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Sample records for pre-anthesis ovary development

  1. Genetic variation for the duration of pre-anthesis development in durum wheat and its interaction with vernalization treatment and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Gavino; Giunta, Francesco; Motzo, Rosella; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-07-01

    A recombinant inbred durum wheat population was grown under three contrasting regimes: long days following vernalization (LDV), long days without vernalization (LD), and short days following vernalization (SDV). The length of several pre-anthesis stages and the number of leaves and the phyllochron were measured. Different groups of genes were involved in determining the phenology in the three treatments, as demonstrated by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. The length of the period required to reach the terminal spikelet stage was correlated with the time to anthesis only in the case of LDV- and LD-grown plants where the timing of anthesis depended on the final leaf number. However, for SDV-grown plants, anthesis date was more dependent on the length of the period between the terminal spikelet stage and anthesis and was independent of leaf number. The involvement of the phyllochron in determining the duration of pre-anthesis development was also treatment-dependent. QTL mapping of the various flowering time associated traits uncovered some novel loci (such as those associated with the phyllochron), in addition to confirming the presence of several well-established loci.

  2. Pre-Anthesis Reserve Utilization for Protein and Carbohydrate Synthesis in Grains of Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Gebbing, Thomas; Schnyder, Hans

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the contribution of pre-anthesis reserve C to protein and carbohydrate deposition in grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using a new approach comprised of steady-state 13C/12C labeling and separation of the protein and carbohydrate fractions of mature grains. Experiments were performed with two spring wheat cultivars (Kadett and Star) grown with differential N fertilizer supply over 2 years. Pre-anthesis reserves contributed between 30% and 47% of the C in protein and 8% to 27% of the C in carbohydrates of grains. Partitioning of pre-anthesis C among the grain fractions was strongly dependent on the C/N (w/w) ratio in mobilized pre-anthesis biomass (r2 = 0.92). There appeared to be no significant exchange of pre-anthesis C between amino acids and carbohydrates during redistribution. The mean apparent efficiency of mobilized carbohydrate-C use in grain filling (MECHO, estimated as the mass of pre-anthesis C deposited in grain carbohydrates per gram of pre-anthesis C mobilized from carbohydrates in vegetative plant parts) was 0.72, whereas that of protein-C (MEP) was 0.56. However, MEP and MECHO varied among treatments. MECHO increased with increasing contributions of water-soluble carbohydrates to total pre-anthesis carbohydrate mobilization. MEP decreased with increasing residence time of protein in vegetative biomass. Possible causes for variability of MEP and MECHO are discussed. PMID:10557235

  3. Genetic dissection of photoperiod response based on GWAS of pre-anthesis phase duration in spring barley.

    PubMed

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Sharma, Rajiv; Pasam, Raj K; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Heading time is a complex trait, and natural variation in photoperiod responses is a major factor controlling time to heading, adaptation and grain yield. In barley, previous heading time studies have been mainly conducted under field conditions to measure total days to heading. We followed a novel approach and studied the natural variation of time to heading in a world-wide spring barley collection (218 accessions), comprising of 95 photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) and 123 accessions with reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1) to long-day (LD) through dissecting pre-anthesis development into four major stages and sub-phases. The study was conducted under greenhouse (GH) conditions (LD; 16/8 h; ∼20/∼16°C day/night). Genotyping was performed using a genome-wide high density 9K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chip which assayed 7842 SNPs. We used the barley physical map to identify candidate genes underlying genome-wide association scans (GWAS). GWAS for pre-anthesis stages/sub-phases in each photoperiod group provided great power for partitioning genetic effects on floral initiation and heading time. In addition to major genes known to regulate heading time under field conditions, several novel QTL with medium to high effects, including new QTL having major effects on developmental stages/sub-phases were found to be associated in this study. For example, highly associated SNPs tagged the physical regions around HvCO1 (barley CONSTANS1) and BFL (BARLEY FLORICAULA/LEAFY) genes. Based upon our GWAS analysis, we propose a new genetic network model for each photoperiod group, which includes several newly identified genes, such as several HvCO-like genes, belonging to different heading time pathways in barley.

  4. Development of mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2014-06-01

    Pre-natal and early post-natal ovarian development has become a field of increasing importance over recent years. The full effects of perturbations of ovarian development on adult fertility, through environmental changes or genetic anomalies, are only now being truly appreciated. Mitigation of these perturbations requires an understanding of the processes involved in the development of the ovary. Herein, we review some recent findings from mice, sheep, and cattle on the key events involved in ovarian development. We discuss the key process of germ cell migration, ovigerous cord formation, meiosis, and follicle formation and activation. We also review the key contributions of mesonephric cells to ovarian development and propose roles for these cells. Finally, we discuss polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, and pre-natal undernutrition; three key areas in which perturbations to ovarian development appear to have major effects on post-natal fertility.

  5. Exogenous application of putrescine at pre-anthesis enhances the thermotolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Sharma, Sushil K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Khushboo; Choudhury, Madhumanthi; Dhawan Gaurav; Singh, Gyaneshwar P; Goswami, Suneha; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Raj D

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, besides being involved in various developmental processes, are known to be important for environmental stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the effect of treatment of 2.5 mM putrescine (Put), heat stress (HS -42 degrees C for 2 h) and their combination on the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes was studied at pre-anthesis in the leaves of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars--HDR77 (thermotolerant) and HD2329 (thermosusceptible). We observed that 2.5 mM Put before HS significantly enhanced the transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cytoplasmic and peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX, pAPX) in both the cultivars. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR), as well as accumulation of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and total thiol content) were higher in HDR77 than in HD2329 in response to the treatment 2.5 mM Put + HS. No significant change was observed in the proline accumulation in response to HS and combined treatment of 2.5 mM Put + HS. A decrease in the H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increase in cell membrane stability (CMS) were observed in response to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment, as compared to HS treatment alone in both the cultivars; HDR77 was, however, more responsive to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment. Put (2.5 mM) treatment at pre-anthesis thus modulated the defense mechanism responsible for the thermotolerance capacity of wheat under the heat stress. Elicitors like Put, therefore, need to be further studied for temporarily manipulating the thermotolerance capacity of wheat grown under the field conditions in view of the impending global climate change.

  6. Wheat floret survival as related to pre-anthesis spike growth.

    PubMed

    González, Fernanda G; Miralles, Daniel J; Slafer, Gustavo A

    2011-10-01

    Further improvements to wheat yield potential will be essential to meet future food demand. As yield is related to the number of fertile florets and grains, an understanding of the basis of their generation is instrumental to raising yield. Based on (i) a strong positive association between the number of fertile florets or grains and spike dry weight at anthesis; and (ii) the finding that floret death occurs when spikes grow at maximum rate, it was always assumed that floret survival depends on the growth of the spike. However, this assumption was recently questioned, suggesting that assimilates diverted to the spike do not determine the number of florets and grains and that the onset of floret death may instead be a developmental process that is not associated with spike growth. In this study, the relationships between the fate of floret primordia and spike growth from six independent experiments that included different growing conditions (greenhouse/field experiments, growing seasons, photoperiod/shading treatments during the floret primordia phase) and diverse cultivar types (winter/spring, semi-dwarf/standard-height, photoperiod sensitive/insensitive) were re-analysed together. Onset of floret death was associated with the beginning of spike growth at the maximum rate in c. 80% of the cases analysed; and the rate of floret death (the main determinant of floret survival) showed a negative quantitative relationship with spike weight at anthesis. As floret death and survival were shown to be linked to pre-anthesis spike growth, the strategy of focusing on traits associated with pre-anthesis spike growth when breeding to increase wheat yield potential further is valuable.

  7. Modelling Wheat Growth and Yield Losses from Late Epidemics of Foliar Diseases using Loss of Green Leaf Area per Layer and Pre-anthesis Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Robert, Corinne; Ney, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crop protection strategies, based on preventing quantitative crop losses rather than pest outbreaks, are being developed as a promising way to reduce fungicide use. The Bastiaans' model was applied to winter wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB; Mycosphaerella graminicola) under a range of crop management conditions. This study examined (a) whether green leaf area per layer accurately accounts for growth loss; and (b) whether from growth loss it is possible to derive yield loss accurately and simply. Methods Over 5 years of field experiments, numerous green leaf area dynamics were analysed during the post-anthesis period on wheat crops using natural aerial epidemics of leaf rust and STB. Key Results When radiation use efficiency (RUE) was derived from bulk green leaf area index (GLAI), RUEbulk was hardly accurate and exhibited large variations among diseased wheat crops, thus extending outside the biological range. In contrast, when RUE was derived from GLAI loss per layer, RUElayer was a more accurate calculation and fell within the biological range. In one situation out of 13, no significant shift in the RUElayer of diseased crops vs. healthy crops was observed. A single linear relationship linked yield to post-anthesis accumulated growth for all treatments. Its slope, not different from 1, suggests that the allocation of post-anthesis photosynthates to grains was not affected by the late occurring diseases under study. The mobilization of pre-anthesis reserves completely accounted for the intercept value. Conclusions The results strongly suggest that a simple model based on green leaf area per layer and pre-anthesis reserves can predict both growth and yield of wheat suffering from late epidemics of foliar diseases over a range of crop practices. It could help in better understanding how crop structure and reserve management contribute to tolerance of wheat genotypes to

  8. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  9. Pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation alleviates damage to the flag leaf caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation on leaf physiology of winter wheat in response to post-anthesis heat stress. The results showed that both pre- and post-anthesis heat stresses significantly depressed flag leaf photosynthesis and enhanced cell membrane peroxidation, as exemplified by increased O₂⁻(·) production rate and reduction in activities of antioxiditave enzymes. However, under post-anthesis heat stress, plants with pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation (HH) showed much higher photosynthetic rates than those without pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation (CH). Leaves of HH plants exhibited a higher Chl a/b ratio and lower chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio and superoxide anion radical release rate compared with those of the CH plants. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities in HH plants were significantly higher than in CH. Coincidently, expressions of photosythesis-responsive gene encoding Rubisco activase B (RcaB) and antioxidant enzyme-related genes encoding mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and cytosolic glutathione reductase (GR) were all up-regulated under HH, whereas a gene encoding a major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab) was up-regulated by post-anthesis heat stress at 10 DAA, but was down-regulated at 13 DAA. The changes in the expression levels of the HH plants were more pronounced than those for the CH. Collectively, the results indicated that pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation could effectively alleviate the photosynthetic and oxidative damage caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat flag leaves, which was partially attributable to modifications in the expression of the photosythesis-responsive and antioxidant enzymes-related genes.

  10. Genotypic variation in spike fertility traits and ovary size as determinants of floret and grain survival rate in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zifeng; Slafer, Gustavo A; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Spike fertility traits are critical attributes for grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we examine the genotypic variation in three important traits: maximum number of floret primordia, number of fertile florets, and number of grains. We determine their relationship in determining spike fertility in 30 genotypes grown under two contrasting conditions: field and greenhouse. The maximum number of floret primordia per spikelet (MFS), fertile florets per spikelet (FFS), and number of grains per spikelet (GS) not only exhibited large genotypic variation in both growth conditions and across all spikelet positions studied, but also displayed moderate levels of heritability. FFS was closely associated with floret survival and only weakly related to MFS. We also found that the post-anthesis process of grain set/abortion was important in determining genotypic variation in GS; an increase in GS was mainly associated with improved grain survival. Ovary size at anthesis was associated with both floret survival (pre-anthesis) and grain survival (post-anthesis), and was thus believed to ‘connect’ the two traits. In this work, proximal florets (i.e. the first three florets from the base of a spikelet: F1, F2, and F3) produced fertile florets and set grains in most cases. The ovary size of more distal florets (F4 and beyond) seemed to act as a decisive factor for grain setting and effectively reflected pre-anthesis floret development. In both growth conditions, GS positively correlated with ovary size of florets in the distal position (F4), suggesting that assimilates allocated to distal florets may play a critical role in regulating grain set. PMID:27279276

  11. The gene pat-2, which induces natural parthenocarpy, alters the gibberellin content in unpollinated tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, M; Nuez, F; García-Martínez, J L

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA(3) application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA(3). Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA(3). The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(1), GA(3), GA(8), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(44), GA(53), and, tentatively, GA(81)) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(9) and GA(34)) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA(20) content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA(19) content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA(20) is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA(20), the precursor of an active GA.

  12. Posthatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Hamlin, Heather J; Botteri, Nicole L; Lawler, Ashley N; Mathavan, Ketan K; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-05-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first 5 months posthatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we used histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in 1-week, 1-month, 3-month, and 5-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff's (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS reactivity. We observed putative intersex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed "medullary rests" resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared with previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological

  13. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  14. Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

  15. The structure of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during development.

    PubMed

    Hułas, M; Gawron, A

    2002-01-01

    The study presents the structure of the ovaries of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) during the first months of life. The ovaries in neonate females exhibit a large number of primordial and primary follicles, sometimes clustered in nests. The growing follicles were also observed within the ovary at that period. The first, early antral follicles appeared in the ovary during the second week of life. In the group of 60-day old females, the structure of the ovaries was characterized by a significant increase in the connective tissue elements. Moreover, ovarian follicles at various stages of development were observed, except for the antral ones with cumulus oophorus. The first mature follicles were identified in 3-month old females. In the ovarian follicles, apoptosis occurs at all stages of follicle development, especially in the early antral follicles. In the atretic follicles, apoptotic cells were identified in the layer of granulosa cells.

  16. Ovary starch reserves and pistil development in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, M Librada; Hormaza, J Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2010-12-01

    In avocado, only a very small fraction of the flowers are able to set fruit. Previous work in other woody perennial plant species has shown the importance of carbohydrates accumulated in the flower in the reproductive process. Thus, in order to explore the implications of the nutritive status of the flower in the reproductive process in avocado, the starch content in the pistil has been examined in individual pollinated and non-pollinated flowers at anthesis and during the days following anthesis. Starch content in different pistilar tissues in each flower was quantified with the help of an image analysis system attached to a microscope. Flowers at anthesis were rich in highly compartmentalized starch. Although no external morphological differences could be observed among flowers, the starch content varied widely at flower opening. Starch content in the ovary is largely independent of flower size because these differences were not correlated with ovary size. Differences in the progress of starch accumulation within the ovule integuments between pollinated and non-pollinated flowers occurred concomitantly with the triggering of the progamic phase. The results suggest that starch reserves in the ovary could play a significant role in the reproductive process in avocado.

  17. Involvement of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in follicle development in the fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Hryhorskyj, Lynn; Tremewan, Hannah; Hogg, Kirsten; Thomson, Axel A; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2010-02-01

    In humans and domestic mammals, pivotal processes in ovary development, including primordial follicle assembly, occur prenatally. These events are essential for determining fertility in adult life; however, they remain poorly understood at the mechanistic level. In mammals, the SLITs (SLIT1, SLIT2 and SLIT3) and their ROBO (ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3/RIG-1 and ROBO4/MAGIC ROBO) receptors regulate neural, leukocyte, vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell migration. In addition, the SLIT/ROBO pathway has functional roles in embryonic development and in the adult ovary by inhibiting cell migration and promoting apoptosis. We therefore characterised follicle formation and investigated the expression and localisation of the ROBO/SLIT pathway in the ovine fetal ovary. Using RT-PCR, we identified SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ROBO4 in sheep ovaries harvested across gestation. The real-time quantitative PCR results implied that ROBO2 expression and ROBO4 expression were elevated during the early stages of follicle formation and stayed abundant during primordial follicle maturation (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry examination demonstrated that ROBO1 was localised to the pre-granulosa cells, while ROBO2, ROBO4 and SLIT2 were expressed in the oocytes of the developing primordial follicle. This indicates that in the fetal ovary, SLIT-ROBO signalling may require an autocrine and paracrine interaction. Furthermore, at the time of increased SLIT-ROBO expression, there was a significant reduction in the number of proliferating oocytes in the developing ovary (P<0.0001). Overall, these results suggest, for the first time, that the SLIT-ROBO pathway is expressed at the time of follicle formation during fetal ovary development.

  18. Postnatal ovary development in the rat: morphologic study and correlation of morphology to neuroendocrine parameters.

    PubMed

    Picut, Catherine A; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L; Stump, Donald G; Parker, George A; Remick, Amera K

    2015-04-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0-7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of "atypical" follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8-14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15-20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their "atypical" appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21-32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33-37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat.

  19. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction. PMID:26262609

  20. Postnatal Ovary Development in the Rat: Morphologic Study and Correlation of Morphology to Neuroendocrine Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Picut, Catherine A.; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L.; Stump, Donald G.; Parker, George A.; Remick, Amera K.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0–7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of “atypical” follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8–14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15–20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their “atypical” appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21–32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33–37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat. PMID:25107574

  1. Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor γ (mPRγ) and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPRγ was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-α was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-α content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds.

  2. Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N.

    1995-03-01

    The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight.

  4. Yolk proteins during ovary and egg development of mature female freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Vitellins from ovaries and eggs at different stages of development in freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were examined by chromatography, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. With these methods, two forms of vitellin (Vt1 and Vt2) were observed in ovaries and eggs (stages I and V). In ovaries in secondary vitellogenesis, native molecular mass was 470 (Vt1) and 440 (Vt2) kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the eggs proved to be more complex. The protein molecular mass depend on the development stage of the egg: stage I, 650 kDa (Vt1) and 440 kDa (Vt2); stage V, 390 kDa (Vt1) and 340 kDa (Vt2). The identified vitellins appear to be lipo-glycocarotenoprotein. A similar vitellin polypeptide composition was observed in the two forms of vitellin from ovaries and eggs in stage V. In ovaries the SDS-PAGE analysis showed four subunits with molecular weights of approximately 180, 120, 95 and 80 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2). The polypeptide composition in the two forms of vitellins in stage I and stage III eggs were different at 195, 190, 130 and 110 kDa (Vt1) and 116 and 107 kDa (Vt2). On the other hand, in stage V eggs, 110, 95, 87 and 75 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2) were identified. Two antibodies (Ab1 and Ab2) were prepared against the purified proteins of stage V eggs and their specificity was demonstrated by radial immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting analysis. Two forms of vitellins were also found in stage V eggs after chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B column and hydroxylapatite and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  5. Neuroendocrine androgen action is a key extraovarian mediator in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Aimee S L; Edwards, Melissa C; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Gilchrist, Robert B; Handelsman, David J; Walters, Kirsty A

    2017-03-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder characterized by reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities. As the origins of PCOS remain unknown, mechanism-based treatments are not feasible and current management relies on treatment of symptoms. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent PCOS characteristic; however, it is unclear whether androgen excess, which is treatable, is a cause or a consequence of PCOS. As androgens mediate their actions via the androgen receptor (AR), we combined a mouse model of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PCOS with global and cell-specific AR-resistant (ARKO) mice to investigate the locus of androgen actions that mediate the development of the PCOS phenotype. Global loss of the AR reveals that AR signaling is required for all DHT-induced features of PCOS. Neuron-specific AR signaling was required for the development of dysfunctional ovulation, classic polycystic ovaries, reduced large antral follicle health, and several metabolic traits including obesity and dyslipidemia. In addition, ovariectomized ARKO hosts with wild-type ovary transplants displayed normal estrous cycles and corpora lutea, despite DHT treatment, implying extraovarian and not intraovarian AR actions are key loci of androgen action in generating the PCOS phenotype. These findings provide strong evidence that neuroendocrine genomic AR signaling is an important extraovarian mediator in the development of PCOS traits. Thus, targeting AR-driven mechanisms that initiate PCOS is a promising strategy for the development of novel treatments for PCOS.

  6. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (< 1200 Da) cytosolic materials. These channels are a growing family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hormonal regulation of early follicle development in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, A J; McGee, E A; Hayashi, M; Hsu, S Y

    2000-05-25

    Although earlier studies focused on the hormonal regulation of antral and preovulatory follicles, recent studies indicate the importance of the hormonal control mechanism for preantral follicles. The endocrine hormone FSH is not only a survival factor for early antral follicles but also a potent growth and differentiation factor for preantral follicles. In addition, KGF secreted by theca cells and c-kit ligand secreted by granulosa cells play paracrine roles in the regulation of preantral follicle growth and development. Furthermore oocyte-derived GDF-9 promotes the growth and differentiation of early follicles by acting on somatic cells in the follicle. It is likely that the genetic makeup of an oocyte could determine the secretion of oocyte hormones which would, in turn, regulate the growth and differentiation of the surrounding somatic cells of that follicle. A better understanding of the hormonal mechanisms underlying early follicle development could provide a refined culture system for the in vitro maturation of fertilizable oocytes and future design of fertility and contraceptive agents.

  8. Cytokine activation during embryonic development and in hen ovary and vagina during reproductive age and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of 11 proinflammatory cytokines in the chicken embryos during embryonic development, as well as in the hen ovary and vagina in vivo, to investigate whether sexual maturation affects their ovarian and vaginal mRNA abundance and to determine whether cytokine expression was constitutive or induced in the ovary and vagina as a response to SE infection. RT-PCR analysis revealed that several cytokines were expressed in the chicken embryos, and in the ovary and vagina of healthy birds. Expression of various cytokines during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated. In addition, a significant up-regulation of several cytokines in the ovary and vagina of sexually mature SE infected birds compared to healthy birds of the same age was observed. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the hen reproductive organs.

  9. Roles and regulation of cytokinins in tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kaori; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Imanishi, Shunsuke

    2012-09-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are thought to play important roles in fruit development, especially cell division. However, the mechanisms and regulation of CK activity have not been well investigated. This study analysed CK concentrations and expression of genes involved in CK metabolism in developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ovaries. The concentrations of CK ribosides and isopentenyladenine and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT3, SlIPT4, SlLOG6, and SlLOG8 were high at anthesis and decreased immediately afterward. In contrast, trans-zeatin concentration and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT1, SlIPT2, SlCYP735A1, SlCYP735A2, and SlLOG2 increased after anthesis. The expression of type-A response regulator genes was high in tomato ovaries from pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the CK signal transduction pathway is active in the cell division phase of fruit development. This study also investigated the effect of CK application on fruit set and development. Application of a synthetic CK, N-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), to unpollinated tomato ovaries induced parthenocarpic fruit development. The CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits were smaller than pollinated fruits, because of reduction of pericarp cell size rather than reduced cell number. Thus, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was attributable to the promotion of cell division, not cell expansion. Overall, the results provide evidence that CKs are involved in cell division during development of tomato fruit.

  10. The Influence of LepR Tyrosine Site Mutations on Mouse Ovary Development and Related Gene Expression Changes

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiaoyu; Kuang, Zhichao; Gong, Xia; Shi, Yan; Yu, Lin; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    Leptin exerts many biological functions, such as in metabolism and reproduction, through binding to and activating the leptin receptor, LepRb, which is expressed in many regions of the brain. To better understand the roles of LepR downstream signaling pathways, Y123F mice, which expressed mutant leptin receptors with phenylalanine (F) substituted for three tyrosines (Y) (Tyr985, Tyr1077 and Tyr1138), were generated. The body weight and abdominal fat deposits of Y123F homozygous mice (HOM) were higher than those of wild-type mice (WT). HOM ovaries were atrophic and the follicles developed abnormally; however, the HOM ovaries did not exhibit polycystic phenotypes. Moreover, Y123F HOM adults had no estrous cycle and the blood estrogen concentration remained stable at a low level below detection limit of 5 pg/ml. LepR expression in HOM ovaries was higher than in WT ovaries. Using cDNA Microarrays, the mRNA expressions of 41 genes were increased, and 100 were decreased in HOM vs. WT ovaries, and many signaling pathways were evaluated to be involved significantly. The expressions of 19 genes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR, most of which were consistent with the microarray results. Thus, Y123F HOM mice were suggested as a new animal model of PCOS for research that mainly emphasizes metabolic disorders and anovulation, but not the polycystic phenotype. Meanwhile, using the model, we found that JAK-STAT and hormone biosynthesis pathways were involved in the follicular development and ovulation disorders caused by LepR deficiency in ovaries, although we could not exclude indirect actions from the brain. PMID:26529315

  11. Development of a method for long-term preservation of Bombyx mori silkworm strains using frozen ovaries.

    PubMed

    Banno, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Kiyomi; Tsukada, Marino; Minohara, Yuko; Banno, Junko; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Tamura, Kei; Fujii, Tsuguru

    2013-06-01

    Development of long-term preservation is essential for conservation of stocks of silkworm genetic resources. Thus far, a few methods have been reported, but more improvement is required for practical use. We have developed two effective modifications of a method for long-term preservation using frozen ovaries. One was slow cooling (1 °C per min) until -80 °C of the donor ovaries made possible by use of a BICELL freezing vessel. Using donor ovaries of 4th instar larvae, the average number of eggs laid per moth increased significantly from 110.7 ± 53.4 eggs per moth by slow cooling with the BICELL vessel vs 12.3 ± 10.3 eggs per moth by direct cooling in liquid nitrogen. A second improvement was connecting the thread bodies of the donor ovaries with those of the host in the transplantation step. Females operated on with the new method yielded a significantly higher percentage of moths that laid fertilized eggs than those transplanted with the standard procedure (70.4 ± 21.6% vs 22.9 ± 9.3%).

  12. Sexual bipotentiality of developing ovaries in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1997-07-01

    The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically in Armadillidium vulgare given a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that were in stages 5 and 6 of development. Partial formation of testes was induced after implantation of an AG into stage 7 and 8 females. When an AG was implanted into a stage 9 female, development of a functional testis was not observed, but the ovaries were partially masculinized. These results show that after the onset of sex differentiation female gonads retain sexual bipotentiality through several stages of postembryonic development. Implantation of one AG into a female is enough to induce gonadal masculinization and sex reversal in this species. The AG implant up to stage 6 (3.4 mm in body length) is an experimental procedure certain to transform a genetic female into a functional male. The process of gonadal development in female A. vulgare is discussed.

  13. Sequential, Divergent and Cooperative Requirements of Foxl2a and Foxl2b in Ovary Development and Maintenance of Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Jing; Wang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-02-13

    Foxl2 is essential for mammalian ovary maintenance. Although sexually dimorphic expression of foxl2 was observed in many teleost, its role and regulative mechanism in fish remained largely unclear. In this study, we first identified two transcript variants of foxl2a and its homologous gene foxl2b in zebrafish, and revealed their specific expression in follicular layer cells in a sequential and divergent fashion during ovary differentiation, maturation and maintenance. Then, homozygous foxl2a mutants (foxl2a(-/-)) and foxl2b mutants (foxl2b(-/-)) were constructed, and detailed comparisons, such as sex ratio, gonadal histological structure, transcriptome profiling and dynamic expression of gonadal development-related genes, were carried out. Initial ovarian differentiation and oocyte development occur normally both in foxl2a(-/-) and foxl2b(-/-) mutants, but foxl2a and foxl2b disruptions result in premature ovarian failure and partial sex reversal in adult females respectively. In foxl2a(-/-) female mutants, sox9a-amh/cyp19a1a signaling was up-regulated at 150 day post fertilization (dpf) and subsequently triggers oocyte apoptosis after 180 dpf. In contrast, dmrt1 expression was greater at 105 dpf and increased several hundred fold in foxl2b(-/-) mutated ovaries at 270 dpf, along with other testis-related genes. Finally, homozygous foxl2a(-/-)/foxl2b(-/-) double mutants were constructed, in which complete sex reversal occurs early and testis-differentiation genes robustly increase at 60 dpf. Given mutual compensation between foxl2a and foxl2b in foxl2b(-/-) and foxl2a(-/-) mutants, we proposed a model, in which foxl2a and foxl2b cooperate to regulate zebrafish ovary development and maintenance, with foxl2b potentially having a dominant role in preventing the ovary from differentiating as testis, as compared to foxl2a.

