal growth factors in the ovary has important implications for the development of new therapeutic drugs (such as anti-NGF agents) for ovarian cancer and PCOS as well as various infertility problems, warranting further research.

  9. The Stage- and Cell Type-Specific Localization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Rat Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2015-12-01

    Premutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are associated with increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency. Here we examined the localization of the Fmr1 gene protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), in rat ovaries at different stages, including fetus, neonate, and old age. In ovaries dissected from 19 days postcoitum embryos, the germ cells were divided into 2 types: one with decondensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP positive in the cytoplasm, but the other with strongly condensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP negative in the cytoplasm. The FMRP was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Levels of FMRP in oocytes from elderly (9 or 14 months of age) ovaries were lower than in those from younger ovaries. These results suggest that FMRP is associated with the activation of oogenesis and oocyte function. Especially, FMRP is likely to be implicated in germline development during oogenesis.

  10. The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada).

    PubMed

    Poprawa, Izabela

    2005-10-01

    The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis while the third part is synthesized in the trophocytes and is transported to the oocytes through the cytoplasmatic bridges. Moreover, rRNA, lipids and mitochondria are transfered from the trophocytes to the oocytes. The histochemical researches show that the reserve material accumulated in the oocytes contains proteins, polysaccharides and lipids.

  11. New markers of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polak, K; Czyzyk, A; Simoncini, T; Meczekalski, B

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. The diagnostic criteria include two out of three features: hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound and menstrual irregularities (Rotterdam Criteria 2003). PCOS patients are more vulnerable to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically involved in reproductive and metabolic complications of the syndrome. Several tests have been developed to measure IR, some very reliable but complex like the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp and others less precise but easier and less invasive like HOMA-IR. New markers are needed to reach a more reliable assessment of insulin resistance. To date, several surrogate markers have been proposed in the literature to facilitate and improve the determination of IR. Many new proteins are strongly involved with PCOS physiopathology and IR, such as some adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, vaspin and apelin), copeptin, irisin, PAI-1 and zonulin. Many other proteins have been proposed as potential new markers of IR in PCOS, such as resistin, leptin, RBP4, kisspetin and ghrelin, but their role is still controversial. In this review, we provide a short characterization of these new markers, recently studied as indicators of metabolic state.

  12. Transcriptomic responses of marine medaka's ovary to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keng Po; Li, Jing Woei; Tse, Anna Chung Kwan; Cheung, Angela; Wang, Simon; Chan, Ting Fung; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia, an endocrine disruptor, is pressing global problem affecting marine organisms in over 400 "Dead Zones" worldwide. There is growing evident demonstrated the disruptive effect of hypoxia on reproductive systems of marine fish through the impairments of steroidogenic gene expression, leading to the alteration of sex hormone production in gonads. But the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the responses of female reproductive systems to hypoxic stress remains largely unknown. In the present report, we used marine medaka Oryzias melastigma as a model, together with high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, aiming to determine the changes in transcriptional signature in the ovary of marine fish under hypoxic stress. Our result discovered over two hundred differential expressed genes in ovary in response to hypoxia. The bioinformatics analysis together with quantitative RT-PCR validation on the deregulated genes highlighted the dysregulations of a number of female reproductive functions including interruptions of ovarian follicle development, gonad development and steroid metabolic process. Additionally, we revealed that these deregulations are through the modulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The result of this work complements previous studies and provides additional insights into the underlying molecular mechanism of hypoxia-induced impairment of female reproductive system.

  13. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS. PMID:24809037

  14. The Effects of Phthalates on the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure

  15. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Morán, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Morán, José Luis; Handal, Anabella; Domínguez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary. PMID:19460167

  16. Sexual function in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael P; Legro, Richard S; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D; Casson, Peter A; Christman, Gregory M; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G Wright; Rosen, R Mitchell; Schlaff, William; Haisenleder, Daniel; Krawetz, Stephen A; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J C; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-01

    While female sexual dysfunction is a frequent occurrence, characteristics in infertile women are not well delineated. Furthermore, the impact of infertility etiology on the characteristics in women with differing androgen levels observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility has not been assessed. The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of sexual dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility. A secondary data analysis was performed on 2 of Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Networks clinical trials: Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Study II and Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations From Ovarian Stimulation. Both protocols assessed female sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Inventory and the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome had higher weight and body mass index than women with unexplained infertility (each P < .001), greater phenotypic (Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sebum score, and acne score; each P < .001), and hormonal (testosterone, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone; each P < .001) evidence of androgen excess. Sexual function scores, as assessed by the Female Sexual Function Inventory, were nearly identical. The Female Sexual Distress Scale total score was higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The mean Female Sexual Function Inventory total score increased slightly as the free androgen index increased, mainly as a result of the desire subscore. This association was more pronounced in the women with unexplained infertility. Reproductive-age women with infertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility, despite phenotypic and biochemical differences in androgenic manifestations, do not manifest clinically significant differences in sexual function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  17. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary: effect of cAMP in primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-07-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP did not increase AKT1 or FOXO3A phosphorylation associated with follicle activation or increase the expression of Kitlg known to be associated with follicle differentiation but did increase the Tmeff2, Mki67 and Inha expression in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study shows that both Pde7b and Pde8a are highly expressed in the rodent ovary and that PDE4 inhibition does not cause an increase in primordial follicle activation. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. Metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  19. Autoimmunity to endometrium and ovary in endometriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, S; Peress, M R; Williamson, H O; Youmans, C D; Maney, S A; Garvin, A J; Rust, P F; Fudenberg, H H

    1982-01-01

    Antibody titres to whole ovary, theca cells, granulosa cells and endometrium were determined by passive haemagglutination and immunofluorescence assays in sera and in cervical and vaginal secretions from 13 patients with endometriosis. Antibody titres to endometrium (mean log2 +/- s.e.m., 7.08 +/- 0.80; P less than 0.0001), ovary (3.58 +/- 0.87; P = 0.0092), theca cells (4.42 +/- 0.73; P less than 0.0001) and granulosa cells (3.33 +/- 0.63; P = 0.0024) were significantly higher in the patients' sera than in sera from 15 normal non-pregnant females. Antibody titres to granulosa cells were elevated (7.97 +/- 1.46; P = 0.0424) in their cervical secretions. Antibody titres to all tissues tested were similar in vaginal secretions of patients and controls. Immunofluorescent antibody assay of biopsied endometrial tissue and sera from the patients revealed the antibodies to be primarily IgG and IgA. The results suggest that autoantibodies to endometrium and ovary are present in patients with endometriosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6759000

  20. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary.

  1. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

  2. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

  3. Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-04-01

    A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor.

  4. [Polycystic ovary syndrome of extra-ovarian origin. Review].

    PubMed

    Terán Dávila, J; Teppa-Garrán, A D

    2001-03-01

    An established fact in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS) is an abnormal ovarian steroidogenesis. Though this suggest an intrinsic ovarian defect, the syndrome could also be influenced by factors outside the ovaries. Although of unknown etiology, the POS is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the gynecologic practice. The disorder is characterized by ultrasound findings of enlarged polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders, obesity and including the appearance of infertility. There are a series of mechanisms involved in the extraovarian androgen increase in patients with POS. Among these mechanisms are implicated those of central and peripheral origin, genetic factors and adrenocortical dysfunction. In the same way, the alterations produced could imply genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, physiological and endocrinological factors. Sometimes all these factors could interact at the same time. The high serum androgen level could stop the pituitary gonadotropin production, either as a direct mechanism or as a result of its peripheral conversion. The increased androgens also explain the manifestations of clinical acne, hirsutism, and the detention in follicular ovarian maturation. All these manifestations are related with the menstrual disorders, anovulation, and infertility that these patients develop. The characteristics of the extraovarian POS include the 17-hydroxyprogesterone elevation in response to the ACTH test and the dexamethasone suppression of adrenal androgens. It is possible to improve the ovarian function in some patients with POS. This could be achieved with clomiphene citrate associated with glucocorticoids to induce ovulation.

  5. The Genetic Basis of Transgressive Ovary Size in Honeybee Workers

    PubMed Central

    Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200–360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits. PMID:19620393

  6. The genetic basis of transgressive ovary size in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Linksvayer, Timothy A; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2009-10-01

    Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200-360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits.

  7. [Sonographic imaging of physiological ovaries in the cat].

    PubMed

    Conze, Theresa; Wehrend, Axel

    2017-06-20

    Ultrasound evaluation of the ovaries is an important element of the gynaecological examination. Although it is a well-established method used for many domestic animals, it is an uncommon procedure in cats. This article describes the technical requirements, the examination procedure, and the sonographic appearance of the physiological ovary in the cat. The examination can be performed with the cat in lateral position or dorsal recumbency. Usually the ovaries are found caudal to the kidneys which serve as lead structure. The median size of an ovary in anestrous is 0.9 cm (length) x 0.5 cm (height) x 0.4 cm (width). The ovaries of cyclical (follicular and luteal phase) cats are easier to detect than ovaries of cats in interestrous or anestrous.

  8. Effects of androgen on immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor and Connexin 43 in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Li, Jianhua; An, Yulin; Zhang, Shuiwen

    2015-10-01

    Androgens have essential roles in the regulation of follicular development and female fertility. Androgen excess is the leading defect in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and involved in the ovarian dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regarding regulatory role of androgen in the follicular development of female mouse. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses were performed to detect androgen receptor (AR) and Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in ovaries from both control and testosterone-treated group mice. In this study, localizations of AR and Cx43 were dramatically altered in testosterone-treated mouse ovaries. In addition, AR expression was significantly increased, whereas Cx43 expression was markedly decreased after testosterone treatment. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone with concomitant reduction of MII oocytes. Overall, these results suggest the involvement of androgen in the regulation of AR and Cx43 localizations in mouse ovary. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone may affect normal folliculogenesis. Together these findings will enable us to begin understanding the important roles of AR and Cx43 actions in the regulation of follicular development, as well as providing insights into the role of AR and Cx43 actions in the androgen-associated reproductive diseases such as PCOS.

  9. Marker genes identify three somatic cell types in the fetal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Rastetter, Raphael H; Bernard, Pascal; Palmer, James S; Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Chen, Huijun; Western, Patrick S; Ramsay, Robert G; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine; Wilhelm, Dagmar

    2014-10-15

    The two main functions of the ovary are the production of oocytes, which allows the continuation of the species, and secretion of female sex hormones, which control many aspects of female development and physiology. Normal development of the ovaries during embryogenesis is critical for their function and the health of the individual in later life. Although the adult ovary has been investigated in great detail, we are only starting to understand the cellular and molecular biology of early ovarian development. Here we show that the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 is expressed in the cortical region of the fetal ovary and this expression is mutually exclusive to FOXL2. Strikingly, a third somatic cell population can be identified, marked by the expression of NR2F2, which is expressed in LGR5- and FOXL2 double-negative ovarian somatic cells. Together, these three marker genes label distinct ovarian somatic cell types. Using lineage tracing in mice, we show that Lgr5-positive cells give rise to adult cortical granulosa cells, which form the follicles of the definitive reserve. Moreover, LGR5 is required for correct timing of germ cell differentiation as evidenced by a delay of entry into meiosis in Lgr5 loss-of-function mutants, demonstrating a key role for LGR5 in the differentiation of pre-granulosa cells, which ensure the differentiation of oogonia, the formation of the definitive follicle reserve, and long-term female fertility.

  10. Animal models of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unclear, despite its high prevalence among infertility disorders in women of reproductive age. Although there is evidence for a genetic component of the disorder, other causes, such as prenatal insults are considered among the potential factors that may contribute to the development of the syndrome. Over the past few decades, several animal models have been developed in an attempt to understand the potential contribution of exposure to excess steroids on the development of this syndrome. The current review summarizes the phenotypes of current animal models exposed to excess steroid during the prenatal and early postnatal period and how they compare with the phenotype seen in women with PCOS. PMID:23701728

  11. Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Tracy L.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; McCall, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing cell death mechanisms in the fly ovary. PMID:19533361

  12. Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma of Ovary-A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    V, Srinivasamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary is extremely rare, comprising of only 1% of the ovarian tumours. Patient presented with a mass in the right iliac fossa since three months. Radiological diagnosis of broad ligament fibroid was given. Right salphingo-oophorectomy with enucleation of ischial fossa and wedge biopsy of left ovary was carried out. Based on gross, microscopy and immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of primary myxoid leiomyosarcoma of ovary was made. We report a rare case of primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary with metastasis to ischial fossa emphasising on reliable prognostic markers. Ovarian leiomyosarcomas are highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. PMID:25120990

  13. Nesprin-2 epsilon: A novel nesprin isoform expressed in human ovary and Ntera-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Le Thanh; Boehm, Sabrina V.; Roberts, Roland G.; Morris, Glenn E.

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} A novel epsilon isoform of nesprin-2 has been discovered. {yields} This 120 kDa protein was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but has not previously been observed. {yields} It is the main isoform expressed in a teratocarcinoma cell line and is also found in ovary. {yields} Like other nesprins, it is located at the nuclear envelope. {yields} We suggest it may have a role in very early development or in some ovary-specific function. -- Abstract: The nuclear envelope-associated cytoskeletal protein, nesprin-2, is encoded by a large gene containing several internal promoters that produce shorter isoforms. In a study of Ntera-2 teratocarcinoma cells, a novel isoform, nesprin-2-epsilon, was found to be the major mRNA and protein product of the nesprin-2 gene. Its existence was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but this is the first direct demonstration of both the mRNA and the 120 kDa protein which is located at the nuclear envelope. In a panel of 21 adult and foetal human tissues, the nesprin-2-epsilon mRNA was strongly expressed in ovary but was a minor isoform elsewhere. The expression pattern suggests a possible link with very early development and a likely physiological role in ovary.

  14. Regulation of germ cell meiosis in the fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Cassy M; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fertility depends on correct regulation of meiosis, the special form of cell division that gives rise to haploid gametes. In female mammals, germ cells enter meiosis during fetal ovarian development, while germ cells in males avoid entering meiosis until puberty. Decades of research have shown that meiotic entry, and germ cell sex determination, are not initiated intrinsically within the germ cells. Instead, meiosis is induced by signals produced by the surrounding somatic cells. More recently, retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been implicated in meiotic induction during fetal XX and postnatal XY germ cell development. Evidence for an intricate system of RA synthesis and degradation in the fetal ovary and testis has emerged, explaining past observations of infertility in vitamin A-deficient rodents. Here we review how meiosis is triggered in fetal ovarian germ cells, paying special attention to the role of RA in this process.

  15. A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ninive

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications.

  16. [Polycystic ovary syndrome--only relevant in reproductive medicine?].

    PubMed

    Heim, S C; De Geyter, C; Siegrist, W; Bilz, S; Keller, U

    1999-05-01

    The Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women with a prevalence of 5%. Affected women often consult a gynecologist because of menstrual irregularities, fertility problems or problems of androgen excess. However, PCOD is a metabolic disorder affecting multiple organs. Studies suggest that those women are at risk for developing several complications such as type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and myocardial infarction. The risk to develop endometrial carcinoma is also elevated. To give adequate treatment to women with PCOD, an interdisciplinary approach of gynecologists together with endocrinologists specialized in metabolic and nutritional disorders at the University of Basel is presented. The work-up for diagnosis and assessment of risk factors is outlined. Goal of this interdisciplinary approach is an adequate evaluation of affected patients and their long-term follow-up to test if proposed interventions as weight loss, treatment of hyperinsulinemia, regulation of menstrual cycle and others can avoid long-term sequelae.

  17. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-12-01

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development.

  18. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  19. The ovaries of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccinea). Morphology and phylogenetic conclusions.

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, T

    1998-01-01

    Coccoids (Coccinea, Coccoidea, Coccomorpha, scale insects, scales) are a highly diverse group of ectoparasitic insects. They comprise 2 subgroups: primitive archaeococcoids (= Orthezioidea sensu Koteja) and advanced neococcoids (= Coccoidea sensu Koteja). The ovaries of coccoids consist of numerous short telotrophic-meroistic ovarioles. The ovarioles of all investigated species share common characters (e.g. the same mechanism of ovariole development, lack of terminal filaments, occurrence of single oocytes in the vitellaria) supporting the concept of monophyletic origin of this group. Despite these characteristics, the ovaries of archaeococcoids and neococcoids differ in the number of germ cells (oocytes + trophocytes) constituting a single ovariole. In primitive families (Ortheziidae, Margarodidae), this number is relatively large (15-58), whereas in advanced ones (Pseudococcidae, Kermesidae, Eriococcidae, Cryptococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae) it is small and usually does not exceed 8. The comparative analysis of the ovary structure in the representatives of Coccinea and closely related Aphidinea (aphids) has revealed that: (1) the organization of archaeococcoid ovaries is more similar to those of aphids than to neococcoids and (2) during the evolution of Coccinea a gradual reduction in the number of germ cells in ovarioles took place.