  14. Comparison of ultrastructure, pollen tube growth pattern and starch content in developing and abortive ovaries during the progamic phase in hazel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Wang, Ju; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting

    2014-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS In an abortive ovary of hazel, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed.In an abortive ovary of hazel, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded.Ovary abortion in the four hybrid cultivars was indicated to be associated with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla was at least partly determined by pollen availability. In Northeast China, a high frequency of ovary abortion contributes to serious losses in yield of hazelnut. The development of pistillate inflorescences and fruit clusters of four large-fruited hybrid hazel cultivars and the small-fruited Corylus heterophylla were used to study ovary abortion and its possible causes during the progamic phase in hazel. The average number of pistillate (ANP) flowers per inflorescence and average number of fruit (ANF) per cluster of four hybrid hazel cultivars were 7.6–8.5 and 2.4–3.0 respectively; in C. heterophylla, its ANP and ANF was 5.8–6.2 and 3.5, respectively. The total drop varied from 50 to 67%. Ovary abortion in hazel initiated from about 30 days after blooming. The percentage of abortive ovaries (PAO) in the four hybrid hazel cultivars ranged from 63 to 72%, and was significantly higher than that of C. heterophylla (29–42%). Only the abortive ovary ratio of C. heterophylla was significantly reduced after artificial pollination. Fruit number per cluster was positively and negatively correlated with yield and nut mass, respectively. In abortive ovaries, the diameter remained less than 2 mm during the entire fruit development, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed. In addition, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded. Compared with abortive ovary, starch content in developing ovary

  15. First step in developing a 3D biodegradable fibrin scaffold for an artificial ovary

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients, it is not advisable for women at risk of ovarian involvement due to the threat of reintroducing malignant cells. The aim of this study was therefore to find an alternative for these patients by development of an artificial ovary. Methods For construction of the artificial ovary matrix, we used a central composite design to investigate nine combinations of fibrinogen (mg/ml) and thrombin (IU/mL) (F/T): F1/T4, F12.5/T1, F12.5/T20, F25/T0.1, F25/T4, F25/T500, F50/T1, F50/T20 and F100/T4. From the first qualitative analyses (handling and matrix size), five combinations (F12.5/T1, F25/T4, F50/T20, F50/T1 and F100/T4) yielded positive results. They were further evaluated in order to assess fibrin matrix degradation and homogeneous cell encapsulation (density), survival and proliferation (Ki67), and atresia (TUNEL) before and after 7 days of in vitro culture. To determine the best compromise between maximizing the dynamic density (Y1) and minimizing the apoptosis rate (Y2), we used the desirability function approach. Results Two combinations (F12.5/T1 and F25/T4) showed greater distribution of cells before in vitro culture, reproducible degradation of the fibrin network and adequate support for isolated human ovarian stromal cells, with a high proportion of Ki67-positive cells. SEM analysis revealed a network of fibers with regular pores and healthy stromal cells after in vitro culture with both F/T combinations. Conclusion This study reports two optimal F/T combinations that allow survival and proliferation of isolated human ovarian cells. Further studies are required to determine if such a scaffold will also be a suitable environment for isolated ovarian follicles. PMID:24274108

  16. Integrated application of transcriptomics and metabolomics yields insights into population-asynchronous ovary development in Coilia nasus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gangchun; Du, Fukuan; Li, Yan; Nie, Zhijuan; Xu, Pao

    2016-01-01

    Populations of Coilia nasus demonstrate asynchronous ovarian development, which severely restricts artificial breeding and large-scale cultivation. In this study, we used a combination of transcriptomic and metabolomic methods to identify the key signaling pathways and genes regulation affecting ovarian development. We identified 565 compounds and generated 47,049 unigenes from ovary tissue. Fifteen metabolites and 830 genes were significantly up-regulated, while 27 metabolites and 642 genes were significantly down-regulated from stage III to stage IV of ovary development. Meanwhile, 31 metabolites and 1,932 genes were significantly up-regulated, and four metabolites and 764 genes were down-regulated from stage IV to stage V. These differentially expressed genes and metabolites were enriched by MetScape. Forty-three and 50 signaling pathways had important functions from stage III–IV and from stage IV–V in the ovary, respectively. Among the above signaling pathways, 39 played important roles from ovarian stage III–V, including “squalene and cholesterol biosynthesis”, “steroid hormone biosynthesis”, and “arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin formation” pathways which may thus have key roles in regulating asynchronous development. These results shed new light on our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for population-asynchronous development in fish. PMID:27545088

  17. CD90 and CD105 expression in the mouse ovary and testis at different stages of postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Tepekoy, Filiz; Ozturk, Saffet; Sozen, Berna; Ozay, Recep S; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Demir, Necdet

    2015-12-01

    CD90 (i.e., THY1) and CD105 (i.e., endoglin) are glycoproteins known as mesenchymal stem cell markers that are expressed in various cell types including male and female gonadal cells. We aimed to determine ovarian and testicular expression of CD90 and CD105 in various cell types during postnatal development in mice. The present study was carried out on male (C57BL/6) and female (Balb/C) mice during critical stages of gonadal development. Immunohistochemical localization of CD90 and CD105 was determined in the ovaries obtained at postnatal days (PND) -1, -7, -21 and -60 and in the testes obtained at PND6, -8, -16, -20, -29, -32 and -88. The relative expression of CD90 and CD105 was evaluated by ImageJ software and data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The relative expression of CD90 and CD105 varied during postnatal development and increased significantly in the adult ovary (PND60) and testis (PND88) compared to the early postnatal gonads. In the ovaries, the expression of CD90 was significantly higher in somatic cells in comparison to germ cell compartments. In the testis, CD90 expression was greater in germ cells and Sertoli cells compared to other cell types. Expression of CD105 was higher in germ cells than somatic cells of both the ovary and testis. In addition to different expression of CD90 and CD105 during various developmental stages, also their altered expression in particular cell types suggests specific roles of these glycoproteins in physiological processes of mouse gonads.

  18. Successful boll development after ovary damage during emasculation of upland cotton flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypium hirsutum flowers are easily emasculated by splitting the staminal column with the fingernail and removing the corolla and androecium. However, any damage to the ovary is considered detrimental to successful boll formation and damaged flowers are typically discarded. This study evaluated ...

  19. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-11-10

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p < 0.001), and high lipid accumulation product (LAP) (OR = 1.009, CI: 1.003; 1.016, p = 0.005). Furthermore, prediabetes was associated with low 25-OHD (OR = 0.795, CI: 0.724; 0.880, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p < 0.001). We showed association of prediabetes with high BMI, IR, markers of inflammation, LAP, and low serum 25-OHD concentration. IR appears to be more relevant than the other predictors of prediabetes risk in this study. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes.

  20. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p < 0.001), and high lipid accumulation product (LAP) (OR = 1.009, CI: 1.003; 1.016, p = 0.005). Furthermore, prediabetes was associated with low 25-OHD (OR = 0.795, CI: 0.724; 0.880, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p < 0.001). We showed association of prediabetes with high BMI, IR, markers of inflammation, LAP, and low serum 25-OHD concentration. IR appears to be more relevant than the other predictors of prediabetes risk in this study. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes. PMID:27648989

  1. Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control germline stem cell lineage development in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Su; Do, Trieu; Song, Xiaoqing; Inaba, Mayu; Nishimoto, Yoshiya; Liu, Lu-ping; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Li, Hui; McDowell, William; Park, Jungeun; Malanowski, Kate; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Haug, Jeff; Yamashita, Yukiko; Lin, Haifan; Ni, Jian-quan; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The piRNA pathway plays an important role in maintaining genome stability in the germ line by silencing transposable elements (TEs) from fly to mammals. As a highly conserved piRNA pathway component, Piwi is widely expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells in the Drosophila ovary and is required for piRNA production in both cell types. In addition to its known role in somatic cap cells to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs), this study has demonstrated that Piwi has novel functions in somatic cells and germ cells of the Drosophila ovary to promote germ cell differentiation. Piwi knockdown in escort cells causes a reduction in escort cell (EC) number and accumulation of undifferentiated germ cells, some of which show active BMP signaling, indicating that Piwi is required to maintain ECs and promote germ cell differentiation. Simultaneous knockdown of dpp, encoding a BMP, in ECs can partially rescue the germ cell differentiation defect, indicating that Piwi is required in ECs to repress dpp. Consistent with its key role in piRNA production, TE transcripts increase significantly and DNA damage is also elevated in the piwi knockdown somatic cells. Germ cell-specific knockdown of piwi surprisingly causes depletion of germ cells before adulthood, suggesting that Piwi might control primordial germ cell maintenance or GSC establishment. Finally, Piwi inactivation in the germ line of the adult ovary leads to gradual GSC loss and germ cell differentiation defects, indicating the intrinsic role of Piwi in adult GSC maintenance and differentiation. This study has revealed new germline requirement of Piwi in controlling GSC maintenance and lineage differentiation as well as its new somatic function in promoting germ cell differentiation. Therefore, Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control GSC lineage development in the Drosophila ovary.

  2. Vasoactive intestinal peptide enhanced aromatase activity in the neonatal rat ovary before development of primary follicles or responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    George, F.W.; Ojeda, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have investigated the factors that regulate aromatase activity in fetal-neonatal rat ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity (assessed by measuring the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed from (1..beta..-/sup 3/H)testosterone) is low prior to birth and increases to values greater than 30 pmol/hr per mg of protein between days 8 and 12 after birth. The appearance of ovarian aromatase coincides with the development of primordial follicles. Fetal-neonatal ovaries maintained in serum-free organ culture do not develop aromatase activity at the expected time. Ovine follicle-stimulating hormone, ovine luteinizing hormone, or their combination failed to induce the enzyme activity in cultured fetal ovaries, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone is effective in preventing the decline in aromatase activity when postnatal day 8 ovaries are placed in culture. In contrast to follicle-stimulating hormone, dibutyryl-cAMP markedly enhances ovarian aromatase in cultured fetal ovaries. Likewise, enhancement of endogenouse cAMP formation with forskolin or cholera toxin caused an increase in enzyme activity within 24 hr. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a peptide known to occur in ovarian nerves, caused a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity in fetal ovaries prior to folliculogenesis. Of related peptides tested, only the peptide having N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine amide was capable of inducing aromatase activity in fetal ovaries. The fact that VIP can induce aromatase activity in fetal rat ovaries prior to follicle formation and prior to responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone suggests that this neuropeptide may play a critical role in ovarian differentiation.

  3. Distribution and change patterns of free IAA, ABP 1 and PM H⁺-ATPase during ovary and ovule development of Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Deng, Yingtian; Zhao, Jie

    2012-01-15

    Auxin plays key roles in flower induction, embryogenesis, seed formation and seedling development, but little is known about whether auxin regulates the development of ovaries and ovules before pollination. In the present report, we measured the content of free indole-3-acetic (IAA) in ovaries of Nicotiana tabacum L., and localized free IAA, auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) and plasma membrane (PM) H⁺-ATPase in the ovaries and ovules. The level of free IAA in the developmental ovaries increased gradually from the stages of ovular primordium to the functional megaspore, but slightly decreased when the embryo sacs formed. Immunoenzyme labeling clearly showed that both IAA and ABP1 were distributed in the ovules, the edge of the placenta, vascular tissues and the ovary wall, while PM H⁺-ATPase was mainly localized in the ovules. By using immunogold labeling, the subcellular distributions of IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase in the ovules were also shown. The results suggest that IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase may play roles in the ovary and ovule initiation, formation and differentiation.

  4. New insights into implication of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in the prehierarchical follicle development of hen ovary.

    PubMed

    Qin, N; Fan, X C; Zhang, Y Y; Xu, X X; Tyasi, T L; Jing, Y; Mu, F; Wei, M L; Xu, R F

    2015-09-01

    The SLIT/Roundabout (ROBO) pathway is involved in follicle development of mammalian ovary, and 2 secreted hormones activin A and inhibin A have potential roles in modulation of the SLIT/ROBO system, but the related actions remain poorly understood in bird. The aims of the present study were to examine the spatial and temporal expression of the SLIT ligand genes (SLIT1, SLIT2, and SLIT3) and their receptor ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3, and ROBO4 genes in various-sized prehierarchical follicles during hen ovary development and the effects of activin A and inhibin A on the expression of these genes in the cultured hen follicles. Our result demonstrated that the transcripts of the 3 SLIT genes were highly expressed in the developing follicles and expression patterns of the SLIT transcripts were different from those of ROBO genes detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Both SLIT and ROBO transcripts were predominantly expressed in oocytes and granulosa cells from the prehierarchichal follicles examined by in situ hybridization. The localization for SLIT and ROBO proteins was revealed by immunohistochemistry similar to the spatial distribution of their transcript. In cultured follicles (4 to 8 mm in diameter), the expression levels of SLIT and ROBO members are hormonally regulated by activin A (10 ng/mL) and/or inhibin A (20 ng/mL) after treatment for 24 h. However, the expression of only SLIT2, SLIT3, and ROBO3 mRNA presented a directly opposite response to activin A and inhibin A hormones. These results indicate that SLIT/ROBO pathway is implicated in the prehierarchical follicular development of the hen ovary by an intrafollicular autocrine and/or paracrine action, and is influenced by activin A and inhibin A hormones.

  5. WNT/β-catenin and p27/FOXL2 differentially regulate supporting cell proliferation in the developing ovary.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sonja E; Hogg, Kirsten; Stringer, Jessica M; Rastetter, Raphael H; Pelosi, Emanuele; Miles, Denise C; Sinclair, Andrew H; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Western, Patrick S

    2016-04-15

    Sexual development is initiated through differentiation of testicular Sertoli cells or ovarian granulosa cells. Although these supporting cells are considered to develop from common bipotential precursors, recent evidence suggests that distinct supporting cell populations are present in the ovary, with one providing granulosa cells of the medullary follicles and the other providing granulosa cells of the cortical follicles, the latter of which support lifelong fertility. Here, we demonstrate that XX fetal gonads contain GATA4 expressing supporting cells that either enter mitotic arrest, or remain proliferative. Blocking WNT signalling reduces XX supporting cell proliferation, while stabilising β-catenin signalling promotes proliferation, indicating that the renewal of pre-granulosa cells is dependent on WNT/β-catenin signalling in the proliferative supporting cell population. In contrast, XX supporting cells express p27 and FOXL2 and are maintained in mitotic arrest. Although FOXL2 is required for maintaining high levels of p27 expression, it is dispensable for entry and maintenance of mitotic arrest in XX supporting cells. Combined our data suggest that both medullary and cortical precursors arise from a common GATA4 expressing cell type. In addition, this work indicates that a balance between supporting cell self-renewal and differentiation is maintained in the developing ovary by relative WNT/β-catenin and p27/FOXL2 activities. This study provides significant new insights into the origin and formation of ovarian follicles and evidence supporting a common fetal origin of medullary and cortical granulosa cells.

  6. [Neurotrophic control in the development and function of two endocrine organs: the ovary and the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vásquez, Siraam

    2007-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) are important for the survival, differentiation and function of sympathetic and sensorial neurons of central and peripheral nervous system. However, similar functions have been described of NTs in non-neural organs. Nerve Growth factor (NGF) participates in the foliculogenesis and ovulation in the ovary, as well as in the islet morphogenesis and insulin secretion of the pancreatic beta cell. The NTs act by binding to two distinct classes of transmembranal receptors: p75 and Trks. Both receptor types lead to activation of intracellular signaling cascades that end with cell survival or apoptosis. In this review different actions of the NTs in the ovarian and the pancreas are described.

  7. PeMADS6, a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene in Phalaenopsis equestris involved in petaloid formation, and correlated with flower longevity and ovary development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Fang; Chen, Hong-Ie; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wei, Wan-Ju; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Chuang, Ming-Hsiang; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the function of a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene, PeMADS6, from a native Phalaenopsis species, P. equestris. Southern blot analysis showed PeMADS6 as a single copy in the Phalaenopsis genome. Results of the determination of temporal and spatial expression showed that PeMADS6 was expressed and thus participated in the development of the sepals, petals, labellum and column in Phalaenopsis. Further confirmation of the expression pattern of PeMADS6 was carried out with in situ hybridization. Repressed expression of PeMADS6 in the orchid ovary was found to be pollination regulated, which suggests that the gene may have an inhibitory effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. In addition, auxin acted as the candidate signal to regulate the repression of PeMADS6 expression in the ovary. Furthermore, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically overexpressing PeMADS6 showed the morphology of petaloid sepals, with a 3- to 4-fold increase in flower longevity. Concomitantly, delayed fruit maturation was also observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis, which is consistent with the inhibitory effect of PeMADS6 on the development of the ovary. Thus, as a B-function gene, PeMADS6, not only specifies floral organ identity but has functions in flower longevity and ovary development in orchids.

  8. MYBL2 guides autophagy suppressor VDAC2 in the developing ovary to inhibit autophagy through a complex of VDAC2-BECN1-BCL2L1 in mammals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Sheng, Yue; Fu, Xiazhou; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    Oogenesis is essential for female gamete production in mammals. The total number of ovarian follicles is determined early in life and production of ovarian oocytes is thought to stop during the lifetime. However, the molecular mechanisms underling oogenesis, particularly autophagy regulation in the ovary, remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal an important MYBL2-VDAC2-BECN1-BCL2L1 pathway linking autophagy suppression in the developing ovary. The transcription factors GATA1 and MYBL2 can bind to and activate the Vdac2 promoter. MYBL2 regulates the spatiotemporal expression of VDAC2 in the developing ovary. Strikingly, in the VDAC2 transgenic pigs (Sus scrofa/Ss), VDAC2 exerts its function by inhibiting autophagy in the ovary. In contrast, Vdac2 knockout promotes autophagy. Moreover, VDAC2-mediated autophagy suppression is dependent on its interactions with both BECN1 and BCL2L1 to stabilize the BECN1 and BCL2L1 complex, suggesting VDAC2 as an autophagy suppressor in the pathway. Our findings provide a functional connection among the VDAC2, MYBL2, the BECN1-BCL2L1 pathway and autophagy suppression in the developing ovary, which is implicated in improving female fecundity.

  9. Development of ovary structures in the last larval and adult stages of psyllids (Insecta, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Büning, Jürgen; Jankowska, Władysława; Drohojowska, Jowita; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    The development and organization of the ovaries of ten species from four Psylloidea families (Psyllidae, Triozidae, Aphalaridae and Liviidae) have been investigated. The ovaries of the last larval stage (i.e. fifth instar) of all examined species are filled with numerous clusters of cystocytes which undergo synchronous incomplete mitotic division. Cystocytes of the given cluster are arranged into a rosette with polyfusome in the centre. These clusters are associated with single somatic cells. At the end of the fifth instar, the clusters begin to separate from each other, forming spherical ovarioles which are surrounded by a single layer of somatic cells. In the ovarioles of very young females all cystocytes enter the prophase of meiosis and differentiate shortly thereafter into oocytes and trophocytes (nurse cells). Meanwhile, somatic cells differentiate into cells of the inner epithelial sheath surrounding the trophocytes and into the prefollicular cells that encompass the oocytes. During this final differentiation, the trophocytes lose their cell membranes and become syncytial. Oocytes remain cellular and most of them (termed arrested oocytes) do not grow. In the ovarioles of older females, one oocyte encompassed by its follicle cells starts growing, still connected to the syncytial tropharium by a nutritive cord. After the short phase of previtellogenesis alone, the oocyte enters its vitellogenic the growth phase in the vitellarium. At that time, the second oocyte may enter the vitellarium and start its previtellogenic growth. In the light of the obtained results, the phylogeny of psyllids, as well as phylogenetic relationships between taxa of Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha are discussed.

  10. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-12-14

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization.

  11. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization. PMID:27966611

  12. Simultaneous Gene Deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 Leads to Early Disruption of Follicular Development and Germ Cell Loss in the Murine Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Maria B.; Fox, Shawna C.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Tevosian, Sergei G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Granulosa cell formation and subsequent follicular assembly are important for ovarian development and function. Two members of the GATA family of transcription factors, GATA4 and GATA6, are expressed in ovarian somatic cells early in development, and their importance in adult ovarian function has been recently highlighted. In this study, we demonstrated that the embryonic loss of Gata4 and Gata6 expression within the ovary results in a strong down-regulation of genes involved in the ovarian developmental pathway (Fst and Irx3) as well as diminished expression of the pregranulosa and granulosa cell markers SPRR2 and FOXL2, respectively. Postnatal ovaries deficient in both Gata genes show impaired somatic cell proliferation and arrested follicular development at the primordial stage, where oocytes are either enclosed by one layer of squamous granulosa cells or remain in germ cell nests/clusters. Furthermore, germ cell nests and primordial follicles are predominantly localized to the central region of the Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox ovaries, where the boundary between the medulla and cortex is almost nonexistent. Lastly, most of the oocytes are lost early in development in conditional double mutant ovaries, which confirms the importance of normally differentiated granulosa cells as supporting cells for oocyte survival. Thus, both GATA4 and GATA6 proteins are fundamental regulators of granulosa cell differentiation and proliferation, and consequently of proper follicular assembly during normal ovarian development and function. PMID:24899573

  13. The role of obesity in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common endocrine diseases that affects women in their reproductive age. PCOS has diverse clinical implications that include reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). The exact patho-physiology of PCOS is complex and remains largely unclear. The prevalence of PCOS is estimated at 4-18%, depending on diverse factors discussed ahead. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and body weight. During the last decades, obesity and excess weight are major chronic diseases all around the word. Obesity increases some features of PCOS such as hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy complications. Both obesity and insulin resistance increase diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, obesity impairs insulin resistance and exacerbates reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. It is well known that obesity is associated with anovulation, pregnancy loss and late pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes). Obesity in PCOS is also linked to failure or delayed response to the various treatments including clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. It has been reported that, after losing as little as 5 % of initial body weight obese women with PCOS improved spontaneous ovulation rates and spontaneous pregnancy. Therefore, the weight loss prior to conception improves live birth rate in obese women with or without PCOS. The treatment of obesity may include lifestyle therapy (diet and exercise), pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery. In summary, weight loss is considered the first-line therapy in obese women with PCOS. In the present review, the consequence and

  14. Roles of leptin in reproduction, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome: consensus knowledge and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    As an essential function for perpetuation of species, reproduction, including puberty onset, is sensitive to the size of body energy stores and the metabolic state of the organism. Accordingly, impaired energy homeostasis, ranging from extreme leanness, such as in anorexia or cachexia, to morbid obesity has an impact on the timing of puberty and is often associated to fertility problems. The neuroendocrine basis for such phenomenon is the close connection between numerous metabolic hormones and nutritional cues with the various elements of the so-called hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Yet, despite previous fragmentary knowledge, it was only the discovery of the adipose-hormone, leptin, in 1994 what revolutionized our understanding on how metabolic and reproductive systems closely interplay and allowed the definition of the neurohormonal causes of perturbations of puberty and fertility in conditions of impaired body energy homeostasis. In this article, we aim to provide a synoptic view of the mechanisms whereby leptin engages in the regulation of different elements of the HPG axis, with special attention to its effects and mechanisms of action on the different elements of the reproductive brain and its proven direct effects in the gonads. In addition, we will summarize the state-of-the-art regarding the putative roles of leptin during gestation, including its potential function as placental hormone. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual leptin alterations in reproductive disorders, with special attention to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disease in which reproductive, metabolic and neuroendocrine alterations are commonly observed. All in all, we intend to provide an updated account of our knowledge on the physiological roles of leptin in the metabolic regulation of the reproductive axis and its eventual pathophysiological implications in prevalent reproductive disorders, such as PCOS.

  15. Ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Brummett, A.R.; Dumont, J.N.; Larkin, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with dissection and light microscopy, have produced heretofore unavailable structural detail of the ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus. Structural and functional interrelationships among developing follicles and other histological elements, particularly as they might relate to vascularization of follicles, oocyte development, and ovulation, are described and discussed. Mature eggs, ovulated into the ovarian lumen, accumulate in the posterior ovisac region of the ovary prior to oviposition. This ovisac region is thin-walled and apparently nongerminal. The temporary retention of ovulated eggs permits cyclical oviposition even though oogenesis and ovulation are asynchronous. The histological differences between the ovisac and the anterior ovigerous region of the ovary are described. The lumenal epithelium of the ovisac displays a localized population of unusual cells with long cytoplasmic extensions. The ultrastructure of these cells suggests that they might function in the transport of ovulated eggs into the oviduct and/or in secreting the substance (jelly) which forms the surface coat of extruded eggs.

  16. The expression of cell proliferation-related genes in early developing flowers is affected by a fruit load reduction in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Baldet, Pierre; Hernould, Michel; Laporte, Frédéric; Mounet, Fabien; Just, Daniel; Mouras, Armand; Chevalier, Christian; Rothan, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Changes in photoassimilate partitioning between source and sink organs significantly affect fruit development and size. In this study, a comparison was made of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown under a low fruit load (one fruit per truss, L1 plants) and under a standard fruit load (five fruits per truss, L5 plants), at morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Fruit load reduction resulted in increased photoassimilate availability in the plant and in increased growth rates in all plant organs analysed (root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit). Larger flower and fruit size in L1 plants were correlated with higher cell number in the pre-anthesis ovary. This was probably due to the acceleration of the flower growth rate since other flower developmental parameters (schedule and time-course) remained otherwise unaffected. Using RT-PCR, it was shown that the transcript levels of CYCB2;1 (cyclin) and CDKB2;1 (cyclin-dependent kinase), two mitosis-specific genes, strongly increased early in developing flower buds. Remarkably, the transcript abundance of CYCD3;1, a D-type cyclin potentially involved in cell cycle regulation in response to mitogenic signals, also increased by more than 5-fold at very early stages of L1 flower development. By contrast, transcripts from fw2.2, a putative negative regulator of cell division in tomato fruit, strongly decreased in developing flower bud, as confirmed by in situ hybridization studies. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in carbohydrate partitioning could control fruit size through the regulation of cell proliferation-related genes at very early stages of flower development.

  17. Development of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Huang-tz; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. Eighty women who met the criteria were enrolled: female, age range of 18–45 years, competent in the Chinese language, had been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and were regularly followed at outpatient clinics (defined as at least two outpatient visits before enrollment). The PCOSQ was translated and culturally adapted according to standard procedures. A semi-structured interview was applied to assess face validity. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to determine scale constructs. Measurements of internal consistency via Cronbach’s α, test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), construct validity, and discriminative validity were performed. Results Five additional items, representing the issues of acne, hair loss, and fear of getting diabetes, were incorporated into the original scale. A six-factor structure emerged as a result of the EFA, explaining 71.9% of the variance observed. The reliability analyses demonstrated satisfactory results for Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.78–0.96, and for ICC ranging from 0.73–0.86. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlation between the domains of the Chi-PCOSQ and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures (WHOQOL-BREF, EQ-5D) and clinical parameters (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure). The known-group analysis indicated that the Chi-PCOSQ is a discriminative tool that differentiates patients according to their HRQoL. Conclusion The Chi-PCOSQ seems internally consistent, culturally acceptable, and our preliminary evidence suggests that it may be reliable and valid. The Chi-PCOSQ is a promising assessment tool to address the HRQoL of women affected by PCOS in Chinese-speaking countries and to

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries that contain small collections of fluid — called follicles — located in each ovary as seen during an ultrasound exam. Infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne, and obesity can all occur in ...

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ121 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) • What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? • What causes PCOS? • What is insulin resistance? • ...

  20. Arrhenoblastoma of ovary

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001507.htm Arrhenoblastoma of ovary To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arrhenoblastoma of the ovary is an ovarian tumor that releases the male ...

  1. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E.; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production. PMID:26871705

  2. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies.

  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Topics > Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a health problem ... of infertility. Expand all | Collapse all What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Polycystic (pah-lee-SIS-tik) ovary syndrome ( ...

  4. A Novel Null Mutation in P450 Aromatase Gene (CYP19A1) Associated with Development of Hypoplastic Ovaries in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Akçurin, Sema; Türkkahraman, Doğa; Kim, Woo-Young; Durmaz, Erdem; Shin, Jae-Gook; Lee, Su-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The CYP19A1 gene product aromatase is responsible for estrogen synthesis and androgen/estrogen equilibrium in many tissues, particularly in the placenta and gonads. Aromatase deficiency can cause various clinical phenotypes resulting from excessive androgen accumulation and insufficient estrogen synthesis during the pre- and postnatal periods. In this study, our aim was to determine the clinical characteristics and CYP19A1 mutations in three patients from a large Turkish pedigree. Methods: The cases were the newborns referred to our clinic for clitoromegaly and labial fusion. Virilizing signs such as severe acne formation, voice deepening, and clitoromegaly were noted in the mothers during pregnancy. Preliminary diagnosis was aromatase deficiency. Therefore, direct DNA sequencing of CYP19A1 was performed in samples from parents (n=5) and patients (n=3). Results: In all patients, a novel homozygous insertion mutation in the fifth exon (568insC) was found to cause a frameshift in the open reading frame and to truncate the protein prior to the heme-binding region which is crucial for enzymatic activity. The parents were found to be heterozygous for this mutation. Additionally, all patients had hypoplastic ovaries instead of cystic and enlarged ovaries. Conclusion: A novel 568C insertion mutation in CYP19A1 can lead to severe aromatase deficiency. Homozygosity for this mutation is associated with the development of hypoplastic ovaries. This finding provides an important genetic marker for understanding the physiological function of aromatase in fetal ovarian development. PMID:27086564

  5. Ovary development in two genetic strains of Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olfactory reception and behavioral responses to semiochemicals are influenced by an insect's physiological state, including sexual maturity. For tephritid fruit flies, reliable methods are needed for assessing maturity status of field-caught adults. Previously, we developed a six-stage system to cla...

  6. Measures of the ovaries and uterus during development of gilts selected for differences in uterine capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct selection for uterine capacity (UC) increased the number of live pigs born. A method to indirectly estimate UC in developing gilts is needed for this trait to be incorporated into commercial selection strategies. We tested the hypothesis that selection for UC alters phenotypic characteristics...

  7. Roles of thyroid hormones in follicular development in the ovary of neonatal and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Zheng, Kaizhi; Wei, Quanwei; Kong, Lingfa; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a critical role in ovarian follicular development, maturation and the maintenance of various endocrine functions. However, whether TH can affect ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of TH on ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats. Thirty female post-lactation mothers of Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into three groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper), and hypothyroid (hypo). On postnatal days (PND) 10 and 21, body weights, serum hormones, ovarian histologic changes, and immunohistochemistry of thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRα1) and nitric oxide synthase types (NOS), and NOS activities, were determined. The data showed that body weights significantly decreased in both hyper and hypo groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the hyper group had increased serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2; whereas the hypo group manifested reduced serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2 on PND 10 and 21. The hyper and hypo groups showed significantly reduced total number of primordial, primary and secondary follicles on PND 10 and 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, antral follicle numbers in the hyper and hypo groups were significantly decreased on PND 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Immunostaining indicated that TRα1 and NOS were expressed in ovarian surface epithelium and oocytes of growing and antral follicles, with strong staining of the granulosa and theca cells of follicles. NOS activities were significantly augmented in the hyper, but diminished in the hypo groups on PND 10 and 21. In summary, our findings suggest that TH play important roles in ovarian functions and in the regulation of NOS activity. Our results also indicate that a relationship exists between the TH and NO signaling pathways during the process of ovarian follicular

  8. Expression and clinical significance of the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway during the development and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Zhenghong; Wang, Zhaokai; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wang, Qing; Su, Jingqian; Wang, Zhengchao

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major health problem in reproductive-aged women worldwide, but the precise pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our previous study revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a mediated endothelin (ET)-2 signaling plays an important role in ovulation in rats. Therefore, the present study used a PCOS rat model to test the hypotheses that HIF-1a signaling is expressed and inhibited in ovaries during PCOS formation and that the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway is a target of dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) in the clinical treatment of PCOS. First, the development of a PCOS model and the effect of DMBG treatment were examined through ovarian histology and serum hormone levels, which were consistent with previous reports. Second, HIF-1a and ET-2 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed decreased HIF-1a/ET-2 expression in the ovaries of PCOS rats, whereas DMBG treatment reversed the protein decreases and improved the PCOS symptoms. Third, to understand the molecular mechanism, HIF-1a/ET-2 mRNA expression was also examined. Interestingly, HIF-1a mRNA increased in the ovaries of PCOS rats, while ET-2 mRNA decreased, indicating that HIF-1a protein degradation may be involved in POCS development and treatment. Finally, HIF prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity was examined to further clarify the contribution of HIF-1a signaling to the development and treatment of PCOS. The results suggested that the inhibition of HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling may be caused by increased PHD activity in PCOS. DMBG-treated PCOS may further activate HIF-1a signaling at least partly through inhibiting PHD activity. Taken together, these results indicate that HIF-1a signaling is inhibited in a PCOS rat model through increasing PHD activity. DMBG treatment improved PCOS by rescuing this pathway, suggesting that HIF-1a signaling plays an important role in the development and treatment of PCOS. This HIF-1a-mediated ET-2 signaling pathway

  9. Endocrine differentiation of fetal ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta): timing of androgen-independent versus androgen-driven genital development.