  20. Expression and localization of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins in the porcine ovary.

    PubMed

    Xing, Na; Liang, Yajun; Gao, Zhenzhen; He, Junping; He, Xiaoyan; Li, Hongquan; Dong, Changsheng

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal and spatial expression of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins, the downstream signaling molecules of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, in the porcine ovary. Cellular localization of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins was examined using immunohistochemistry. The specificity of the antibodies was examined using Western blot assay. Western blot analyses demonstrated that 52kDa Smad2 and 60kDa Smad4 proteins were expressed in the porcine ovary. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Smad2 and Smad4 were widely expressed in the porcine ovary, mainly localized in the oocyte, granulosa and thecal cells at different stages of folliculogenesis. Within the primordial and primary follicles, Smad2 and Smad4 showed strong staining in oocytes and follicular cells. In the antral follicle, strong staining was observed in oocytes, granulosa and theca cells. These findings suggest that Smad2 and Smad4 may be a key regulator of follicular development and growth of oocytes in the porcine ovary.

  1. In Situ Labeling of Mitochondrial DNA Replication in Drosophila Adult Ovaries by EdU Staining

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Xu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome is inherited exclusively through the maternal line. Understanding of how the mitochondrion and its genome are proliferated and transmitted from one generation to the next through the female oocyte is of fundamental importance. Because of the genetic tractability, and the elegant, ordered simplicity by which oocyte development proceeds, Drosophila oogenesis has become an invaluable system for mitochondrial study. An EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) labeling method was utilized to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Drosophila ovaries. This method is superior to the BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) labeling method in that it allows for good structural preservation and efficient fluorescent dye penetration of whole-mount tissues. Here we describe a detailed protocol for labeling replicating mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila adult ovaries with EdU. Some technical solutions are offered to improve the viability of the ovaries, maintain their health during preparation, and ensure high-quality imaging. Visualization of newly synthesized mtDNA in the ovaries not only reveals the striking temporal and spatial pattern of mtDNA replication through oogenesis, but also allows for simple quantification of mtDNA replication under various genetic and pharmacological perturbations. PMID:27805603

  2. In Situ Labeling of Mitochondrial DNA Replication in Drosophila Adult Ovaries by EdU Staining.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-15

    The mitochondrial genome is inherited exclusively through the maternal line. Understanding of how the mitochondrion and its genome are proliferated and transmitted from one generation to the next through the female oocyte is of fundamental importance. Because of the genetic tractability, and the elegant, ordered simplicity by which oocyte development proceeds, Drosophila oogenesis has become an invaluable system for mitochondrial study. An EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) labeling method was utilized to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Drosophila ovaries. This method is superior to the BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) labeling method in that it allows for good structural preservation and efficient fluorescent dye penetration of whole-mount tissues. Here we describe a detailed protocol for labeling replicating mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila adult ovaries with EdU. Some technical solutions are offered to improve the viability of the ovaries, maintain their health during preparation, and ensure high-quality imaging. Visualization of newly synthesized mtDNA in the ovaries not only reveals the striking temporal and spatial pattern of mtDNA replication through oogenesis, but also allows for simple quantification of mtDNA replication under various genetic and pharmacological perturbations.

  3. Pheromones affecting ovary activation and ovariole loss in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Liu, Xiwen; Dong, Sihao; Wang, Chao; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-03-01

    The Asian hive bee Apis cerana has similar queen mandibular pheromones (QMP) to the Western honey bee Apismellifera. However the effects of individual QMP components have never been tested to determine their effects on the reproductive physiology of A. cerana workers. We fed one queen equivalent of each of the major components of A. cerana QMP to groups of c.a. 500 day-old, caged, workers twice a day until the workers were 10 days old. Half of the cages were also provided with 10% royal jelly in the food. Workers were sampled each day and dissected to determine the number of ovarioles and the degree of ovary activation (egg development). In cages treated with 9-carbon fatty acids ovary activation was minimal, whereas the 10-carbon acids suppressed ovary activation very little. Royal jelly enhanced ovary activation, especially in cages treated with 10-carbon acids. The number of ovarioles declined with bee age, but the rate of decline was slowed by the 9-carbon acids in particular. The results show conservation of the composition and function of QMP between A. cerana and A. mellifera and support the hypothesis that QMP is an honest signal of queen fecundity rather than a chemical castrator of workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and profiling of microRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats during estrus.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Hou, Jinxing; Li, Guang; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Jiangang; Cao, Binyun

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in almost all ovarian biological processes, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteal development, and regression. The study identified known and novel miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats by combining Solexa sequencing with bioinformatics. In total, 862 known and 53 novel miRNAs were identified in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats. A total of 771 miRNAs were co-expressed in both libraries. One hundred twenty miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous goats and 24 miRNAs in the ovaries of monotocous goats were specifically expressed. In addition, 445 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats, of which 348 were upregulated, and 97 were downregulated in the ovaries of polytocous goats compared with the ovaries of monotocous goats (P values < 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)|> 1). The expression levels of 12 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by stem-loop real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with Solexa sequencing results. KEGG analysis showed that GnRH, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis and ovarian steroidogenesis participated in follicular development and ovulation. On the basis of miRNA-mRNA network analysis and luciferase reporter assays, the ggo-miR-4488-p3_1ss10CG, bta-miR-2892-p5_1ss8CG and hsa-miR-4532_L+1R-3 were closely related with prolific traits. The results will help to further understand the role of miRNAs in kidding rate regulation.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Testis and Ovary Transcriptomes in Zebrafish by Combining Experimental and Computational Tools

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Chia, Jer Ming; Bartfai, Richard; Christoffels, Alan; Yue, Gen Hua; Ding, Ke; Ho, Mei Yin; Hill, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the zebrafish model have contributed to our understanding of several important developmental processes, especially those that can be easily studied in the embryo. However, our knowledge on late events such as gonad differentiation in the zebrafish is still limited. Here we provide an analysis on the gene sets expressed in the adult zebrafish testis and ovary in an attempt to identify genes with potential role in (zebra)fish gonad development and function. We produced 10 533 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from zebrafish testis or ovary and downloaded an additional 23 642 gonad-derived sequences from the zebrafish EST database. We clustered these sequences together with over 13 000 kidney-derived zebrafish ESTs to study partial transcriptomes for these three organs. We searched for genes with gonad-specific expression by screening macroarrays containing at least 2600 unique cDNA inserts with testis-, ovary- and kidney-derived cDNA probes. Clones hybridizing to only one of the two gonad probes were selected, and subsequently screened with computational tools to identify 72 genes with potentially testis-specific and 97 genes with potentially ovary-specific expression, respectively. PCR-amplification confirmed gonad-specificity for 21 of the 45 clones tested (all without known function). Our study, which involves over 47 000 EST sequences and specialized cDNA arrays, is the first analysis of adult organ transcriptomes of zebrafish at such a scale. The study of genes expressed in adult zebrafish testis and ovary will provide useful information on regulation of gene expression in teleost gonads and might also contribute to our understanding of the development and differentiation of reproductive organs in vertebrates. PMID:18629171

  6. Massive edema of the ovary associated with androgenic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Siller, B S; Gelder, M S; Alvarez, R D; Partridge, E E

    1995-11-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare tumor-like condition of the ovary characterized by marked enlargement of one or both ovaries due to marked accumulation of edema fluid in the ovarian stroma. This paper reviews the literature on massive ovarian edema and presents a case associated with androgenic manifestations.

  7. Clinical characteristics in Taiwanese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-I

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. It consists of a heterogeneous collection of signs and symptoms that together form a disorder spectrum. The diagnosis of PCOS is principally based on clinical and physical findings. The extent of metabolic abnormalities in women with PCOS varies with phenotype, body weight, age, and ethnicity. For general population, the prevalence of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea decreases with age, while complications such as insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances increase with age. Obese women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and lower luteinizing hormone (LH) to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. The LH to FSH ratio is a valuable diagnostic tool in evaluating Taiwanese women with PCOS, especially in the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea. Overweight/obesity is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in women of reproductive age.

  8. Common genetic aspects between polycystic ovary syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Nicolas

    2011-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves menstrual dysfunction and reproductive difficulty as well as metabolic problems. From a genetic point of view, it is a complex disease that is subject to environmental influences, mainly dietary, which makes it similar to other metabolic processes, such as diabetes and obesity. So, the interest of the diagnosis of the PCOS is, not only to improve fertility but to prevent possible future medical complications like the diabetes mellitus and the obesity. Due to the classical definition of PCOS as functional hyperandrogenism, the race to discover genetic alterations that could lead to the development of PCOS started with the androgen metabolism genes. However, the list of candidates was later expanded to other genes outside this hormonal pathway, and it now includes genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as those involved in inflammatory processes. The list of genes candidates involved in PCOS is related to diabetes and inflammatory processes.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure.

  10. Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Mary Kate; Poole, Daniel S.; Xu, Tao; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Skop, Ahna R.

    2011-01-01

    Mitosis is a fundamental process in the development of all organisms. The mitotic spindle guides the cell through mitosis as it mediates the segregation of chromosomes, the orientation of the cleavage furrow, and the progression of cell division. Birth defects and tissue-specific cancers often result from abnormalities in mitotic events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 1155 proteins and used Gene Ontology (GO) analysis to categorize proteins into cellular component groups. We then compared our data to the previously published CHO midbody proteome and identified proteins that are unique to the CHO spindle. Our data represent the first mitotic spindle proteome in CHO cells, which augments the list of mitotic spindle components from mammalian cells. PMID:21647379

  11. Clinical characteristics in Taiwanese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. It consists of a heterogeneous collection of signs and symptoms that together form a disorder spectrum. The diagnosis of PCOS is principally based on clinical and physical findings. The extent of metabolic abnormalities in women with PCOS varies with phenotype, body weight, age, and ethnicity. For general population, the prevalence of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea decreases with age, while complications such as insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances increase with age. Obese women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and lower luteinizing hormone (LH) to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. The LH to FSH ratio is a valuable diagnostic tool in evaluating Taiwanese women with PCOS, especially in the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea. Overweight/obesity is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in women of reproductive age. PMID:26473107

  12. Follistatin Operates Downstream of Wnt4 in Mammalian Ovary Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Humphrey H.C.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Menke, Douglas B.; Page, David C.; Swain, Amanda; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Wnt4−/− XX gonads display features normally associated with testis differentiation, suggesting that WNT4 actively represses elements of the male pathway during ovarian development. Here, we show that follistatin (Fst), which encodes a TGFβ superfamily binding protein, is a downstream component of Wnt4 signaling. Fst inhibits formation of the XY-specific coelomic vessel in XX gonads. In addition, germ cells in the ovarian cortex are almost completely lost in both Wnt4 and Fst null gonads before birth. Thus, we propose that WNT4 acts through FST to regulate vascular boundaries and maintain germ cell survival in the ovary. Developmental Dynamics 230:210–215, 2004. PMID:15162500

  13. [Vitamin D and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lazúrová, Ivica; Figurová, Jana; Dravecká, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Currently there is growing evidence on possible influence of vitamin D (VD) on reproductive function in both females and males. The relationship between VD and clinical or laboratory manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) seems to be mostly evaluated. Patients with PCOS have been demonstrated to have significantly lower levels of serum VD and they also have the higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as compared to controls. Some studies documented the relation of VD to serum androgen levels, other found that VD correlated with metabolic parameters (body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile) only. Several interventional studies demonstrated that VD replacement improved these metabolic parameters in PCOS women with VD deficiency. On the other hand some studies also documented improvement of ovarian function and androgen levels. Also vitamin D replacement may represent an additional treatment in VD deficient PCOS women with the aim to improve phenotypic manifestations. It requires further randomized interventional studies on larger groups of patients.Key words: metabolic syndrome - polycystic ovary syndrome - vitamin D.

  14. Aging of the human ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Perheentupa, Antti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2009-02-05

    Aging is associated with structural and functional alterations in all organs of the human body. The aging of gonads represents in this respect a special case, because these organs are not functional for the whole lifespan of an individual and their normal function is not indispensable for functions of the rest of the body. Ovarian function lasts for the reproductive life of a woman, i.e., from menarche until menopause. The testicular endocrine function, in contrast, begins already in utero, is interrupted between neonatal life and puberty, and continues thereafter along with spermatogenesis, with only slight decline, until old age. The aging processes of the ovary and testis are therefore very different. We describe in this review the structural and functional alterations in the human ovary and testis upon aging. Special emphasis will be given to clinically significant alterations, which in women concern the causes and consequences of the individual variability of fertility during the latter part of the reproductive age. The clinically important aspect of testicular aging entails the decline of androgen production in aging men.

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed.

  16. Contemporary medical therapy for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lanham, M S M; Lebovic, D I; Domino, S E

    2006-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-system endocrinopathy with long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health consequences. Patients typically present due to symptoms of irregular menstruation, hair growth, or infertility; however, recent management options are aimed at further treating underlying glucose-insulin abnormalities as well as androgen excess for proactive control of symptoms. By a 2003 international consensus conference, diagnosis is made by two out of three criteria: chronic oligoovulation or anovulation after excluding secondary causes, clinical or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism (but not necessarily hirsutism due to inter-patient variability in hair follicle sensitivity), and radiological evidence of polycystic ovaries. Traditional medical treatment options include oral contraceptive pills, cyclic progestins, ovulation induction, and anti-androgenic medications (aldosterone antagonist, 5alpha-reductase antagonist, and follicle ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor). Recent pharmacotherapies include insulin-sensitizing medications metformin and two thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone/Avandia and pioglitazone/Actos), a CYP19 aromatase inhibitor (letrozole/Femara), and statins to potentially lower testosterone levels.

  17. [Possibilities of echography in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Demidov, V N; Alieva, E A; Strukov, A V

    1991-01-01

    An examination was made to define the significance of echography in the diagnosis of the polycystic ovary syndrome. A total of 276 patients with the morphologically verified disease and 70 healthy females of reproductive age were studied. It was found that the reliable results in detecting the disease might be obtained when the ovarian-uterine index (OUI) proposed by the authors was calculated. The OUI is the quotient obtained when the mean ovary volume was divided by the uterine thickness. It was ascertained that the OUI greater than 3.5 was indicative of the polycystic ovary syndrome in 91%. The index lower than the threshold value was suggestive of normal ovaries in 85%. In general, the accuracy of the presence or absence of the polycystic ovary syndrome was 87% when the OUI was estimated.

  18. Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

  19. Effects of tamoxifen on autosomal genes regulating ovary maintenance in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingxi; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jingyun; Qin, Junwen; Wang, Yongan; Wang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), known to bind to estrogen/androgen receptors and mimic native estrogens, have been implicated as a main source for increasing human reproductive and developmental deficiencies and diseases. Tamoxifen (TAM) is one of the most well-known antiestrogens with defined adverse effects on the female reproductive tract, but the mechanisms related to autosomal gene regulation governing ovary maintenance in mammals remain unclear. The expression pattern and levels of key genes and proteins involved in maintaining the ovarian phenotype in mice were analyzed. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, which is the testis-determining factor gene. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, the testis-determining factor gene, and the expression level of Sox9 mRNA in the ovaries of mice exposed to 75 or 225 mg/kg bw TAM was 2- and 10-fold that in the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the testicular fibroblast growth factor gene, Fgf9, was also elevated in TAM-treated ovaries. Accordingly, expression of the ovary development marker, forkhead transcription factor (FOXL2), and WNT4/FST signaling, were depressed. The levels of protein expression changed consistently with the target genes. Moreover, the detection of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) in TAM-treated ovaries suggested the formation of vascular endothelial cells, which is a further evidence for the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype. During this period, the level of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone decreased, while that of testosterone increased by 3.3-fold (p = 0.013). The activation of a testis-specific molecular signaling cascade was a potentially important mechanism contributing to the gender disorder induced by TAM, which resulted in the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype in adult mice. Limited with

  20. Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P < 0.01) compared with patients with other proliferative diseases. Conclusions The presence of ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 in the surface epithelial ovarian cells and its derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical

  1. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  3. Effects of sub-chronic aluminum chloride exposure on rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Jia, F B; Wang, J; Song, M; Liu, S M; Li, Y F; Liu, S Z; Bu, Q W

    2014-03-28

    This experiment investigated the effects of sub-chronic aluminum chloride (AlCl3) exposure on rat ovaries. Eighty female Wistar (5weeks old) rats, weighed 110-120g, were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control group (CG), low-dose group (LG, 64mg/kg BW AlCl3), mid-dose group (MG, 128mg/kg BW AlCl3) and high-dose group (HG, 256mg/kg BW AlCl3). The AlCl3 was administered in drinking water for 120days. The ovarian ultrastructure was observed. The activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, the contents of Fe, Cu and Zn, and the protein expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the ovary were determined. The results showed that the structure of the ovary was disrupted, the activities of ALP, ACP, SDH, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, the contents of Zn, Fe and the protein expression of FSHR and LHR were lowered, and the content of Cu was increased in AlCl3-treated rats than those in control. The results indicate that sub-chronic AlCl3 exposure caused the damage of the ovarian structure, the disturbed metabolism of Fe, Zn and Cu and the decreased activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the ovary, which could result in suppressed energy supply in the ovary. A combination of suppression of energy supply and reduction of expression of FSHR and LHR could inhibit ovulation and corpus luteum development, leading to infertility in female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Polycystic ovary sindrome: impact on reproductive and material fetal health].