    PubMed

    Browne, P; Place, N J; Vidal, J D; Moore, I T; Cunha, G R; Glickman, S E; Conley, A J

    2006-10-01

    Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) have an erectile peniform clitoris and a pseudoscrotum but no external vagina, all established by day 35 of a 110-day gestation. Recent studies indicate that these events are androgen-independent, although androgen secretion by fetal ovaries and testis was hypothesized previously to induce phallic development in both sexes. We present the first data relating to the capacity of the ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena to synthesize androgens at different stages of fetal life. Specifically, spotted hyena fetal gonads were examined by immunohistochemistry at GD 30, 45, 48, 65, and 95 for androgen-synthesizing enzymes, as related to the morphological development. Enzymes included 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17), cytochrome b5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc). Anti-Müllerian-hormone (AMH) expression was also examined. AMH was strongly expressed in fetal Sertoli cells from GD 30 and after. P450c17 expression was detected in Leydig cells of developing testes and surprisingly in Müllerian duct epithelium. Fetal ovaries began to organize and differentiate by GD 45, and medullary cells expressed P450c17, cytochrome b5, 3betaHSD, and P450scc. The findings support the hypothesis that external genital morphology is probably androgen-independent initially, but that fetal testicular androgens modify the secondary, male-specific phallic form and accessory organs. Fetal ovaries appear to develop substantial androgen-synthesizing capacity but not until phallic differentiation is complete, i.e. after GD 45 based on circulating androstenedione concentrations. During late gestation, fetal ovaries and testes synthesize androgens, possibly organizing the neural substrates of aggressive behaviors observed at birth in spotted hyenas. These data provide an endocrine rationale for sexual dimorphisms in phallic structure and reveal a potential

  10. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice V. The effects of PMSG upon the numbers and growth of follicles in the early juvenile ovary.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    The composition and growth patterns of the ovarian follicle population have been determined in early juvenile athymic nude mice and their phenotypically normal littermates. Nude ovaries contained significantly more primordial follicles and fewer trilaminar follicles at 10 days of age. The rate of growth of the oocyte nucleolus was significantly less than in control ovaries. Treatment with PMSG from days 7 to 9 restored the rate of oocyte nucleolar growth in nudes to control levels. PMSG also increased the number of follicles commencing growth in both nudes and controls and the differences in the numbers of primordial and trilaminar follicles were no longer detectable. The data demonstrate that abnormalities in the ovarian follicle population of the nude are detectable as early as the 10th day of life and can be reversed by treatment with exogenous gonadotrophin. These results are discussed in relation to the role of the thymus gland in ovarian development and the competence of the early juvenile ovary to respond to gonadotrophin.

  11. Involvement of insulin and growth hormone (GH) during follicular development in the bovine ovary.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takashi; Murayama, Chiaki; Sudo, Natsuko; Kawashima, Chiho; Tetsuka, Masa; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-06-01

    Insulin and growth hormone (GH) play critical roles in the process of follicular development and maturation. However, the involvement of insulin receptor (IR) and GH receptor (GHR) during follicular development is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of IR and GHR mRNAs in the granulosa cells (GCs) and theca tissues (TCs) of the follicle at different developmental stages (preovulatory dominant follicles, POFs; estrogen-active dominant follicles, EADs; estrogen-inactive dominant follicles, EIDs; and small follicles, SFs), and second, to examine the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) on the expression of IR and GHR genes in cultured bovine GCs. Although the concentration of insulin in follicular fluid (FF) was constant at all developmental stages, the GH concentration in FF was significantly increased in the EAD and POF compared with the EID. IR mRNA in GCs and TCs was significantly increased in the POF compared with other follicles. Regarding GHR expression, significant increases of mRNA expression were observed in GCs of EAD compared to those of SF, EID and POF. GHR mRNA in TCs was significantly decreased in the SF compared with other follicles. In cultured GCs, FSH, but not E2, stimulated the expression of IR and GHR genes. Our results suggest that the increase in the expression of GHR may be a turning point for follicles to enter the ovulatory phase during final follicular development and that the insulin system may support the maturation of preovulatory follicles.

  12. Surgical transposition of the ovary: Radiologic appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Bashist, B.; Friedman, W.N.; Killackey, M.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of the pelvis of a young female patient will result in loss of ovarian function. In a surgical technique termed ovarian transposition, the ovary is repositioned to the iliac fossa or paracolic gutter outside the radiation field. The computed tomographic (CT) scans and sonograms of five patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent this procedure were reviewed. The normal transposed ovary was of soft-tissue attenuation, often with one or more small cysts. Large cysts developed in the ovaries of three patients. One cyst was functional, another was due to a mesothelial inclusion cyst, and the third was most probably related to the transposition itself. Since the transposed ovary is difficult to palpate, CT or sonography can be used to demonstrate and follow up a cystic mass. Recognition of the appearance and location of the transposed ovary is important to avoid misinterpretation of a solid or cystic mass in patients who are at risk for tumor recurrence.

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Polycystic Ovary Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Polycystic Ovary Syndrome A A ... condition called polycystic ovary sydrome (PCOS) . What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome? Polycystic (pronounced: pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovary syndrome ...

  14. Overproductive ovaries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... imbalance can be caused by tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands, or by polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hyperandrogenism may include growth of excess body and facial hair, acne, amenorrhea (loss of menstrual periods), and changes in ...

  15. The Hippo/MST Pathway Member SAV1 Plays a Suppressive Role in Development of the Prehierarchical Follicles in Hen Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Dehui; Yuan, Shuguo; Xu, Rifu

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo/MST signaling pathway is a critical player in controlling cell proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of most tissues and organs in diverse species. Previous studies have shown that Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein which functions in the signaling system is expressed in mammalian ovaries and play a vital role in governing the follicle development. But the exact biological effects of chicken SAV1 in prehierarchical follicle development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SAV1 protein is predominantly expressed in the oocytes and undifferentiated granulosa cells in the various sized prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary, and the endogenous expression level of SAV1 mRNA appears down-regulated from the primordial follicles to the largest preovulatory follicles (F2-F1) by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Moreover, we found the intracellular SAV1 physically interacts with each of the pathway members, including STK4/MST1, STK3/MST2, LATS1 and MOB2 using western blotting. And SAV1 significantly promotes the phosphorylation of LATS1 induced by the kinase of STK4 or STK3 in vitro. Furthermore, SAV1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased proliferation of granulosa cells from the prehierarchical follicles (6–8 mm in diameter) by BrdU-incorporation assay, in which the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA was notably enhanced. Meanwhile, these findings were consolidated by the data of SAV1 overexpression. Taken together, the present results revealed that SAV1 can inhibit proliferation of the granulosa cells whereby the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA were negatively regulated. Accordingly, SAV1, as a member of the hippo/MST signaling pathway plays a suppressive role in ovarian follicle development by promoting phosphorylation and activity of the downstream LATS1, may consequently lead to prevention of the follicle

  16. In vitro embryo development and blastocyst hatching rates following vitrification of river buffalo embryos produced from oocytes recovered from slaughterhouse ovaries or live animals by ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Gupta, P S P; Ravindra, J P; Devaraj, M; Nandi, S

    2008-03-03

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether the source of oocytes (ovum pick up versus slaughterhouse ovaries) affected in vitro embryo production and embryo survival (as measured by blastocyst hatching rates) following vitrification in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Oocytes recovered from live buffaloes (n=6) by ovum pick up (OPU) and by manual aspiration from slaughterhouse ovaries were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured to blastocyst stage under same culture conditions. Vitrification of blastocysts was carried out in two steps at 24 degrees C. Embryos were equilibrated in 10% EG+10% DMSO+0.3 M sucrose in base medium for 4 min. Subsequently, the embryos were transferred into 25% EG+25% DMSO+0.3 M sucrose in base medium for 45 s and then the embryos were loaded into straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following warming, blastocysts were cultured in vitro for 48 h to assess hatching. Oocytes derived from live animals by OPU resulted in a significantly higher blastocyst yield then those derived from slaughterhouse ovaries (30.6+/-4.3 versus 18.5+/-1.8). Blastocyst hatching rates following vitrification of buffalo embryos produced from the oocytes collected from live animals by OPU was significantly higher than the oocytes collected from slaughterhouse ovaries (52.8+/-4.2 versus 40.2+/-4.4). In conclusion, the present study showed that source of oocytes (OPU versus slaughterhouse ovaries) affects the in vitro embryo development and blastocyst hatching rates following vitrification of embryos in buffaloes.

  17. Knockout of RNA Binding Protein MSI2 Impairs Follicle Development in the Mouse Ovary: Characterization of MSI1 and MSI2 during Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jessie M.; Sobinoff, Alexander P.; Gunter, Kara M.; Fraser, Barbara A.; Pye, Victoria; Bernstein, Ilana R.; Boon, Evan; Siddall, Nicole A.; De Andres, Luisa I.; Hime, Gary R.; Holt, Janet E.; Graf, Thomas; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanisms underlying follicle development in the ovary is crucial to understanding female fertility and is an area of increasing research interest. The RNA binding protein Musashi is essential for post-transcriptional regulation of oocyte maturation in Xenopus and is expressed during ovarian development in Drosophila. In mammals Musashi is important for spermatogenesis and male fertility, but its role in the ovary has yet to be characterized. In this study we determined the expression of mammalian Musashi proteins MSI1 and MSI2 during mouse folliculogenesis, and through the use of a MSI2-specific knockout mouse model we identified that MSI2 is essential for normal follicle development. Time-course characterization of MSI1 and MSI2 revealed distinct differences in steady-state mRNA levels and protein expression/localization at important developmental time-points during folliculogenesis. Using a gene-trap mouse model that inactivates Msi2, we observed a significant decrease in ovarian mass, and change in follicle-stage composition due to developmental blocking of antral stage follicles and pre-antral follicle loss through atresia. We also confirmed that hormonally stimulated Msi2-deficient mice produce significantly fewer MII oocytes (60.9% less than controls, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the majority of these oocytes are of poor viability (62.2% non-viable/apoptotic, p < 0.05), which causes a reduction in female fertility evidenced by decreased litter size in Msi2-deficient animals (33.1% reduction to controls, p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that MSI1 and MSI2 display distinct expression profiles during mammalian folliculogenesis and that MSI2 is required for pre-antral follicle development. PMID:26131972

  18. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy.

  19. Development, qualification, validation and application of the neutral red uptake assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells using a VITROCELL® VC10® smoke exposure system.

    PubMed

    Fields, Wanda; Fowler, Kathy; Hargreaves, Victoria; Reeve, Lesley; Bombick, Betsy

    2017-04-01

    Cytotoxicity assessment of combustible tobacco products by neutral red uptake (NRU) has historically used total particulate matter (TPM) or solvent captured gas vapor phase (GVP), rather than fresh whole smoke. Here, the development, validation and application of the NRU assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, following exposure to fresh whole smoke generated with the VITROCELL® VC10® system is described. Whole smoke exposure is particularly important as both particulate and vapor phases of tobacco smoke show cytotoxicity in vitro. The VITROCELL® VC10® system provides exposure at the air liquid interface (ALI) to mimic in vivo conditions for assessing the toxicological impact of smoke in vitro. Instrument and assay validations are crucial for comparative analyses.

  20. A combined treatment of ionomycin with ethanol improves blastocyst development of bovine oocytes harvested from stored ovaries and microinjected with spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, H; Shimoda, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2009-09-01

    Regardless of the presence of sperm-borne oocyte-activating factors, activation of bovine oocytes with exogenous activation stimuli is required for further development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The current study was designed to develop a new activation regimen for improving the blastocyst yield after ICSI of bovine oocytes harvested from ovaries stored at 10 to 12 degrees C for 24h. After ICSI, oocytes were treated with 5microM ionomycin for 5 min, 7% ethanol for 5 or 10min, ionomycin followed by ethanol (5 or 10 min), ionomycin followed by 10 microg/mL cycloheximide for 5h, or ionomycin followed by 1.9 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 3h. Across the activation regimens, the cleavage rates of ICSI oocytes (45% to 77%) were higher than those of parthenogenetically activated oocytes (11% to 21%; P<0.05). Activating the ICSI oocytes with ionomycin plus ethanol improved the blastocyst yield (29% to 30%) compared with that of nontreated oocytes (12%; P<0.05), but the other regimens did not improve the blastocyst yield (9% to 18%; P>0.05). Higher blastocyst yields were due to increasing the proportion of ICSI oocytes that passed through the early postfertilization events until cleavage. None of the regimens have any adverse effect on the quality of the blastocysts regarding the total cell number or the proportion of the inner cell mass cells. Thus, a new activation regimen using two triggers for single calcium increase effectively improved blastocyst yield after bovine ICSI using oocytes harvested from stored ovaries.

  1. Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Resistance, Not Changes in Body Weight, Mediate the Development of Endothelial Dysfunction in a Female Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Hurliman, Amanda; Keller Brown, Jennifer; Maille, Nicole; Mandala, Maurizio; Casson, Peter; Osol, George

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to differentiate the contributions of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance (IR), and body weight to the development of endothelial dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome and determine the effectiveness of insulin sensitization and antiandrogenic therapy after the establishment of vascular and metabolic dysfunction using a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. We hypothesized that the observed endothelial dysfunction was a direct steroidal effect, as opposed to changes in insulin sensitivity or body weight. Prepubertal female rats were randomized to the implantation of a pellet containing DHT or sham procedure. In phase 1, DHT-exposed animals were randomized to pair feeding to prevent weight gain or metformin, an insulin-sensitizing agent, from 5 to 14 weeks. In phase 2, DHT-exposed animals were randomized to treatment with metformin or flutamide, a nonsteroidal androgen receptor blocker from 12 to 16 weeks. Endothelial function was assessed by the vasodilatory response of preconstricted arteries to acetylcholine. Serum steroid levels were analyzed in phase 1 animals. Fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin were analyzed and homeostasis model assessment index calculated in all animals. Our data confirm the presence of endothelial dysfunction as well as increased body weight, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, and greater IR among DHT-treated animals. Even when normal weight was maintained through pair feeding, endothelial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia, and IR still developed. Furthermore, despite weight gain, treatment with metformin and flutamide improved insulin sensitivity and blood pressure and restored normal endothelial function. Therefore, the observed endothelial dysfunction is most likely a direct result of hyperandrogenism-induced reductions in insulin sensitivity, as opposed to weight gain.

  2. Nutrient-Induced Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role in the Development of Metabolic Aberration and Ovarian Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    González, Frank

    2015-07-01

    A pathophysiology paradigm shift has emerged with the discovery that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a proinflammatory state. Despite the dogma that the compensatory hyperinsulinemia of insulin resistance is the promoter of hyperandrogenism, physiological insulin infusion has no effect on androgen levels in PCOS. The dogma also does not explain the cause of hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction in the 30 to 50% of women with PCOS who are of normal weight and lack insulin resistance. Inflammation is the underpinning of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and may also be the cause of insulin resistance when present in PCOS. The origin of inflammation in PCOS has been ascribed to excess abdominal adiposity or frank obesity. However, nutrients such as glucose and saturated fat can incite inflammation from circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) of women with PCOS independent of excess adiposity and insulin resistance, and can also promote atherogenesis. Hyperandrogenism activates MNC in the fasting state to increase MNC sensitivity to nutrients, and is a potential mechanism for initiating inflammation in PCOS. However, chronic ovarian androgen suppression does not reduce inflammation in normal-weight women with PCOS. Direct exposure of ovarian theca cells to proinflammatory stimuli in vitro increases androgen production. These findings may be corroborated in vivo with anti-inflammatory therapy to normal-weight insulin-sensitive women with PCOS without abdominal adiposity to observe for amelioration of ovarian dysfunction.

  3. [Effects of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase b/bone morphogenetic protein-15 pathway on the follicular development in the mammalian ovary].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-qing; Chen, Li-yun; Zhang, Zheng-hong; wang, Zheng-chao

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, ovarian follicle is made of an oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells and theca cells. Follicular growth and development is a highly coordinated programmable process, which guarantees the normal oocyte maturation and makes it having the fertilizing capacity. The paracrine and autocrine between oocytes and granulosa cells are essential for the follicular development to provide a suitable microenvironment. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase /protein kinase B is one of these important regulatory signaling pathways during this developmental process, and bone morphogenetic protein-15 an oocyte-specific secreted signal molecule, which regulates the follicular development by paracrine in the mammalian ovary. The present article overviewed the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / protein kinase B signaling during the follicular development based on our previous investigation about protein kinase B /forkhead transcription factor forkhead family of transcription factors -3a, and then focused on the regulatory effects of bone morphogenetic protein-15, as a downstream signal molecule of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / forkhead family of transcription factors -3a pathway, on ovarian follicular development, which helped to further understand the molecular mechanism regulating the follicular development and to treat ovarian diseases like infertility.

  4. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  5. Analysis of the effects of increasing doses of ionizing radiation to the exteriorized rat ovary on follicular development, atresia, and serum gonadotropin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.; McMahon, A.

    1986-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the effects of environmental and therapeutic agents on the reproductive system, in particular, the ovary. To study the effects of controlled doses of ionizing radiation to the ovary, Sprague-Dawley rats had their ovaries exteriorized and subjected to increasing doses of radiation. There was a significant increase in ovarian follicular atresia, a significant increase in serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels, but no change in serum luteinizing hormone levels. This experimental protocol may facilitate the testing putative radioprotectants.

  6. [Peculiarities of the ovary structure in the rat offspring developing under conditions of the removed thyroid gland of female rat with the thyroxine replacement therapy and external radiation exposure in utero].

    PubMed

    Konoplia, E F; Pavlenko, V S; Banetskaia, N V; Krylova, I I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a single external gamma-radiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy (dose rate 9.08 x 10(-4) Gy/sec) on the 15th day of gestation in case of the removed complex of thyroid and parathyroid glands (thyroidparathyroidectomy) on the first day of gestation, as well as introduction of thyroxin and CaC12 on the structure of offspring ovary in postnatal ontogenesis (30-day old animals) was studied. It has been shown that thyroidparathyroidectomy of a female mother rat with thyroxine replacement therapy and irradiation, as well as the combination of these factors disturb the structure of ovarian tissues of the offspring. A single external irradiation on the 15th day of embryogenesis causes death of a considerable part of primordial follicles in the offspring ovary and growth of follicular layers in the secondary follicles. Thyroidparathyroidectomy of female rat on the first day of gestation with thyroxine replacement therapy causes delay in the development of follicles in the ovary at the early stages of maturation of 30-day old animals. The radiosensitivity of the ovarian tissues of the offspring that has been developed under the combined effect of the factors studied increases and results in an almost full loss of pool cells in the ovary of infant rats.

  7. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Portunus trituberculatus Ovary and Testis by RNA-Seq: Identification of Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xian-liang; Liu, Ping; Jia, Fu-long; Li, Jian; Gao, Bao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important crab species in East Asia countries. Gonadal development is a physiological process of great significance to the reproduction as well as commercial seed production for P. trituberculatus. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms governing the developmental processes of gonads in this species. To open avenues of molecular research on P. trituberculatus gonadal development, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was employed to develop deep-coverage transcriptome sequencing data for its gonads. Illumina sequencing generated 58,429,148 and 70,474,978 high-quality reads from the ovary and testis cDNA library, respectively. All these reads were assembled into 54,960 unigenes with an average sequence length of 879 bp, of which 12,340 unigenes (22.45% of the total) matched sequences in GenBank non-redundant database. Based on our transcriptome analysis as well as published literature, a number of candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development of P. trituberculatus were identified, such as FAOMeT, mPRγ, PGMRC1, PGDS, PGER4, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSDs. Differential expression analysis generated 5,919 differentially expressed genes between ovary and testis, among which many genes related to gametogenesis and several genes previously reported to be critical in differentiation and development of gonads were found, including Foxl2, Wnt4, Fst, Fem-1 and Sox9. Furthermore, 28,534 SSRs and 111,646 high-quality SNPs were identified in this transcriptome dataset. This work represents the first transcriptome analysis of P. trituberculatus gonads using the next generation sequencing technology and provides a valuable dataset for understanding molecular mechanisms controlling development of gonads and facilitating future investigation of reproductive biology in this species. The molecular markers obtained in this study will provide a fundamental basis for

  8. A comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of infant and adult mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Pan, Linlin; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaonuan; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2014-10-01

    Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD). We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development.

  9. Growth differentiation factor 9 of Megalobrama amblycephala: molecular characterization and expression analysis during the development of early embryos and growing ovaries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Xiao; Wei, Xin Lan; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Li Ping; Wang, Wei Min; Li, Jun Yan; Wang, Huan Ling

    2014-02-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factorβ superfamily and plays an essential role during follicle maturation in mammals. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of gdf9 was obtained from Megalobrama amblycephala. The cDNA sequence is 2,061 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,287 bp encoding 428 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared identities of about 42-86 % with the homologues of other vertebrates. During the early development of embryos, the gdf9 mRNA was detected in zygote with significantly high level and declined sharply by 47 and 87 % at 4 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and 6 hpf and even to an undetectable level through advancing stages. Expression analysis based on quantitative real-time PCR revealed that gdf9 mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary, but much lower levels were also found in some nonovarian tissues. Within the follicle, gdf9 mRNA was localized both in the oocytes and the follicle layer cells by in situ hybridization. During the ovarian cycle, gdf9 mRNA significantly decreased after the previtellogenic stage and became to increase again after the fully grown stage. The results imply that Gdf9 may play critical physiological functions in M. amblycephala early embryonic development and reproduction.

  10. 4: Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norman, Robert J; Wu, Ruijin; Stankiewicz, Marcin T

    2004-02-02

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition characterised by menstrual abnormalities and clinical or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism. Features of PCOS may manifest at any age, ranging from childhood (premature puberty), teenage years (hirsutism, menstrual abnormalities), early adulthood and middle life (infertility, glucose intolerance) to later life (diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease). While pelvic ultrasound examination is useful, many women without PCOS have polycystic ovaries; ultrasound evidence is not necessary for the diagnosis. Testing for glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia is wise, especially in obese women, as diabetes mellitus is common in PCOS. Lifestyle changes as recommended in diabetes are fundamental for treatment; addition of insulin-sensitising agents (eg, metformin) may be valuable in circumstances such as anovulatory infertility. Infertility can be treated successfully in most women by diet and exercise, clomiphene citrate with or without metformin, ovarian drilling, or ovulation induction with gonadotrophins; in-vitro fertilisation should be avoided unless there are other indications.

  11. Development of a standard protocol for in vitro cytogenetic testing with Chinese hamster ovary cells: comparison of results for 22 compounds in two laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, S.M.; Bloom, A.D.; Resnick, M.; Margolin, B.H.; Nakamura, F.; Archer, P.; Zeiger, E.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem of cytogenetics testing in mammalian cells is lack of agreement of results among laboratories. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive in vitro test protocol that was applicable to large-scale chemical screening and yielded comparable results in two laboratories. The authors used sister chromatid exchange (SEC) and chromosome aberration (CAb) tests in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Five clastogens were tested in the first two-laboratory comparison: mitomycin-C, triethylenemelamine, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cyclophosphamide, and benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. There was quite good agreement between laboratories. Seventeen compounds were then tested blind in the two laboratories. As testing proceeded, some discrepancies occurred between the laboratories, and the protocol was modified in attempts to improve the resolution of marginal responses and make dose selection more consistent. This protocol gave comparable results in the two laboratories in many cases and by testing up to a maximum dose, limited by solubility and/or toxicity, should detect a high proportion of clastogens and SCE inducers.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Dewailly, D; Hieronimus, S; Mirakian, P; Hugues, J-N

    2010-02-01

    1. The Rotterdam classification should be used to define PCOS in the event of: menstrual cycle anomalies; amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or long cycles, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound appearance of polycystic ovaries. 2. The presence of two of these three criteria is sufficient once all other diagnoses have been ruled out. 3. Diagnosis of hirsutism should not be based on the Ferriman-Gallway score. 4. The ultrasound definition of PCOS contains precise criteria that must be included in the report: presence of at least 12 follicles in each ovary measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, and/or increase in ovary size>10 ml. 5. Screening for elevated plasma LH no longer necessary. Testing for GnRH serves no purpose. 6. Routine screening for metabolic abnormalities should be carried out systematically based on weight, height and BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and laboratory parameters: plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol. 7. In the case of obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)), oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is recommended where fasting serum glucose is normal. 8. Clomiphene citrate (CC) remains the first-line therapy for ovulation induction. In patients with BMI>30, it should be preceded by improvement of metabolic status through appropriate lifestyle modifications.

  13. The Mammalian Ovary from Genesis to Revelation

    PubMed Central

    Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Two major functions of the mammalian ovary are the production of germ cells (oocytes), which allow continuation of the species, and the generation of bioactive molecules, primarily steroids (mainly estrogens and progestins) and peptide growth factors, which are critical for ovarian function, regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and development of secondary sex characteristics. The female germline is created during embryogenesis when the precursors of primordial germ cells differentiate from somatic lineages of the embryo and take a unique route to reach the urogenital ridge. This undifferentiated gonad will differentiate along a female pathway, and the newly formed oocytes will proliferate and subsequently enter meiosis. At this point, the oocyte has two alternative fates: die, a common destiny of millions of oocytes, or be fertilized, a fate of at most approximately 100 oocytes, depending on the species. At every step from germline development and ovary formation to oogenesis and ovarian development and differentiation, there are coordinated interactions of hundreds of proteins and small RNAs. These studies have helped reproductive biologists to understand not only the normal functioning of the ovary but also the pathophysiology and genetics of diseases such as infertility and ovarian cancer. Over the last two decades, parallel progress has been made in the assisted reproductive technology clinic including better hormonal preparations, prenatal genetic testing, and optimal oocyte and embryo analysis and cryopreservation. Clearly, we have learned much about the mammalian ovary and manipulating its most important cargo, the oocyte, since the birth of Louise Brown over 30 yr ago. PMID:19776209

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the expression pattern of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in the Acomys cahirinus ovarian cells during its postnatal development. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of ERalpha and ERbeta in germinal epithelium cells and interstitial tissue. Both these ER subtypes were also seen in granulosa cells and oocytes of growing follicles, however, the level of ERbeta expression was higher in comparison with ERalpha. In contrast to ERbeta, ERalpha protein was also present in theca cells. The expression of ERs increased with animals' age, but it decreased during follicular maturation. Moreover, the immunolocalization of ER subtypes in luteal cells showed that not ERbeta, but ERalpha expression is up-regulated throughout corpus luteum development. These immunohistochemical studies demonstrate, for the first time, that ERalpha is also expressed in the mouse granulosa cells and it may be a mediator of estrogen action in granulosa cells proliferation and differentiation.

  15. Sequences 5' of the basement membrane laminin beta 1 chain gene (LAMB1) direct the expression of beta-galactosidase during development of the mouse testis and ovary.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Gudas, L J

    1997-12-01

    The murine LAMB1 gene encoding laminin beta 1 is expressed in the developing male and female gonads and mesonephros. To identify the cis-acting elements regulating the expression of LAMB1, murine transgenic lines were generated by fusing regions of the LAMB1 gene to the Eschericia coli lacZ gene. The p3.9LAM beta gal construct contained approximately 4 kb of 5' flanking sequence and directed beta-galactosidase expression in many different organs including the kidney, mammary gland, and the male and female genital systems, the focus of this report. In male embryos, between gestational ages E 14.5 and birth beta-galactosidase was transiently expressed in the prospermatogonia cells of the testis and in the differentiating epithelial cells in the ductus deferens, ductus epididymis, and seminal vesicles. In female embryos, beta-galactosidase was not detected in the ovary until about 1 week after birth; at this time, beta-galactosidase was expressed by oocytes of primary and secondary follicles. In contrast, transgenic mice carrying the first 0.7 kb of LAMB1 fused to the lacZ gene expressed beta-galactosidase only in the prospermatogonia cells of the testis. Thus, the cis-acting element(s) necessary for the expression of the LAMB1 gene in prospermatogonia cells are located in the first 0.7 kb of LAMB1 5' flanking sequence; element(s) required for expression of the LAMB1 gene in oocytes and epithelial cells of the mesonephric ducts, mesonephric tubules, the ductus deferens, ductus epididymis, and seminal vesicles are located with 4 kb 5' of the transcription initiation site.