    PubMed

    Fux Otta, Carolina; Iraci, Gabriel Santino; Szafryk de Mereshian, Paula; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism (H), oligo-anovulation (O) and / or polycystic ovaries (P). There is currently little information on perinatal complications. to investigate obstetric and neonatal characteristics of women with PCOS in our population. we studied 87 pregnant women with PCOS (categorized in four phenotypes according Rotterdam Consensus: A (H + O + P) n = 53; B (H + O) n = 9; C (H + P) n = 16 and D (O + P) n = 9) and 96 without PCOS (control). We analyzed clinical and biochemical features (age, anthropometry hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, OGTT, insulin, lipid profile, androgen and gonadotropins) during preconception, (weight gain, blood pressure, OGTT) through gestation and occurrence of perinatal complications. we found no differences in age (29.4 ± 4 and 28.7 ± 5 years) and body mass index (28.2 ± 6 and 27.8 ± 6 kg / m2) in both groups; while patients with PCOS had higher waist circumference, blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans versus control. Despite similar weight gain, patients with PCOS had higher percentage of perinatal complications. In the A phenotype RR for perinatal adverse outcomes was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.67-3.36, p <0.001). The HOMA-IR index preconception and fasting glucose during pregnancy were the predictors for these complications (p=0.01). patients with PCOS have a higher risk for complications during pregnancy and newborns more frequently have low weight or macrosomy. A careful history can recognize patients with higher perinatal risk to develop complications.

  5. Marked hyperandrogenemia and acne associated with polycystic ovaries in Greek women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skampardonis, N; Kouskoukis, A; Karpouzis, A; Maroulis, G

    2011-01-01

    PCOS represents the commonest endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between polycystic ovaries and clinical and biochemical features of the syndrome. TVS was performed in 74 women with the clinical diagnosis of PCOS. The findings were compared to biochemical, hormonal and clinical features of the syndrome. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly higher prevalence of acne, LH/FSH ratios and testosterone levels in women with PCO compared to those with normal ovarian morphology. In the subgroup analysis, total ovarian volume correlated significantly with hirsutism scores. Our study revealed a great prevalence of polycystic ovaries in Greek women with PCOS, and emphasizes the significance of transvaginal ultrasound in establishment of the diagnosis of the syndrome. The presence of PCO may not be clinically important when present alone without clinical manifestations but reflects the underlying hyperandrogenemia in PCOS women, representing a useful tool in the management of these patients.

  6. The chemosensitivity of labellar sugar receptor in female Phormia regina is paralleled with ovary maturation: Effects of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Solari, Paolo; Stoffolano, John G; De Rose, Francescaelena; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini; Liscia, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Oogenesis in most adult insects is a nutrient-dependent process involving ingestion of both proteins and carbohydrates that ultimately depends on peripheral input from chemoreceptors. The main goal of this study was to characterize, in the female blowfly Phormia regina, the responsive changes of the labellar chemoreceptors to carbohydrates and proteins in relation to four different stages along the ovarian cycle: (1) immature ovaries, (2) mid-mature ovaries, (3) mature ovaries and ready for egg-laying and (4) post egg-laying ovaries. Then, the possible effects exerted by exogenous serotonin on the chemoreceptor sensitivity profiles were investigated. Our results show that ovary length, width and contraction rate progressively increase from stage 1 to 3, when all these parameters reach their maximum values, before declining in the next stage 4. The sensitivity of the labellar "sugar" chemoreceptors to both sucrose and proteins varies during the ovarian maturation stages, reaching a minimum for sucrose in stage 3, while that to proteins begins. Exogenous 5-HT supply specifically increases the chemoreceptor sensitivity to sugar at the stages 3 and 4, while it does not affect that to proteins. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that in female blowflies the cyclic variations in the sensitivity of the labellar chemosensilla to sugars and proteins are time-related to ovarian development and that during the stages 3 and 4 the responsiveness of the sugar cell to sucrose is under serotonergic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the new millenium.

    PubMed

    Legro, R S

    2001-11-26

    Our understanding of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has been hampered by varying diagnostic criteria, and ignorance of the etiology of the syndrome. PCOS women are uniquely insulin resistant and obesity aggravates this underlying predisposition to insulin resistance. Diagnostic criteria which focus on hyperandrogenism and/or menstrual irregularity are more likely to identify insulin resistant women, than such criteria as abnormal gonadotropin secretion or ovarian morphology. The lack of a clear etiologic mechanism to the syndrome has led to a multitude of symptom-oriented treatments with few therapies improving all aspects of the endocrine syndrome of PCOS. Improving insulin sensitivity has become established as a baseline treatment strategy in PCOS. There are, however, few randomized controlled trials of adequate power to provide an evidence based guide to treatment in PCOS.

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tasali, Esra; Van Cauter, Eve; Ehrmann, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of pre-menopausal women, is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, obesity and insulin resistance. Importantly, PCOS women are at increased risk for glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Recent reports indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in PCOS. Alterations in sex steroids (i.e. high androgen and low estrogen levels) and increased visceral adiposity in PCOS could potentially contribute to the increased prevalence of OSA in this disorder. There is some evidence to suggest that there may be strong associations between the presence and severity of OSA and the metabolic disturbances that characterize PCOS. Causal mechanisms in the link between PCOS and OSA remain to be elucidated. Clinicians who manage PCOS patients should be aware of the high prevalence of OSA in these patients and systematically evaluate these women for sleep disturbances. PMID:19255602

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Obesity, and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Joham, Anju E; Palomba, Stefano; Hart, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to one in five reproductive-aged women. It is underpinned by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism and is associated with metabolic, reproductive, and psychological features. Women with PCOS have higher rates of obesity and central adiposity compared with women without PCOS, and weight strongly influences prevalence and clinical severity of PCOS. Women with PCOS may have subfertility and women should be aware of factors affecting fertility, in particular the impact of obesity and age. Once pregnant, women with PCOS have significantly increased risk of pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, premature delivery, and delivery by cesarean section. The offspring of women with PCOS may have increased risk of congenital abnormalities and hospitalization in childhood. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk and screen, prevent, and manage accordingly. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. [Polycystic ovary syndrome and autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Petríková, J; Lazúrová, I

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by laboratory or clinical signs of hyperandrogenism with chronic anovulation and is currently one of the most frequent endocrinopaties in women of fertile age. Syndrome is associated with a variety of endocrine and metabolic disturbances and according to results of scientific work could be possibly associated with some autoimmune diseases. It seems that the prevalence of autoimmune tyroiditis is important among these patients. Recent studies reveal higher incidence of organ - non specific autoantibodies, but their clinical significance is unknown to date. Further studies are required to determine the role of organ specific and non-specific autoantibodies in patients with PCOS. According to determine an etiology of the syndrome one of the possible outcomes could be investigation of anti-follicular antibody.

  11. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a dermatologic approach.

    PubMed

    Moura, Heloisa Helena Gonçalves de; Costa, Dailana Louvain Marinho; Bagatin, Ediléia; Sodré, Celso Tavares; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. It is a cause of significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex multigenic disorder, including abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, steroidogenesis, and insulin resistance. The main diagnostic findings of the syndrome are: hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology seen on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia and, in severe cases, signs of virilization. Treatment may improve the clinical manifestations of excess androgen production, normalize menses and ameliorate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical manifestations, metabolic complications, and treatment of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and the consequent early treatment may prevent metabolic complications and emotional distress that negatively impact the patients' quality of life.

  12. New adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alemzadeh, R; Kansra, A R

    2011-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but heterogeneous disorder that usually arises during puberty. This endocrine disorder is associated with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenemia with clinical manifestation of oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and acne. While the underlying etiology of PCOS remains unknown, it is commonly associated with obesity and insulin resistance leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus in hyperandrogenemic phenotypes. Menstrual irregularities and insulin resistance in obese adolescents are usually indistinguishable from the clinical manifestations of PCOS and pose a diagnostic dilemma due to higher circulating androgens during puberty. Consequently, a universal consensus on the definition of hyperandrogenemia in adolescents has been elusive. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenemia, independent of obesity, in postmenarchal adolescents is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome. Therefore, treatment strategies including lifestyle changes and/or use of insulin-sensitizers, hormone replacement and antiandrogens should be utilized in order to delay long-term cardiovascular and metabolic complications of this endocrinopathy.

  13. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner.

  14. Proteomic Profile of Mabuya sp. (Squamata: Scincidae) Ovary and Placenta During Gestation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Nathaly; Torres, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Reptiles are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, providing an integrated system for comparative studies on metabolic, animal physiology, and developmental biology. However, the molecular data available are limited and only recently have started to call attention in the "omics" sciences. Mabuya sp. is a viviparous placentrotrophic skink with particular reproductive features, including microlecithal eggs, early luteolysis, prolonged gestation, and development of a highly specialized placenta. This placenta is responsible for respiratory exchange and the transference of all nutrients necessary for embryonic development. Our aim was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the ovary and placenta of Mabuya sp. during early, mid, and late gestation; their possible metabolic pathways; and biological processes. We carried out a comparative proteomic analysis during gestation in both tissues by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Differential protein expression in both tissues (Student's t-test P < 0.05) was related to several processes such as cell structure, cell movement, and energy. Proteins found in ovary are mainly associated with follicular development and its regulation. In the placenta, particularly during mid and late gestation, protein expression is involved in nutrient metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and embryonic development. This work provides new insights about the proteins expressed and their physiological mechanisms in Mabuya sp. placenta and ovary during gestation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Novel population of small tumour-initiating stem cells in the ovaries of women with borderline ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Stimpfel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Small stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm previously isolated from adult human ovaries indicated pluripotency and germinal lineage, especially primordial germ cells, and developed into primitive oocyte-like cells in vitro. Here, we show that a comparable population of small stem cells can be found in the ovarian tissue of women with borderline ovarian cancer, which, in contrast to small stem cells in “healthy” ovaries, formed spontaneous tumour-like structures and expressed some markers related to pluripotency and germinal lineage. The gene expression profile of these small putative cancer stem cells differed from similar cells sorted from “healthy” ovaries by 132 upregulated and 97 downregulated genes, including some important forkhead box and homeobox genes related to transcription regulation, developmental processes, embryogenesis, and ovarian cancer. These putative cancer stem cells are suggested to be a novel population of ovarian tumour-initiating cells in humans. PMID:27703207

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ovary-specific transcript 1 (Pm-OSTI) of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Sittikankaew, Kanchana; Yuvanatemiya, Vasin; Preechaphol, Rachanimuk; Prasertlux, Sirikan; Yamano, Keisuke; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2009-11-01

    Isolation and characterization of genes specifically expressed in ovaries are necessary for understanding sex differentiation and ovarian development processes in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In this study, a transcript that significantly matched the polehole precursor was further characterized by RACE-PCR. The sequence obtained was 5151 bp in length and contained a coding region of 5031 bp corresponding to 1677 amino acids. This transcript was only expressed in ovaries but not in testes of Juveniles (N = 10) and broodstock (N = 22) of P. monodon. A tissue distribution analysis further confirmed ovary-specific expression of this transcript (called P. monodon ovary-specific transcript 1, Pm-OST1) in female broodstock. Expression levels of Pm-OST 1 in ovaries of juvenile P. monodon upon 5-HT Injection (33.9+/-6.40 g; 50 microg/g body weight) were significantly higher at 12-72 hours post Injection (P<0.05). Quantitative real-time PCR Indicated that Pm-OST1 was comparably expressed throughout ovarian development in normal P. monodon broodstock (P>0.05). However, the expression level of Pm-OST1 was significantly higher in stage-III ovaries in eyestalk-ablated broodstock (P<0.05). Pm-OST1 was clearly localized in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes. Our results suggest that Pm-OST1 plays a functionally Important role in promoting the development of female germ cells and oocytes in P. monodon.

  17. Tomato ovary-to-fruit transition is characterized by a spatial shift of mRNAs for cell wall invertase and its inhibitor with the encoded proteins localized to sieve elements.

    PubMed

    Palmer, William M; Ru, Lei; Jin, Ye; Patrick, John W; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Central to understanding fruit development is to elucidate the processes mediating a successful transition from pre-pollination ovaries to newly set fruit, a key step in establishing fruit yield potential. In tomato, cell wall invertase (CWIN) LIN5 and its inhibitor INH1 are essential for fruit growth. However, the molecular and cellular basis by which they exert their roles in ovary-to-fruit transition remains unknown. To address this issue, we conducted a study focusing on ovaries and fruitlets at 2 days before and 2 days after anthesis, respectively. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that LIN5 and INH1 exhibited a dispersed expression in ovaries compared with their phloem-specific expression in fruitlets. Remarkably, LIN5 and INH1 proteins were immunologically co-localized to cell walls of sieve elements (SEs) in ovaries immediately prior to anthesis and in young fruitlets, but were undetectable in provascular bundles of younger ovaries. A burst in CWIN activity occurred during ovary-to-fruit transition. Interestingly, the ovaries, but not the fruitlets, exhibited high expression of a defective invertase, SldeCWIN1, an ortholog of which is known to enhance inhibition of INH on CWIN activity in tobacco. Imaging of a fluorescent symplasmic tracer indicated an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway operated in ovaries, contrary to the previously observed symplasmic unloading pathway in fruit pericarp. These new data indicate that (1) a phloem-specific patterning of the CWIN and INH mRNAs is induced during ovary-to-fruit transition, and (2) LIN5 protein functions specifically in walls of SEs and increases its activity during ovary-to-fruit transition, probably to facilitate phloem unloading and to generate a glucose signal positively regulating cell division, hence fruit set.

  18. Effects of growth hormone reduction in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome complicated with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Goto, Junko; Otsuka, Fumio; Inagaki, Kenichi; Tsukamoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Jiro; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Ogura, Toshio; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Makino, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    We report a rare case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) complicated with acromegaly due to a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma. Complete removal of the pituitary adenoma successfully reduced circulating levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, which, in turn, resulted in the amelioration of gonadal dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, lutenizing hormone hypersecretion, and severe insulin resistance. This clinical complication suggests that activation of systemic GH-IGF-1 axis is potentially involved in the development of PCOS.

  19. The M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zulian, Elisa; Sartorato, Paola; Schiavi, Francesca; Moghetti, Paolo; Castello, Roberto; Mantero, Franco; Opocher, Giuseppe; Scaroni, Carla

    2005-11-01

    To explore the relationship between variation in AGT M235T gene and the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its sequelae, in the present study we evaluated AGT polymorphism M235T in women with PCOS and in a control group. Moreover, to detect any relationship between AGT M235T variation and intermediate and quantitative traits relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and PCOS, we looked for genotype-dependent differences within the subjects with PCOS.

  20. Cell engineering and cultivation of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Omasa, Takeshi; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kim, Wook-Dong

    2010-04-01

    Mammalian cell lines are important host cells for the industrial production of pharmaceutical proteins owing to their capacity for correct folding, assembly and post-translational modification. In particular, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most dependable host cells for the industrial production of therapeutic proteins. Growing demand for therapeutic proteins promotes the development of technologies for high quality and productivity in CHO expression systems. The following are fundamentally important for effective production. 1) Construction of cultivation process. The CHO-based cultivation process is well established and is a general platform of therapeutic antibody production. The cost of therapeutic protein production using CHO cells is equivalent to that using microbial culture. 2) Cell line development. Recent developments in omics technologies have been essential for the development of rational methods of constructing a cell line. 3) Cell engineering for post-translational steps. Improvement of secretion, folding and glycosylaiton is an important key issue for mammalian cell production systems. This review provides an overview of the industrial production of therapeutic proteins using a CHO cell expression system.

  1. Polycystic ovary label may cause women needless distress.

    PubMed

    2017-09-06

    A broadening of the definition of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has contributed to a steep rise in diagnoses, particularly among younger women, and risks causing anxiety about fertility and long-term health.

  2. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  3. Isolation of Undifferentiated Female Germline Cells from Adult Drosophila Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Robyn Su May; Osato, Motomi; Kai, Toshie

    2015-08-03

    This unit describes a method for isolating undifferentiated, stem cell-like germline cells from adult Drosophila ovaries. Here, we demonstrate that this population of cells can be effectively purified from hand-dissected ovaries in considerably large quantities. Tumor ovaries with expanded populations of undifferentiated germline cells are first removed from fly abdomens and dissociated into a cell suspension with the aid of protease treatment. The target cells, which express Vasa-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein under the control of the germline-specific vasa promoter, are specifically selected from the suspension via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). These protocols can be adapted to isolate other cell types from fly ovaries, such as somatic follicle cells or escort cells, by driving GFP expression in the respective target cells.

  4. Leptin regulates gonadotropins and steroid receptors in the rats ovary.

    PubMed

    Silveira Cavalcante, Fernanda; Aiceles, Verónica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    The leptin hormone is important to satiety and an important link between the nutritional status and reproductive processes. Owing to the contradictory effects of leptin on the ovary and the failure to clarify the precise mechanism by which leptin affects the ovary, our aim was to contribute to evaluation if leptin can directly regulate the gene expression of leptin itself and its receptors, and the expression of several genes related to the ovary function by a model of tissue culture. Ovaries from Wistar dams were used at 90 days of age and were submitted to medium with presence and absence of leptin. The results can demonstrate that leptin regulates gonadotropins and steroid receptors, which could suggest that the ovarian leptin role could be secondary to the changes in these receptors expression in rats.

  5. Cyclin A1 is expressed in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongquan; Li, Yuanhong; Zhao, Chen; Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, Hongduo; Lang, Ming-Fei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin A1 belongs to the type-A cyclins and participates in cell cycle regulation. Since its discovery, cyclin A1 has been shown mostly in testis. It plays important roles in spermatogenesis. However, there were also reports on ovary expression of cyclin A1. Therefore, we intended to revisit the expression of cyclin A1 in mouse ovary. Our study showed that cyclin A1 was expressed at the mRNA level and the protein level in mouse ovary. Tissue staining revealed that cyclin A1 was expressed in maturating oocytes. With the recent data on the functions of cyclins in somatic and stem cells, we also discussed the possibilities of further studies of cyclin A1 in mouse oocytes and perhaps in the oogonial stem cells. Our findings not only add to the supportive evidence of cyclin A1 expression in oocytes, but also may promote more interest in exploring cyclin A1 functions in ovary.

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]: comprehensive management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Samraj, George P N; Kuritzky, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common premenopausal endocrino-metabolic disorder. In addition to hyperandrogenism, menstrual abnormalities, ovulatory disturbances and infertility, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity may eventuate in long-term cardiovascular consequences.

  7. Virilization and Enlarged Ovaries in a Postmenopausal Woman.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Jessenia; Marcus, Jenna Z; Heller, Debra S

    2017-09-01

    A patient with postmenopausal bleeding and virilization was found to have bilaterally enlarged ovaries with a yellow cut surface. Histology revealed cortical stromal hyperplasia with stromal hyperthecosis. This hyperplastic condition should not be mistaken for an ovarian neoplasm.

  8. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

  9. Removal of toxin (tetrodotoxin) from puffer ovary by traditional fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

    2013-01-18

    The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (I(Na)) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries decreased to 1/50-1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes" fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.

  10. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  11. Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Methods Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90–92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. Results In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. Conclusions This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries. PMID:23866168

  12. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/intermedin (IMD) in rat ovary: changes in estrous cycle and pregnancy and its role in ovulation and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-02-01

    Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy.

  13. The D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Unfer, Vittorio; Roseff, Scott

    2011-06-30

    The D-chiro-inositol-to-myo-inositol ratio is regulated by an insulin-dependent epimerase. Enzyme activity varies among tissues, likely owing to the specific needs of the two different molecules. We hypothesize that in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome patients, epimerase activity is enhanced, leading to a local myo-inositol deficiency which in turn is responsible for the poor oocyte quality.

  14. Ovary transcriptome profiling of Coilia nasus during spawning migration stages by Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Rong; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Xu, Dong-Po; Zhang, Min-Ying; Liu, Kai; Shi, Ying; Wei, Qi-Wei; Fang, Di-An

    2015-06-01

    Coilia nasus is an anadromous kind of small to moderate size fish species, and limited transcriptomics research has been performed. In the present study, we performed Illumina sequencing to produce a 22,996,612 clean reads representing with a total of 4,599,079,601 (4.5Gb) nucleotides comprehensive transcript dataset for ovary of C. nasus. Over 20 million total reads were assembled into 63,141 unigenes, and 27,027 annotated genes were predicted by Blastx and ESTScan, respectively. Applying Blast analysis and functional annotation (e.g., GO, COG, Swissprot and KEGG), we have sampled an extensive and diverse expressed gene catalog for C. nasus representing a large proportion of the genes expressed in the ovary development process. This approach will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play key roles in anadromous fish spawning migration process.

  15. [Disorder of Tiangui (kidney essence) and reproductive dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yan, Wei; Hou, Li-hui; Wu, Xiao-ke

    2010-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) usually views polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as a menstrual disease or infertility disease. Reproductive dysfunction in PCOS is characterized by ovarian androgen excess and disturbance of follicular development, and its main clinical manifestations include delayed menstruation, scant menstruation, amenorrhea or infertility. Insulin resistance is a key pathological mechanism of PCOS. "Tiangui" (kidney essence) as a sex-stimulating essence in female in TCM theory, is essential to the menstruation and pregnancy of women. The disturbance of Tiangui (including time, status and rhythm) would result in female reproductive problems. Current studies of Tiangui indicate that ovary is the target organ of PCOS treatment, and its functional characteristics are consistent with the properties of Tiangui in time frame, state form and rhythm cycle. It is then concluded that ovarian dysfunction in PCOS can be expressed as disorder of Tiangui.

  16. Inhibition of serotonin reuptake in the prepubertal rat ovary by fluoxetine and effects on ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reyes, Jessica; Cárdenas, Mario; Damián-Matsumura, Pablo; Domínguez, Roberto; Ayala, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is an antidepressant in the treatment of mood disorders. Its impact on reproductive processes is incompletely known. The present study analyzed the reproductive effects of FLX in prepubertal female rats. Two experiments were conducted. First (acute administration), 30-day-old female rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5mg/kg of fluoxetine-hydrochloride, and were terminated 24, 48 or 72h after the treatment. Second (subchronic administration), FLX was injected on days 30-33 of age, and the animals were terminated the day of first estrus. In acute treatment estradiol concentration increased to 72h. In subchronic treatment increased serotonin concentration in ovaries and decreased the number of ova shed. An increase in number of atretic follicles and oocyte fragmentation was observed in these animals. The results suggest that FLX acts on the ovary or hypothalamus-pituitary axis resulting in modifications of the follicular development and ovulation.

  17. Successful vitrification of mouse ovaries using less-concentrated cryoprotectants with Supercool X-1000 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; Liu, Guifen; Cheng, Haijian; Wan, Fachun

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of using less-concentrated cryoprotectants supplemented with ice blocker Supercool X-1000 to vitrify ovarian tissues. Mouse ovaries were cryopreserved in different concentrations of vitrification solution alone or with Supercool X-1000, and fresh non-frozen ovaries were used as control. The proportions of morphological normality of follicles, normal GCs in follicular fluids and developing to blastocysts were higher in 12.5% ethylene glycol (EG) + 12.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with Supercool X-1000 than those of treated in 10% EG + 10% DMSO or 15% EG + 15% DMSO alone or with Supercool X-1000. In conclusion, the inclusion of Supercool X-1000 in less-concentrated vitrification solution was effective to improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovarian tissues.

  18. Salvage radiotherapy for carcinoma of the ovary following chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, A.Y.

    1988-05-01

    Following single-agent or combination chemotherapy, 9 patients with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary had elective second-look laparotomy. Macroscopic intraperitoneal disease was resected in 4 patients. Therefore, after the laparotomy, all 9 patients had only biopsy-proven, microscopic residual disease, and they received whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Hematological tolerance was satisfactory, with only 2 patients developing asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Mild gastrointestinal reactions, while frequent during radiotherapy, did not interrupt treatment in any patient. After follow-up ranging from 6 to 28 months (median 12 months), 2 patients died of cancer, 2 were alive with cancer, 3 were alive without clinical recurrence, and 2 were alive without biopsy-proven recurrence. Bowel complication occurred in 4 patients: 2 developed intestinal obstruction due to recurrent tumor, 1 developed subacute bowel obstruction which spontaneously resolved, and 1 patient required bowel resection because of a radiation complication. This study indicated that after single- or multiple-drug chemotherapy, most patients could complete the course of whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Gastrointestinal complications could be secondary to radiation damage or to recurrent tumor. While whole abdominopelvic irradiation was not an effective second-line treatment, some long-term survivors could still be expected.

  19. Characterization of vitellin from the ovaries of the banana shrimp Litopenaeus merguiensis.

    PubMed

    Auttarat, Jongruk; Phiriyangkul, Pharima; Utarabhand, Prapaporn

    2006-01-01

    Vitellin (Vt) was purified from ovary extracts of mature females of the banana shrimp Litopenaeus merguiensis using DEAE-Sephacel and Superdex 200 columns. Native Vt had an apparent molecular mass of 398 kDa as determined by native PAGE and by gel filtration chromatography. Under reducing and denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE), Vt is composed of two major subunits of 87 and 78 kDa, although some faint bands were also detected. The N-terminal 10 amino acids sequence of the 78 kDa subunit is identical to that of Litopenaeus vannamei Vt and very similar to that of Litopenaeus japonicus vitellogenin (Vg) as well as Litopenaeus semisulcatus Vt, with an identity of 89%. Anti-Vt polyclonal antibody raised against purified Vt shows a high specificity with only ovarian Vt and hemolymph Vg of vitellogenic shrimps in double immunodiffusion and Western blot assays. Vg and Vt concentrations in hemolymph, hepatopancreas and ovaries were measured by ELISA. Vg concentrations increased in the hemolymph in the early stages of ovarian development and declined in the maturation stages. As there were undetectable concentrations of Vg in the hepatopancreas while an elevation of Vg levels occurred in the hemolymph, during the time that Vt was accumulating in the ovaries during oogenesis, this would suggest that the contribution of Vg synthesized by the hepatopancreas only might be not sufficient for adequate development of the oocytes in the banana shrimp L. merguiensis during vitellogenesis.

  20. Antiestrogen therapies affect tissue homeostasis of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) female prostate and ovaries.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda C A; Custodio, Ana M G; Campos, Silvana G P; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-10-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the response of the adult gerbil female prostate (paraurethral glands) and ovaries to short-term exposure to antiestrogenic agents, consisting of daily oral doses of letrozole (1 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or intradermal doses of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) every other day for 21 days. The serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were monitored, and the prostates and ovaries collected for structural, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical analyses. The letrozole treatment resulted in increases of serum testosterone levels and secretory activity as well as in glandular hyperplasia and dysplastic growth, simulating the effects caused by the exogenous androgens. The effects caused by tamoxifen indicate that this endocrine agent acted as an estrogenic agonist on the prostate, causing glandular hypertrophy, secretory activity decrease, and the development of prostatic lesions. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the letrozole and tamoxifen therapies result in a series of complex effects that endanger the physiology of hormone-dependent organs, including the female prostate and ovaries. The hormonal imbalance caused by administration of these drugs resulted in considerable changes in prostatic morphology, in a manner very similar to what occurs during the development of prostatic lesions in aged postmenopausal women. Thus, these therapies must be chosen carefully since long-term treatments can result in female prostate dysplasic lesions.

  1. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-10

    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females.

  2. Modification of ovary stock solution with magnesium and raffinose improves the developmental competence of oocytes after long preservation.

    PubMed

    Iwata, H; Hayashi, T; Sato, H; Kimura, K; Kuwayama, T; Monji, Y

    2005-11-01

    During ovary storage oocytes lose some of their developmental competence. In the present study, we maintained storage solutions of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at various temperatures (20 or 35 degrees C) or supplemented them with magnesium (Mg), raffinose and sucrose. Subsequently, we examined the kinetics of electrolytes in the follicular fluid (FF) during the ovary storage period (9 h), the survival rate of granulosa cells in the follicles, and the developmental competence of oocytes after the storage. Lowering the temperature from 35 to 20 degrees C increased the total cell number of blastocysts that developed at 7 days after in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization of oocytes. In stock solution with supplements of 15 mM Mg or a combination of 5 mM Mg and 10 mM raffinose or sucrose, a significantly higher number of oocytes developed into blastocysts with a large number of cells in each blastocyst, and a significantly higher number of living granulosa cells were obtained as compared with stock solutions without any supplements. During ovary storage, the concentrations of potassium and chloride in the FF were increased, and the addition of Mg to the stock solution increased the concentration of Mg in the FF. Germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes that were collected from ovaries stored in the solution supplemented with 15 mM Mg or a combination of 5 mM Mg and 10 mM of raffinose occurred at a slower rate than that in oocytes collected from ovaries stored in PBS alone. On the other hand, the oocytes collected from ovaries stored in the solution supplemented with 15 mM Mg or a combination of 5 mM Mg and 10 mM raffinose reached the metaphase II (MII) stage more rapidly than the oocytes collected from ovaries stored in the PBS alone. In conclusion, the modification of stock solution by the addition of Mg and raffinose improved the developmental competence of oocytes obtained from ovaries preserved for a long period.

  3. MiR-125b Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Targeting Activin Receptor Type 2a in Neonatal Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufen; Liu, Jiali; Li, Xinqiang; Ji, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jianfang; Wang, Yue; Cui, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of the primordial follicle pool is crucial for fertility in mammalian females, and the interruption of overall micro-RNA production byDicer1conditional knockout in the female reproductive system results in infertility. However, there are few reports about the functions of individual micro-RNA in regulating primordial follicle assembly. The present study aimed to investigate the function of miR-125b, which is conserved and preferentially expressed in mammalian ovary during primordial follicle assembly. Detection of miR-125b in the developing mouse ovaries by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization showed that it was highly expressed perinatally and specifically located in the ovarian somatic cells. MiR-125b overexpression blocked the process of primordial follicle assembly in cultured newborn mouse ovaries, while its knockdown promoted this process. Further studies showed that miR-125b regulated the activin/Smad2 signaling in neonatal mouse ovary by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of activin receptor type 2a (Acvr2a). Overexpression of miR-125b in neonatal mouse ovary suppressed theAcvr2aprotein level, attenuating activin/Smad2 signaling, while knockdown of miR-125b showed the opposite effects. In addition, recombinant human activin A (rh-ActA) down-regulated miR-125b in the neonatal mouse ovary. Overexpression of miR-125b attenuated the promoting effects of rh-ActA on primordial follicle assembly. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-125b blocks the process of primordial follicle assembly, and miR-125b may play this role by regulating the expression ofAcvr2ain the activin/Smad2 signaling pathway. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  4. Expression and regulation of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalei; Meng, Chenling; Wei, Quanwei; Shi, Fangxiong; Mao, Dagan

    2015-04-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) preferentially mediates the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ester and the delivery of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. Although multiple analyses have investigated the function of SR-B1 in the liver, adrenal and ovary, its expression in rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle is lacking. In the present study, real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate SR-B1 expression in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle. The results demonstrated that ovarian SR-B1 expression was in a stage-dependent manner, continuously increased from proestrus and kept elevated during metoestrus, while uterine SR-B1 expression decreased from proestrus to diestrus. To determine whether ovarian and uterine SR-B1 expression were affected by sex steroid hormones, immature rats were treated with 17 β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or their antagonists from postnatal days 24-26. Results showed that the levels of SR-B1 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated by E2 in both the ovary and uterus. IHC results showed that SR-B1 was primarily localized in the oocytes, theca internal cells (T-I) of follicles, interstitial cells (IC) as well as corpus luteum (CL), but not granulosa cells (GC) in the ovary during the estrous cycle. Uterine SR-B1 was highly expressed in the endometrial luminal epithelial cells (LEC) and glandular epithelial cells (GEC) as well as in the circular muscle (CM) cells, and weak staining in stromal cells (SC) through estrous cycle. Taken together, SR-B1 expression in the ovary and uterus across the estrous cycle demonstrate that SR-B1 may be involved in uterine function, follicular development as well as luteal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycystic ovary morphology is associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, So-Hyeon; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Hong, Young Sun; Jeong, Kyungah; Chung, Hyewon; Lee, Hyejin