  16. Effect of a high fat diet on ovary morphology, in vitro development, in vitro fertilisation rate and oocyte quality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Maryam; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Alizadeh, Zohreh; Vahidinia, Aliasghar; Vahabian, Mehrangiz; Hosseini, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on oocyte maturation and quality in a mouse model. METHODS Female BALB/c mice were allocated to one of the following groups: (a) control group (n = 40), which received a controlled diet; or (b) HFD group (n = 40), which received an HFD for 12 weeks. Sections of the ovary were examined histologically. The number of follicles and corpora lutea were counted. In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) were assessed in germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes, respectively. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and leptin receptor genes in GV and MII oocytes was evaluated using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reactions. RESULTS In the HFD group, there was a decreased number of primordial and Graafian follicles, as well as corpora lutea (p < 0.05). The rate of oocyte development to the MII stage was also reduced (p < 0.001). Cumulus expansion was observed more frequently in the control group than the HFD group (p < 0.05). The IVF rate in the HFD group was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In the HFD group, BMP15 and leptin receptor genes were upregulated in the GV stage (p > 0.05) and MII stage (p < 0.05), compared to the control group. CONCLUSION An HFD reduces folliculogenesis in the primordial and Graafian stages, in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation rates, as well as oocyte quality in mice. PMID:26512150

  17. NPPC/NPR2 signaling is essential for oocyte meiotic arrest and cumulus oophorus formation during follicular development in the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Kiyosu, Chiyo; Tsuji, Takehito; Yamada, Kaoru; Kajita, Shimpei; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2012-08-01

    Natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) and its high affinity receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2), have been assumed to be involved in female reproduction and have recently been shown to play an essential role in maintaining meiotic arrest of oocytes. However, the overall role of NPPC/NPR2 signaling in female reproduction and ovarian function is still less clear. Here we report the defects observed in oocytes and follicles of mice homozygous for Nppc(lbab) or Npr2(cn), mutant alleles of Nppc or Npr2 respectively to clarify the exact consequences of lack of NPPC/NPR2 signaling in female reproductive systems. We found that: i) Npr2(cn)/Npr2(cn) female mice ovulated a comparable number of oocytes as normal mice but never produced a litter; ii) all ovulated oocytes of Npr2(cn)/Npr2(cn) and Nppc(lbab)/Nppc(lbab) mice exhibited abnormalities, such as fragmented or degenerated ooplasm and never developed to the two-cell stage after fertilization; iii) histological examination of the ovaries of Npr2(cn)/Npr2(cn) and Nppc(lbab)/Nppc(lbab) mice showed that oocytes in antral follicles prematurely resumed meiosis and that immediately before ovulation, oocytes showed disorganized chromosomes or fragmented ooplasm; and iv) ovulated oocytes and oocytes in the periovulatory follicles of the mutant mice were devoid of cumulus cells. These findings demonstrate that NPPC/NPR2 signaling is essential for oocyte meiotic arrest and cumulus oophorus formation, which affects female fertility through the production of oocytes with developmental capacity.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome and acne.

    PubMed

    Chuan, Sandy S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. It is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS often experience dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, including hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. This article will review the treatments for acne due to androgen excess in PCOS women.

  19. Inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in human ovary in vitro results in increased activation of primordial follicles but compromises development of growing follicles.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Marie; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2014-08-01

    In the mammalian ovary a small number of follicles are steadily recruited from the quiescent pool to undergo development. Follicle loss, maintenance and growth are strictly controlled by complex molecular interactions including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathway. Stimulation of PI3K promotes phosphorylation of Akt resulting in follicle survival and activation of growth whereas this pathway is suppressed by the actions of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dipotassium bisperoxo(5-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxyl)oxovanadate (bpV), a reversible inhibitor of PTEN, on the activation, survival and development of human ovarian follicles in vitro. Biopsied ovarian tissue fragments were obtained from 17 women aged 23-46 years and exposed to 1 µM bpV(HOpic) (n = 146) or control medium (n = 128) for 24 h. Media were then replaced with control medium and all tissue incubated for a further 5 days. Ovarian tissue from each treatment group was fixed after the initial 24 h culture period and phosphorylated Akt was quantified by western blotting. After 6 days incubation all tissue fragments were inspected under light microscopy and any secondary follicles ≥100 µm isolated. Isolated follicles were cultured individually in control medium supplemented with 100 ng/ml recombinant human activin A. Tissue fragments without follicles suitable for isolation were fixed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. During 6 days culture, follicle activation occurred in tissue samples from both treatment groups but with significantly more follicles progressing to the secondary stage of development in the presence of 1 µM bpV(HOpic) compared with control (31 versus 16%; P < 0.05). Increased activation was associated with increased Akt phosphorylation and increased nuclear export of FOXO3. However isolated and cultured follicles that had been exposed to bpV(HOpic) showed

  20. Ovary and uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger G

    2008-12-01

    Ovarian and uterine transplantation are procedures gaining more attention again because of potential applications in respectively fertility preservation for cancer and other patients and, more tentatively, women with uterine agenesis or hysterectomy. Cryopreservation of tissue slices, and possibly whole organs, is providing opportunities for banking ovaries for indefinite periods before transplanting them back to restore fertility. The natural plasticity of this organ facilitates grafting to different sites where they can be revascularized and rapidly restore the normal physiology of secretion and ovulation. Ischemic damage is a chief limitation because many follicles are lost, at least in avascular grafts, and functional longevity is reduced. Nevertheless, grafts of young ovarian tissue, even after cryopreservation, can be highly fertile in laboratory rodents and, in humans, autografts have functioned for up to 3 years before needing replacement. Transplantation by vascular anastomosis provides potentially longer function but it is technically much more demanding and riskier for the recipient. It is the only practicable method with the uterus, and has enabled successful pregnancies in several species, but not yet in humans. Contrary to claims made many years ago, neither organ is privileged immunologically, and allografts become rapidly rejected except in hosts whose immune system is deficient or suppressed pharmacologically. All in all, transplantation of these organs, especially the ovary, provides a broad platform of opportunities for research and new applications in reproductive medicine and conservation biology.

  1. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and α-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur.

  2. Computer-generated ovaries to assist follicle counting experiments.

    PubMed

    Skodras, Angelos; Marcelli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries), with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): metformin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is classically characterised by an accumulation of incompletely developed follicles in the ovaries due to anovulation. However, since the publication of the Rotterdam criteria, there is acceptance that menstrual cycle and endocrine dysfunction with hyperandrogenism is more important in reaching the diagnosis than ultrasound findings. It is diagnosed in up to 10% of women attending gynaecology clinics, but the prevalence in the population as a whole varies from 10% to 20%, depending on which diagnostic criteria are used. PCOS has been associated with hirsutism, infertility, acne, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and endometrial hyperplasia. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of metformin on hirsutism and menstrual frequency in women with PCOS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: metformin compared with placebo/no treatment, metformin compared with weight loss intervention, or metformin compared with cyproterone acetate-ethinylestradiol. PMID:25814168

  4. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  5. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of silkwormBmovo-1 and wild type silkworm ovary

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Liyuan; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Song, Zuowei; Lu, Jiayu; Chen, Xueying; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    The detailed molecular mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovary size is unclear. To uncover the mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovarian development and oogenesis using RNA-Seq, we compared the transcriptomes of wild type (WT) and Bmovo-1-overexpressing silkworm (silkworm+Bmovo-1) ovaries. Using a pair-end Illumina Solexa sequencing strategy, 5,296,942 total reads were obtained from silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries and 6,306,078 from WT ovaries. The average read length was about 100 bp. Clean read ratios were 98.79% for silkworm+Bmovo-1 and 98.87% for WT silkworm ovaries. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed 123 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes in silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries. These differentially expressed genes were enriched in the extracellular and extracellular spaces and involved in metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, cellular processes and organismal systems. Bmovo-1 overexpression in silkworm ovaries might promote anabolism for ovarian development and oogenesis and oocyte proliferation and transport of nutrients to ovaries by altering nutrient partitioning, which would support ovary development. Excessive consumption of nutrients for ovary development alters nutrient partitioning and deters silk protein synthesis. PMID:26643037

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Homburg, Roy

    2008-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy, affecting 5-10% of the female population. It involves overproduction of ovarian androgens leading to a heterogeneous range of symptoms including hirsutism, acne, anovulation and infertility. Hyperinsulinaemia, exacerbated by obesity, is often a key feature. Treatment depends on the presenting symptoms, which may often be ameliorated by weight loss where relevant. Anti-androgen preparations are used for hyperandrogenic symptoms, and clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line treatment for anovulation and infertility. Aromatase inhibitors are being investigated as an alternative to CC. Failure to conceive with CC can be treated in a number of ways, including the addition of insulin-lowering agents (mainly metformin), low-dose gonadotrophin therapy or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Although the exact aetiology of PCOS is not known, the therapeutic alternatives provide reasonably successful symptomatic treatment.

  7. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, G; Gangadharan, V P; Elizabath, K A; Preetha, S; Chithrathara, K

    2000-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas are rare extramedullary tumors of malignant myeloid precursor cells. Exceedingly rare in childhood, it commonly involves skin, lymph nodes, bone, and the spine. Ovarian involvement is rare. It can arise de novo, precede the development of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, or be the sole manifestation of relapse. We describe a 26-year-old woman with granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary without any hematologic disorder.

  8. Comparative proteomics analysis of spermary and ovary in Hyriopsis schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwu; Wang, Dexia; Zhou, Yan; Gu, Yiran; Wu, Di; Wang, Junhua; Hong, Yijiang

    2017-03-01

    We provide the first large-scale quantitative proteomics analysis in Hyriopsis schlegelii. To investigate the proteins expressed in the gonads, a quantitative proteomics approach has been utilized to analyze differentially expressed proteins between the spermary and ovary. In this study, we identified and quantified 2416 proteins in the gonads of Hyriopsis schlegelii. Of these, 559 proteins showed significantly different expression between the spermary and ovary. Some specific proteins expressed in either the spermary or ovary were identified in Hyriopsis schlegelii. In addition, a series of proteins related to gametogenesis were also identified. Compared with previous reports, many proteins in Hyriopsis schlegelii identified here have different expression patterns between the spermary and ovary. The special hermaphroditism in Hyriopsis schlegelii may contribute to these inconsistent results. The provided proteomics data could be considered as a starting point for subsequent studies focusing on the proteins involved in sexual gland development and maturity.

  9. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. )

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  10. Metformin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Omran, Maha Yousef Soliman

    2007-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility due to anovulation, affects 4–7% of women). Etiology of PCOS remains largely unknown, familial aggregation of cases suggests genetic susceptibility to the disorder. Though genes involved remain unknown, recent evidence points to a gene of the insulin receptor. Genes implicated in ovarian follicular development may also play a role. A fundamental aspect of the syndrome seems to be a defect in insulin metabolism. There is consistent evidence that increase of body weight may favour a more severe hyperandrogenism. Treatment of PCOS has been mostly symptomatic. Only recently has the use of insulinomimetic or insulin sensitizing agents provided an option to treat the presumed underlying cause of this disorder, which is insulin resistance. Metformin appears to improve risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, indicating that its use could be associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease in patients with PCOS. The use of metformin in hyperinsulinemic women with PCOS improved the lipid profile, including decreases in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration. PMID:21475454

  11. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a relatively common disorder among adolescent women. The typical clinical features including menstrual irregularities and hirsutism are usually not apparent until middle to late adolescence. Yet studies suggest that PCOS may begin in early puberty. Young women with premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean Hispanic and African American ancestry, and/or obesity are more likely to develop PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS may have elevated total or free testosterone, androstenedione, and luteinizing hormone levels; insulin resistance; and hyperinsulinemia. The laboratory evaluation and management of the adolescent with suspected PCOS should be individualized on the basis of the clinical features and symptoms. The cornerstone of most treatment strategies includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin to decrease testosterone levels and regulate the menstrual cycle. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne and excess facial hair, and hair removal is dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. A healthy approach to eating, in some cases weight loss, and exercise is encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and often requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  12. Morphology and function of cryopreserved whole ovine ovaries after heterotopic autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Banerjee, Jashoman; Yazici, Ilker; Borowczyk, Ewa; Bilski, Jerzy J; Sharma, Rakesh K; Siemionov, Maria; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to perform complex characterization of cryopreserved and then autotransplanted ovaries including determination of the ability to respond to in vivo follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-treatment, fertilizability of retrieved oocytes, and morphology, vascularization, cellular proliferation and apoptosis in sheep. Methods Mature crossbred ewes were divided into two groups; an intact (control) group (n = 4), and autotransplanted group (n = 4) in which oophorectomy was performed laparoscopically and ovaries with intact vascular pedicles frozen, thawed and transplanted back into the same animal at a different site. Approximately five months after autotransplantation, estrus was synchronized, ewes were treated with FSH, and ovaries were collected. For all ovaries, number of visible follicles was determined, and collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were matured and fertilized in vitro. Remaining ovarian tissues were fixed for evaluation of morphology, expression of factor VIII (marker of endothelial cells), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; expressed by pericytes and smooth muscle cells), and smooth muscle cell actin (SMCA; marker of pericytes and smooth muscle cells), and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Two fully functional ovaries were collected from each control ewe (total 8 ovaries). Results Out of eight autotransplanted ovaries, a total of two ovaries with developing follicles were found. Control ewes had 10.6 +/- 2.7 follicles/ovary, oocytes were in vitro fertilized and developed to the blastocyst stage. One autotransplanted ewe had 4 visible follicles from which 3 COC were collected, but none of them was fertilized. The morphology of autotransplanted and control ovaries was similar. In control and autotransplanted ovaries, primordial, primary, secondary, antral and preovulatory follicles were found along with fully functional vascularization which was manifested by expression of factor VIII, VEGF and SMCA

  13. Adipocyte biology in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barber, T M; Franks, S

    2013-07-05

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that is associated with an adverse metabolic profile including insulin resistance. There is a clear association between obesity, the development of PCOS and the severity of its phenotypic, biochemical and metabolic features. Evidence to support this link includes data from epidemiological, pathophysiological and genetic studies. Given the importance of obesity in the development and manifestation of PCOS, ongoing research into the many facets of adipocyte biology in women with the condition is important and should continue to be a priority. In this review article, we discuss the existing literature on fat distribution, adipokines, adipocyte hypertrophy and adipocyte steroid metabolism in women with PCOS.

  14. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    PubMed

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  15. Cryopreservation of ovaries from neonatal marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hideyuki H.; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ovary of neonatal nonhuman primates contains the highest number of immature oocytes, but its cryopreservation has not yet been sufficiently investigated in all life stages. In the current study, we investigated cryodamage after vitrification/warming of neonatal ovaries from a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A Cryotop was used for cryopreservation of whole ovaries. The morphology of the vitrified/warmed ovaries was found to be equivalent to that of fresh ovaries. No significant difference in the number of oocytes retaining normal morphology per unit area in histological sections was found between the two groups. In an analysis of dispersed cells from the ovaries, however, the cell viability of the vitrified/warmed group tended to be decreased. The results of a comet assay showed no significant differences in DNA damage. These results show that cryopreservation of neonatal marmoset ovaries using vitrification may be useful as a storage system for whole ovaries. PMID:26876597

  16. Female reproductive aging is master-planned at the level of ovary.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  17. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  18. Sliding indirect hernia containing both ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol L

    2005-09-01

    Although sliding indirect inguinal hernias containing the ipsilateral ovary and fallopian tube are not uncommon in infant girls, sliding hernias containing both ovaries are rare. This report describes a large indirect inguinal hernia in a 1-year-old infant girl that contained the left uterine fundus, left bladder ear, as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.

  19. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for...

  20. [Genetic and epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Herczeg, Zita; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Dézsi, Csilla; Nagy, Zsolt; Szabó, János

    2016-08-01

    The development of polycystic ovary syndrome and its exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear, but environmental and genetic factors likely play a role. Exposition to teratogenic effects during the prenatal development can lead to chronic diseases in the postnatal period. This finding confirms the common familial aggregation as well. A literature search was conducted up to January 1, 2016 for articles dealing with the genetic or epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome. This review will discuss the current understanding of the genetic basis and clinical presentation of this disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(32), 1275-1281.

  1. Mammalian ovary differentiation - a focus on female meiosis.

    PubMed

    Baillet, Adrienne; Mandon-Pepin, Béatrice

    2012-06-05

    Over the past 50 years, the ovary development has been subject of fewer studies as compare to the male pathway. Nevertheless due to the advancement of genetics, mouse ES cells and the development of genetic models, studies of ovarian differentiation was boosted. This review emphasizes some of new progresses in the research field of the mammalian ovary differentiation that have occurred in recent years with focuses of the period around prophase I of meiosis and of recent roles of small non-RNAs in the ovarian gene expression.

  2. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  3. Proteomic Profiling for Identification of Novel Biomarkers Differentially Expressed in Human Ovaries from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Zhang, Jiangyu; Deng, Qingshan; Li, Jieming; Li, Zhengfen; Xiao, Yao; Hu, Shuiwang; Li, Tiantian; Tan, Qiuxiao; Li, Xiaofang; Luo, Bingshu; Mo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify differential protein expression pattern associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Twenty women were recruited for the study, ten with PCOS as a test group and ten without PCOS as a control group. Differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis and mass spectroscopy were employed to identify proteins that were differentially expressed between the PCOS and normal ovaries. The differentially expressed proteins were further validated by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results DIGE analysis revealed eighteen differentially expressed proteins in the PCOS ovaries of which thirteen were upregulated, and five downregulated. WB and IHC confirmed the differential expression of membrane-associated progesterone receptor component 1 (PGRMC1), retinol-binding protein 1 (RBP1), heat shock protein 90B1, calmodulin 1, annexin A6, and tropomyosin 2. Also, WB analysis revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher expression of PGRMC1 and RBP1 in PCOS ovaries as compared to the normal ovaries. The differential expression of the proteins was also validated by IHC. Conclusions The present study identified novel differentially expressed proteins in the ovarian tissues of women with PCOS that can serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of PCOS using molecular interventions. PMID:27846214

  4. Fasciola hepatica: a light and electron microscope study of the ovary and of the development of oocytes within eggs in the uterus provides an insight into reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R E B; Moffett, D; Forster, F I; Trudgett, A G; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2016-05-15

    The ultrastructure of the ovary of Fasciola hepatica collected from field-infected sheep, was compared with that of flukes from laboratory-infected rats harbouring the Oberon or the Cullompton fluke isolate. At the periphery of the ovarian tubules, in all flukes, interstitial tissue was identified that appears to provide physical support and facilitate the metabolism of the germinal-line cells. Oogonia undergo mitotic division to maintain the cell population and to produce oocytes. Early oocytes feature conspicuous synaptonemal complexes in the nucleoplasm, and these become less evident as the oocytes grow in size, move towards the core of the ovarian tubule, and synthesise osmiophilic bodies. The latter may represent cortical granules, and serve to block polyspermy. The identity of the synaptonemal complexes was confirmed by immunocytochemical labelling of synaptonemal proteins. The occurrence of synaptonemal complexes in the oocytes of all fluke types examined indicates that pairing of bivalent chromosomes, with the potential for genetic recombination and chiasmata formation, is a feature of the triploid aspermic parthenogenetic Cullompton flukes, as well as of the wild-type out-breeding field-derived and Oberon isolate flukes. In oocytes within shelled eggs in the proximal uterus of all flukes, condensed chromosomes align at meiotic metaphase plates. Following the reduction division, two equal pronuclei appear in each oocyte in the distal uterus. On the basis of these observations, a mechanism of facultative parthenogenesis for F. hepatica is proposed that accommodates the survival and clonal expansion of triploid aspermic isolates.

  5. Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

  6. [Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Belosi, C; Giuliani, M; Suriano, R; Sagnella, F; Lanzone, A

    2004-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorders among women in reproductive age, but diagnostic criteria used in clinical practice are still controversial. In 1990 the National Institute of HEALTH (NIH) conference on PCOS recommended that diagnostic criteria should include biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction (in the absence of non-classical adrenal hyperplasia) without considering the morphological diagnosis of polycystic ovary by ultrasound as an essential part of the diagnosis. In the Rotterdam PCOS workshop of May 2003, however, PCOS is diagnosed when 2 of the following criteria are recognized: oligomenorrhea and/or anovulation, clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, ultrasound findings of polycystic ovary. Further-more, it is underlined that the metabolic study is not necessary for PCOS diagnosis, while it is suggested for "at risk patients" (obesity, diabetes, familiar and obstetrical history) with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A recent study carried out by our group underlined the role of ultrasound parameter, in particular suggesting a ratio between ovarian stroma area and total area of the ovarian section (S/A), with a cut-off of 0.34, as "gold parameter" for PCOS diagnosis, because it shows high sensitivity and specificity (96.3%, 97.0% for the S/A).

  7. Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tsikouras, P; Spyros, L; Manav, B; Zervoudis, S; Poiana, C; Nikolaos, T; Petros, P; Dimitraki, M; Koukouli, C; Galazios, G; von Tempelhoff, GF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: To elucidate the prepubertal risk factors associated with the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and determine the special clinical manifestations of the syndrome in this transitional time of a woman’s life. Objective: To propose therapeutic targets and regimens, not only to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, but also to improve the self-esteem of a young girl who matures into womanhood. Methods and Results: A systematic review of literature was performed through electronic database searches (Pubmed, Medline and Embase). Studies published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals from 1996 to 2013 were included. The selected studies focused on the risk factors, the unique features and treatment options of the PCOS in puberty. The pathogenesis of the PCOS was hypothesized to be based on interactions between genetic and certain environmental factors. The diagnosis was usually difficult in young girls. The syndrome was related to a greater risk of future infertility, type II diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Early treatment was crucial to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, especially infertility and cardiovascular disease. Discussion:The recognition of the early signs of PCOS during or even before adolescence is of great importance. It is essential to establish the correct diagnosis for PCOS and rule out other causes of androgen excess in young women with hyperandrogenism. The type of treatment applied should be considered on an individual basis. Abbreviations: PCOS = Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PMID:26351529

  8. Polycystic ovary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCOS Images Endocrine glands Pelvic laparoscopy Female reproductive anatomy Stein-Leventhal syndrome Uterus Follicle development References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reporductive axis. In: ...

  9. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries.

  10. Developmental morphology of the neonatal alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) ovary.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Uribe-Aranzábal, Mari Carmen; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-03-01

    American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) ovary development is incomplete at hatching. During the months following hatching, the cortical processes of oogenesis started in ovo continues and folliculogenesis is initiated. Additionally, the medullary region of the gonad undergoes dramatic restructuring. We describe alligator ovarian histology at hatching, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age in order to characterize the timing of morphological development and compare these findings to chicken ovary development. At hatching, the ovarian cortex presents a germinal epithelium containing oogonia and a few primary oocytes irregularly scattered between somatic epithelial cells. The hatchling medulla shows fragmentation indicative of the formation of lacunae. By 1 week of age, oocytes form growing nests and show increased interactions with somatic cells, indicative of the initiation of folliculogenesis. Medullary lacunae increase in diameter and contain secretory material in their lumen. At 1 month, nest sizes and lacunar diameters continue to enlarge. Pachytene oocytes surrounded by somatic cells are more frequent. Trabeculae composed of dense irregular connective tissue divide cortical nests. Three months after hatching oocytes in meiotic stages of prophase I up to diplotene are present. The ovary displays many enlarged follicles with oocytes in diplotene arrest, thecal layers, lampbrush chromosomes, and complete layers of follicular cells. The medulla is an elaborated complex of vascularized lacunae underlying the cortex and often containing discrete lymphoid aggregates. While the general morphology of the alligator ovary is similar to that of the chicken ovary, the progression of oogenesis and folliculogenesis around hatching is notably slower in alligators. Diplotene oocytes are observed at hatching in chickens, but not until 3 months in alligators. Folliculogenesis is completed at 3 weeks in chickens whereas it is still progressing at 3 months in alligators.

  11. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Christopher R.; Marshall, John C.

    2017-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman reports having hirsutism and irregular menses. She describes unpredictable and infrequent menses (five or six per year) since menarche at 11 years of age. Dark, coarse facial hair began to develop at 13 years of age. The symptoms worsened after she gained weight in college. The physical examination includes a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 29, blood pressure of 135/85 mm Hg, and moderate hirsutism without virilization. Laboratory tests reveal a total testosterone level of 65 ng per deciliter (2.3 nmol per liter) (assay reference range, 14 to 53 ng per deciliter [0.5 to 1.8 nmol per liter]), calculated free testosterone level of 15.3 pg per milliliter (53.1 pmol per liter) (assay reference range, 0.6 to 6.8 pg per milliliter [2.1 to 23.6 pmol per liter]), and glycated hemoglobin level of 5.7% (normal value, ≤5.6%). How should this case be evaluated and managed? PMID:27406348

  12. Bilateral Inguinal Hernias Containing Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Basrur, Gurudutt Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernias are rare in females. The authors report a case of bilateral inguinal hernias in a 10-year-old female. On exploration, the patient was found to be having a sliding hernia containing incarcerated ovary as contents on both sides. Peroperatively the contents were reduced, the sac was transfixed at its base and the redundant sac was excised. The repair of this form of hernias is more difficult because of adhesions between the contents and the wall of the sac and risk of damage during dissection. A description of this clinical presentation in the pre operative assessment and operative management are discussed in this report. PMID:25918632

  13. Potential role of retinoids in ovarian physiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanwen; Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Wang, Fengge; Zhou, Xu

    2017-03-27

    Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, retinoid signaling plays a key role in initiating meiosis of germ cells of the mammalian fetal ovary. Recently, studies indicated that precise retinoid level regulation in the ovary provides a molecular control of ovarian development, steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. Besides, abnormal retinoid signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common ovarian endocrinopathies in reproductive-aged women worldwide. This review primarily summarizes recent advancements made in investigating the action of retinoid signaling in ovarian physiology as well as the abnormal retinoid signaling in PCOS.

  14. Removal of mouse ovary fat pad affects sex hormones, folliculogenesis and fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Hui; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Teng; Guo, Lei; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Hou, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Shen, Wei; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    As a fat storage organ, adipose tissue is distributed widely all over the body and is important for energy supply, body temperature maintenance, organ protection, immune regulation and so on. In humans, both underweight and overweight women find it hard to become pregnant, which suggests that appropriate fat storage can guarantee the female reproductive capacity. In fact, a large mass of adipose tissue distributes around the reproductive system both in the male and female. However, the functions of ovary fat pad (the nearest adipose tissue to ovary) are not known. In our study, we found that the ovary fat pad-removed female mice showed decreased fertility and less ovulated mature eggs. We further identified that only a small proportion of follicles developed to antral follicle, and many follicles were blocked at the secondary follicle stage. The overall secretion levels of estrogen and FSH were lower in the whole estrus cycle (especially at proestrus); however, the LH level was higher in ovary fat pad-removed mice than that in control groups. Moreover, the estrus cycle of ovary fat pad-removed mice showed significant disorder. Besides, the expression of FSH receptor decreased, but the LH receptor increased in ovary fat pad-removed mice. These results suggest that ovary fat pad is important for mouse reproduction.

  15. Is Change in Ovary Carbon Status a Cause or a Consequence of Maize Ovary Abortion in Water Deficit during Flowering?1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Prodhomme, Duyên; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, François

    2016-01-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabolism, together with the concentrations and amounts of sugars, and with the activities of major enzymes of carbon metabolism. Photosynthesis and indicators of sugar export, measured during water deprivation, suggested sugar export maintained by the leaf. The first molecular changes occurred in silks rather than in ovaries and involved genes affecting expansive growth rather than sugar metabolism. Changes in the concentrations and amounts of sugars and in the activities of enzymes of sugar metabolism occurred in apical ovaries that eventually aborted, but probably after the switch to abortion of these ovaries. Hence, we propose that, under moderate water deficits corresponding to most European drought scenarios, changes in carbon metabolism during flowering time are a consequence rather than a cause of the beginning of ovary abortion. A carbon-driven ovary abortion may occur later in the cycle in the case of carbon shortage or under very severe water deficits. These findings support the view that, until the end of silking, expansive growth of reproductive organs is the primary event leading to abortion, rather than a disruption of carbon metabolism. PMID:27208256

  16. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, hippo represses notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic ovaries, triggering the mitosis-endocycle switch in the follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2014-01-01

    During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system during follicle development in the bovine ovary: relationship among IGF-I, type 1 IGF receptor (IGFR-1) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A).

    PubMed

    Sudo, N; Shimizu, T; Kawashima, C; Kaneko, E; Tetsuka, M; Miyamoto, A

    2007-01-29

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system that is exerted mainly through the type 1 IGF receptor (IGFR-1) and releasing of free IGF-I is regulated by the proteases of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), an important factor in follicle development of bovine ovary. The aims of the present study were to examine the mRNA expressions of IGF-I, IGFR-1 and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in granulosa cells and theca tissues during bovine follicular development and the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) on the expression of these genes in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Follicles were classified into four groups such as small follicle (SF), estrogen inactive dominant follicle (EID), estrogen active dominant follicle (EAD) and preovulatory follicle (POF). The concentration of free IGF-I in follicular fluid of POF was significantly higher than those in EID, whereas the total IGF-I in follicular fluid did not change at all developmental stages. The expression of IGF-I mRNA was not detected in the granulosa cells at all at any developmental stages but the expression was detected in the theca tissues. The amount of IGFR-1 mRNA in granulosa cell showed the constant level at all developmental stages except EID. The expressions of IGFR-1 and PAPP-A in cultured bovine granulosa cells were stimulated with FSH but not with E2. The PAPP-A mRNA expression was stimulated by FSH in presence of 1 ng/ml E2. These results indicate that IGF-I in follicular fluid is mainly derived from the circulation and that FSH is an inducer for the expression of IGFR-1 and PAPP-A genes in granulosa cells. Therefore, we suggest that PAPP-A stimulated with FSH play a crucial role for IGF-I system in bovine follicular development.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kristin Nadine

    2011-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It affects 6% to 7% of the population and is characterized by hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction. Women with the disorder often present with insulin resistance and obesity, making it importance for health care providers to monitor closely for signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Treatments are targeted toward improving insulin tolerance, reducing signs and symptoms of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, anovulation, etc), restoring normal menstrual cycle function, and restoring fertility. Major treatment should include weight management through diet and exercise, regardless of body mass index and might include concurrent drug therapy. It is important that pharmacists understand the underlying pathophysiology of the disease and the available treatments, in addition to the importance of reducing risk of metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in these patients.