    2017-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM) and metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although insulin resistance could be associated with PCOM, recent studies have shown controversial results. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PCOM and insulin resistance. This was a cross-sectional clinical study. A total of 679 women with PCOS who were diagnosed using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Disease (NICHD) criteria and 272 control women were analysed. We measured fasting glucose and insulin levels, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test-derived glucose and insulin levels, testosterone levels, ovarian volume and follicle number. Polycystic ovary morphology was described in 543 women (80.0%) with PCOS. Women with PCOS had significantly higher 2 hours postload glucose, fasting and 2 hours postload insulin levels, ovarian volume, ovarian follicle numbers and lower insulin sensitivity compared with those of the controls (all P<.01). In women with PCOS, ovarian volume and ovarian follicle number were negatively associated with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index after adjusting for age, body mass index and total testosterone; however, this association was not observed in the controls. In the logistic regression analysis, increased ovarian follicle number was associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS. In PCOS, enlarged ovarian volume and follicle excess were associated with insulin resistance, and the number of ovarian follicles could be a predictor of insulin resistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Continuum of Serous Tumors of Low Malignant Potential and Low-Grade Serous Carcinomas of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Gershenson, David

    2007-01-01

    The role of serous tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) in the development of invasive epithelial cancer of the ovary is debatable. This review summarizes the current clinical, genetic, and genomic evidence for the existence of a continuum comprising both LMP serous tumors and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. PMID:18057521

  7. Bariatric Surgery, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, James; Deguara, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results. PMID:27965894

  8. Aging of oocyte, ovary, and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, Chris; Uda, Manuela; Hamatani, Toshio; Crisponi, Laura; Garcia, Jose-Elias; Ko, Minoru; Pilia, Giuseppe; Sforza, Chiarella; Schlessinger, David; Forabosco, Antonino

    2004-12-01

    We review age-related changes in the ovary and their effect on female fertility, with particular emphasis on follicle formation, follicle dynamics, and oocyte quality. The evidence indicates that the developmental processes leading to follicle formation set the rules determining follicle quiescence and growth. This regulatory system is maintained until menopause and is directly affected in at least some models of premature ovarian failure (POF), most strikingly in the Foxl2 mouse knockout, a model of human POF with monogenic etiology (blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome). Several lines of evidence indicate that if the ovarian germ cell lineage maintains regenerative potential, as recently suggested in the mouse, a role in follicle dynamics for germ stem cells, if any, is likely indirect or secondary. In addition, age-related variations in oocyte quality in animal models suggest that reproductive competence is acquired progressively and might depend on parallel growth and differentiation of follicle cells and stroma. Genomewide analyses of the mouse oocyte transcriptome have begun to be used to systematically investigate the mechanisms of reproductive competence that are altered with aging. Investigative and therapeutic strategies can benefit from considering the role of continuous interactions between follicle cells and oocytes from the beginning of histogenesis to full maturation.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karaer, A; Cavkaytar, S; Mert, I; Buyukkagnici, U; Batioglu, S

    2010-05-01

    A total of 31 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 31 healthy age/body mass index matched controls were compared for serum hormones, basal and oral-glucose stimulated glucose, insulin, homocysteine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipid levels. The women with PCOS had significantly higher serum fasting insulin, homocysteine, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol level than controls, whereas no differences were detected in serum fasting or OGTT 60th- and 120th-minute glucose concentrations, hsCRP, HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels between PCOS and control women. Insulin resistance was found in 54.8% (17/31) of PCOS patients by glucose: insulin (G/I) ratio, whereas only 29.0% (9/31) of control women (p = 0.04). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that only waist/hip ratio was independent determinants of G/I ratio. PCOS is associated with some biochemical and clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, patients with PCOS should undergo comprehensive evaluation for recognised cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barnard, L; Balen, A H; Ferriday, D; Tiplady, B; Dye, L

    2007-01-01

    To date there have been no published studies of cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This large internet-based study compared neuropsychological functioning in right-handed women with (minimum n=135) and without PCOS (minimum n=322), stratified according to use of anti-androgen medication and level of depression. Women with PCOS are thought to have hyperandrogenism and hyperestrogenism which was hypothesized to differentially influence cognitive function across cognitive domains. Performance did not differ according to diagnosis on mental rotation and spatial location tasks. Hence, no evidence to support the view that women with PCOS display a more masculine cognitive profile due to hyperandrogenism. Despite presumed hyperestrogenism, women with PCOS demonstrated impaired performance in terms of speed and accuracy, on reaction time and word recognition tasks. These findings are intriguing given the well-documented roles of estrogen and testosterone in cognitive function. Overall, these findings suggest that PCOS is not associated with masculinized cognitive functioning, and, although associated with impaired performance on tasks considered to demonstrate female-advantage, such impairments are subtle and are unlikely to affect daily functioning.

  12. Androgen circle of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Homburg, Roy

    2009-07-01

    Although the aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still not known and the search for causative genes is proving elusive, it is generally agreed that hyperandrogenism is at the heart of the syndrome. Here, it is proposed that excess androgens are the root cause of PCOS starting from their influence on the female fetus in programming gene expression, producing the characteristic signs and symptoms which are then exacerbated by a propagation of excess ovarian androgen production from multiple small follicles, anovulation and insulin resistance in the reproductive life-span, thus setting up a vicious perpetual circle of androgen excess. This opinion paper, rather than being a full-scale review, is intentionally biased in support of this hypothesis that androgen excess is the 'root of all evil' in PCOS; in the hope that its acceptance could lead to more direct treatment of the syndrome in all its facets rather than the symptomatic treatment of side effects of androgen excess that we are addressing today.

  13. Dermatologic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy T; Zane, Lee T

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of reproductive-aged women and is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. The disorder is commonly characterized by elevated levels of androgen and insulin. Women with PCOS may present with a range of signs and symptoms, and face increased risks of reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular, psychologic, and neoplastic sequelae, particularly if the condition is left unrecognized or untreated. The clinical definition of PCOS has changed in recent years and includes as one of its cardinal criteria the dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, chiefly hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenetic alopecia. Acanthosis nigricans, a cutaneous sign of hyperinsulinemia, may also be present. These dermatologic features may provide early clinical clues to recognition of PCOS, and treatment of these cutaneous conditions may improve the patient's quality of life and psychologic well-being. The effects of androgen on pilosebaceous units in the skin can vary by anatomic location, producing pathophysiologic effects on hair growth and differentiation, sebaceous gland size and activity, and follicular keratinization. Treatment modalities may include hormonal therapy intended to modulate androgen production and action as well as non-hormonal therapies directed toward specific dermatologic conditions.

  14. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  15. Follicle dynamics and anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Franks, Stephen; Stark, Jaroslav; Hardy, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility and menstrual cycle abnormalities, but the factors responsible for failure to select a dominant follicle remain unclear. Source is authors' own studies and search of the relevant literature. Arrest of antral follicle growth is associated with an abnormal endocrine environment involving hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone and insulin (and perhaps hyperandrogenism). The net effect is secondary suppression of FSH, which leads to inhibition of maturation of otherwise healthy follicles in the cohort. There is, however, emerging evidence for an intrinsic abnormality of folliculogenesis in PCOS that affects the very earliest, gonadotrophin independent, stages of follicle development. There is an increased density of small pre-antral follicles and an increased proportion of early growing follicles. These abnormalities in anovulatory PCOS are further defined by abnormal granulosa cell proliferation and disparate growth of oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells. This suggests that the normal 'dialogue' between oocyte and granulosa cells in these early growing follicles is altered. There is evidence that abnormal, local (follicle-to-follicle) signalling of anti-Müllerian hormone may play a part in disordered folliculogenesis, but it is plausible that other local regulators that have been implicated in normal and abnormal pre-antral follicle development-such as insulin-like growth factors and sex steroids-have a role in aberrant folliculogenesis in PCOS. Significant abnormalities in the very earliest stages of folliculogenesis may be the root cause of anovulation in PCOS.

  16. FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-02-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes.

  17. Obesity, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmina, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The complex mechanisms linking fat excess to metabolic syndrome are not well understood, but several experimental studies have shown that altered production of adipokines plays a main role in development and progression of this disorder. In particular, reduced secretion of adiponectin has a crucial role in inducing insulin resistance but also in determining the clustering of elevated triglycerides and small, dense LDL particles. Increased leptin secretion may be responsible for sympathetic nervous system overactivity and hypertension, while reduced omentin may have an important permissive role in the development of atherogenic processes. Finally, cytokines and other adipokines (resistin, visfatin) determine and modulate the inflammatory process that is an essential component of this condition of cardiovascular risk. Because obesity is prevalent in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is not surprising that patients with PCOS present altered adipokine levels and increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, because of the presence of other CV risk factors (androgen excess), in PCOS adipokine dysfunction is particularly severe. Understanding and treating adipokine dysfunction in young women with PCOS is an essential component of any politics of prevention of CV diseases in the general population.

  18. Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant. However, obesity substantially aggravates the insulin resistance and the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in women with PCOS. Recently, it has been shown that many aspects of adipose tissue function in PCOS are abnormal, and these abnormalities likely predispose to development of insulin resistance even in the absence of obesity. This review provides an overview of these abnormalities and their impact on development of metabolic disorders. At the end, an overview of the therapeutic options for management of adiposity and its complications in PCOS are discussed.

  19. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  20. PCOS Forum: Research in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Today and Tomorrow

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Renato; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Yildiz, Bulent O.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Hoeger, Kathleen; Mason, Helen; Homburg, Roy; Hickey, Theresa; Franks, Steve; Tapanainen, Juha; Balen, Adam; Abbott, David H.; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize promising areas of investigation into polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to stimulate further research in this area. Summary Potential areas of further research activity include the analysis of predisposing conditions that increase the risk of PCOS, particularly genetic background and environmental factors, such as endocrine disruptors and lifestyle. The concept that androgen excess may contribute to insulin resistance needs to be re-examined from a developmental perspective, since animal studies have supported the hypothesis that early exposure to modest androgen excess is associated with insulin resistance. Defining alterations of steroidogenesis in PCOS should quantify ovarian, adrenal and extraglandular contribution, as well as clearly define blood reference levels by some universal standard. Intraovarian regulation of follicle development and mechanisms of follicle arrest should be further elucidated. Finally, PCOS status is expected to have long-term consequences in women, specifically the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hormone dependent cancers. Identifying susceptible individuals through genomic and proteomic approaches would help to individualize therapy and prevention. A potential limitation of our review is that we focused selectively on areas we viewed as the most controversial. PMID:21158892

  1. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Tang, Ruiling

    2008-10-01

    The protein expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel, in ovarian stimulated premature female rat ovary during a cycle of follicle development and corpus luteum formation was investigated. Animals were injected with 10 U pregnant Mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and subsequently 10 U hCG 48 h later. Time-dependent immunohistochemistry and Western blotting experiments were performed before and 24, 48, 72 h after hCG treatment. The immunohistochemistry revealed that administration of PMSG stimulated the CFTR expression in thecal cell layer and granulosa cell layer of mature follicles 48 h post injection, coincident with the PMSG-induced peak in follicular estradiol. However, the expression of CFTR in the granulose lutein cell layer and thecal lutein cell layer was time-dependently reduced following hCG injection, in accordance with the gradually increased progestogen level during luteum corpus formation. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that rat ovarian tissue expressed the special CFTR band at 170 kD. It is concluded that cAMP-dependent Cl(-) channels are involved in regulation of follicle development and luteum formation.

  2. Genetic variation in yield under hot ambient temperatures spotlights a role for cytokinin in protection of developing floral primordia.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Shiri; Chayut, Noam; Nave, Nahum; Kafle, Dinesh; Hegele, Martin; Kaminetsky, Rina; Wünsche, Jens N; Samach, Alon

    2014-03-01

    Unusually hot ambient temperatures (HAT) can cause pre-anthesis abortion of flowers in many diverse species, limiting crop production. This limitation is becoming more substantial with climate change. Flower primordia of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) vines exposed to HAT summers, normally abort. Flower abortion can also be triggered by gibberellin application. We screened for, and identified a genotype capable of reaching anthesis during summer as well as controlled HAT conditions, and also more resistant to gibberellin. Leaves of this genotype contained higher levels of endogenous cytokinin. We investigated a possible connection between higher cytokinin levels and response to gibberellin. Indeed, the effects of gibberellin application were partially suppressed in plants pretreated with cytokinin. Can higher cytokinin levels protect flowers from aborting under HAT conditions? In passion fruit, flowers at a specific stage showed more resistance in response to HAT after cytokinin application. We further tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines with high or low cytokinin levels and cytokinin applications to wild-type plants supported a protective role for cytokinin on developing flowers exposed to HAT. Such findings may have important implications in future breeding programmes as well as field application of growth regulators.

  3. TrkB receptors are required for follicular growth and oocyte survival in the mammalian ovary

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Alfonso; Romero, Carmen; Dissen, Gregory A.; DeChiara, Tom M.; Reichardt, Louis; Cornea, Anda; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Xu, Baoji

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well established that both follicular assembly and the initiation of follicle growth in the mammalian ovary occur independently of pituitary hormone support, the factors controlling these processes remain poorly understood. We now report that neurotrophins (NTs) signaling via TrkB receptors are required for the growth of newly formed follicles. Both neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the preferred TrkB ligands, are expressed in the infantile mouse ovary. Initially, they are present in oocytes, but this site of expression switches to granulosa cells after the newly assembled primordial follicles develop into growing primary follicles. Full-length kinase domain-containing TrkB receptors are expressed at low and seemingly unchanging levels in the oocytes and granulosa cells of both primordial and growing follicles. In contrast, a truncated TrkB isoform lacking the intracellular domain of the receptor is selectively expressed in oocytes, where it is targeted to the cell membrane as primary follicles initiate growth. Using gene-targeted mice lacking all TrkB isoforms, we show that the ovaries of these mice or those lacking both NT-4 and BDNF suffer a stage-selective deficiency in early follicular development that compromises the ability of follicles to grow beyond the primary stage. Proliferation of granulosa cells— required for this transition—and expression of FSH receptors (FSHR), which reflects the degree of biochemical differentiation of growing follicles, are reduced in trkB-null mice. Ovaries from these animals grafted under the kidney capsule of wild-type mice fail to sustain follicular growth and show a striking loss of follicular organization, preceded by massive oocyte death. These results indicate that TrkB receptors are required for the early growth of ovarian follicles and that they exert this function by primarily supporting oocyte development as well as providing granulosa cells with a proliferative

  4. [Correlations between gynoecium morphology and ovary position in angiosperm flowers: roles of developmental and terminological constraints].

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, D D

    2015-01-01

    Angiosperm gynoecium consists of elementary units, called carpels. These can be free (apocarpy) or united (coenocarpy, or syncarpy in a wide sense). One of the most complicate problems of evolutionary morphology of angiosperms is distinguishing monomerous and pseudomonomerous gynoecia. The former are assumed to be derived by reduction of carpel number in apocarpous gynoecia, the latter by reduction of gynoecia with united carpels. Pseudomonomerous gynoecia have one fertile carpel and more or less prominent traces of sterile carpel(s). In extreme cases of reduction, pseudomonomerous gynoecia are very similar to monomerous, even though the two types have completely different evolutionary histories. G.B. Kedrov (1969) proposed a new approach to resolving the issue. Using the fact of absence of polymerous free-carpellate gynoecia with inferior ovaries, he suggested that there is a constraint against epigyny in plants with free carpels. Therefore, in taxa with disputable morphological interpretations, the gynoecium should be treated as pseudomonomerous (and not monomerous) if the ovary is inferior. A critical review of the concept of G.B. Kedrov showed that his ideas would suggest re-interpretation of widely accepted views on gynoecium morphology in several key families of basal angiosperms. An alternative view is proposed, that for most important types of epigyny in angiosperms, a "constraint" for a combination of inferior ovary and apocarpy is due to definition of the term "apocarpy" only. There is no biological sense in this "constraint". Existence of two other morphogenetic constraints is proposed: (1) against development of a typical inferior ovary in monomerous gynoecia with conduplicate carpel and (2) against a radial (sectorial) fusion of individual carpels with stamens or perianth members without fusion of these groups into an entire structure. Possible biological nature of these constraints is discussed.

  5. Unfertilized ovary: a novel explant for coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Prasanthi I P; Hocher, Valerie; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Yakandawala, Deepthi M D; Weerakoon, L Kaushalya

    2007-01-01

    Unfertilized ovaries isolated from immature female flowers of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) were tested as a source of explants for callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The correct developmental stage of ovary explants and suitable in vitro culture conditions for consistent callus production were identified. The concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and activated charcoal was found to be critical for callogenesis. When cultured in a medium containing 100 microM 2,4-D and 0.1% activated charcoal, ovary explants gave rise to 41% callusing. Embryogenic calli were sub-cultured into somatic embryogenesis induction medium containing 5 microM abscisic acid, followed by plant regeneration medium (with 5 microM 6-benzylaminopurine). Many of the somatic embryos formed were complete with shoot and root poles and upon germination they gave rise to normal shoots. However, some abnormal developments were also observed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the calli tested were diploid. Through histological studies, it was possible to study the sequence of the events that take place during somatic embryogenesis including orientation, polarization and elongation of the embryos.

  6. Expression of DMRT1 in the mammalian ovary and testis--from marsupials to mice.

    PubMed

    Pask, A J; Behringer, R R; Renfree, M B

    2003-01-01

    Doublesex and mab3 related transcript (DMRT1) was identified as a candidate gene for human 9p24.3 associated sex reversal. DMRT1 orthologues have highly conserved roles in sexual differentiation from flies and worms to humans. A DMRT1 orthologue was isolated from a marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii. The wallaby gene is highly conserved with other vertebrate DMRT1 genes, especially within the P/S and DM domains. It is expressed in the differentiating testis from the late fetus, during pouch life and in the adult. As in eutherian mammals, DMRT1 protein was localized in the germ cells and the Sertoli cells of the testis, but in addition it was detected in the Leydig cells, peri-tubular myoid cells and within the acrosome of the sperm heads. DMRT1 protein was also detected in the fetal and adult ovary pre-granulosa, granulosa and germ cells. Similarly, we also detected DMRT1 in the granulosa cells of all developing follicles in the adult mouse ovary. This is the first report of DMRT1 expression in the adult mammalian ovary, and suggests a wider role for this gene in mammals, in both the testis and ovarian function.

  7. Interspecific hybridization between Tigridia pavonia and T. augusta through ovary slice culture.

    PubMed

    Piña-Escutia, J-L; Vázquez-García, L-M; Arzate-Fernández, A-M

    2013-01-16

    Tigridia pavonia is the most popular species in the Tigridia genus, and is currently marketed in Europe, Asia, and Australia as a landscape plant. Although it is native to Mexico, there are no breeding programs for it. In this study, we attempted to increase its flower color spectrum and growth habit by interspecific hybridization with T. augusta. Interspecific hybrids between T. pavonia and T. augusta were successfully obtained for the first time using the cut-style pollination and ovary slice culture techniques. On the contrary, no hybrids were obtained from a reciprocal cross. At three, four, and five days after pollination (DAP) ovaries were sliced and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators and ammonium nitrate, but were supplemented with 6% sucrose, 50 mg/L yeast extract, and 0.25% Gelrite. After 80 days of culture initiation, the germination of only 10 embryos was observed in ovary slices cultured at three DAP. After transfer to identical fresh medium, six hybrid embryos developed into seedlings. All obtained hybrid seedlings were transplanted successfully to soil, and grew normally. The progenies investigated were identified as true hybrids based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

  8. PDGFR Inhibition Results in Pericyte Depletion and Hemorrhage into the Corpus Luteum of the Rat Ovary.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anthony P; Ashton, Susan; Horner, Judith; Wilson, Zena; Reens, Jaimini; Richmond, Graham H P; Barry, Simon T; Wedge, Steve R

    2016-01-01

    The growth plate, ovary, adrenal gland, and rodent incisor tooth are sentinel organs for antiangiogenic effects since they respond reliably, quantitatively, and sensitively to inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Here we report that treatment of rats with platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) inhibitors that target pericytes results in severe ovarian hemorrhage with degeneration and eventual rupture of the corpus luteum. Evaluation of the growth plate, adrenal gland, and incisor tooth that are typical target organs for antiangiogenic treatment in the rodent revealed no abnormalities. Histologically, the changes in the ovary were characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, increased vessel fragility, and hemorrhage into the corpus luteum. Immunocytochemical staining of vessels with alpha smooth muscle actin and CD31 that recognize pericytes and vascular endothelium, respectively, demonstrated that this effect was due to selective pericyte deficiency within corpora lutea. Further experiments in which rats were treated concurrently with both PDGFRβ and VEGFR inhibitors ablated the hemorrhagic response, resulting instead in corpus luteum necrosis. These changes are consistent with the notion that selective pericyte loss in the primitive capillary network resulted in increased vessel fragility and hemorrhage, whereas concomitant VEGFR inhibition resulted in vessel regression and reduced vascular perfusion that restricted development of the hemorrhagic vessels. These results also highlight the utility of the rodent ovary to respond differentially to VEGFR and PDGFR inhibitors, which may provide useful information during routine safety assessment for determining target organ toxicity.

  9. Regulation of HGF and c-MET Interaction in Normal Ovary and Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngjoo; Godwin, Andrew K

    2017-04-01

    Binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to the c-MET receptor has mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects on cells. The versatile biological effects of HGF and c-MET interactions make them important contributors to the development of malignant tumors. We and others have demonstrated a therapeutic value in targeting the interaction of c-MET and HGF in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, both HGF and c-MET are expressed in the normal ovary as well. Therefore, it is important to understand the differences in mechanisms that control HGF signaling activation and its functional role in the normal ovary and EOC. In the normal ovary, HGF signaling may be under hormonal regulation. During ovulation, HGF-converting proteases are secreted and the subsequent activation of HGF signaling enhances the proliferation of ovarian surface epithelium in order to replenish the area damaged due to expulsion of the ovum. In contrast, EOC cells that exhibit epithelial characteristics constitutively express both c-MET and HGF-converting proteases such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator. In EOC, mechanisms to control the activation of HGF signaling are absent since HGF is provided locally from the tissue microenvironment as well as remotely throughout the body. Potential incessant HGF signaling in EOC may lead to an increase in proliferation, invasion through the stroma, and migration to other tissues of cancer cells. Therefore, targeting the interaction of c-MET and HGF would be beneficial in treating EOC.

  10. Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W. Hamish B. . E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B.; Saran, Frank; Kelsey, Tom W.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

  11. Histological assessment of Ghost crab's ovary (Ocypode saratan) in Chabahar Bay.

    PubMed

    Kazemiyan, M

    2008-02-01

    In this research, the histology of Flat crab's ovary (Ocypode saratan) is assessed in Chabahar Bay of Oman Sea during the period of December 2005 to December 2006. Ten ovaries of such species were sampled and fixed in the bouin solution. The samples were undergone the histology, preparation, dehydration, clearing and paraffination according to standard procedure. Then sections of 5 micro were prepared and after coloration, they were studied under an electronic microscope. Gonad maturity stages of such species were determined in 6 microscopic levels. In first and second stages, the crab is immature and third to sixth stages, the crab is mature. Oocyte diameter sizes in ovary through ovulation process are: Immature (< 20 microm), rudimentary (20-40 microm), developing (40-70 microm), intermediate (70-90 microm), advanced (90-160 microm) and resting (> 160 microm). Maximum dimension of oocyte frequency is 152.3 +/- 0.5 micron. Salinity has complementary effect on temperature and increase in salinity results in complete maturityof gonads. Female sex has almost during May and September. The peak has been registered in May 4.12.

  12. Gene expression profile analysis of testis and ovary of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, reveals candidate reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Jin, S B; Gong, Y S; Zhang, W Y

    2015-03-20

    This study utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing technology to identify reproduction- and development-related genes of Macrobrachium nipponense by analyzing gene expression profiles of testis and ovary. More than 20 million 1 x 51-bp reads were obtained by Illumina sequencing, generating more than 7.7 and 11.7 million clean reads in the testis and ovary library, respectively. As a result, 10,018 unitags were supposed to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ovary and testis. Compared to the ovary library, 4563 (45.5%) of these DEGs exhibited at least 6-fold upregulated expression, while 5455 (54.5%) DEGs exhibited at least 2-fold downregulated expression in the testis. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that 113 GO terms had potential molecular functions in reproduction. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes results revealed that the most important pathways may be relevant to reproduction and included 7 pathways. Forty-two genes were identified as reproduction-, development-, and sex-related genes based on GO classification and sequence comparison with other publications, including male reproductive-related LIM protein, spermatogenesis-associated protein, gametocyte-specific factor 1, VASA-like protein, vitellogenin, sex-determining protein fem-1, and other potential candidates. These results will advance research in the field of molecular genetics in M. nipponense and offer a valuable resource for further research related to reproduction in crustaceans.

  13. Geography of Follicle Formation in the Embryonic Mouse Ovary Impacts Activation Pattern During the First Wave of Folliculogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Marília H.; Kim, So-Youn; Ebbert, Katherine; Duncan, Francesca E.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    During embryonic development, mouse female germ cells enter meiosis in an anterior-to-posterior wave believed to be driven by retinoic acid. It has been proposed that ovarian follicle formation and activation follow the same general wave of meiotic progression; however, the precise anatomic specification of these processes has not been delineated. Here, we created a mouse line using Mvh, Gdf9, and Zp3 promoters to drive distinct temporal expression of three fluorescent proteins in the oocytes and to identify where the first follicle cohort develops. The fluorescent profile revealed that the first growing follicles consistently appeared in a specific region of the ovary, the anterior-dorsal region, which led us to analyze if meiotic onset occurred earlier in the dorsal ovarian region. Surprisingly, in addition to the anterior-to-posterior wave, we observed an early meiotic entry in the ventral region of the ovary. This additional anatomic stratification of meiosis contrasts with the localization of the initial follicle formation and activation in the dorsal region of the ovary. Therefore, our study suggests that the specification of cortical and medullar areas in the ventral and dorsal regions on the ovary, rather than the onset of meiosis, impacts where the first follicle activation event occurs. PMID:26246221

  14. Geography of follicle formation in the embryonic mouse ovary impacts activation pattern during the first wave of folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marília H; Kim, So-Youn; Ebbert, Katherine; Duncan, Francesca E; Ramalho-Santos, João; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-10-01

    During embryonic development, mouse female germ cells enter meiosis in an anterior-to-posterior wave believed to be driven by retinoic acid. It has been proposed that ovarian follicle formation and activation follow the same general wave of meiotic progression; however, the precise anatomic specification of these processes has not been delineated. Here, we created a mouse line using Mvh, Gdf9, and Zp3 promoters to drive distinct temporal expression of three fluorescent proteins in the oocytes and to identify where the first follicle cohort develops. The fluorescent profile revealed that the first growing follicles consistently appeared in a specific region of the ovary, the anterior-dorsal region, which led us to analyze if meiotic onset occurred earlier in the dorsal ovarian region. Surprisingly, in addition to the anterior-to-posterior wave, we observed an early meiotic entry in the ventral region of the ovary. This additional anatomic stratification of meiosis contrasts with the localization of the initial follicle formation and activation in the dorsal region of the ovary. Therefore, our study suggests that the specification of cortical and medullar areas in the ventral and dorsal regions on the ovary, rather than the onset of meiosis, impacts where the first follicle activation event occurs. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Alva, Orlando; Roa-Roco, Rosa Nair; Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy.

  16. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy. PMID:26440413

  17. Dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min

    2013-05-01

    Dyslipidemia is a very common metabolic abnormality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiology of PCOS, thus dyslipidemia in women with PCOS may be consistent with those found in an insulin resistant state. In recent meta-analysis, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were 26 mg/dL and 12 mg/dL higher, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 6 mg/dL lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. Alterations in LDL quality also have been reported in women with PCOS: women with PCOS have an increased proportion of atherogenic small dense LDL or decreased mean LDL particle size. However, in a recent Korean study, non-obese Korean women with PCOS had no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in LDL cholesterol profile. Lipoprotein (a) has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and its elevation in PCOS patients has been consistently reported in diverse studies including non-obese Korean population. Some studies have investigated apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and ApoC-I levels in women with PCOS and levels of ApoA-I, which has cardio-protective effects, were significantly lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. ApoC-I is known to increase the postprandial serum lipid level that is common in coronary artery disease patients, and one study reported that such an elevation may be the earliest variation of lipid abnormality in women with PCOS. In conclusion, women with PCOS should receive a complete lipid test, and lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise, is the first line therapy for all women with PCOS and is particularly important for those with dyslipidemia.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome throughout a woman's life.

    PubMed

    Bellver, José; Rodríguez-Tabernero, Luis; Robles, Ana; Muñoz, Elkin; Martínez, Francisca; Landeras, José; García-Velasco, Juan; Fontes, Juan; Álvarez, Mónica; Álvarez, Claudio; Acevedo, Belén

    2017-09-27

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among reproductive-aged women and the main cause of infertility due to anovulation. However, this syndrome spans the lives of women affecting them from in-utero life until death, leading to several health risks that can impair quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality rates. Fetal programming may represent the beginning of the condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance which leads to a series of medical consequences in adolescence, adulthood, and old age. Menstrual and fertility problems evolve into metabolic complications as age advances. An early and precise diagnosis is important for an adequate management of PCOS, especially at the extreme ends of the reproductive lifespan. However, many different phenotypes are included under the same condition, being important to look at these different phenotypes separately, as they may require different treatments and have different consequences. In this way, PCOS exhibits a great metabolic complexity and its diagnosis needs to be revised once again and adapted to recent data obtained by new technologies. According to the current medical literature, lifestyle therapy constitutes the first step in the management, especially when excess body weight is associated. Pharmacotherapy is frequently used to treat the most predominant manifestations in each age group, such as irregular menses and hirsutism in adolescence, fertility problems in adulthood, and metabolic problems and risk of cancer in old age. Close surveillance is mandatory in each stage of life to avoid health risks which may also affect the offspring, since fetal and post-natal complications seem to be increased in PCOS women.

  19. The treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Melis, G B

    2004-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women in reproductive age. As for the treatment of this disease the lack of a clear etiology for PCOS has led to a symptom-orientated treatment. However, the overall aims of treatment are to induce ovulation for women desiring conception, to reduce androgen levels, to reduce body weight and to reduce long-term health risks of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is recommended as first line treatment for induction of ovulation in patients with PCOS by virtue of its efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Alternatives for CC-resistant patients include gonadotrophin therapy (better with low-dose step-up protocol) and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. Recently, recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been introduced in clinical practice and it seems more effective than urinary FSH as demonstrated by a significantly higher number of follicles recruited and embryos obtained with a shorter treatment period. The addition of GnRH-agonist to the stimulation protocol for women affected by PCOS could reduce premature luteinization and increase cycle fecundity. Other drugs under investigation are metformin and cabergoline. Hirsutism is the manifestation of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. The primary goal of the treatment of hirsutim is central or peripheral androgen suppression using 3 groups of drugs: inhibitors of androgen production (oral contraceptives, GnRH analogues), peripheral androgen blockers (cyproterone acetate, flutamide, finasteride and spironolactone), and insulin-sensitizing agents (metformin). Weight reduction and exercise could also improve not only menstrual disturbances and infertility, but also insulin resistance and its adverse metabolic con-sequences.

  20. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  1. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  2. Sexual Functioning among Married Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156

  3. Sex, stem cells and tumors in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Salz, Helen K

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene encodes a female-specific RNA binding protein that in somatic cells globally regulates all aspects of female-specific development and behavior. Sxl also has a critical, but less well understood, role in female germ cells. Germ cells without Sxl protein can adopt a stem cell fate when housed in a normal ovary, but fail to successfully execute the self-renewal differentiation fate switch. The failure to differentiate is accompanied by the inappropriate expression of a set of male specific markers, continued proliferation, and formation of a tumor. The findings in Chau et al., (2012) identify the germline stem cell maintenance factor nanos as one of its target genes, and suggest that Sxl enables the switch from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell by posttranscriptional downregulation of nanos expression. These studies provide the basis for a new model in which Sxl directly couples sexual identity with the self-renewal differentiation decision and raises several interesting questions about the genesis of the tumor phenotype.

  4. Pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Carolien M; Fauser, Bart C J M; Macklon, Nick S

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that PCOS may have significant implications for pregnancy outcomes and long-term health of a woman and her offspring. Whether or not PCOS itself or the symptoms that coincide with PCOS, like obesity and fertility treatment, are responsible for these increased risks is a continuing matter of debate. Miscarriage rates among women with PCOS are believed to be increased compared with normal fertile women, although supporting evidence is limited. Pregnant women with PCOS experience a higher incidence of perinatal morbidity from gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia. Their babies are at an increased risk of neonatal complications, such as preterm birth and admission at a neonatal intensive care unit. Pre-pregnancy, antenatal, and intrapartum care should be aimed at reducing these risks. The use of insulin sensitizing drugs to decrease hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance has been proposed during pregnancy to reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. Although metformin appears to be safe, there are too few data from prospective, randomized controlled trials to support treatment during pregnancy.