  19. Temporal mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members and inhibitors in the developing rainbow trout ovary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily have critical roles in ovarian development in mammals, yet many of these peptides have not been characterized or even identified in fish. Although much is known about the endocrine control of ovarian development in fishes, little...

  20. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the “thrifty” phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  1. Perfluorooctanoic acid effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of peripubertal mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated compound and an agonist of peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), causes stunted mouse mammary gland development in various developmental stages. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly...

  2. Regulation of neuroendocrine cells and neuron factors in the ovary by zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Hao, Ya-Nan; Song, Ran; Li, Lan; Feng, Yan-Ni; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Di; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    The pubertal period is an important window during the development of the female reproductive system. Development of the pubertal ovary, which supplies the oocytes intended for fertilization, requires growth factors, hormones, and neuronal factors. It has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause cytotoxicity of neuron cells. However, there have been no reports of the effects of ZnO NPs on neuronal factors and neuroendocrine cells in the ovary (in vivo). For the first time, this in vivo study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs on gene and protein expression of neuronal factors and the population of neuroendocrine cells in ovaries. Intact NPs were detected in ovarian tissue and although ZnO NPs did not alter body weight, they reduced the ovary organ index. Compared to the control or ZnSO4 treatments, ZnO NPs treatments differentially regulated neuronal factor protein and gene expression, and the population of neuroendocrine cells. ZnO NPs changed the contents of essential elements in the ovary; however, they did not alter levels of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. These data together suggest that intact ZnO NPs might pose a toxic effect on neuron development in the ovary and eventually negatively affect ovarian developmental at puberty.

  3. Free amino acid content and metabolic activities of setting and aborting soybean ovaries. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiasi, H.; Paech, C.; Dybing, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fruits of soybean (glycine max (L.) Merr.) that are destined to abscise shortly after anthesis grow more slowly than fruits that will be retained. In this work, amino acid composition, protein metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism were studied in setting and abscising soybean ovaries from anthesis to 6 days after anthesis. Principal free amino acids were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glutamine. Percent aspartate and glutamate declined as the ovaries grew, with aspartate declining more in abscising and glutamate more in setting ovaries. Percent glutamate was positively correlated to percent abscission throughout the period. Proline, serine, and leucine were positively correlated to abscission from 0 to 2 days after anthesis, whereas significant negative correlations were observed at these ages for ethanolamine and arginine. /sup 75/Se fed as selenate and /sup 14/C fed as sucrose, glycine, and alanine were readily incorporated into soluble and insoluble proteins in a 24-hour in vitro incubation. Radioactivity of total proteins, expressed on a per-ovary basis, was negatively correlated with percent abscission and positively correlated with ovary weight. (/sup 14/C)Glutamine and serine followed the opposite pattern, with greater protein labeling in abscising than in setting ovaries. When data were expressed as disintegrations per minute per milligram ovary fresh weight, protein labeling from alanine was seen to be significantly greater in abscising ovaries at anthesis and throughout the sampling period. Nucleic acid labeling from uridine was highly correlated to ovary weight; labeling from thymidine was greater in setting than abscising ovaries at anthesis and in abscising ovaries at later stages of development.

  4. Cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Martina; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The number of rat strains increased considerably in the last decade and will increase continuously during the next years. This requires enough space for maintaining vital strains and techniques for cryobanking, which can be applied not only in specialised rat resource centres but also in regular animal houses. Here we describe an easy and fast method for the cryopreservation and transplantation of frozen-thawed ovaries of the rat. With dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant rat ovaries can be stored at -196 degrees C for unlimited time. For revitalisation thawed ovaries have to be orthotopically transplanted into appropriate ovarectomised recipients. Reestablishment of the reproductive cycle in the recipients can be confirmed by vaginal cytology shortly after transplantation. The recipients are able to produce 2-3 litters after mating with males of an appropriate strain. Cyropreservation of ovaries thus can be considered a reliable method to preserve scientifically and economically important stocks and strains of rats that are currently not required.

  5. Ovary structure and early oogenesis in the remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus (Crustacea, Remipedia): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Iliffe, Thomas M; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Koenemann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Remipedia are enigmatic crustaceans of uncertain phylogenetic position with the general consensus that they are crucial for understanding the crustacean/arthropod evolution. It has been demonstrated previously that the features of the ovary organization and subcellular aspects of oogenesis are useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships in arthropods such as hexapods and onychophorans. The structure of the female gonads in Remipedia remains largely unknown; therefore, we examined the gross morphology and ultrastructural details of the ovary in a remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus, with special emphasis on characters relevant to phylogenetic reconstructions. The ovaries of G. frondosus are located in the anterior part of the body and are composed of a single anterior proliferative zone (the germarium) and paired ovarian tubes (the vitellarium). The oocytes undergo subsequent stages of development within the lumen of the ovarian tubes, hence the remipede ovaries can be classified as endogenous. During oogenesis, each oocyte is enveloped by a set of characteristic somatic follicular cells, which results in the formation of distinct ovarian follicles. Here, we demonstrate that Remipedia share significant similarities in the ovary organization with Cephalocarida, including the anterior location of the ovary, the anterior-most position of the germarium and the endogenous type of oocyte development. Phylogenetic implications of our findings are discussed.

  6. [Novel role of growth factors in ovary function].

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham

    2010-12-01

    The development of the DNA microarray technique facilitated systematic studies of the modulation of gene function. Considerable attention has been focused on members of the growth factor family to elucidate the main regulators of oocyte maturation and ovarian follicle rupture. Among these growth factors, it was found, both in rodents and in humans, that amphiregulin (Ar) and epiregulin (Ep) of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family were dramatically up-regulated by gonadotrophins in the intact ovary and in primary granulosa cells, respectively. Their role in cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation was established in rodents, and their synthesis under LH stimulation in granulosa cells was demonstrated in humans. To be activated, Ar and Ep must be cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) family. However, the precise processing of Ar and Ep by the cumulus cells is still obscure. Future investigations using DNA microarray technique may reveal the repertoire of genes activated in Ar- and Ep-stimulated cumulus cells and may help elucidate the molecular basis of ovulation. EFG-like factors are also involved in triggering ovarian cancer The author hypothesized that the normal ovary maintains cyclicity in the formation of these growth factors preventing the ovary from developing ovarian cancer In ovarian cancer these growth factors are continuously formed in an autocrine manner, leading to transformation and subsequently to ovarian cancer. These growth factors are essential for both normal and neoplastic transformation of the ovary. Taking into consideration these growth factors in the treatment of ovarian malfunction may be one way of curing ovarian cancer.

  7. [Body composition and polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zabuliene, Lina; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders of reproductive age women. The main signs of PCOS are as follows: androgen excess, menstrual dysfunction, infertility, obesity, and other numerous health problems. By different authors, the disorder affects 2-28% of reproductive age women. Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by presence of hyperandrogenism, anovulation, menstrual cycle disturbances, also by the other metabolic changes. The lack of well-defined and universally accepted diagnostic criteria makes identification of this syndrome confusing to many clinicians. There are only few studies concerning the correlations between phenotypic expression, body composition and PCOS, and relationship with the processes of growth and sexual maturation and various environmental factors (nutrition, physical activity, stress, and other factors). There is a lack of knowledge about further PCOS development and prognosis, considering the individual and environmental factors. Variation in human body composition and shape ranges considerably: many body size and shape indices (height, weight, body composition, and proportions) are the result of long evolution process and adaptation to environment. Obviously, the morphological body parameters, physiological and biochemical indices are complex and compound the interdependent system. By current literature, more than 50% of women are overweight or obese. If waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio of women with PCOS increase, reproductive function and metabolic state of a woman is altered more than in cases when there are no changes in these parameters. The investigations of the strongest sexual dimorphism sign--the subcutaneous and visceral fat topography--showed that women with PCOS have greater adipose tissue mass in the areas of the abdomen, waist, and upper arms than control women. It is known that some indices of sexual dimorphism may be considered as the morphological signs of

  8. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  9. Night temperature and source–sink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Rebecca L.; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high source–sink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Methods Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 °C (HNT) or 12 °C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Key Results Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Conclusions Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low source–sink ratio or HNT and high source–sink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio. PMID:22933415

  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  11. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a “two-hit” hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment. PMID:20939704

  12. Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

  13. An ultrastructural study of the ovary cord organization and oogenesis in Erpobdella johanssoni (Annelida, Clitellata: Hirudinida).

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, Raja; Tekaya, Saïda; Małota, Karol; Świątek, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the ovary cord structure and oogenesis in Erpobdella johanssoni under light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy and to compare the obtained results with other clitellate annelids, especially with other arhynchobdellid leeches. Each of the paired ovaries is composed of the ovary wall (ovisac) and several (7-8) short, cone-shaped ovary cords. The ovary cords are of the "Erpobdella" type, i.e. they are short and polarized and five zones containing germ cells at consecutives stages of their development can be distinguished along their long axis. One, huge somatic cell (the apical cell), oogonia and premeiotic germ cells occur at the tip of the apical part of the ovary cord - zone I. Below, in zone II germ cells enter meiosis, whereas in zone III only a few cells continue meiosis and gather nutrients (oocytes), while the rest become nurse cells. In zone IV, huge vitellogenic oocytes form protuberances on the surface of the cord, and degenerating germ cells were observed at the base of the ovary cord (zones IV and V). The germline cells form syncytial cysts in zones I-III. The germline cysts have broadly the same architecture as in the ovaries of all of the clitellate annelids that have been described to date. Each germ cell in a cyst has only one cytoplasmic bridge connecting it to the common cytoplasmic mass - the cytophore. The cytophore is poorly developed, and it has the form of thin, long cytoplasmic strands. The presence of two categories of germ cells suggests a meroistic mode of oogenesis. The germline cysts are closely associated with somatic, follicular cells. There are two subpopulations of follicular cells: one envelops the growing oocytes, while the second is distributed between other germ cells. The entire ovary cord is additionally enveloped by a layer of somatic cells with a spongy appearance - the spongiosa cells. A characteristic feature of vitellogenic oocytes is the condensation of the

  14. Ovary cryopreservation and transplantation for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Silber, S J

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian transplantation and cryopreservation. This field has progressed over the last half century from simple animal experiments to sophisticated application in humans. The initial poor results in humans began to improve when a series of nine monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for premature ovarian failure (POF) underwent ovary transplantation at one center. All of these fresh ovary transplants were successful, resulting in 11 healthy babies in 7 of the 9 recipients. The same surgical techniques were then applied to 3 frozen ovary tissue transplants, up to 14 years after the ovary had been frozen, resulting in 3 more healthy babies. Around the world, the number of healthy babies has now risen to 28. Even ovary allotransplantation is being attempted in the not so uncommon situation where a previous bone marrow donor is now willing to donate ovarian tissue to the same recipient. Recipients routinely reinitiated ovulatory menstrual cycles and normal Day 3 serum FSH levels by 4.5 months. Most conceived naturally (three of them twice or three times from the same graft). The duration of function of fresh ovarian grafts, contrary to initial expectations, indicated minimal oocyte loss from ischemia time. Grafts of just modest portions of ovarian tissue have lasted >7 years. In vitro studies suggest that vitrification of ovarian tissue may be an improvement over the 70% oocyte viability loss from slow freeze.

  15. Targeting angiogenesis in the pathological ovary.

    PubMed

    Duncan, W Colin; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The ovary is a key tissue in the study of physiological neo-vascularisation in the adult and its study has highlighted important molecules involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in vivo. These include vascular endothelial growth factor, delta-like ligand 4, thrombospondin-1, prokineticin-1 and prostaglandin E2. Targeting these molecular pathways has therapeutic potential and their manipulation has an increasing preclinical and clinical role in the management of the pathological ovary. Targeting angiogenic pathways has utility in the promotion of ovarian angiogenesis to improve tissue and follicle survival and function as well as the prevention and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. There is a theoretical possibility that targeting angiogenesis may improve the function of the polycystic ovary and a real role for targeting angiogenesis in ovarian cancer.

  16. Effects of talc on the rat ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T. C.; Fox, H.; Buckley, C. H.; Henderson, W. J.; Griffiths, K.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of rat ovaries to talc was accomplished by intrabursal injection. As early as 1 and up to 18 months after treatment, the ovaries and associated tissue were cystic in appearance; these changes were the result of bursal distention. Histologically the ovarian tissue was decreased in amount and spread as a remnant on the inner wall of the bursa. In four to 10 treated animals but in no controls, focal areas of papillary change were noted in the surface epithelium of the ovary. Polarized light and electron microscope microanalysis confirmed the presence of talc in the surface epithelium, ovarian cortex, and connective tissue matrix of the bursa. Although the changes in the ovarian surface may be related to direct effects of talc exposure, it is postulated that these changes might also be related to constant exposure to the high concentrations of steroid hormones which have undoubtedly accumulated in the intrabursal space. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6696826

  17. Quantitative mutagenesis and mutagen screening with Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, A.W.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Tan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented on the development of a specific gene mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cells/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system, and the utilization of this system to study structure-activity relationship affecting cytotoxicity and gene mutation by various carcinogens. Then, preliminary development and validation of a Multiplex CHO System for the simultaneous determination of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange in addition to cytotoxicity and gene mutation is presented. The potential use of a CHO/human cell hybrid system for measuring chromosomal deletion and loss is discussed.

  18. Identification of the genes regulated by Wnt-4, a critical signal for commitment of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Naillat, Florence; Yan, Wenying; Karjalainen, Riikka; Liakhovitskaia, Anna; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Xu, Qi; Sun, Zhandong; Shen, Bairong; Medvinsky, Alexander; Quaggin, Susan; Vainio, Seppo J

    2015-03-15

    The indifferent mammalian embryonic gonad generates an ovary or testis, but the factors involved are still poorly known. The Wnt-4 signal represents one critical female determinant, since its absence leads to partial female-to-male sex reversal in mouse, but its signalling is as well implicated in the testis development. We used the Wnt-4 deficient mouse as a model to identify candidate gonadogenesis genes, and found that the Notum, Phlda2, Runx-1 and Msx1 genes are typical of the wild-type ovary and the Osr2, Dach2, Pitx2 and Tacr3 genes of the testis. Strikingly, the expression of these latter genes becomes reversed in the Wnt-4 knock-out ovary, suggesting a role in ovarian development. We identified the transcription factor Runx-1 as a Wnt-4 signalling target gene, since it is expressed in the ovary and is reduced upon Wnt-4 knock-out. Consistent with this, introduction of the Wnt-4 signal into early ovary cells ex vivo induces Runx-1 expression, while conversely Wnt-4 expression is down-regulated in the absence of Runx-1. We conclude that the Runx-1 gene can be a Wnt-4 signalling target, and that Runx-1 and Wnt-4 are mutually interdependent in their expression. The changes in gene expression due to the absence of Wnt-4 in gonads reflect the sexually dimorphic role of this signal and its complex gene network in mammalian gonad development.

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and its Developmental Origins

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, Daniel A.; Abbott, David H.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-01-01

    The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS–like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular arrest in adulthood, as well as premature follicle differentiation and impaired embryo development during gonadotropin therapy for in vitro fertilization (IVF). A second animal model for PCOS, the prenatal T-treated sheep also is characterized by LH hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback, persistent follicles and insulin resistance, but also is associated with intrauterine growth retardation and compensatory growth after birth. The ability of prenatal T excess in both species to alter the developmental trajectory of multiple organ systems in utero provides evidence that the hormonal environment of intrauterine life programs target tissue differentiation, raising the possibility that T excess in human fetal development promotes PCOS in adulthood. Such a hypothesis must include data from clinical studies of PCOS women to clarify the homology between these PCOS-like animal models and PCOS per se in reproductive and metabolic function. Future studies should develop new clinical strategies that improve pregnancy outcome and minimize pregnancy loss in women with disorders of insulin action, including PCOS, obesity and diabetes mellitus as well as minimize transgenerational susceptibility to adult PCOS and its metabolic derangements in male close relatives. PMID:17659447

  20. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Desai, Sanjay M.; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Somanath, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words — Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary), we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient. PMID:27904567

  1. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON) will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV) to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh) and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry. PMID:20723258

  2. Primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries: a new experimental tool.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Silvia; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Sugni, Michela; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, primary cell cultures from ovaries of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were developed in order to provide a simple and versatile experimental tool for researches in echinoderm reproductive biology. Ovary cell phenotypes were identified and characterized by different microscopic techniques. Although cell cultures could be produced from ovaries at all stages of maturation, the cells appeared healthier and viable, displaying a higher survival rate, when ovaries at early stages of gametogenesis were used. In terms of culture medium, ovarian cells were successfully cultured in modified Leibovitz-15 medium, whereas poor results were obtained in minimum essential medium Eagle and medium 199. Different substrates were tested, but ovarian cells completely adhered only on poly-L-lysine. To improve in vitro conditions and stimulate cell proliferation, different serum-supplements were tested. Fetal calf serum and an originally developed pluteus extract were detrimental to cell survival, apparently accelerating processes of cell death. In contrast, cells cultured with sea urchin egg extract appeared larger and healthier, displaying an increased longevity that allowed maintaining them for up to 1 month. Overall, our study provides new experimental bases and procedures for producing successfully long-term primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries offering a good potential to study echinoid oogenesis in a controlled system and to investigate different aspects of echinoderm endocrinology and reproductive biology.

  3. A quantitative assay of mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO/HGPRT system): development and definition of the system.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J P; Brimer, P A; Machanoff, R; Hirsch, G P; Hsie, A W

    1977-10-01

    An assay is described for the measurement of mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells utilizing resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG). Optimal selection conditions are defined for such parameters as phenotypic expression time prior to selection, and TG concentration and cell density which permits maximum mutant recovery. The nature of the TG-resistant mutants is characterized by several physiological and biochemical methods. The data demonstrate that more than 98% of the mutant clones isolated by this selection procedure contain altered HGPRTase activity. The CHO/HGPRT system thus shows the specificity necessary for a specific gene locus mutational assay.

  4. A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

  5. Circadian clock function in the mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Sellix, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Rhythmic events in the female reproductive system depend on the coordinated and synchronized activity of multiple neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues. This coordination is facilitated by the timing of gene expression and cellular physiology at each level of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, including the basal hypothalamus and forebrain, the pituitary gland, and the ovary. Central to this pathway is the primary circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that, through its myriad outputs, provides a temporal framework for gonadotropin release and ovulation. The heart of the timing system, a transcription-based oscillator, imparts SCN pacemaker cells and a company of peripheral tissues with the capacity for daily oscillations of gene expression and cellular physiology. Although the SCN sits comfortably at the helm, peripheral oscillators (such as the ovary) have undefined but potentially critical roles. Each cell type of the ovary, including theca cells, granulosa cells, and oocytes, harbor a molecular clock implicated in the processes of follicular growth, steroid hormone synthesis, and ovulation. The ovarian clock is influenced by the reproductive cycle and diseases that perturb the cycle and/or follicular growth can disrupt the timing of clock gene expression in the ovary. Chronodisruption is known to negatively affect reproductive function and fertility in both rodent models and women exposed to shiftwork schedules. Thus, influencing clock function in the HPO axis with chronobiotics may represent a novel avenue for the treatment of common fertility disorders, particularly those resulting from chronic circadian disruption.

  6. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-06-10

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting.

  7. Caring for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Katherine; Kreider, Kathryn Evans

    2017-02-12

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting reproductive-age women. PCOS causes hyperandrogenism and anovulation and increases the risk of multiple health conditions including infertility, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. This article outlines current recommendations for diagnostic testing, treatment options, and holistic care of the woman with PCOS.

  8. Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells in ovary and tubal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Annie; Tan, Shawna; Singh, Gurmit; Rizk, Pamela; Swathi, Yada; Tan, Tuan Zea; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Leushacke, Marc; Barker, Nick

    2014-08-01

    The ovary surface epithelium (OSE) undergoes ovulatory tear and remodelling throughout life. Resident stem cells drive such tissue homeostasis in many adult epithelia, but their existence in the ovary has not been definitively proven. Lgr5 marks stem cells in multiple epithelia. Here we use reporter mice and single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization to document candidate Lgr5(+) stem cells in the mouse ovary and associated structures. Lgr5 is broadly expressed during ovary organogenesis, but becomes limited to the OSE in neonate life. In adults, Lgr5 expression is predominantly restricted to proliferative regions of the OSE and mesovarian-fimbria junctional epithelia. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify embryonic and neonate Lgr5(+) populations as stem/progenitor cells contributing to the development of the OSE cell lineage, as well as epithelia of the mesovarian ligament and oviduct/fimbria. Adult Lgr5(+) populations maintain OSE homeostasis and ovulatory regenerative repair in vivo. Thus, Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells of the ovary and tubal epithelia.

  9. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Ana M.; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A.; Vallés, María P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25–46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  10. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana M; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A; Vallés, María P

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25-46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  11. Arginase, Arginine Decarboxylase, Ornithine Decarboxylase, and Polyamines in Tomato Ovaries (Changes in Unpollinated Ovaries and Parthenocarpic Fruits Induced by Auxin or Gibberellin).

    PubMed Central

    Alabadi, D.; Aguero, M. S.; Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) activity has been found in the ovaries and Young fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers).Changes in arginase, arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and ornithine decarboxylase activity (EC 4.1.1.17) and levels of free and conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were determined in unpollinated ovaries and in parthenocarpic fruits during the early stages of development induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or gibberellic acid (GA3). Levels of arginase, free spermine, and conjugates of the three polyamines were constant in unpollinated ovaries and characteristic of a presenescent step. A marked decrease in arginase activity, free spermine, and polyamine conjugates was associated with the initiation of fruit growth due to cell division, and when cell expansion was initiated, the absence of arginase indicated a redirection of nitrogen metabolism to the synthesis of arginine. A transient increase in arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase was also observed in 2,4-D-induced fruits. In general, 2,4-D treatments produced faster changes than GA3, and without treatment, unpollinated ovaries developed only slightly and senescence was hardly visible. Sensitivity to 2,4-D and GA3 treatment remained for at least 2 weeks postanthesis. PMID:12226441

  12. Growth hormone receptors in ovary and liver during gametogenesis in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gomez, J M; Mourot, B; Fostier, A; Le Gac, F

    1999-03-01

    Changes of growth hormone receptivity in the ovary during the reproductive cycle were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A method for characterizing growth hormone receptors in crude ovary homogenate was required for this. Binding of radiolabelled recombinant rainbow trout growth hormone (125I-labelled rtGH) to crude ovary preparation was dependent on ovarian tissue concentration. The sites were specific to growth hormone, with no affinity for prolactins and gonadotrophins. Similar high affinities for 125I-labelled rtGH were obtained with crude ovary (4.2 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 mol l-1) and crude liver preparations (4.9 x 10(9) +/- 0.1 mol l-1) at all stages of ovogenesis, and with ovarian membrane preparations (8.2 x 10(9) mol l-1) tested at the beginning of vitellogenesis. Ovarian growth hormone receptor concentration was highest during the early phases of follicular development (endogenous vitellogenesis: 315-310 fmol g-1 ovary) and decreased regularly during oocyte and follicular growth (exogenous vitellogenesis) to reach a minimal value at oocyte maturation (42 fmol g-1 ovary). In postovulated fish, binding was at a similar level (297 fmol g-1 ovary) to that found in endogenous vitellogenesis. Conversely, the absolute binding capacity of the whole ovary was low from immaturity to early exogenous vitellogenesis (0.1-0.6 pmol per pair of gonads), increased slowly during vitellogenesis and more markedly during rapid oocyte growth and at the time of final maturation (10.8 pmol per pair of gonads). In postovulated fish, the absolute binding capacity decreased partially (4.4 pmol per pair of gonads). Mean hepatic growth hormone receptor concentration did not vary with the reproductive stage for most of the cycle (3.0-4.5 pmol g-1 liver) except in endogenous vitellogenesis where significantly higher concentrations were observed (6.7 pmol g-1 liver). Individual ovarian growth hormone receptor concentrations were correlated with hepatic growth hormone receptor

  13. Fate of the grafted ovaries from female salamander Pleurodeles waltl embarked on the cosmos 2229 flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, A.; Houillon, Ch.; Aimar, C.; Mitashov, V.; Dournon, C.

    The flight procedure of ``Experience Triton'' on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progeny of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castred and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developping grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.

  14. Localization of luteinizing hormone receptor protein in the human ovary.

    PubMed

    Yung, Y; Aviel-Ronen, S; Maman, E; Rubinstein, N; Avivi, C; Orvieto, R; Hourvitz, A

    2014-09-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a pivotal role during follicular development. Consequently, its expression pattern is of major importance for research and has clinical implications. Despite the accumulated information regarding LHR expression patterns, our understanding of its expression in the human ovary, specifically at the protein level, is incomplete. Therefore, our aim was to determine the LHR protein localization and expression pattern in the human ovary. We examined the presence of LHR by immunohistochemical staining of human ovaries and western blots of mural granulosa and cumulus cells aspirated during IVF treatments. We were not able to detect LHR protein staining in primordial or primary follicles. We observed equivocal positive staining in granulosa cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. The first appearance of a clear signal of LHR protein was observed in granulosa cells and theca cells of small antral follicles, and there was evidence of increasing LHR production as the follicles mature to the pre-ovulatory stage. After ovulation, LHR protein was ubiquitously produced in the corpus luteum. To confirm the expression pattern in granulosa cells and cumulus cells, we performed western blots and found that LHR expression was stronger in granulosa cells than in cumulus cells, with the later demonstrating low, but still significant, amounts of LHR protein. In summary, we conclude that LHR protein starts to appear on granulosa cells and theca cells of early antral follicles, and low but significant expression of LHR exists also in the cumulus cells. These results may have implications for the future design of clinical protocols and culture mediums for in vitro fertilization and especially in vitro maturation of oocytes.

  15. The importance of neuronal growth factors in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Streiter, S; Fisch, B; Sabbah, B; Ao, A; Abir, R

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the neuronal growth factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vasointestinal peptide (VIP). Although there are a few literature reviews, mainly of animal studies, on the importance of neurotrophins in the ovary, we aimed to provide a complete review of neurotrophins as well as neuronal growth factors and their important roles in normal and pathological processes in the ovary. Follicular assembly is probably stimulated by complementary effects of NGF, NT4/5 and BDNF and their receptors. The neurotrophins, GDNF and VIP and their receptors have all been identified in preantral and antral follicles of mammalian species, including humans. Transgenic mice with mutations in the genes encoding for Ngf, Nt4/5 and Bdnf and their tropomyosin-related kinase β receptor showed a reduction in preantral follicles and an abnormal ovarian morphology, whereas NGF, NT3, GDNF and VIP increased the in vitro activation of primordial follicles in rats and goats. Additionally, NGF, NT3 and GDNF promoted follicular cell proliferation; NGF, BDNF and VIP were shown to be involved in ovulation; VIP inhibited follicular apoptosis; NT4/5, BDNF and GDNF promoted oocyte maturation and NGF, NT3 and VIP stimulated steroidogenesis. NGF may also exert a stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low levels of NGF and BDNF in follicular fluid may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve and high levels with endometriosis. More knowledge of the roles of neuronal growth factors in the ovary has important implications for the development of new therapeutic drugs (such as anti-NGF agents) for ovarian cancer and PCOS as well as various infertility problems, warranting further research.

  16. The Stage- and Cell Type-Specific Localization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Rat Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2015-12-01

    Premutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are associated with increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency. Here we examined the localization of the Fmr1 gene protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), in rat ovaries at different stages, including fetus, neonate, and old age. In ovaries dissected from 19 days postcoitum embryos, the germ cells were divided into 2 types: one with decondensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP positive in the cytoplasm, but the other with strongly condensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP negative in the cytoplasm. The FMRP was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Levels of FMRP in oocytes from elderly (9 or 14 months of age) ovaries were lower than in those from younger ovaries. These results suggest that FMRP is associated with the activation of oogenesis and oocyte function. Especially, FMRP is likely to be implicated in germline development during oogenesis.

  17. The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada).

    PubMed

    Poprawa, Izabela

    2005-10-01

    The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis while the third part is synthesized in the trophocytes and is transported to the oocytes through the cytoplasmatic bridges. Moreover, rRNA, lipids and mitochondria are transfered from the trophocytes to the oocytes. The histochemical researches show that the reserve material accumulated in the oocytes contains proteins, polysaccharides and lipids.