  5. Diagnosis and Challenges of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Agapova, Sophia E.; Cameo, Tamara; Sopher, Aviva B.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have become less stringent over the years, determination of the minimum diagnostic features in adolescents is still an area of controversy. Of particular concern is that many of the features considered to be diagnostic for PCOS may evolve over time and change during the first few years after menarche. Nonetheless, attempts to define young women who may be at risk for development of PCOS is pertinent since associated morbidity such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia may benefit from early intervention. The relative utility of diagnostic tools such as persistence of anovulatory cycles, hyperandrogenemia, hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, or alopecia), or ovarian findings on ultrasound is not established in adolescents. Some suggest that even using the strictest criteria, the diagnosis of PCOS may not valid in adolescents younger than 18 years. In addition, evidence does not necessarily support that lack of treatment of PCOS in younger adolescents will result in untoward outcomes since features consistent with PCOS often resolve with time. The presented data will help determine if it is possible to establish firm criteria which may be used to reliably diagnose PCOS in adolescents. PMID:24715514

  6. SPARC preserves follicular epithelium integrity in insect ovaries.

    PubMed

    Irles, Paula; Ramos, Saray; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2017-02-15

    The importance of juvenile hormone regulating insect oogenesis suggests looking for genes whose expression is regulated by this hormone. SPARC is a calcium-binding glycoprotein that forms part of the extracellular membranes, which in vertebrates participates in bones mineralization or regulating cell proliferation in some cancer types. This large number of functions described for SPARC in different species might be related to the significant differences in its structure observed when comparing different species-groups. Indeed, these structural differences allow characterizing the different clades. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, a SPARC homolog emerged from ovarian transcriptomes that were constructed to find genes responding to juvenile hormone. In insects, SPARC functions have been studied in oogenesis and in embryo development of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present work, using RNAi approaches, novel functions for SPARC in the B. germanica panoistic ovaries are described. We found that depletion of SPARC does not allow to the follicular cells to complete mitosis, resulting in giant follicular cells nuclei and in a great alteration of the ovarian follicle cytoskeleton. The SPARC contribution to B. germanica oogenesis occurs stabilizing the follicular cell program and helping to maintain the nuclear divisions. Moreover, SPARC is necessary to maintain the cytoskeleton of the follicular cells. Any modification of these key processes disables females for oviposition.

  7. Nesfatin-1 and other hormone alterations in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Rulin; Gurates, Bilgin; Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Husnu; Sahin, Ibrahim; Baykus, Yakup; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Citil, Cihan; Gungor, Sami

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly characterised by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia and hirsutism. Nesfatin-1 a recently discovered hormone, acts upon energy balance, glucose metabolism, obesity and probably gonadal functions. This study was to evaluate the circulating levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with PCOS (n = 30) and in age and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 30). PCOS patients had significantly lower levels of nesfatin-1 (0.88 ± 0.36 ng/mL) than healthy controls (2.22 ± 1.14 ng/mL). PCOS patients also had higher gonadotropin and androgen plasma concentrations, Ferriman-Gallwey scores, blood glucose levels and a homeostasis model of assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR) index than in healthy women. Correlation tests in PCOS subjects detected a negative correlation between nesfatin-1 levels and BMI, fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and a HOMA-IR index. Lower nesfatin-1 concentration may plays a very important role in the development of PCOS.

  8. Insulin sensitizers in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    LE, Trang N; Wickham, Edmond P; Nestler, John E

    2017-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common disorder of androgen excess in women of reproductive age. The diagnosis of PCOS can be more challenging in adolescents than in adult women given significant overlap between normal puberty and the signs of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Optimal treatments for adult women with PCOS vary depending on patient risk factors and reproductive goals, but mainly include hormonal contraception and insulin sensitizers. There is continued interest in targeting the intrinsic insulin resistance that contributes to metabolic and hormonal derangements associated with PCOS. The vast majority of published data on insulin sensitizing PCOS treatments are reported in adult women; these have included weight loss, metformin, thiazolidinediones, and the inositols. Furthermore, there is also a small but growing body of evidence in support of the use of insulin sensitizers in adolescents, with or without oral contraceptives. Discussion of the available treatments, including benefits, potential side effects, and incorporation of patient and family preferences is critical in developing a plan of care aimed at achieving patient-important improvements in PCOS signs and symptoms while addressing the longer-term cardiometabolic risks associated with the syndrome.

  9. Histology of the ovary of Chinchilla lanigera in captivity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Torres-Luque, A; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Bühler, M I

    2014-08-01

    Chinchilla, the lanigera variety in particular, is one of the most valuable rodents in the fur industry. The chinchilla ovary is morphologically similar to that of other South American hystricognath rodents, especially as regards its anatomy and, to a lesser degree, its histology. The presence of numerous primary follicles throughout the annual cycle suggests that a few of them are recruited to initiate growth and differentiation during folliculogenesis. Primary follicles with two or more oocytes are common; this is not the case with follicles at more advanced stages, suggesting that they do not develop. Only one or two large corpora lutea (CL) and three to five small or accessories CL were observed but no corpora albicans. The presence of accessory CL may reflect the importance of continuous hormonal production to support prolonged gestation. Atretic CL were also present, showing signs of degeneration in luteal cells. The interstitial cells distributed throughout the cortex were the main histological feature shared with other species, as stated in previous reports. Antral atresia was observed in all sizes of antral follicles while basal atresia was confined exclusively to smaller follicles.

  10. Stem Cells, Progenitor Cells, and Lineage Decisions in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Russell, Darryl L.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

  11. Stem cells, progenitor cells, and lineage decisions in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E; Russell, Darryl L; Robertson, Sarah A; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-02-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic.

  12. [Identification of NMDA receptor in normal bovine ovary and ovum].

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Naoko; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the pathogenesis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in patients without ovarian teratoma, we investigate normal human ovary, normal bovine ovary and bovine ova. On the basis of immunohistochemical studies, normal human ovary expressed NR2B epitope in primordial oocytes. The results of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using bovine ovarian tissues and ova, we identified two bands of NR1 and NR2B. Moreover, reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry showed peptides fractions of NR1, NR2A, NR2B and NR2C. Immunocytochemical study disclosed that normal bovine oocyte has a strong affinity for a patient's disease-specific IgG. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis involves mainly young women who are in their reproductive age. Ovarian teratoma is important as simultaneous tumor, the percentage of patients with ovarian teratoma is less than 40%. It is obvious that the origin of ovarian teratoma is oocyte. So the existence of NMDAR in normal oocytes is very important to assert that ovary itself is the antigen presenting tissue. And also it is helpful to explain why young women are mainly affected from this disease. It seems to conclude that anti-NMDAR encephalitis is one form of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis and that the antigen presenting tissue is ovary itself.

  13. Vitellogenin levels in hemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae) during the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Lilian E; Medesani, Daniel A; García, C Fernando; Grodzielski, Matías; Rodríguez, Enrique M

    2012-03-01

    The freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is a tropical species of great interest for aquaculture. Vitellogenin (Vg), a lipoprotein precursor of the vitellum accumulated in spawned eggs, can be synthesized in the ovary and/or hepatopancreas of most crustaceans, being the hemolymph the way for transporting Vg throughout the reproductive cycle. Concentration of Vg in hemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas of Cherax quadricarinatus adult females was measured by means of ELISA, specifically developed after purifying the native Vg. Measurements were made at four periods of the reproductive cycle: pre-reproductive, mid-reproductive, late reproductive and post-reproductive. Besides, both hepatosomatic (HSI) and gonadosomatic (GSI) indexes were determined in each period. Significant variations in Vg levels were detected in both hemolymph and hepatopancreas, being the highest values observed during the mid-reproductive period. Besides, such variations were positively correlated to the HSI. A positive correlation between Vg levels in hepatopancreas and ovary was also seen. These results support previous evidences about the central role of the hepatopancreas as a site of Vg synthesis in the studied species, together with the relevancy of hemolymph for transporting Vg from the hepatopancreas to the ovary. For aquaculture purposes, Vg monitoring in hemolymph could be used as a non-injurious method, to check the reproductive activity of C. quadricarinatus females.

  14. The endometrial identity of benign stromatosis of the ovary and its relation to other forms of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hughesdon, P E

    1976-08-01

    A series of 114 ovaries form women aged 20 to 82 showed cortical islands of endometrial stroma in about two-thirds of those over 40. This identity was commonly apparent in ordinary sections and was confirmed in half the affected ovaries by the presence of K cells (endometrial granulocytes) in one or more foci; it may be masked by attenuation or conversion into smooth muscle. The islands show transitional forms to decidual foci and to cortical granulomata and related leucocytic lesions, a few of which also showed K cells: they are ultimately converted into weakly orceinophil hyaline foci which are common in later life and showed K cells in four instances and continuity with stromal islands in 20 ovaries. The lesions appear to arise from the implantation of endometrial stroma into the ovary, the surface of which becomes more cellular and probably more permeable after 40. The islands may foster the development of cortical stromal hyperplasia and their antecedents that of surface epithelial tumours.

  15. The Notch pathway regulates both the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells in the panoistic ovary of Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Irles, Paula; Elshaer, Nashwa; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Its involvement in insect oogenesis has been examined in insect species with meroistic ovaries, and it is known to play a fundamental role in cell fate decisions and the induction of the mitosis-to-endocycle switch in follicular cells (FCs). This work reports the functions of the main components of the Notch pathway (Notch and its ligands Delta and Serrate) during oogenesis in Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal species with panoistic ovary. As is revealed by RNAi-based analyses, Notch and Delta were found to contribute towards maintaining the FCs in an immature, non-apoptotic state. This ancestral function of Notch appears in opposition to the induction of transition from mitosis to endocycle that Notch exerts in Drosophila melanogaster, a change in the Notch function that might be in agreement with the evolution of the insect ovary types. Notch was also shown to play an active role in inducing ovarian follicle elongation via the regulation of the cytoskeleton. In addition, Delta and Notch interactions were seen to determine the differentiation of the posterior population of FCs. Serrate levels were found to be Notch-dependent and are involved in the control of the FC programme, although they would appear to play no crucial role in panoistic ovary oogenesis.

  16. Abscisic acid levels in tomato ovaries are regulated by LeNCED1 and SlCYP707A1.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Lisette Maria Catharina; Oplaat, Carla; Feron, Richard; Ma, Qian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Hedden, Peter; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim Hendrik

    2009-05-01

    Although the hormones, gibberellin and auxin, are known to play a role in the initiation of fruits, no such function has yet been demonstrated for abscisic acid (ABA). However, ABA signaling and ABA responses are high in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) ovaries before pollination and decrease thereafter (Vriezen et al. in New Phytol 177:60-76, 2008). As a first step to understanding the role of ABA in ovary development and fruit set in tomato, we analyzed ABA content and the expression of genes involved in its metabolism in relation to pollination. We show that ABA levels are relatively high in mature ovaries and decrease directly after pollination, while an increase in the ABA metabolite dihydrophaseic acid was measured. An important regulator of ABA biosynthesis in tomato is 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoid dioxygenase (LeNCED1), whose mRNA level in ovaries is reduced after pollination. The increased catabolism is likely caused by strong induction of one of four newly identified putative (+)ABA 8'-hydroxylase genes. This gene was named SlCYP707A1 and is expressed specifically in ovules and placenta. Transgenic plants, overexpressing SlCYP707A1, have reduced ABA levels and exhibit ABA-deficient phenotypes suggesting that this gene encodes a functional ABA 8'-hydroxylase. Gibberellin and auxin application have different effects on the LeNCED1 and SlCYP707A1 gene expression. The crosstalk between auxins, gibberellins and ABA during fruit set is discussed.

  17. Atrazine triggers developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct in quails (Coturnix Coturnix coturnix) via disruption of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Du, Zheng-Hai; Zhu, Shi-Yong; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Nan; Guo, Jing-Ao; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-01

    There has been a gradual increase in production and consumption of atrazine (ATR) in agriculture to meet the population rising demands. Female reproduction is necessary for growth and maintenance of population. However, ATR impact on females and particularly ovarian developmental toxicity is less clear. The aim of this study was to define the pathways by which ATR exerted toxic effects on ovarian development of ovary and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Female quails were dosed by oral gavage from sexual immaturity to maturity with 0, 50, 250 and 500 mg ATR/kg/d for 45 days. ATR had no effect on mortality but depressed feed intake and growth and influenced the biochemical parameters. Notably, the arrested development of ovaries and oviducts were observed in ATR-exposed quails. The circulating concentrations of E2, P, LH and PRL were unregulated and FSH and T was downregulated in ATR-treated quails. The mRNA expression of GnRH in hypothalamo and LH in pituitary and FSH in ovary was downregulated significantly by ATR exposure and FSH and PRL in pituitary were upregulated. ATR exposure upregulated the level of P450scc, P450arom, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD in ovary and downregulated ERβ expression in female quails. However, ATR did not change ERα expression in ovary. This study provides new insights regarding female productive toxicology of ATR exposure. Ovary and oviduct in sexually maturing females were target organs of ATR-induced developmental toxicity. We propose that ATR-induced developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct is associated with disruption of gonadal hormone balance and HPO axis in female quails.

  18. Effect of Cadmium on Cellular Ultrastructure in Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xuejuan; Wang, Yanwu; Fan, Rong; Qiu, Chao; Zhong, Shan; Wei, Lei; Luo, Daji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the cytotoxicity and pathological effects of cadmium on the ovary. Our studies revealed that cadmium was deposited in the mouse ovary after 8 d cadmium injection in vivo. Also, the increase in the rate of body weight was slowed, while the gonadosomatic index was reduced in the CdCl2 group, compared with the control group. Meanwhile, cadmium affected the maturation of follicles, the degradation of corpus luteum, the arrangement of follicles and corpus luteum, and increased the number of atresia follicles. Besides, under the electron microscope, chromatin margination, karopyknosis, swelling of mature cisternae of Golgi apparatus, mitochondrial cristae disappearance, and swelling of the rough endoplasmic reticulum can be observed in the CdCl2 group mice. Collectively, our findings elucidated the morphological mechanism that the exposure of cadmium changed the ultrastructure of cells in ovary tissues.

  19. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert; Chen, Shirley; Akram, Muzaffar; Hummer, Amanda J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeen; Norton, Larry; Tan, Lee K

    2005-11-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary ovarian carcinoma. This problem is often encountered in breast carcinoma patients who develop adnexal masses. ER and PR can be positive in a high percentage of breast and ovarian carcinomas, and therefore cannot be used in the differential diagnosis of these entities. WT1 and CA125 have been identified as possible markers for ovarian cancer. However, no studies have been done that specifically compare the immunophenotype of breast carcinoma metastatic to ovary with that of primary ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine cases of metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary, 36 primary breast carcinomas, and 42 primary ovarian carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of WT1, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC2, MUC1, and GCDFP. The percentage of cells stained and the intensity of staining were recorded. Thirty-two ovarian carcinomas (76%) were positive for WT1, including 31 of 33 (94%) serous carcinomas. Most of them had strong and diffuse staining. None of the breast cancers either primary or metastatic to the ovary expressed WT1. Thirty-eight (90%) ovarian carcinomas were positive for CA125, most of them with strong and diffuse staining. Most breast carcinomas were negative for CA125, with only 6 (16%) of the primary ones and 5 (12%) of the metastatic showing weak and focal positivity. All ovarian carcinomas were negative for GCDFP. Five primary breast cancers (14%) and 17 (43%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for GCDFP. Nine (21%) ovarian carcinomas, 8 (22%) primary breast carcinomas, and 13 (33%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Almost all tumors examined were positive for MUC1 (100% ovarian carcinomas, 100% primary breast carcinomas, and 95% metastatic breast carcinomas to ovary). MUC2 was positive in 10 (24%) ovarian carcinomas, 3 (8%) primary breast cancers, and 12 (30%) metastases to the ovary. The presence of

  20. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Allah Verdi, M; Nikoofar, A

    2006-09-07

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  1. The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

  2. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  3. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  4. Identification of a novel miRNA from the ovine ovary by a combinatorial approach of bioinformatics and experiments

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, Weihua; WANG, Juanhong; TAO, Dayong; ZHANG, Yong; HE, Jianzhong; SHI, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous, single-stranded, non-coding small RNA molecules, about 19–25 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the translation level and influence many physiological process, such apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and occurrence and development of diseases. In this study, we constructed a library from the ovine luteal phase ovary by using next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique) and identified 267 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics. One of the novel miRNAs (ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p), which expressed in the sheep ovary and testis, was confirmed by real time PCR and northern blot. Ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p was 21 nucleotides in length and located on chromosome 12, and it had 100% similarity to hsa-miR-214-3p, mmu-miR-214-3p, dre-miR-214and ssc-miR-214. Meanwhile, the pre-miRNA was 82 nucleotides in length and had a standard hairpin stem-loop structure. From the consistency of the sequence and structure, we speculated that ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p had a function similar to hsa-miR-214-3p, which is involved in the fine regulation of cell survival, embryonic development, breeding activities and resistance to ovarian cancer, so we defined it as oar-miR-214-3p. These experimental results will enrich the miRNA database for ovis aries and provide the basis for researching the regulation mechanism of miRNA in relation to breeding activities of seasonal breeding animals. PMID:26268666

  5. Identification of a novel miRNA from the ovine ovary by a combinatorial approach of bioinformatics and experiments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weihua; Wang, Juanhong; Tao, Dayong; Zhang, Yong; He, Jianzhong; Shi, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous, single-stranded, non-coding small RNA molecules, about 19-25 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the translation level and influence many physiological process, such apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and occurrence and development of diseases. In this study, we constructed a library from the ovine luteal phase ovary by using next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique) and identified 267 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics. One of the novel miRNAs (ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p), which expressed in the sheep ovary and testis, was confirmed by real time PCR and northern blot. Ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p was 21 nucleotides in length and located on chromosome 12, and it had 100% similarity to hsa-miR-214-3p, mmu-miR-214-3p, dre-miR-214and ssc-miR-214. Meanwhile, the pre-miRNA was 82 nucleotides in length and had a standard hairpin stem-loop structure. From the consistency of the sequence and structure, we speculated that ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p had a function similar to hsa-miR-214-3p, which is involved in the fine regulation of cell survival, embryonic development, breeding activities and resistance to ovarian cancer, so we defined it as oar-miR-214-3p. These experimental results will enrich the miRNA database for ovis aries and provide the basis for researching the regulation mechanism of miRNA in relation to breeding activities of seasonal breeding animals.