  18. Transcriptomic responses of marine medaka's ovary to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keng Po; Li, Jing Woei; Tse, Anna Chung Kwan; Cheung, Angela; Wang, Simon; Chan, Ting Fung; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia, an endocrine disruptor, is pressing global problem affecting marine organisms in over 400 "Dead Zones" worldwide. There is growing evident demonstrated the disruptive effect of hypoxia on reproductive systems of marine fish through the impairments of steroidogenic gene expression, leading to the alteration of sex hormone production in gonads. But the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the responses of female reproductive systems to hypoxic stress remains largely unknown. In the present report, we used marine medaka Oryzias melastigma as a model, together with high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, aiming to determine the changes in transcriptional signature in the ovary of marine fish under hypoxic stress. Our result discovered over two hundred differential expressed genes in ovary in response to hypoxia. The bioinformatics analysis together with quantitative RT-PCR validation on the deregulated genes highlighted the dysregulations of a number of female reproductive functions including interruptions of ovarian follicle development, gonad development and steroid metabolic process. Additionally, we revealed that these deregulations are through the modulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The result of this work complements previous studies and provides additional insights into the underlying molecular mechanism of hypoxia-induced impairment of female reproductive system.

  19. New markers of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polak, K; Czyzyk, A; Simoncini, T; Meczekalski, B

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. The diagnostic criteria include two out of three features: hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound and menstrual irregularities (Rotterdam Criteria 2003). PCOS patients are more vulnerable to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically involved in reproductive and metabolic complications of the syndrome. Several tests have been developed to measure IR, some very reliable but complex like the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp and others less precise but easier and less invasive like HOMA-IR. New markers are needed to reach a more reliable assessment of insulin resistance. To date, several surrogate markers have been proposed in the literature to facilitate and improve the determination of IR. Many new proteins are strongly involved with PCOS physiopathology and IR, such as some adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, vaspin and apelin), copeptin, irisin, PAI-1 and zonulin. Many other proteins have been proposed as potential new markers of IR in PCOS, such as resistin, leptin, RBP4, kisspetin and ghrelin, but their role is still controversial. In this review, we provide a short characterization of these new markers, recently studied as indicators of metabolic state.

  20. The Effects of Phthalates on the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure

  1. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Morán, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Morán, José Luis; Handal, Anabella; Domínguez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary. PMID:19460167

  2. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary: effect of cAMP in primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-07-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP did not increase AKT1 or FOXO3A phosphorylation associated with follicle activation or increase the expression of Kitlg known to be associated with follicle differentiation but did increase the Tmeff2, Mki67 and Inha expression in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study shows that both Pde7b and Pde8a are highly expressed in the rodent ovary and that PDE4 inhibition does not cause an increase in primordial follicle activation.

  3. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

  4. Autoimmunity to endometrium and ovary in endometriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, S; Peress, M R; Williamson, H O; Youmans, C D; Maney, S A; Garvin, A J; Rust, P F; Fudenberg, H H

    1982-01-01

    Antibody titres to whole ovary, theca cells, granulosa cells and endometrium were determined by passive haemagglutination and immunofluorescence assays in sera and in cervical and vaginal secretions from 13 patients with endometriosis. Antibody titres to endometrium (mean log2 +/- s.e.m., 7.08 +/- 0.80; P less than 0.0001), ovary (3.58 +/- 0.87; P = 0.0092), theca cells (4.42 +/- 0.73; P less than 0.0001) and granulosa cells (3.33 +/- 0.63; P = 0.0024) were significantly higher in the patients' sera than in sera from 15 normal non-pregnant females. Antibody titres to granulosa cells were elevated (7.97 +/- 1.46; P = 0.0424) in their cervical secretions. Antibody titres to all tissues tested were similar in vaginal secretions of patients and controls. Immunofluorescent antibody assay of biopsied endometrial tissue and sera from the patients revealed the antibodies to be primarily IgG and IgA. The results suggest that autoantibodies to endometrium and ovary are present in patients with endometriosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6759000

  5. Metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  6. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary.

  7. The Genetic Basis of Transgressive Ovary Size in Honeybee Workers

    PubMed Central

    Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200–360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits. PMID:19620393

  8. Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-04-01

    A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor.

  9. [Polycystic ovary syndrome of extra-ovarian origin. Review].

    PubMed

    Terán Dávila, J; Teppa-Garrán, A D

    2001-03-01

    An established fact in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS) is an abnormal ovarian steroidogenesis. Though this suggest an intrinsic ovarian defect, the syndrome could also be influenced by factors outside the ovaries. Although of unknown etiology, the POS is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the gynecologic practice. The disorder is characterized by ultrasound findings of enlarged polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders, obesity and including the appearance of infertility. There are a series of mechanisms involved in the extraovarian androgen increase in patients with POS. Among these mechanisms are implicated those of central and peripheral origin, genetic factors and adrenocortical dysfunction. In the same way, the alterations produced could imply genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, physiological and endocrinological factors. Sometimes all these factors could interact at the same time. The high serum androgen level could stop the pituitary gonadotropin production, either as a direct mechanism or as a result of its peripheral conversion. The increased androgens also explain the manifestations of clinical acne, hirsutism, and the detention in follicular ovarian maturation. All these manifestations are related with the menstrual disorders, anovulation, and infertility that these patients develop. The characteristics of the extraovarian POS include the 17-hydroxyprogesterone elevation in response to the ACTH test and the dexamethasone suppression of adrenal androgens. It is possible to improve the ovarian function in some patients with POS. This could be achieved with clomiphene citrate associated with glucocorticoids to induce ovulation.

  10. Effects of androgen on immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor and Connexin 43 in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Li, Jianhua; An, Yulin; Zhang, Shuiwen

    2015-10-01

    Androgens have essential roles in the regulation of follicular development and female fertility. Androgen excess is the leading defect in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and involved in the ovarian dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regarding regulatory role of androgen in the follicular development of female mouse. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses were performed to detect androgen receptor (AR) and Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in ovaries from both control and testosterone-treated group mice. In this study, localizations of AR and Cx43 were dramatically altered in testosterone-treated mouse ovaries. In addition, AR expression was significantly increased, whereas Cx43 expression was markedly decreased after testosterone treatment. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone with concomitant reduction of MII oocytes. Overall, these results suggest the involvement of androgen in the regulation of AR and Cx43 localizations in mouse ovary. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone may affect normal folliculogenesis. Together these findings will enable us to begin understanding the important roles of AR and Cx43 actions in the regulation of follicular development, as well as providing insights into the role of AR and Cx43 actions in the androgen-associated reproductive diseases such as PCOS.

  11. Marker genes identify three somatic cell types in the fetal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Rastetter, Raphael H; Bernard, Pascal; Palmer, James S; Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Chen, Huijun; Western, Patrick S; Ramsay, Robert G; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine; Wilhelm, Dagmar

    2014-10-15

    The two main functions of the ovary are the production of oocytes, which allows the continuation of the species, and secretion of female sex hormones, which control many aspects of female development and physiology. Normal development of the ovaries during embryogenesis is critical for their function and the health of the individual in later life. Although the adult ovary has been investigated in great detail, we are only starting to understand the cellular and molecular biology of early ovarian development. Here we show that the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 is expressed in the cortical region of the fetal ovary and this expression is mutually exclusive to FOXL2. Strikingly, a third somatic cell population can be identified, marked by the expression of NR2F2, which is expressed in LGR5- and FOXL2 double-negative ovarian somatic cells. Together, these three marker genes label distinct ovarian somatic cell types. Using lineage tracing in mice, we show that Lgr5-positive cells give rise to adult cortical granulosa cells, which form the follicles of the definitive reserve. Moreover, LGR5 is required for correct timing of germ cell differentiation as evidenced by a delay of entry into meiosis in Lgr5 loss-of-function mutants, demonstrating a key role for LGR5 in the differentiation of pre-granulosa cells, which ensure the differentiation of oogonia, the formation of the definitive follicle reserve, and long-term female fertility.

  12. Animal models of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unclear, despite its high prevalence among infertility disorders in women of reproductive age. Although there is evidence for a genetic component of the disorder, other causes, such as prenatal insults are considered among the potential factors that may contribute to the development of the syndrome. Over the past few decades, several animal models have been developed in an attempt to understand the potential contribution of exposure to excess steroids on the development of this syndrome. The current review summarizes the phenotypes of current animal models exposed to excess steroid during the prenatal and early postnatal period and how they compare with the phenotype seen in women with PCOS. PMID:23701728

  13. Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma of Ovary-A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    V, Srinivasamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary is extremely rare, comprising of only 1% of the ovarian tumours. Patient presented with a mass in the right iliac fossa since three months. Radiological diagnosis of broad ligament fibroid was given. Right salphingo-oophorectomy with enucleation of ischial fossa and wedge biopsy of left ovary was carried out. Based on gross, microscopy and immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of primary myxoid leiomyosarcoma of ovary was made. We report a rare case of primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary with metastasis to ischial fossa emphasising on reliable prognostic markers. Ovarian leiomyosarcomas are highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. PMID:25120990

  14. Nesprin-2 epsilon: A novel nesprin isoform expressed in human ovary and Ntera-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Le Thanh; Boehm, Sabrina V.; Roberts, Roland G.; Morris, Glenn E.

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} A novel epsilon isoform of nesprin-2 has been discovered. {yields} This 120 kDa protein was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but has not previously been observed. {yields} It is the main isoform expressed in a teratocarcinoma cell line and is also found in ovary. {yields} Like other nesprins, it is located at the nuclear envelope. {yields} We suggest it may have a role in very early development or in some ovary-specific function. -- Abstract: The nuclear envelope-associated cytoskeletal protein, nesprin-2, is encoded by a large gene containing several internal promoters that produce shorter isoforms. In a study of Ntera-2 teratocarcinoma cells, a novel isoform, nesprin-2-epsilon, was found to be the major mRNA and protein product of the nesprin-2 gene. Its existence was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but this is the first direct demonstration of both the mRNA and the 120 kDa protein which is located at the nuclear envelope. In a panel of 21 adult and foetal human tissues, the nesprin-2-epsilon mRNA was strongly expressed in ovary but was a minor isoform elsewhere. The expression pattern suggests a possible link with very early development and a likely physiological role in ovary.

  15. A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ninive

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications.

  16. Regulation of germ cell meiosis in the fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Cassy M; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fertility depends on correct regulation of meiosis, the special form of cell division that gives rise to haploid gametes. In female mammals, germ cells enter meiosis during fetal ovarian development, while germ cells in males avoid entering meiosis until puberty. Decades of research have shown that meiotic entry, and germ cell sex determination, are not initiated intrinsically within the germ cells. Instead, meiosis is induced by signals produced by the surrounding somatic cells. More recently, retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been implicated in meiotic induction during fetal XX and postnatal XY germ cell development. Evidence for an intricate system of RA synthesis and degradation in the fetal ovary and testis has emerged, explaining past observations of infertility in vitamin A-deficient rodents. Here we review how meiosis is triggered in fetal ovarian germ cells, paying special attention to the role of RA in this process.

  17. [Polycystic ovary syndrome--only relevant in reproductive medicine?].

    PubMed

    Heim, S C; De Geyter, C; Siegrist, W; Bilz, S; Keller, U

    1999-05-01

    The Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women with a prevalence of 5%. Affected women often consult a gynecologist because of menstrual irregularities, fertility problems or problems of androgen excess. However, PCOD is a metabolic disorder affecting multiple organs. Studies suggest that those women are at risk for developing several complications such as type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and myocardial infarction. The risk to develop endometrial carcinoma is also elevated. To give adequate treatment to women with PCOD, an interdisciplinary approach of gynecologists together with endocrinologists specialized in metabolic and nutritional disorders at the University of Basel is presented. The work-up for diagnosis and assessment of risk factors is outlined. Goal of this interdisciplinary approach is an adequate evaluation of affected patients and their long-term follow-up to test if proposed interventions as weight loss, treatment of hyperinsulinemia, regulation of menstrual cycle and others can avoid long-term sequelae.

  18. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-12-01

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development.

  19. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  20. In Situ Labeling of Mitochondrial DNA Replication in Drosophila Adult Ovaries by EdU Staining.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-15

    The mitochondrial genome is inherited exclusively through the maternal line. Understanding of how the mitochondrion and its genome are proliferated and transmitted from one generation to the next through the female oocyte is of fundamental importance. Because of the genetic tractability, and the elegant, ordered simplicity by which oocyte development proceeds, Drosophila oogenesis has become an invaluable system for mitochondrial study. An EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) labeling method was utilized to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Drosophila ovaries. This method is superior to the BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) labeling method in that it allows for good structural preservation and efficient fluorescent dye penetration of whole-mount tissues. Here we describe a detailed protocol for labeling replicating mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila adult ovaries with EdU. Some technical solutions are offered to improve the viability of the ovaries, maintain their health during preparation, and ensure high-quality imaging. Visualization of newly synthesized mtDNA in the ovaries not only reveals the striking temporal and spatial pattern of mtDNA replication through oogenesis, but also allows for simple quantification of mtDNA replication under various genetic and pharmacological perturbations.

  1. Expression and localization of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins in the porcine ovary.

    PubMed

    Xing, Na; Liang, Yajun; Gao, Zhenzhen; He, Junping; He, Xiaoyan; Li, Hongquan; Dong, Changsheng

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal and spatial expression of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins, the downstream signaling molecules of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, in the porcine ovary. Cellular localization of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins was examined using immunohistochemistry. The specificity of the antibodies was examined using Western blot assay. Western blot analyses demonstrated that 52kDa Smad2 and 60kDa Smad4 proteins were expressed in the porcine ovary. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Smad2 and Smad4 were widely expressed in the porcine ovary, mainly localized in the oocyte, granulosa and thecal cells at different stages of folliculogenesis. Within the primordial and primary follicles, Smad2 and Smad4 showed strong staining in oocytes and follicular cells. In the antral follicle, strong staining was observed in oocytes, granulosa and theca cells. These findings suggest that Smad2 and Smad4 may be a key regulator of follicular development and growth of oocytes in the porcine ovary.

  2. The ovaries of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccinea). Morphology and phylogenetic conclusions.

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, T

    1998-01-01

    Coccoids (Coccinea, Coccoidea, Coccomorpha, scale insects, scales) are a highly diverse group of ectoparasitic insects. They comprise 2 subgroups: primitive archaeococcoids (= Orthezioidea sensu Koteja) and advanced neococcoids (= Coccoidea sensu Koteja). The ovaries of coccoids consist of numerous short telotrophic-meroistic ovarioles. The ovarioles of all investigated species share common characters (e.g. the same mechanism of ovariole development, lack of terminal filaments, occurrence of single oocytes in the vitellaria) supporting the concept of monophyletic origin of this group. Despite these characteristics, the ovaries of archaeococcoids and neococcoids differ in the number of germ cells (oocytes + trophocytes) constituting a single ovariole. In primitive families (Ortheziidae, Margarodidae), this number is relatively large (15-58), whereas in advanced ones (Pseudococcidae, Kermesidae, Eriococcidae, Cryptococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae) it is small and usually does not exceed 8. The comparative analysis of the ovary structure in the representatives of Coccinea and closely related Aphidinea (aphids) has revealed that: (1) the organization of archaeococcoid ovaries is more similar to those of aphids than to neococcoids and (2) during the evolution of Coccinea a gradual reduction in the number of germ cells in ovarioles took place.

  3. In Situ Labeling of Mitochondrial DNA Replication in Drosophila Adult Ovaries by EdU Staining

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Xu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome is inherited exclusively through the maternal line. Understanding of how the mitochondrion and its genome are proliferated and transmitted from one generation to the next through the female oocyte is of fundamental importance. Because of the genetic tractability, and the elegant, ordered simplicity by which oocyte development proceeds, Drosophila oogenesis has become an invaluable system for mitochondrial study. An EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) labeling method was utilized to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Drosophila ovaries. This method is superior to the BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) labeling method in that it allows for good structural preservation and efficient fluorescent dye penetration of whole-mount tissues. Here we describe a detailed protocol for labeling replicating mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila adult ovaries with EdU. Some technical solutions are offered to improve the viability of the ovaries, maintain their health during preparation, and ensure high-quality imaging. Visualization of newly synthesized mtDNA in the ovaries not only reveals the striking temporal and spatial pattern of mtDNA replication through oogenesis, but also allows for simple quantification of mtDNA replication under various genetic and pharmacological perturbations. PMID:27805603

  4. Identification and profiling of microRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats during estrus.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Hou, Jinxing; Li, Guang; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Jiangang; Cao, Binyun

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in almost all ovarian biological processes, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteal development, and regression. The study identified known and novel miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats by combining Solexa sequencing with bioinformatics. In total, 862 known and 53 novel miRNAs were identified in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats. A total of 771 miRNAs were co-expressed in both libraries. One hundred twenty miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous goats and 24 miRNAs in the ovaries of monotocous goats were specifically expressed. In addition, 445 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats, of which 348 were upregulated, and 97 were downregulated in the ovaries of polytocous goats compared with the ovaries of monotocous goats (P values < 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)|> 1). The expression levels of 12 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by stem-loop real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with Solexa sequencing results. KEGG analysis showed that GnRH, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis and ovarian steroidogenesis participated in follicular development and ovulation. On the basis of miRNA-mRNA network analysis and luciferase reporter assays, the ggo-miR-4488-p3_1ss10CG, bta-miR-2892-p5_1ss8CG and hsa-miR-4532_L+1R-3 were closely related with prolific traits. The results will help to further understand the role of miRNAs in kidding rate regulation.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Testis and Ovary Transcriptomes in Zebrafish by Combining Experimental and Computational Tools

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Chia, Jer Ming; Bartfai, Richard; Christoffels, Alan; Yue, Gen Hua; Ding, Ke; Ho, Mei Yin; Hill, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the zebrafish model have contributed to our understanding of several important developmental processes, especially those that can be easily studied in the embryo. However, our knowledge on late events such as gonad differentiation in the zebrafish is still limited. Here we provide an analysis on the gene sets expressed in the adult zebrafish testis and ovary in an attempt to identify genes with potential role in (zebra)fish gonad development and function. We produced 10 533 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from zebrafish testis or ovary and downloaded an additional 23 642 gonad-derived sequences from the zebrafish EST database. We clustered these sequences together with over 13 000 kidney-derived zebrafish ESTs to study partial transcriptomes for these three organs. We searched for genes with gonad-specific expression by screening macroarrays containing at least 2600 unique cDNA inserts with testis-, ovary- and kidney-derived cDNA probes. Clones hybridizing to only one of the two gonad probes were selected, and subsequently screened with computational tools to identify 72 genes with potentially testis-specific and 97 genes with potentially ovary-specific expression, respectively. PCR-amplification confirmed gonad-specificity for 21 of the 45 clones tested (all without known function). Our study, which involves over 47 000 EST sequences and specialized cDNA arrays, is the first analysis of adult organ transcriptomes of zebrafish at such a scale. The study of genes expressed in adult zebrafish testis and ovary will provide useful information on regulation of gene expression in teleost gonads and might also contribute to our understanding of the development and differentiation of reproductive organs in vertebrates. PMID:18629171

  6. Massive edema of the ovary associated with androgenic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Siller, B S; Gelder, M S; Alvarez, R D; Partridge, E E

    1995-11-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare tumor-like condition of the ovary characterized by marked enlargement of one or both ovaries due to marked accumulation of edema fluid in the ovarian stroma. This paper reviews the literature on massive ovarian edema and presents a case associated with androgenic manifestations.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    PubMed

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure.

  8. Clinical characteristics in Taiwanese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-I

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. It consists of a heterogeneous collection of signs and symptoms that together form a disorder spectrum. The diagnosis of PCOS is principally based on clinical and physical findings. The extent of metabolic abnormalities in women with PCOS varies with phenotype, body weight, age, and ethnicity. For general population, the prevalence of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea decreases with age, while complications such as insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances increase with age. Obese women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and lower luteinizing hormone (LH) to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. The LH to FSH ratio is a valuable diagnostic tool in evaluating Taiwanese women with PCOS, especially in the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea. Overweight/obesity is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in women of reproductive age.

  9. Clinical characteristics in Taiwanese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. It consists of a heterogeneous collection of signs and symptoms that together form a disorder spectrum. The diagnosis of PCOS is principally based on clinical and physical findings. The extent of metabolic abnormalities in women with PCOS varies with phenotype, body weight, age, and ethnicity. For general population, the prevalence of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea decreases with age, while complications such as insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances increase with age. Obese women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and lower luteinizing hormone (LH) to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. The LH to FSH ratio is a valuable diagnostic tool in evaluating Taiwanese women with PCOS, especially in the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea. Overweight/obesity is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in women of reproductive age. PMID:26473107

  10. Follistatin Operates Downstream of Wnt4 in Mammalian Ovary Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Humphrey H.C.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Menke, Douglas B.; Page, David C.; Swain, Amanda; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Wnt4−/− XX gonads display features normally associated with testis differentiation, suggesting that WNT4 actively represses elements of the male pathway during ovarian development. Here, we show that follistatin (Fst), which encodes a TGFβ superfamily binding protein, is a downstream component of Wnt4 signaling. Fst inhibits formation of the XY-specific coelomic vessel in XX gonads. In addition, germ cells in the ovarian cortex are almost completely lost in both Wnt4 and Fst null gonads before birth. Thus, we propose that WNT4 acts through FST to regulate vascular boundaries and maintain germ cell survival in the ovary. Developmental Dynamics 230:210–215, 2004. PMID:15162500

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed.

  12. Aging of the human ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Perheentupa, Antti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2009-02-05

    Aging is associated with structural and functional alterations in all organs of the human body. The aging of gonads represents in this respect a special case, because these organs are not functional for the whole lifespan of an individual and their normal function is not indispensable for functions of the rest of the body. Ovarian function lasts for the reproductive life of a woman, i.e., from menarche until menopause. The testicular endocrine function, in contrast, begins already in utero, is interrupted between neonatal life and puberty, and continues thereafter along with spermatogenesis, with only slight decline, until old age. The aging processes of the ovary and testis are therefore very different. We describe in this review the structural and functional alterations in the human ovary and testis upon aging. Special emphasis will be given to clinically significant alterations, which in women concern the causes and consequences of the individual variability of fertility during the latter part of the reproductive age. The clinically important aspect of testicular aging entails the decline of androgen production in aging men.

  13. [Vitamin D and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lazúrová, Ivica; Figurová, Jana; Dravecká, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Currently there is growing evidence on possible influence of vitamin D (VD) on reproductive function in both females and males. The relationship between VD and clinical or laboratory manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) seems to be mostly evaluated. Patients with PCOS have been demonstrated to have significantly lower levels of serum VD and they also have the higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as compared to controls. Some studies documented the relation of VD to serum androgen levels, other found that VD correlated with metabolic parameters (body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile) only. Several interventional studies demonstrated that VD replacement improved these metabolic parameters in PCOS women with VD deficiency. On the other hand some studies also documented improvement of ovarian function and androgen levels. Also vitamin D replacement may represent an additional treatment in VD deficient PCOS women with the aim to improve phenotypic manifestations. It requires further randomized interventional studies on larger groups of patients.Key words: metabolic syndrome - polycystic ovary syndrome - vitamin D.

  14. Contemporary medical therapy for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lanham, M S M; Lebovic, D I; Domino, S E

    2006-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-system endocrinopathy with long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health consequences. Patients typically present due to symptoms of irregular menstruation, hair growth, or infertility; however, recent management options are aimed at further treating underlying glucose-insulin abnormalities as well as androgen excess for proactive control of symptoms. By a 2003 international consensus conference, diagnosis is made by two out of three criteria: chronic oligoovulation or anovulation after excluding secondary causes, clinical or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism (but not necessarily hirsutism due to inter-patient variability in hair follicle sensitivity), and radiological evidence of polycystic ovaries. Traditional medical treatment options include oral contraceptive pills, cyclic progestins, ovulation induction, and anti-androgenic medications (aldosterone antagonist, 5alpha-reductase antagonist, and follicle ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor). Recent pharmacotherapies include insulin-sensitizing medications metformin and two thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone/Avandia and pioglitazone/Actos), a CYP19 aromatase inhibitor (letrozole/Femara), and statins to potentially lower testosterone levels.

  15. Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

  16. The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S M; Telfer, E E; Anderson, R A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both

  17. The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S.M.; Telfer, E.E.; Anderson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both

  18. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative.

  19. Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P < 0.01) compared with patients with other proliferative diseases. Conclusions The presence of ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 in the surface epithelial ovarian cells and its derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical

  20. Effects of tamoxifen on autosomal genes regulating ovary maintenance in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingxi; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jingyun; Qin, Junwen; Wang, Yongan; Wang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), known to bind to estrogen/androgen receptors and mimic native estrogens, have been implicated as a main source for increasing human reproductive and developmental deficiencies and diseases. Tamoxifen (TAM) is one of the most well-known antiestrogens with defined adverse effects on the female reproductive tract, but the mechanisms related to autosomal gene regulation governing ovary maintenance in mammals remain unclear. The expression pattern and levels of key genes and proteins involved in maintaining the ovarian phenotype in mice were analyzed. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, which is the testis-determining factor gene. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, the testis-determining factor gene, and the expression level of Sox9 mRNA in the ovaries of mice exposed to 75 or 225 mg/kg bw TAM was 2- and 10-fold that in the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the testicular fibroblast growth factor gene, Fgf9, was also elevated in TAM-treated ovaries. Accordingly, expression of the ovary development marker, forkhead transcription factor (FOXL2), and WNT4/FST signaling, were depressed. The levels of protein expression changed consistently with the target genes. Moreover, the detection of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) in TAM-treated ovaries suggested the formation of vascular endothelial cells, which is a further evidence for the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype. During this period, the level of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone decreased, while that of testosterone increased by 3.3-fold (p = 0.013). The activation of a testis-specific molecular signaling cascade was a potentially important mechanism contributing to the gender disorder induced by TAM, which resulted in the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype in adult mice. Limited with

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Che, Long; Wang, Dingyue; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis) analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins) and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity). We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP) may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be responsible for

  2. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  3. Marked hyperandrogenemia and acne associated with polycystic ovaries in Greek women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skampardonis, N; Kouskoukis, A; Karpouzis, A; Maroulis, G

    2011-01-01

    PCOS represents the commonest endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between polycystic ovaries and clinical and biochemical features of the syndrome. TVS was performed in 74 women with the clinical diagnosis of PCOS. The findings were compared to biochemical, hormonal and clinical features of the syndrome. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly higher prevalence of acne, LH/FSH ratios and testosterone levels in women with PCO compared to those with normal ovarian morphology. In the subgroup analysis, total ovarian volume correlated significantly with hirsutism scores. Our study revealed a great prevalence of polycystic ovaries in Greek women with PCOS, and emphasizes the significance of transvaginal ultrasound in establishment of the diagnosis of the syndrome. The presence of PCO may not be clinically important when present alone without clinical manifestations but reflects the underlying hyperandrogenemia in PCOS women, representing a useful tool in the management of these patients.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the new millenium.

    PubMed

    Legro, R S

    2001-11-26

    Our understanding of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has been hampered by varying diagnostic criteria, and ignorance of the etiology of the syndrome. PCOS women are uniquely insulin resistant and obesity aggravates this underlying predisposition to insulin resistance. Diagnostic criteria which focus on hyperandrogenism and/or menstrual irregularity are more likely to identify insulin resistant women, than such criteria as abnormal gonadotropin secretion or ovarian morphology. The lack of a clear etiologic mechanism to the syndrome has led to a multitude of symptom-oriented treatments with few therapies improving all aspects of the endocrine syndrome of PCOS. Improving insulin sensitivity has become established as a baseline treatment strategy in PCOS. There are, however, few randomized controlled trials of adequate power to provide an evidence based guide to treatment in PCOS.

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tasali, Esra; Van Cauter, Eve; Ehrmann, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of pre-menopausal women, is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, obesity and insulin resistance. Importantly, PCOS women are at increased risk for glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Recent reports indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in PCOS. Alterations in sex steroids (i.e. high androgen and low estrogen levels) and increased visceral adiposity in PCOS could potentially contribute to the increased prevalence of OSA in this disorder. There is some evidence to suggest that there may be strong associations between the presence and severity of OSA and the metabolic disturbances that characterize PCOS. Causal mechanisms in the link between PCOS and OSA remain to be elucidated. Clinicians who manage PCOS patients should be aware of the high prevalence of OSA in these patients and systematically evaluate these women for sleep disturbances. PMID:19255602

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a dermatologic approach.

    PubMed

    Moura, Heloisa Helena Gonçalves de; Costa, Dailana Louvain Marinho; Bagatin, Ediléia; Sodré, Celso Tavares; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. It is a cause of significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex multigenic disorder, including abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, steroidogenesis, and insulin resistance. The main diagnostic findings of the syndrome are: hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology seen on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia and, in severe cases, signs of virilization. Treatment may improve the clinical manifestations of excess androgen production, normalize menses and ameliorate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical manifestations, metabolic complications, and treatment of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and the consequent early treatment may prevent metabolic complications and emotional distress that negatively impact the patients' quality of life.

  7. New adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alemzadeh, R; Kansra, A R

    2011-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but heterogeneous disorder that usually arises during puberty. This endocrine disorder is associated with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenemia with clinical manifestation of oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and acne. While the underlying etiology of PCOS remains unknown, it is commonly associated with obesity and insulin resistance leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus in hyperandrogenemic phenotypes. Menstrual irregularities and insulin resistance in obese adolescents are usually indistinguishable from the clinical manifestations of PCOS and pose a diagnostic dilemma due to higher circulating androgens during puberty. Consequently, a universal consensus on the definition of hyperandrogenemia in adolescents has been elusive. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenemia, independent of obesity, in postmenarchal adolescents is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome. Therefore, treatment strategies including lifestyle changes and/or use of insulin-sensitizers, hormone replacement and antiandrogens should be utilized in order to delay long-term cardiovascular and metabolic complications of this endocrinopathy.

  8. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner.

  9. Proteomic Profile of Mabuya sp. (Squamata: Scincidae) Ovary and Placenta During Gestation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Nathaly; Torres, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-04-11

    Reptiles are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, providing an integrated system for comparative studies on metabolic, animal physiology, and developmental biology. However, the molecular data available are limited and only recently have started to call attention in the "omics" sciences. Mabuya sp. is a viviparous placentrotrophic skink with particular reproductive features, including microlecithal eggs, early luteolysis, prolonged gestation, and development of a highly specialized placenta. This placenta is responsible for respiratory exchange and the transference of all nutrients necessary for embryonic development. Our aim was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the ovary and placenta of Mabuya sp. during early, mid, and late gestation; their possible metabolic pathways; and biological processes. We carried out a comparative proteomic analysis during gestation in both tissues by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Differential protein expression in both tissues (Student's t-test P < 0.05) was related to several processes such as cell structure, cell movement, and energy. Proteins found in ovary are mainly associated with follicular development and its regulation. In the placenta, particularly during mid and late gestation, protein expression is involved in nutrient metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and embryonic development. This work provides new insights about the proteins expressed and their physiological mechanisms in Mabuya sp. placenta and ovary during gestation.

  10. Novel population of small tumour-initiating stem cells in the ovaries of women with borderline ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Stimpfel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Small stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm previously isolated from adult human ovaries indicated pluripotency and germinal lineage, especially primordial germ cells, and developed into primitive oocyte-like cells in vitro. Here, we show that a comparable population of small stem cells can be found in the ovarian tissue of women with borderline ovarian cancer, which, in contrast to small stem cells in “healthy” ovaries, formed spontaneous tumour-like structures and expressed some markers related to pluripotency and germinal lineage. The gene expression profile of these small putative cancer stem cells differed from similar cells sorted from “healthy” ovaries by 132 upregulated and 97 downregulated genes, including some important forkhead box and homeobox genes related to transcription regulation, developmental processes, embryogenesis, and ovarian cancer. These putative cancer stem cells are suggested to be a novel population of ovarian tumour-initiating cells in humans. PMID:27703207

  11. Tomato ovary-to-fruit transition is characterized by a spatial shift of mRNAs for cell wall invertase and its inhibitor with the encoded proteins localized to sieve elements.

    PubMed

    Palmer, William M; Ru, Lei; Jin, Ye; Patrick, John W; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Central to understanding fruit development is to elucidate the processes mediating a successful transition from pre-pollination ovaries to newly set fruit, a key step in establishing fruit yield potential. In tomato, cell wall invertase (CWIN) LIN5 and its inhibitor INH1 are essential for fruit growth. However, the molecular and cellular basis by which they exert their roles in ovary-to-fruit transition remains unknown. To address this issue, we conducted a study focusing on ovaries and fruitlets at 2 days before and 2 days after anthesis, respectively. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that LIN5 and INH1 exhibited a dispersed expression in ovaries compared with their phloem-specific expression in fruitlets. Remarkably, LIN5 and INH1 proteins were immunologically co-localized to cell walls of sieve elements (SEs) in ovaries immediately prior to anthesis and in young fruitlets, but were undetectable in provascular bundles of younger ovaries. A burst in CWIN activity occurred during ovary-to-fruit transition. Interestingly, the ovaries, but not the fruitlets, exhibited high expression of a defective invertase, SldeCWIN1, an ortholog of which is known to enhance inhibition of INH on CWIN activity in tobacco. Imaging of a fluorescent symplasmic tracer indicated an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway operated in ovaries, contrary to the previously observed symplasmic unloading pathway in fruit pericarp. These new data indicate that (1) a phloem-specific patterning of the CWIN and INH mRNAs is induced during ovary-to-fruit transition, and (2) LIN5 protein functions specifically in walls of SEs and increases its activity during ovary-to-fruit transition, probably to facilitate phloem unloading and to generate a glucose signal positively regulating cell division, hence fruit set.

  12. The M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zulian, Elisa; Sartorato, Paola; Schiavi, Francesca; Moghetti, Paolo; Castello, Roberto; Mantero, Franco; Opocher, Giuseppe; Scaroni, Carla

    2005-11-01

    To explore the relationship between variation in AGT M235T gene and the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its sequelae, in the present study we evaluated AGT polymorphism M235T in women with PCOS and in a control group. Moreover, to detect any relationship between AGT M235T variation and intermediate and quantitative traits relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and PCOS, we looked for genotype-dependent differences within the subjects with PCOS.

  13. Cell engineering and cultivation of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Omasa, Takeshi; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kim, Wook-Dong

    2010-04-01

    Mammalian cell lines are important host cells for the industrial production of pharmaceutical proteins owing to their capacity for correct folding, assembly and post-translational modification. In particular, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most dependable host cells for the industrial production of therapeutic proteins. Growing demand for therapeutic proteins promotes the development of technologies for high quality and productivity in CHO expression systems. The following are fundamentally important for effective production. 1) Construction of cultivation process. The CHO-based cultivation process is well established and is a general platform of therapeutic antibody production. The cost of therapeutic protein production using CHO cells is equivalent to that using microbial culture. 2) Cell line development. Recent developments in omics technologies have been essential for the development of rational methods of constructing a cell line. 3) Cell engineering for post-translational steps. Improvement of secretion, folding and glycosylaiton is an important key issue for mammalian cell production systems. This review provides an overview of the industrial production of therapeutic proteins using a CHO cell expression system.

  14. Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Methods Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90–92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. Results In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. Conclusions This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries. PMID:23866168

  15. Prophylactic Oophorectomy: Preventing Cancer by Surgically Removing Your Ovaries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and an ultrasound exam of your ovaries. In theory, increased screening should be able to help doctors ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]: comprehensive management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Samraj, George P N; Kuritzky, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common premenopausal endocrino-metabolic disorder. In addition to hyperandrogenism, menstrual abnormalities, ovulatory disturbances and infertility, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity may eventuate in long-term cardiovascular consequences.

  17. Isolation of Undifferentiated Female Germline Cells from Adult Drosophila Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Robyn Su May; Osato, Motomi; Kai, Toshie

    2015-08-03

    This unit describes a method for isolating undifferentiated, stem cell-like germline cells from adult Drosophila ovaries. Here, we demonstrate that this population of cells can be effectively purified from hand-dissected ovaries in considerably large quantities. Tumor ovaries with expanded populations of undifferentiated germline cells are first removed from fly abdomens and dissociated into a cell suspension with the aid of protease treatment. The target cells, which express Vasa-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein under the control of the germline-specific vasa promoter, are specifically selected from the suspension via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). These protocols can be adapted to isolate other cell types from fly ovaries, such as somatic follicle cells or escort cells, by driving GFP expression in the respective target cells.

  18. Cyclin A1 is expressed in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongquan; Li, Yuanhong; Zhao, Chen; Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, Hongduo; Lang, Ming-Fei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin A1 belongs to the type-A cyclins and participates in cell cycle regulation. Since its discovery, cyclin A1 has been shown mostly in testis. It plays important roles in spermatogenesis. However, there were also reports on ovary expression of cyclin A1. Therefore, we intended to revisit the expression of cyclin A1 in mouse ovary. Our study showed that cyclin A1 was expressed at the mRNA level and the protein level in mouse ovary. Tissue staining revealed that cyclin A1 was expressed in maturating oocytes. With the recent data on the functions of cyclins in somatic and stem cells, we also discussed the possibilities of further studies of cyclin A1 in mouse oocytes and perhaps in the oogonial stem cells. Our findings not only add to the supportive evidence of cyclin A1 expression in oocytes, but also may promote more interest in exploring cyclin A1 functions in ovary.

  19. Removal of toxin (tetrodotoxin) from puffer ovary by traditional fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

    2013-01-18

    The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (I(Na)) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries decreased to 1/50-1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes" fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.

  20. Leptin regulates gonadotropins and steroid receptors in the rats ovary.

    PubMed

    Silveira Cavalcante, Fernanda; Aiceles, Verónica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    The leptin hormone is important to satiety and an important link between the nutritional status and reproductive processes. Owing to the contradictory effects of leptin on the ovary and the failure to clarify the precise mechanism by which leptin affects the ovary, our aim was to contribute to evaluation if leptin can directly regulate the gene expression of leptin itself and its receptors, and the expression of several genes related to the ovary function by a model of tissue culture. Ovaries from Wistar dams were used at 90 days of age and were submitted to medium with presence and absence of leptin. The results can demonstrate that leptin regulates gonadotropins and steroid receptors, which could suggest that the ovarian leptin role could be secondary to the changes in these receptors expression in rats.

  1. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  2. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/intermedin (IMD) in rat ovary: changes in estrous cycle and pregnancy and its role in ovulation and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-02-01

    Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy.

  3. The D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Unfer, Vittorio; Roseff, Scott

    2011-06-30

    The D-chiro-inositol-to-myo-inositol ratio is regulated by an insulin-dependent epimerase. Enzyme activity varies among tissues, likely owing to the specific needs of the two different molecules. We hypothesize that in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome patients, epimerase activity is enhanced, leading to a local myo-inositol deficiency which in turn is responsible for the poor oocyte quality.

  4. Inhibition of serotonin reuptake in the prepubertal rat ovary by fluoxetine and effects on ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reyes, Jessica; Cárdenas, Mario; Damián-Matsumura, Pablo; Domínguez, Roberto; Ayala, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is an antidepressant in the treatment of mood disorders. Its impact on reproductive processes is incompletely known. The present study analyzed the reproductive effects of FLX in prepubertal female rats. Two experiments were conducted. First (acute administration), 30-day-old female rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5mg/kg of fluoxetine-hydrochloride, and were terminated 24, 48 or 72h after the treatment. Second (subchronic administration), FLX was injected on days 30-33 of age, and the animals were terminated the day of first estrus. In acute treatment estradiol concentration increased to 72h. In subchronic treatment increased serotonin concentration in ovaries and decreased the number of ova shed. An increase in number of atretic follicles and oocyte fragmentation was observed in these animals. The results suggest that FLX acts on the ovary or hypothalamus-pituitary axis resulting in modifications of the follicular development and ovulation.

  5. [Disorder of Tiangui (kidney essence) and reproductive dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yan, Wei; Hou, Li-hui; Wu, Xiao-ke

    2010-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) usually views polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as a menstrual disease or infertility disease. Reproductive dysfunction in PCOS is characterized by ovarian androgen excess and disturbance of follicular development, and its main clinical manifestations include delayed menstruation, scant menstruation, amenorrhea or infertility. Insulin resistance is a key pathological mechanism of PCOS. "Tiangui" (kidney essence) as a sex-stimulating essence in female in TCM theory, is essential to the menstruation and pregnancy of women. The disturbance of Tiangui (including time, status and rhythm) would result in female reproductive problems. Current studies of Tiangui indicate that ovary is the target organ of PCOS treatment, and its functional characteristics are consistent with the properties of Tiangui in time frame, state form and rhythm cycle. It is then concluded that ovarian dysfunction in PCOS can be expressed as disorder of Tiangui.

  6. Ovary transcriptome profiling of Coilia nasus during spawning migration stages by Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Rong; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Xu, Dong-Po; Zhang, Min-Ying; Liu, Kai; Shi, Ying; Wei, Qi-Wei; Fang, Di-An

    2015-06-01

    Coilia nasus is an anadromous kind of small to moderate size fish species, and limited transcriptomics research has been performed. In the present study, we performed Illumina sequencing to produce a 22,996,612 clean reads representing with a total of 4,599,079,601 (4.5Gb) nucleotides comprehensive transcript dataset for ovary of C. nasus. Over 20 million total reads were assembled into 63,141 unigenes, and 27,027 annotated genes were predicted by Blastx and ESTScan, respectively. Applying Blast analysis and functional annotation (e.g., GO, COG, Swissprot and KEGG), we have sampled an extensive and diverse expressed gene catalog for C. nasus representing a large proportion of the genes expressed in the ovary development process. This approach will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play key roles in anadromous fish spawning migration process.

  7. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-10

    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females.

  8. Salvage radiotherapy for carcinoma of the ovary following chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, A.Y.

    1988-05-01

    Following single-agent or combination chemotherapy, 9 patients with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary had elective second-look laparotomy. Macroscopic intraperitoneal disease was resected in 4 patients. Therefore, after the laparotomy, all 9 patients had only biopsy-proven, microscopic residual disease, and they received whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Hematological tolerance was satisfactory, with only 2 patients developing asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Mild gastrointestinal reactions, while frequent during radiotherapy, did not interrupt treatment in any patient. After follow-up ranging from 6 to 28 months (median 12 months), 2 patients died of cancer, 2 were alive with cancer, 3 were alive without clinical recurrence, and 2 were alive without biopsy-proven recurrence. Bowel complication occurred in 4 patients: 2 developed intestinal obstruction due to recurrent tumor, 1 developed subacute bowel obstruction which spontaneously resolved, and 1 patient required bowel resection because of a radiation complication. This study indicated that after single- or multiple-drug chemotherapy, most patients could complete the course of whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Gastrointestinal complications could be secondary to radiation damage or to recurrent tumor. While whole abdominopelvic irradiation was not an effective second-line treatment, some long-term survivors could still be expected.

  9. Expression and regulation of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalei; Meng, Chenling; Wei, Quanwei; Shi, Fangxiong; Mao, Dagan

    2015-04-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) preferentially mediates the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ester and the delivery of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. Although multiple analyses have investigated the function of SR-B1 in the liver, adrenal and ovary, its expression in rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle is lacking. In the present study, real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate SR-B1 expression in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle. The results demonstrated that ovarian SR-B1 expression was in a stage-dependent manner, continuously increased from proestrus and kept elevated during metoestrus, while uterine SR-B1 expression decreased from proestrus to diestrus. To determine whether ovarian and uterine SR-B1 expression were affected by sex steroid hormones, immature rats were treated with 17 β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or their antagonists from postnatal days 24-26. Results showed that the levels of SR-B1 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated by E2 in both the ovary and uterus. IHC results showed that SR-B1 was primarily localized in the oocytes, theca internal cells (T-I) of follicles, interstitial cells (IC) as well as corpus luteum (CL), but not granulosa cells (GC) in the ovary during the estrous cycle. Uterine SR-B1 was highly expressed in the endometrial luminal epithelial cells (LEC) and glandular epithelial cells (GEC) as well as in the circular muscle (CM) cells, and weak staining in stromal cells (SC) through estrous cycle. Taken together, SR-B1 expression in the ovary and uterus across the estrous cycle demonstrate that SR-B1 may be involved in uterine function, follicular development as well as luteal function.

  10. The Continuum of Serous Tumors of Low Malignant Potential and Low-Grade Serous Carcinomas of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Gershenson, David

    2007-01-01

    The role of serous tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) in the development of invasive epithelial cancer of the ovary is debatable. This review summarizes the current clinical, genetic, and genomic evidence for the existence of a continuum comprising both LMP serous tumors and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. PMID:18057521

  11. Genetic variation in yield under hot ambient temperatures spotlights a role for cytokinin in protection of developing floral primordia.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Shiri; Chayut, Noam; Nave, Nahum; Kafle, Dinesh; Hegele, Martin; Kaminetsky, Rina; Wünsche, Jens N; Samach, Alon

    2014-03-01

    Unusually hot ambient temperatures (HAT) can cause pre-anthesis abortion of flowers in many diverse species, limiting crop production. This limitation is becoming more substantial with climate change. Flower primordia of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) vines exposed to HAT summers, normally abort. Flower abortion can also be triggered by gibberellin application. We screened for, and identified a genotype capable of reaching anthesis during summer as well as controlled HAT conditions, and also more resistant to gibberellin. Leaves of this genotype contained higher levels of endogenous cytokinin. We investigated a possible connection between higher cytokinin levels and response to gibberellin. Indeed, the effects of gibberellin application were partially suppressed in plants pretreated with cytokinin. Can higher cytokinin levels protect flowers from aborting under HAT conditions? In passion fruit, flowers at a specific stage showed more resistance in response to HAT after cytokinin application. We further tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines with high or low cytokinin levels and cytokinin applications to wild-type plants supported a protective role for cytokinin on developing flowers exposed to HAT. Such findings may have important implications in future breeding programmes as well as field application of growth regulators.

  12. Androgen circle of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Homburg, Roy

    2009-07-01

    Although the aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still not known and the search for causative genes is proving elusive, it is generally agreed that hyperandrogenism is at the heart of the syndrome. Here, it is proposed that excess androgens are the root cause of PCOS starting from their influence on the female fetus in programming gene expression, producing the characteristic signs and symptoms which are then exacerbated by a propagation of excess ovarian androgen production from multiple small follicles, anovulation and insulin resistance in the reproductive life-span, thus setting up a vicious perpetual circle of androgen excess. This opinion paper, rather than being a full-scale review, is intentionally biased in support of this hypothesis that androgen excess is the 'root of all evil' in PCOS; in the hope that its acceptance could lead to more direct treatment of the syndrome in all its facets rather than the symptomatic treatment of side effects of androgen excess that we are addressing today.

  13. Aging of oocyte, ovary, and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, Chris; Uda, Manuela; Hamatani, Toshio; Crisponi, Laura; Garcia, Jose-Elias; Ko, Minoru; Pilia, Giuseppe; Sforza, Chiarella; Schlessinger, David; Forabosco, Antonino

    2004-12-01

    We review age-related changes in the ovary and their effect on female fertility, with particular emphasis on follicle formation, follicle dynamics, and oocyte quality. The evidence indicates that the developmental processes leading to follicle formation set the rules determining follicle quiescence and growth. This regulatory system is maintained until menopause and is directly affected in at least some models of premature ovarian failure (POF), most strikingly in the Foxl2 mouse knockout, a model of human POF with monogenic etiology (blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome). Several lines of evidence indicate that if the ovarian germ cell lineage maintains regenerative potential, as recently suggested in the mouse, a role in follicle dynamics for germ stem cells, if any, is likely indirect or secondary. In addition, age-related variations in oocyte quality in animal models suggest that reproductive competence is acquired progressively and might depend on parallel growth and differentiation of follicle cells and stroma. Genomewide analyses of the mouse oocyte transcriptome have begun to be used to systematically investigate the mechanisms of reproductive competence that are altered with aging. Investigative and therapeutic strategies can benefit from considering the role of continuous interactions between follicle cells and oocytes from the beginning of histogenesis to full maturation.

  14. Bariatric Surgery, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, James; Deguara, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results. PMID:27965894

  15. Cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barnard, L; Balen, A H; Ferriday, D; Tiplady, B; Dye, L

    2007-01-01

    To date there have been no published studies of cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This large internet-based study compared neuropsychological functioning in right-handed women with (minimum n=135) and without PCOS (minimum n=322), stratified according to use of anti-androgen medication and level of depression. Women with PCOS are thought to have hyperandrogenism and hyperestrogenism which was hypothesized to differentially influence cognitive function across cognitive domains. Performance did not differ according to diagnosis on mental rotation and spatial location tasks. Hence, no evidence to support the view that women with PCOS display a more masculine cognitive profile due to hyperandrogenism. Despite presumed hyperestrogenism, women with PCOS demonstrated impaired performance in terms of speed and accuracy, on reaction time and word recognition tasks. These findings are intriguing given the well-documented roles of estrogen and testosterone in cognitive function. Overall, these findings suggest that PCOS is not associated with masculinized cognitive functioning, and, although associated with impaired performance on tasks considered to demonstrate female-advantage, such impairments are subtle and are unlikely to affect daily functioning.

  16. Dermatologic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy T; Zane, Lee T

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of reproductive-aged women and is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. The disorder is commonly characterized by elevated levels of androgen and insulin. Women with PCOS may present with a range of signs and symptoms, and face increased risks of reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular, psychologic, and neoplastic sequelae, particularly if the condition is left unrecognized or untreated. The clinical definition of PCOS has changed in recent years and includes as one of its cardinal criteria the dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, chiefly hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenetic alopecia. Acanthosis nigricans, a cutaneous sign of hyperinsulinemia, may also be present. These dermatologic features may provide early clinical clues to recognition of PCOS, and treatment of these cutaneous conditions may improve the patient's quality of life and psychologic well-being. The effects of androgen on pilosebaceous units in the skin can vary by anatomic location, producing pathophysiologic effects on hair growth and differentiation, sebaceous gland size and activity, and follicular keratinization. Treatment modalities may include hormonal therapy intended to modulate androgen production and action as well as non-hormonal therapies directed toward specific dermatologic conditions.

  17. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  18. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Tang, Ruiling

    2008-10-01

    The protein expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel, in ovarian stimulated premature female rat ovary during a cycle of follicle development and corpus luteum formation was investigated. Animals were injected with 10 U pregnant Mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and subsequently 10 U hCG 48 h later. Time-dependent immunohistochemistry and Western blotting experiments were performed before and 24, 48, 72 h after hCG treatment. The immunohistochemistry revealed that administration of PMSG stimulated the CFTR expression in thecal cell layer and granulosa cell layer of mature follicles 48 h post injection, coincident with the PMSG-induced peak in follicular estradiol. However, the expression of CFTR in the granulose lutein cell layer and thecal lutein cell layer was time-dependently reduced following hCG injection, in accordance with the gradually increased progestogen level during luteum corpus formation. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that rat ovarian tissue expressed the special CFTR band at 170 kD. It is concluded that cAMP-dependent Cl(-) channels are involved in regulation of follicle development and luteum formation.

  19. Obesity, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmina, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The complex mechanisms linking fat excess to metabolic syndrome are not well understood, but several experimental studies have shown that altered production of adipokines plays a main role in development and progression of this disorder. In particular, reduced secretion of adiponectin has a crucial role in inducing insulin resistance but also in determining the clustering of elevated triglycerides and small, dense LDL particles. Increased leptin secretion may be responsible for sympathetic nervous system overactivity and hypertension, while reduced omentin may have an important permissive role in the development of atherogenic processes. Finally, cytokines and other adipokines (resistin, visfatin) determine and modulate the inflammatory process that is an essential component of this condition of cardiovascular risk. Because obesity is prevalent in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is not surprising that patients with PCOS present altered adipokine levels and increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, because of the presence of other CV risk factors (androgen excess), in PCOS adipokine dysfunction is particularly severe. Understanding and treating adipokine dysfunction in young women with PCOS is an essential component of any politics of prevention of CV diseases in the general population.

  20. Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant. However, obesity substantially aggravates the insulin resistance and the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in women with PCOS. Recently, it has been shown that many aspects of adipose tissue function in PCOS are abnormal, and these abnormalities likely predispose to development of insulin resistance even in the absence of obesity. This review provides an overview of these abnormalities and their impact on development of metabolic disorders. At the end, an overview of the therapeutic options for management of adiposity and its complications in PCOS are discussed.

  1. FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-02-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes.

  2. TrkB receptors are required for follicular growth and oocyte survival in the mammalian ovary

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Alfonso; Romero, Carmen; Dissen, Gregory A.; DeChiara, Tom M.; Reichardt, Louis; Cornea, Anda; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Xu, Baoji

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well established that both follicular assembly and the initiation of follicle growth in the mammalian ovary occur independently of pituitary hormone support, the factors controlling these processes remain poorly understood. We now report that neurotrophins (NTs) signaling via TrkB receptors are required for the growth of newly formed follicles. Both neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the preferred TrkB ligands, are expressed in the infantile mouse ovary. Initially, they are present in oocytes, but this site of expression switches to granulosa cells after the newly assembled primordial follicles develop into growing primary follicles. Full-length kinase domain-containing TrkB receptors are expressed at low and seemingly unchanging levels in the oocytes and granulosa cells of both primordial and growing follicles. In contrast, a truncated TrkB isoform lacking the intracellular domain of the receptor is selectively expressed in oocytes, where it is targeted to the cell membrane as primary follicles initiate growth. Using gene-targeted mice lacking all TrkB isoforms, we show that the ovaries of these mice or those lacking both NT-4 and BDNF suffer a stage-selective deficiency in early follicular development that compromises the ability of follicles to grow beyond the primary stage. Proliferation of granulosa cells— required for this transition—and expression of FSH receptors (FSHR), which reflects the degree of biochemical differentiation of growing follicles, are reduced in trkB-null mice. Ovaries from these animals grafted under the kidney capsule of wild-type mice fail to sustain follicular growth and show a striking loss of follicular organization, preceded by massive oocyte death. These results indicate that TrkB receptors are required for the early growth of ovarian follicles and that they exert this function by primarily supporting oocyte development as well as providing granulosa cells with a proliferative

  3. [Correlations between gynoecium morphology and ovary position in angiosperm flowers: roles of developmental and terminological constraints].

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, D D

    2015-01-01

    Angiosperm gynoecium consists of elementary units, called carpels. These can be free (apocarpy) or united (coenocarpy, or syncarpy in a wide sense). One of the most complicate problems of evolutionary morphology of angiosperms is distinguishing monomerous and pseudomonomerous gynoecia. The former are assumed to be derived by reduction of carpel number in apocarpous gynoecia, the latter by reduction of gynoecia with united carpels. Pseudomonomerous gynoecia have one fertile carpel and more or less prominent traces of sterile carpel(s). In extreme cases of reduction, pseudomonomerous gynoecia are very similar to monomerous, even though the two types have completely different evolutionary histories. G.B. Kedrov (1969) proposed a new approach to resolving the issue. Using the fact of absence of polymerous free-carpellate gynoecia with inferior ovaries, he suggested that there is a constraint against epigyny in plants with free carpels. Therefore, in taxa with disputable morphological interpretations, the gynoecium should be treated as pseudomonomerous (and not monomerous) if the ovary is inferior. A critical review of the concept of G.B. Kedrov showed that his ideas would suggest re-interpretation of widely accepted views on gynoecium morphology in several key families of basal angiosperms. An alternative view is proposed, that for most important types of epigyny in angiosperms, a "constraint" for a combination of inferior ovary and apocarpy is due to definition of the term "apocarpy" only. There is no biological sense in this "constraint". Existence of two other morphogenetic constraints is proposed: (1) against development of a typical inferior ovary in monomerous gynoecia with conduplicate carpel and (2) against a radial (sectorial) fusion of individual carpels with stamens or perianth members without fusion of these groups into an entire structure. Possible biological nature of these constraints is discussed.

  4. PDGFR Inhibition Results in Pericyte Depletion and Hemorrhage into the Corpus Luteum of the Rat Ovary.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anthony P; Ashton, Susan; Horner, Judith; Wilson, Zena; Reens, Jaimini; Richmond, Graham H P; Barry, Simon T; Wedge, Steve R

    2016-01-01

    The growth plate, ovary, adrenal gland, and rodent incisor tooth are sentinel organs for antiangiogenic effects since they respond reliably, quantitatively, and sensitively to inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Here we report that treatment of rats with platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) inhibitors that target pericytes results in severe ovarian hemorrhage with degeneration and eventual rupture of the corpus luteum. Evaluation of the growth plate, adrenal gland, and incisor tooth that are typical target organs for antiangiogenic treatment in the rodent revealed no abnormalities. Histologically, the changes in the ovary were characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, increased vessel fragility, and hemorrhage into the corpus luteum. Immunocytochemical staining of vessels with alpha smooth muscle actin and CD31 that recognize pericytes and vascular endothelium, respectively, demonstrated that this effect was due to selective pericyte deficiency within corpora lutea. Further experiments in which rats were treated concurrently with both PDGFRβ and VEGFR inhibitors ablated the hemorrhagic response, resulting instead in corpus luteum necrosis. These changes are consistent with the notion that selective pericyte loss in the primitive capillary network resulted in increased vessel fragility and hemorrhage, whereas concomitant VEGFR inhibition resulted in vessel regression and reduced vascular perfusion that restricted development of the hemorrhagic vessels. These results also highlight the utility of the rodent ovary to respond differentially to VEGFR and PDGFR inhibitors, which may provide useful information during routine safety assessment for determining target organ toxicity.

  5. Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W. Hamish B. . E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B.; Saran, Frank; Kelsey, Tom W.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

  6. Interspecific hybridization between Tigridia pavonia and T. augusta through ovary slice culture.

    PubMed

    Piña-Escutia, J-L; Vázquez-García, L-M; Arzate-Fernández, A-M

    2013-01-16

    Tigridia pavonia is the most popular species in the Tigridia genus, and is currently marketed in Europe, Asia, and Australia as a landscape plant. Although it is native to Mexico, there are no breeding programs for it. In this study, we attempted to increase its flower color spectrum and growth habit by interspecific hybridization with T. augusta. Interspecific hybrids between T. pavonia and T. augusta were successfully obtained for the first time using the cut-style pollination and ovary slice culture techniques. On the contrary, no hybrids were obtained from a reciprocal cross. At three, four, and five days after pollination (DAP) ovaries were sliced and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators and ammonium nitrate, but were supplemented with 6% sucrose, 50 mg/L yeast extract, and 0.25% Gelrite. After 80 days of culture initiation, the germination of only 10 embryos was observed in ovary slices cultured at three DAP. After transfer to identical fresh medium, six hybrid embryos developed into seedlings. All obtained hybrid seedlings were transplanted successfully to soil, and grew normally. The progenies investigated were identified as true hybrids based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

  7. Expression of DMRT1 in the mammalian ovary and testis--from marsupials to mice.

    PubMed

    Pask, A J; Behringer, R R; Renfree, M B

    2003-01-01

    Doublesex and mab3 related transcript (DMRT1) was identified as a candidate gene for human 9p24.3 associated sex reversal. DMRT1 orthologues have highly conserved roles in sexual differentiation from flies and worms to humans. A DMRT1 orthologue was isolated from a marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii. The wallaby gene is highly conserved with other vertebrate DMRT1 genes, especially within the P/S and DM domains. It is expressed in the differentiating testis from the late fetus, during pouch life and in the adult. As in eutherian mammals, DMRT1 protein was localized in the germ cells and the Sertoli cells of the testis, but in addition it was detected in the Leydig cells, peri-tubular myoid cells and within the acrosome of the sperm heads. DMRT1 protein was also detected in the fetal and adult ovary pre-granulosa, granulosa and germ cells. Similarly, we also detected DMRT1 in the granulosa cells of all developing follicles in the adult mouse ovary. This is the first report of DMRT1 expression in the adult mammalian ovary, and suggests a wider role for this gene in mammals, in both the testis and ovarian function.