  6. DNA methylation level of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 gene related to their expression patterns and reproduction traits during ovary development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Si, Yufeng; Ding, Yuxia; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Zhao, Junli; Huang, Zhengju

    2016-01-10

    Foxl2 and cyp19a1a genes are crucial for the ovarian development, and Foxl2 could play a direct regulatory role on cyp19a1a transcription. In this study, we aimed to study DNA methylation status and mRNA expression patterns of Foxl2 and cyp19a1a genes during ovarian development of female Japanese flounder. The relative expression level of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 gene during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Moreover, DNA methylation status in the promoter and coding regions of the two genes was detected by bisulfite sequencing. The estradiol-17β (E2) was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed low expression levels of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 genes in stages II and V, while the highest expression levels were detected in stage IV. The variation trend of the methylation level of all CpG sites in promoter and exon 1 of cyp19a1a gene and three CpG rich regions in coding region of Foxl2 gene was negatively associated with their expression levels during the ovarian development. In addition, two CpG sites in promoter and seven CpG sites in exon 1 of cyp19a1a were on the putative transcription factors binding sequence. Further studies showed that the forkhead domain, which is important for Foxl2 binding to cyp19a1a was located in the F1 and F2 region. These results provide a powerful theoretical basis for the regulatory mechanism on Foxl2 regulating cyp19a1a and promoting gonadal differentiation towards the female pathway, and further reveal that Foxl2 and cyp19a1a play a vital role in the female Japanese flounder gonad development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 115 ROLE OF THE OVARY AND UTERUS FOR THE PLAINS VISCACHA (LAGOSTOMUS MAXIMUS MAXIMUS, CHINCHILLIDAE) REPRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Favaron, P O; Flamini, M A; Mess, A M; Barreto, R N; Simões, L S; Sasahara, T H; Barbeito, C G; Romagnoli, P; Miglino, M A

    2016-01-01

    A dogma of mammalian reproduction states that primordial germ cells in females are restricted to the intrauterine phase and only small portions of oocytes are available for ovulation during the adult life. Among the rare exceptions to this rule is the plains viscacha. It polyovulates up to 800 oocytes per cycle, from which 10 to 12 are implanted, but only 1 to 2 conceptuses survive. To better understand the main mechanisms involved in these patterns of super-ovulation, super-implantation, and embryonic loss in the viscacha, we conducted an analysis of the ovary and uterus of pregnant females and their conceptuses. Pregnant females (n=16) of ~50 and 90 days of gestation (early to mid-gestation) were selected for conceptus recovery. Hemi-ovariohysterectomy was performed following surgical and anaesthetic protocols used for laboratory animals and the conceptuses collected. Female fetuses of Day 50 (n=2) and 90 (n=1) of gestation were obtained from Estación de Cría de Animales Silvestres, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The reproductive organs were investigated by means of gross morphology, histology (hematoxilin and eosin), stereology (quantification of the volume of the ovary and number of ovary follicles), immunohistochemistry (PCNA, Oct-4, VEGF, and Caspase-3), and transmission electron microscopy. In the Day 50 fetal samples, the ovaries had an ovoid shape with smooth surface without apparent folds. First steps of subdivision were observed in the ovary of fetus of 90 days. The total volume of all fetal ovaries was of 4.8mm(2) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.32. The ovaries of adult individuals had remarkable invaginations with surface projections and were small, asymmetrical, and dorsoventrally flattened with a mean of 77.6mm(3) (CV=0.47). Only adult females had differentiation of germ cells. Primordial follicles had a mean of 9.9×10(5) (CV=0.19), representing 93% of the total number of ovarian follicles. The mean of primary follicles was 3.05×10(4) (CV=0

  8. Is polycystic ovary syndrome a sexual conflict? A review.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to explain the high overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among women worldwide (about 4-10%) despite its link to subfertile phenotypes. For this reason, it is considered an evolutionary paradox. In this review, we show that several genetic loci associated with the disease differently modulate the reproductive parameters of men and women. This observation suggests that such genetic variants lead to opposite effects in the two sexes in reproductive success. Intralocus sexual conflict as a cause of the persistence polycystic ovary syndrome genotypes among humans is supported.

  9. Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

  10. Borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tan, Raelene Ym; Grigg, Jasmin; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2017-09-01

    This review examines the existing evidence for the relationship between borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome, and to identify commonalities in etiological mechanisms of borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome that might explain the relationship between these seemingly disparate disorders. A search of Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Central was undertaken on 5 December 2016 to identify studies investigating women with borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome (or symptoms and markers specific to polycystic ovary syndrome). Nine studies were identified, including three cross-sectional studies investigating symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome in women with borderline personality disorder, two cross-sectional and one cohort study examining the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and three case reports of comorbid borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome. Overall, the literature shows women with borderline personality disorder to have higher than expected serum androgen levels and incidence of polycystic ovaries, which can be key features of polycystic ovary syndrome. However, this research is still in its infancy, which limits our understanding of this potential comorbid phenomenon. Given the emerging anecdotal and empirical evidence to date, a theoretical discussion of the potential psychoneuroendocrinological mechanism underlying the borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome comorbidity is provided. Further rigorous studies using standardized diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome are warranted. Specifically, the use of prospective controlled cohort studies may be able to determine the causality and temporality of observed comorbid borderline personality disorder and polycystic ovary syndrome.

  11. Mechanisms in endocrinology: thyroid and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja; Schwetz, Verena; Pieber, Thomas; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disorders, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are closely associated, based on a number of studies showing a significantly higher prevalence of HT in women with PCOS than in controls. However, the mechanisms of this association are not as clear. Certainly, genetic susceptibility contributes an important part to the development of HT and PCOS. However, a common genetic background has not yet been established. Polymorphisms of the PCOS-related gene for fibrillin 3 (FBN3) could be involved in the pathogenesis of HT and PCOS. Fibrillins influence the activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Multifunctional TGFβ is also a key regulator of immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are known to inhibit excessive immune response. With lower TGFβ and Treg levels, the autoimmune processes, well known in HT and assumed in PCOS, might develop. In fact, lower levels of TGFβ1 were found in HT as well as in PCOS women carrying allele 8 of D19S884 in the FBN3 gene. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency was shown to decrease Tregs. Finally, high estrogen-to-progesterone ratio owing to anovulatory cycles in PCOS women could enhance the immune response. Harmful metabolic and reproductive effects were shown to be more pronounced in women with HT and PCOS when compared with women with HT alone or with controls. In conclusion, HT and PCOS are associated not only with respect to their prevalence, but also with regard to etiology and clinical consequences. However, a possible crosstalk of this association is yet to be elucidated.

  12. Expressed sequence-tag analysis of ovaries of Brachiaria brizantha reveals genes associated with the early steps of embryo sac differentiation of apomictic plants.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erica Duarte; Guimarães, Larissa Arrais; de Alencar Dusi, Diva Maria; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Martins, Natália Florencio; do Carmo Costa, Marcos Mota; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; de Campos Carneiro, Vera Tavares

    2012-02-01

    In apomixis, asexual mode of plant reproduction through seeds, an unreduced megagametophyte is formed due to circumvented or altered meiosis. The embryo develops autonomously from the unreduced egg cell, independently of fertilization. Brachiaria is a genus of tropical forage grasses that reproduces sexually or by apomixis. A limited number of studies have reported the sequencing of apomixis-related genes and a few Brachiaria sequences have been deposited at genebank databases. This work shows sequencing and expression analyses of expressed sequence-tags (ESTs) of Brachiaria genus and points to transcripts from ovaries with preferential expression at megasporogenesis in apomictic plants. From the 11 differentially expressed sequences from immature ovaries of sexual and apomictic Brachiaria brizantha obtained from macroarray analysis, 9 were preferentially detected in ovaries of apomicts, as confirmed by RT-qPCR. A putative involvement in early steps of Panicum-type embryo sac differentiation of four sequences from B. brizantha ovaries: BbrizHelic, BbrizRan, BbrizSec13 and BbrizSti1 is suggested. Two of these, BbrizSti1 and BbrizHelic, with similarity to a gene coding to stress induced protein and a helicase, respectively, are preferentially expressed in the early stages of apomictic ovaries development, especially in the nucellus, in a stage previous to the differentiation of aposporous initials, as verified by in situ hybridization.

  13. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  14. Cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) in the hen ovary. I. Regulation of P450scc messenger RNA levels and steroidogenesis in theca cells of developing follicles.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, K I; Tilly, J L; Johnson, A L

    1991-12-01

    We have recently shown that granulosa cells from hen ovarian follicles, collected at a stage of development 2-3 wk prior to ovulation (e.g. 6-8 mm in diameter) are steroidogenically inactive. Therefore, the hypothesis tested in the present studies was that theca cells from follicles at this stage of development must contain sufficient levels of functional cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme to produce the progestin precursor required for the synthesis of androgens and estrogens. Northern blot analysis of total theca RNA collected from 6-8-mm follicles indicated the presence of a single P450scc mRNA transcript of approximately 2 kb whose expression was increased following an 8-h preincubation with 200 ng/ml ovine LH (oLH) or 10 microM forskolin. Western blot analysis of crude mitochondrial protein revealed a band of immunoreactive P450scc protein of approximately 53 kDa that was determined to be capable of converting 25-hydroxycholesterol to pregnenolone in a cell-free system. In the second set of studies, conducted to examine the cellular regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated theca cells of 6-8-mm follicles, theca cells were found to produce measurable basal levels of cAMP, progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol following a 3-h incubation of 5 x 10(5) cells. Furthermore, significant dose-dependent increases in steroidogenesis were observed in response to oLH (0.2-200 ng/ml), chicken FSH (cFSH; 20-200 ng/ml), cholera toxin (0.002-20 ng/ml), and 8-bromo-cAMP (0.1-3.33 mM). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10-167 nM) also stimulated dose-dependent increases in basal progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol production. In addition, while PMA had no effect on oLH (200 ng/ml)-promoted cAMP accumulation, or on oLH (20 ng/ml)- or 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM)-stimulated progesterone production, it attenuated oLH-induced and 8-bromo-cAMP-induced androstenedione and estradiol accumulation. We conclude that theca cells from 6-8-mm follicles possess m

  15. Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Zhou, Changqing; Rattan, Saniya; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are found abundantly in the environment, resulting in daily human exposure. This is of concern because many EDCs are known to target the female reproductive system and, more specifically, the ovary. In the female, the ovary is the key organ responsible for reproductive and endocrine functions. Exposure to EDCs is known to cause many reproductive health problems such as infertility, premature ovarian failure, and abnormal sex steroid hormone levels. Some EDCs and their effects on adult ovarian function have been studied extensively over the years, whereas the effects of others remain unclear. This review covers what is currently known about the effects of selected EDCs (bisphenol A, methoxychlor, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, phthalates, and genistein) on the adult ovary and the mechanisms by which they act upon the ovary, focusing primarily on their effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Furthermore, this review discusses future directions needed to better understand the effects of EDCs, including the need to examine the effects of multiple and more consistent doses and to study different mechanisms of action. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  16. Ectopic ovary with torsion: uncommon diagnosis made by ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Adham do Amaral e; Morandini, Fernando; Calixto, Caroline Paludo; Barros, Wagner Haese; Nakatani, Edson Tetsuya; Castro, Allan do Amaral e

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important diagnostic tool in inguinal hernia and in the evaluation of the contents of the hernia sac. This report presents a case in which ultrasound revealed a herniated ectopic ovary, complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle, in the right labia majora. We also present a brief discussion of ovarian hernia, its potential complications, and the treatments available. PMID:28298734

  17. Ectopic ovary with torsion: uncommon diagnosis made by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Castro, Adham do Amaral E; Morandini, Fernando; Calixto, Caroline Paludo; Barros, Wagner Haese; Nakatani, Edson Tetsuya; Castro, Allan do Amaral E

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important diagnostic tool in inguinal hernia and in the evaluation of the contents of the hernia sac. This report presents a case in which ultrasound revealed a herniated ectopic ovary, complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle, in the right labia majora. We also present a brief discussion of ovarian hernia, its potential complications, and the treatments available.

  18. The effects of polycystic ovary syndrome on gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aktun, Hale Lebriz; Yorgunlar, Betul; Acet, Mustafa; Aygun, Banu Kumbak; Karaca, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the inter-relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes mellitus, and demonstrate maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a case-control study in 1360 pregnant women who received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age. Among all diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, 150 pregnant women had received a polycystic ovary syndrome, and 160 women who did not have polycystic ovary syndrome were designated as controls. The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was 26.3% and 12% in the case and control groups, respectively. Preeclampsia was seen at an incidence of 12% and 6% in case and in control groups, respectively. The difference in neonatal hypoglycemia between the two groups was statistically significant, with an incidence of 17% and 5% in the case and in control groups, respectively. This study demonstrated that the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome along with gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension by 2.4 fold, preeclampsia by 2 fold and neonatal hypoglycemia by 3.2 fold, compared to gestational diabetes mellitus alone.

  19. Mutation Detection in an Antibody-Producing Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line by Targeted RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siyan; Hughes, Jason D.; Murgolo, Nicholas; Levitan, Diane; Chen, Janice; Liu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been used widely in the pharmaceutical industry for production of biological therapeutics including monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The integrity of the gene of interest and the accuracy of the relay of genetic information impact product quality and patient safety. Here we employed next-generation sequencing, particularly RNA-seq, and developed a method to systematically analyze the mutation rate of the mRNA of CHO cell lines producing a mAb. The effect of an extended culturing period to mimic the scale of cell expansion in a manufacturing process and varying selection pressure in the cell culture were also closely examined. PMID:27088091

  20. Clinical evaluation of a confocal microendoscope system for imaging the ovary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Sampliner, Richard E.; Udovich, Josh A.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a mobile confocal microendoscope system that provides live cellular imaging during surgery to aid in diagnosing microscopic abnormalities including cancer. We present initial clinical trial results using the device to image ovaries in-vivo using fluorescein and ex-vivo results using acridine orange. The imaging catheter has improved depth control and localized dye delivery mechanisms than previously presented. A manual control now provides a simple way for the surgeon to adjust and optimize imaging depth during the procedure while a tiny piezo valve in the imaging catheter controls the dye delivery.

  1. Adenocarcinoma arising from the gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Fishman, A; Edelstein, E; Altaras, M; Beyth, Y; Bernheim, J

    1998-09-01

    Malignant transformation of benign cystic teratoma of the ovary is rare, with an incidence of 1.8%. The commonest malignant neoplasm to develop is squamous carcinoma (80%). Adenocarcinoma occurs with less frequency, and only one of which has ever been cited to be of gastrointestinal origin. A 38-year-old female underwent TAH-BSO due to a large right ovarian tumor. Microscopically and immunohistochemically, the tumor was defined as mucinous adenocarcinoma originating from gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome, personality, and depression: A twin study.

    PubMed

    Cesta, Carolyn E; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Lehto, Kelli; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Landén, Mikael

    2017-08-10

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at elevated risk for suffering from depression. Neuroticism is a personality trait that has been associated with an increased risk for developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to quantify and decompose the correlation between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD into shared and unique genetic and environmental etiologies, by using quantitative genetic methods. In a cohort of 12,628 Swedish female twins born from 1959 to 1985, neuroticism, PCOS identified by symptoms of hyperandrogenemia (i.e., hirsutism) and oligo- and/or anovulation, and lifetime MDD status were determined through questionnaire responses. Structural equation modeling was used to study the genetic and environmental sources of the variation within, and covariation between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD. Female twins with PCOS (n=752) had significantly higher levels of neuroticism than women without PCOS, and a 2-fold increase in odds for a lifetime prevalence of MDD. The phenotypic correlation between PCOS and MDD was 0.19, with 63% of the correlation attributable to common genetic factors between the two traits. When taking into account neuroticism, 41% was attributable to common genetic factors and 9% attributable to common environmental factors shared between all three traits, with the remainder attributable to components unique to PCOS and MDD. There are common genetic factors between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD; however, neuroticism shares approximately half of th