  8. Unfertilized ovary: a novel explant for coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Prasanthi I P; Hocher, Valerie; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Yakandawala, Deepthi M D; Weerakoon, L Kaushalya

    2007-01-01

    Unfertilized ovaries isolated from immature female flowers of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) were tested as a source of explants for callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The correct developmental stage of ovary explants and suitable in vitro culture conditions for consistent callus production were identified. The concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and activated charcoal was found to be critical for callogenesis. When cultured in a medium containing 100 microM 2,4-D and 0.1% activated charcoal, ovary explants gave rise to 41% callusing. Embryogenic calli were sub-cultured into somatic embryogenesis induction medium containing 5 microM abscisic acid, followed by plant regeneration medium (with 5 microM 6-benzylaminopurine). Many of the somatic embryos formed were complete with shoot and root poles and upon germination they gave rise to normal shoots. However, some abnormal developments were also observed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the calli tested were diploid. Through histological studies, it was possible to study the sequence of the events that take place during somatic embryogenesis including orientation, polarization and elongation of the embryos.

  9. Regulation of HGF and c-MET Interaction in Normal Ovary and Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngjoo; Godwin, Andrew K

    2017-04-01

    Binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to the c-MET receptor has mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects on cells. The versatile biological effects of HGF and c-MET interactions make them important contributors to the development of malignant tumors. We and others have demonstrated a therapeutic value in targeting the interaction of c-MET and HGF in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, both HGF and c-MET are expressed in the normal ovary as well. Therefore, it is important to understand the differences in mechanisms that control HGF signaling activation and its functional role in the normal ovary and EOC. In the normal ovary, HGF signaling may be under hormonal regulation. During ovulation, HGF-converting proteases are secreted and the subsequent activation of HGF signaling enhances the proliferation of ovarian surface epithelium in order to replenish the area damaged due to expulsion of the ovum. In contrast, EOC cells that exhibit epithelial characteristics constitutively express both c-MET and HGF-converting proteases such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator. In EOC, mechanisms to control the activation of HGF signaling are absent since HGF is provided locally from the tissue microenvironment as well as remotely throughout the body. Potential incessant HGF signaling in EOC may lead to an increase in proliferation, invasion through the stroma, and migration to other tissues of cancer cells. Therefore, targeting the interaction of c-MET and HGF would be beneficial in treating EOC.

  10. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy. PMID:26440413

  11. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Alva, Orlando; Roa-Roco, Rosa Nair; Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy.

  12. Geography of follicle formation in the embryonic mouse ovary impacts activation pattern during the first wave of folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marília H; Kim, So-Youn; Ebbert, Katherine; Duncan, Francesca E; Ramalho-Santos, João; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-10-01

    During embryonic development, mouse female germ cells enter meiosis in an anterior-to-posterior wave believed to be driven by retinoic acid. It has been proposed that ovarian follicle formation and activation follow the same general wave of meiotic progression; however, the precise anatomic specification of these processes has not been delineated. Here, we created a mouse line using Mvh, Gdf9, and Zp3 promoters to drive distinct temporal expression of three fluorescent proteins in the oocytes and to identify where the first follicle cohort develops. The fluorescent profile revealed that the first growing follicles consistently appeared in a specific region of the ovary, the anterior-dorsal region, which led us to analyze if meiotic onset occurred earlier in the dorsal ovarian region. Surprisingly, in addition to the anterior-to-posterior wave, we observed an early meiotic entry in the ventral region of the ovary. This additional anatomic stratification of meiosis contrasts with the localization of the initial follicle formation and activation in the dorsal region of the ovary. Therefore, our study suggests that the specification of cortical and medullar areas in the ventral and dorsal regions on the ovary, rather than the onset of meiosis, impacts where the first follicle activation event occurs.

  13. Geography of Follicle Formation in the Embryonic Mouse Ovary Impacts Activation Pattern During the First Wave of Folliculogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Marília H.; Kim, So-Youn; Ebbert, Katherine; Duncan, Francesca E.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    During embryonic development, mouse female germ cells enter meiosis in an anterior-to-posterior wave believed to be driven by retinoic acid. It has been proposed that ovarian follicle formation and activation follow the same general wave of meiotic progression; however, the precise anatomic specification of these processes has not been delineated. Here, we created a mouse line using Mvh, Gdf9, and Zp3 promoters to drive distinct temporal expression of three fluorescent proteins in the oocytes and to identify where the first follicle cohort develops. The fluorescent profile revealed that the first growing follicles consistently appeared in a specific region of the ovary, the anterior-dorsal region, which led us to analyze if meiotic onset occurred earlier in the dorsal ovarian region. Surprisingly, in addition to the anterior-to-posterior wave, we observed an early meiotic entry in the ventral region of the ovary. This additional anatomic stratification of meiosis contrasts with the localization of the initial follicle formation and activation in the dorsal region of the ovary. Therefore, our study suggests that the specification of cortical and medullar areas in the ventral and dorsal regions on the ovary, rather than the onset of meiosis, impacts where the first follicle activation event occurs. PMID:26246221

  14. Gene expression profile analysis of testis and ovary of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, reveals candidate reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Jin, S B; Gong, Y S; Zhang, W Y

    2015-03-20

    This study utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing technology to identify reproduction- and development-related genes of Macrobrachium nipponense by analyzing gene expression profiles of testis and ovary. More than 20 million 1 x 51-bp reads were obtained by Illumina sequencing, generating more than 7.7 and 11.7 million clean reads in the testis and ovary library, respectively. As a result, 10,018 unitags were supposed to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ovary and testis. Compared to the ovary library, 4563 (45.5%) of these DEGs exhibited at least 6-fold upregulated expression, while 5455 (54.5%) DEGs exhibited at least 2-fold downregulated expression in the testis. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that 113 GO terms had potential molecular functions in reproduction. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes results revealed that the most important pathways may be relevant to reproduction and included 7 pathways. Forty-two genes were identified as reproduction-, development-, and sex-related genes based on GO classification and sequence comparison with other publications, including male reproductive-related LIM protein, spermatogenesis-associated protein, gametocyte-specific factor 1, VASA-like protein, vitellogenin, sex-determining protein fem-1, and other potential candidates. These results will advance research in the field of molecular genetics in M. nipponense and offer a valuable resource for further research related to reproduction in crustaceans.

  15. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  16. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  17. Dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min

    2013-05-01

    Dyslipidemia is a very common metabolic abnormality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiology of PCOS, thus dyslipidemia in women with PCOS may be consistent with those found in an insulin resistant state. In recent meta-analysis, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were 26 mg/dL and 12 mg/dL higher, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 6 mg/dL lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. Alterations in LDL quality also have been reported in women with PCOS: women with PCOS have an increased proportion of atherogenic small dense LDL or decreased mean LDL particle size. However, in a recent Korean study, non-obese Korean women with PCOS had no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in LDL cholesterol profile. Lipoprotein (a) has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and its elevation in PCOS patients has been consistently reported in diverse studies including non-obese Korean population. Some studies have investigated apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and ApoC-I levels in women with PCOS and levels of ApoA-I, which has cardio-protective effects, were significantly lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. ApoC-I is known to increase the postprandial serum lipid level that is common in coronary artery disease patients, and one study reported that such an elevation may be the earliest variation of lipid abnormality in women with PCOS. In conclusion, women with PCOS should receive a complete lipid test, and lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise, is the first line therapy for all women with PCOS and is particularly important for those with dyslipidemia.

  18. The treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Melis, G B

    2004-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women in reproductive age. As for the treatment of this disease the lack of a clear etiology for PCOS has led to a symptom-orientated treatment. However, the overall aims of treatment are to induce ovulation for women desiring conception, to reduce androgen levels, to reduce body weight and to reduce long-term health risks of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is recommended as first line treatment for induction of ovulation in patients with PCOS by virtue of its efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Alternatives for CC-resistant patients include gonadotrophin therapy (better with low-dose step-up protocol) and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. Recently, recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been introduced in clinical practice and it seems more effective than urinary FSH as demonstrated by a significantly higher number of follicles recruited and embryos obtained with a shorter treatment period. The addition of GnRH-agonist to the stimulation protocol for women affected by PCOS could reduce premature luteinization and increase cycle fecundity. Other drugs under investigation are metformin and cabergoline. Hirsutism is the manifestation of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. The primary goal of the treatment of hirsutim is central or peripheral androgen suppression using 3 groups of drugs: inhibitors of androgen production (oral contraceptives, GnRH analogues), peripheral androgen blockers (cyproterone acetate, flutamide, finasteride and spironolactone), and insulin-sensitizing agents (metformin). Weight reduction and exercise could also improve not only menstrual disturbances and infertility, but also insulin resistance and its adverse metabolic con-sequences.

  19. Sex, stem cells and tumors in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Salz, Helen K

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene encodes a female-specific RNA binding protein that in somatic cells globally regulates all aspects of female-specific development and behavior. Sxl also has a critical, but less well understood, role in female germ cells. Germ cells without Sxl protein can adopt a stem cell fate when housed in a normal ovary, but fail to successfully execute the self-renewal differentiation fate switch. The failure to differentiate is accompanied by the inappropriate expression of a set of male specific markers, continued proliferation, and formation of a tumor. The findings in Chau et al., (2012) identify the germline stem cell maintenance factor nanos as one of its target genes, and suggest that Sxl enables the switch from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell by posttranscriptional downregulation of nanos expression. These studies provide the basis for a new model in which Sxl directly couples sexual identity with the self-renewal differentiation decision and raises several interesting questions about the genesis of the tumor phenotype.

  20. Nesfatin-1 and other hormone alterations in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Rulin; Gurates, Bilgin; Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Husnu; Sahin, Ibrahim; Baykus, Yakup; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Citil, Cihan; Gungor, Sami

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly characterised by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia and hirsutism. Nesfatin-1 a recently discovered hormone, acts upon energy balance, glucose metabolism, obesity and probably gonadal functions. This study was to evaluate the circulating levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with PCOS (n = 30) and in age and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 30). PCOS patients had significantly lower levels of nesfatin-1 (0.88 ± 0.36 ng/mL) than healthy controls (2.22 ± 1.14 ng/mL). PCOS patients also had higher gonadotropin and androgen plasma concentrations, Ferriman-Gallwey scores, blood glucose levels and a homeostasis model of assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR) index than in healthy women. Correlation tests in PCOS subjects detected a negative correlation between nesfatin-1 levels and BMI, fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and a HOMA-IR index. Lower nesfatin-1 concentration may plays a very important role in the development of PCOS.

  1. SPARC preserves follicular epithelium integrity in insect ovaries.

    PubMed

    Irles, Paula; Ramos, Saray; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2017-02-15

    The importance of juvenile hormone regulating insect oogenesis suggests looking for genes whose expression is regulated by this hormone. SPARC is a calcium-binding glycoprotein that forms part of the extracellular membranes, which in vertebrates participates in bones mineralization or regulating cell proliferation in some cancer types. This large number of functions described for SPARC in different species might be related to the significant differences in its structure observed when comparing different species-groups. Indeed, these structural differences allow characterizing the different clades. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, a SPARC homolog emerged from ovarian transcriptomes that were constructed to find genes responding to juvenile hormone. In insects, SPARC functions have been studied in oogenesis and in embryo development of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present work, using RNAi approaches, novel functions for SPARC in the B. germanica panoistic ovaries are described. We found that depletion of SPARC does not allow to the follicular cells to complete mitosis, resulting in giant follicular cells nuclei and in a great alteration of the ovarian follicle cytoskeleton. The SPARC contribution to B. germanica oogenesis occurs stabilizing the follicular cell program and helping to maintain the nuclear divisions. Moreover, SPARC is necessary to maintain the cytoskeleton of the follicular cells. Any modification of these key processes disables females for oviposition.

  2. Pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Carolien M; Fauser, Bart C J M; Macklon, Nick S

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that PCOS may have significant implications for pregnancy outcomes and long-term health of a woman and her offspring. Whether or not PCOS itself or the symptoms that coincide with PCOS, like obesity and fertility treatment, are responsible for these increased risks is a continuing matter of debate. Miscarriage rates among women with PCOS are believed to be increased compared with normal fertile women, although supporting evidence is limited. Pregnant women with PCOS experience a higher incidence of perinatal morbidity from gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia. Their babies are at an increased risk of neonatal complications, such as preterm birth and admission at a neonatal intensive care unit. Pre-pregnancy, antenatal, and intrapartum care should be aimed at reducing these risks. The use of insulin sensitizing drugs to decrease hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance has been proposed during pregnancy to reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. Although metformin appears to be safe, there are too few data from prospective, randomized controlled trials to support treatment during pregnancy.

  3. Diagnosis and Challenges of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Agapova, Sophia E.; Cameo, Tamara; Sopher, Aviva B.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have become less stringent over the years, determination of the minimum diagnostic features in adolescents is still an area of controversy. Of particular concern is that many of the features considered to be diagnostic for PCOS may evolve over time and change during the first few years after menarche. Nonetheless, attempts to define young women who may be at risk for development of PCOS is pertinent since associated morbidity such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia may benefit from early intervention. The relative utility of diagnostic tools such as persistence of anovulatory cycles, hyperandrogenemia, hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, or alopecia), or ovarian findings on ultrasound is not established in adolescents. Some suggest that even using the strictest criteria, the diagnosis of PCOS may not valid in adolescents younger than 18 years. In addition, evidence does not necessarily support that lack of treatment of PCOS in younger adolescents will result in untoward outcomes since features consistent with PCOS often resolve with time. The presented data will help determine if it is possible to establish firm criteria which may be used to reliably diagnose PCOS in adolescents. PMID:24715514

  4. Sexual Functioning among Married Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156

  5. Histology of the ovary of Chinchilla lanigera in captivity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Torres-Luque, A; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Bühler, M I

    2014-08-01

    Chinchilla, the lanigera variety in particular, is one of the most valuable rodents in the fur industry. The chinchilla ovary is morphologically similar to that of other South American hystricognath rodents, especially as regards its anatomy and, to a lesser degree, its histology. The presence of numerous primary follicles throughout the annual cycle suggests that a few of them are recruited to initiate growth and differentiation during folliculogenesis. Primary follicles with two or more oocytes are common; this is not the case with follicles at more advanced stages, suggesting that they do not develop. Only one or two large corpora lutea (CL) and three to five small or accessories CL were observed but no corpora albicans. The presence of accessory CL may reflect the importance of continuous hormonal production to support prolonged gestation. Atretic CL were also present, showing signs of degeneration in luteal cells. The interstitial cells distributed throughout the cortex were the main histological feature shared with other species, as stated in previous reports. Antral atresia was observed in all sizes of antral follicles while basal atresia was confined exclusively to smaller follicles.

  6. Stem cells, progenitor cells, and lineage decisions in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E; Russell, Darryl L; Robertson, Sarah A; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-02-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic.

  7. [Identification of NMDA receptor in normal bovine ovary and ovum].

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Naoko; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the pathogenesis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in patients without ovarian teratoma, we investigate normal human ovary, normal bovine ovary and bovine ova. On the basis of immunohistochemical studies, normal human ovary expressed NR2B epitope in primordial oocytes. The results of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using bovine ovarian tissues and ova, we identified two bands of NR1 and NR2B. Moreover, reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry showed peptides fractions of NR1, NR2A, NR2B and NR2C. Immunocytochemical study disclosed that normal bovine oocyte has a strong affinity for a patient's disease-specific IgG. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis involves mainly young women who are in their reproductive age. Ovarian teratoma is important as simultaneous tumor, the percentage of patients with ovarian teratoma is less than 40%. It is obvious that the origin of ovarian teratoma is oocyte. So the existence of NMDAR in normal oocytes is very important to assert that ovary itself is the antigen presenting tissue. And also it is helpful to explain why young women are mainly affected from this disease. It seems to conclude that anti-NMDAR encephalitis is one form of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis and that the antigen presenting tissue is ovary itself.

  8. Stem Cells, Progenitor Cells, and Lineage Decisions in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Russell, Darryl L.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

  9. The Notch pathway regulates both the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells in the panoistic ovary of Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Irles, Paula; Elshaer, Nashwa; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Its involvement in insect oogenesis has been examined in insect species with meroistic ovaries, and it is known to play a fundamental role in cell fate decisions and the induction of the mitosis-to-endocycle switch in follicular cells (FCs). This work reports the functions of the main components of the Notch pathway (Notch and its ligands Delta and Serrate) during oogenesis in Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal species with panoistic ovary. As is revealed by RNAi-based analyses, Notch and Delta were found to contribute towards maintaining the FCs in an immature, non-apoptotic state. This ancestral function of Notch appears in opposition to the induction of transition from mitosis to endocycle that Notch exerts in Drosophila melanogaster, a change in the Notch function that might be in agreement with the evolution of the insect ovary types. Notch was also shown to play an active role in inducing ovarian follicle elongation via the regulation of the cytoskeleton. In addition, Delta and Notch interactions were seen to determine the differentiation of the posterior population of FCs. Serrate levels were found to be Notch-dependent and are involved in the control of the FC programme, although they would appear to play no crucial role in panoistic ovary oogenesis.

  10. Atrazine triggers developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct in quails (Coturnix Coturnix coturnix) via disruption of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Du, Zheng-Hai; Zhu, Shi-Yong; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Nan; Guo, Jing-Ao; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-01

    There has been a gradual increase in production and consumption of atrazine (ATR) in agriculture to meet the population rising demands. Female reproduction is necessary for growth and maintenance of population. However, ATR impact on females and particularly ovarian developmental toxicity is less clear. The aim of this study was to define the pathways by which ATR exerted toxic effects on ovarian development of ovary and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Female quails were dosed by oral gavage from sexual immaturity to maturity with 0, 50, 250 and 500 mg ATR/kg/d for 45 days. ATR had no effect on mortality but depressed feed intake and growth and influenced the biochemical parameters. Notably, the arrested development of ovaries and oviducts were observed in ATR-exposed quails. The circulating concentrations of E2, P, LH and PRL were unregulated and FSH and T was downregulated in ATR-treated quails. The mRNA expression of GnRH in hypothalamo and LH in pituitary and FSH in ovary was downregulated significantly by ATR exposure and FSH and PRL in pituitary were upregulated. ATR exposure upregulated the level of P450scc, P450arom, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD in ovary and downregulated ERβ expression in female quails. However, ATR did not change ERα expression in ovary. This study provides new insights regarding female productive toxicology of ATR exposure. Ovary and oviduct in sexually maturing females were target organs of ATR-induced developmental toxicity. We propose that ATR-induced developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct is associated with disruption of gonadal hormone balance and HPO axis in female quails.

  11. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert; Chen, Shirley; Akram, Muzaffar; Hummer, Amanda J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeen; Norton, Larry; Tan, Lee K

    2005-11-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary ovarian carcinoma. This problem is often encountered in breast carcinoma patients who develop adnexal masses. ER and PR can be positive in a high percentage of breast and ovarian carcinomas, and therefore cannot be used in the differential diagnosis of these entities. WT1 and CA125 have been identified as possible markers for ovarian cancer. However, no studies have been done that specifically compare the immunophenotype of breast carcinoma metastatic to ovary with that of primary ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine cases of metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary, 36 primary breast carcinomas, and 42 primary ovarian carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of WT1, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC2, MUC1, and GCDFP. The percentage of cells stained and the intensity of staining were recorded. Thirty-two ovarian carcinomas (76%) were positive for WT1, including 31 of 33 (94%) serous carcinomas. Most of them had strong and diffuse staining. None of the breast cancers either primary or metastatic to the ovary expressed WT1. Thirty-eight (90%) ovarian carcinomas were positive for CA125, most of them with strong and diffuse staining. Most breast carcinomas were negative for CA125, with only 6 (16%) of the primary ones and 5 (12%) of the metastatic showing weak and focal positivity. All ovarian carcinomas were negative for GCDFP. Five primary breast cancers (14%) and 17 (43%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for GCDFP. Nine (21%) ovarian carcinomas, 8 (22%) primary breast carcinomas, and 13 (33%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Almost all tumors examined were positive for MUC1 (100% ovarian carcinomas, 100% primary breast carcinomas, and 95% metastatic breast carcinomas to ovary). MUC2 was positive in 10 (24%) ovarian carcinomas, 3 (8%) primary breast cancers, and 12 (30%) metastases to the ovary. The presence of

  12. Effect of Cadmium on Cellular Ultrastructure in Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xuejuan; Wang, Yanwu; Fan, Rong; Qiu, Chao; Zhong, Shan; Wei, Lei; Luo, Daji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the cytotoxicity and pathological effects of cadmium on the ovary. Our studies revealed that cadmium was deposited in the mouse ovary after 8 d cadmium injection in vivo. Also, the increase in the rate of body weight was slowed, while the gonadosomatic index was reduced in the CdCl2 group, compared with the control group. Meanwhile, cadmium affected the maturation of follicles, the degradation of corpus luteum, the arrangement of follicles and corpus luteum, and increased the number of atresia follicles. Besides, under the electron microscope, chromatin margination, karopyknosis, swelling of mature cisternae of Golgi apparatus, mitochondrial cristae disappearance, and swelling of the rough endoplasmic reticulum can be observed in the CdCl2 group mice. Collectively, our findings elucidated the morphological mechanism that the exposure of cadmium changed the ultrastructure of cells in ovary tissues.

  13. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  14. The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

  15. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  16. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Allah Verdi, M; Nikoofar, A

    2006-09-07

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  17. Identification of a novel miRNA from the ovine ovary by a combinatorial approach of bioinformatics and experiments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weihua; Wang, Juanhong; Tao, Dayong; Zhang, Yong; He, Jianzhong; Shi, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous, single-stranded, non-coding small RNA molecules, about 19-25 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the translation level and influence many physiological process, such apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and occurrence and development of diseases. In this study, we constructed a library from the ovine luteal phase ovary by using next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique) and identified 267 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics. One of the novel miRNAs (ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p), which expressed in the sheep ovary and testis, was confirmed by real time PCR and northern blot. Ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p was 21 nucleotides in length and located on chromosome 12, and it had 100% similarity to hsa-miR-214-3p, mmu-miR-214-3p, dre-miR-214and ssc-miR-214. Meanwhile, the pre-miRNA was 82 nucleotides in length and had a standard hairpin stem-loop structure. From the consistency of the sequence and structure, we speculated that ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p had a function similar to hsa-miR-214-3p, which is involved in the fine regulation of cell survival, embryonic development, breeding activities and resistance to ovarian cancer, so we defined it as oar-miR-214-3p. These experimental results will enrich the miRNA database for ovis aries and provide the basis for researching the regulation mechanism of miRNA in relation to breeding activities of seasonal breeding animals.

  18. 115 ROLE OF THE OVARY AND UTERUS FOR THE PLAINS VISCACHA (LAGOSTOMUS MAXIMUS MAXIMUS, CHINCHILLIDAE) REPRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Favaron, P O; Flamini, M A; Mess, A M; Barreto, R N; Simões, L S; Sasahara, T H; Barbeito, C G; Romagnoli, P; Miglino, M A

    2016-01-01

    A dogma of mammalian reproduction states that primordial germ cells in females are restricted to the intrauterine phase and only small portions of oocytes are available for ovulation during the adult life. Among the rare exceptions to this rule is the plains viscacha. It polyovulates up to 800 oocytes per cycle, from which 10 to 12 are implanted, but only 1 to 2 conceptuses survive. To better understand the main mechanisms involved in these patterns of super-ovulation, super-implantation, and embryonic loss in the viscacha, we conducted an analysis of the ovary and uterus of pregnant females and their conceptuses. Pregnant females (n=16) of ~50 and 90 days of gestation (early to mid-gestation) were selected for conceptus recovery. Hemi-ovariohysterectomy was performed following surgical and anaesthetic protocols used for laboratory animals and the conceptuses collected. Female fetuses of Day 50 (n=2) and 90 (n=1) of gestation were obtained from Estación de Cría de Animales Silvestres, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The reproductive organs were investigated by means of gross morphology, histology (hematoxilin and eosin), stereology (quantification of the volume of the ovary and number of ovary follicles), immunohistochemistry (PCNA, Oct-4, VEGF, and Caspase-3), and transmission electron microscopy. In the Day 50 fetal samples, the ovaries had an ovoid shape with smooth surface without apparent folds. First steps of subdivision were observed in the ovary of fetus of 90 days. The total volume of all fetal ovaries was of 4.8mm(2) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.32. The ovaries of adult individuals had remarkable invaginations with surface projections and were small, asymmetrical, and dorsoventrally flattened with a mean of 77.6mm(3) (CV=0.47). Only adult females had differentiation of germ cells. Primordial follicles had a mean of 9.9×10(5) (CV=0.19), representing 93% of the total number of ovarian follicles. The mean of primary follicles was 3.05×10(4) (CV=0

  19. Is polycystic ovary syndrome a sexual conflict? A review.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to explain the high overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among women worldwide (about 4-10%) despite its link to subfertile phenotypes. For this reason, it is considered an evolutionary paradox. In this review, we show that several genetic loci associated with the disease differently modulate the reproductive parameters of men and women. This observation suggests that such genetic variants lead to opposite effects in the two sexes in reproductive success. Intralocus sexual conflict as a cause of the persistence polycystic ovary syndrome genotypes among humans is supported.

  20. Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

  1. Expressed sequence-tag analysis of ovaries of Brachiaria brizantha reveals genes associated with the early steps of embryo sac differentiation of apomictic plants.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erica Duarte; Guimarães, Larissa Arrais; de Alencar Dusi, Diva Maria; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Martins, Natália Florencio; do Carmo Costa, Marcos Mota; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; de Campos Carneiro, Vera Tavares

    2012-02-01

    In apomixis, asexual mode of plant reproduction through seeds, an unreduced megagametophyte is formed due to circumvented or altered meiosis. The embryo develops autonomously from the unreduced egg cell, independently of fertilization. Brachiaria is a genus of tropical forage grasses that reproduces sexually or by apomixis. A limited number of studies have reported the sequencing of apomixis-related genes and a few Brachiaria sequences have been deposited at genebank databases. This work shows sequencing and expression analyses of expressed sequence-tags (ESTs) of Brachiaria genus and points to transcripts from ovaries with preferential expression at megasporogenesis in apomictic plants. From the 11 differentially expressed sequences from immature ovaries of sexual and apomictic Brachiaria brizantha obtained from macroarray analysis, 9 were preferentially detected in ovaries of apomicts, as confirmed by RT-qPCR. A putative involvement in early steps of Panicum-type embryo sac differentiation of four sequences from B. brizantha ovaries: BbrizHelic, BbrizRan, BbrizSec13 and BbrizSti1 is suggested. Two of these, BbrizSti1 and BbrizHelic, with similarity to a gene coding to stress induced protein and a helicase, respectively, are preferentially expressed in the early stages of apomictic ovaries development, especially in the nucellus, in a stage previous to the differentiation of aposporous initials, as verified by in situ hybridization.

  2. Mechanisms in endocrinology: thyroid and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja; Schwetz, Verena; Pieber, Thomas; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disorders, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are closely associated, based on a number of studies showing a significantly higher prevalence of HT in women with PCOS than in controls. However, the mechanisms of this association are not as clear. Certainly, genetic susceptibility contributes an important part to the development of HT and PCOS. However, a common genetic background has not yet been established. Polymorphisms of the PCOS-related gene for fibrillin 3 (FBN3) could be involved in the pathogenesis of HT and PCOS. Fibrillins influence the activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Multifunctional TGFβ is also a key regulator of immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are known to inhibit excessive immune response. With lower TGFβ and Treg levels, the autoimmune processes, well known in HT and assumed in PCOS, might develop. In fact, lower levels of TGFβ1 were found in HT as well as in PCOS women carrying allele 8 of D19S884 in the FBN3 gene. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency was shown to decrease Tregs. Finally, high estrogen-to-progesterone ratio owing to anovulatory cycles in PCOS women could enhance the immune response. Harmful metabolic and reproductive effects were shown to be more pronounced in women with HT and PCOS when compared with women with HT alone or with controls. In conclusion, HT and PCOS are associated not only with respect to their prevalence, but also with regard to etiology and clinical consequences. However, a possible crosstalk of this association is yet to be elucidated.

  3. Cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) in the hen ovary. I. Regulation of P450scc messenger RNA levels and steroidogenesis in theca cells of developing follicles.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, K I; Tilly, J L; Johnson, A L

    1991-12-01

    We have recently shown that granulosa cells from hen ovarian follicles, collected at a stage of development 2-3 wk prior to ovulation (e.g. 6-8 mm in diameter) are steroidogenically inactive. Therefore, the hypothesis tested in the present studies was that theca cells from follicles at this stage of development must contain sufficient levels of functional cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme to produce the progestin precursor required for the synthesis of androgens and estrogens. Northern blot analysis of total theca RNA collected from 6-8-mm follicles indicated the presence of a single P450scc mRNA transcript of approximately 2 kb whose expression was increased following an 8-h preincubation with 200 ng/ml ovine LH (oLH) or 10 microM forskolin. Western blot analysis of crude mitochondrial protein revealed a band of immunoreactive P450scc protein of approximately 53 kDa that was determined to be capable of converting 25-hydroxycholesterol to pregnenolone in a cell-free system. In the second set of studies, conducted to examine the cellular regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated theca cells of 6-8-mm follicles, theca cells were found to produce measurable basal levels of cAMP, progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol following a 3-h incubation of 5 x 10(5) cells. Furthermore, significant dose-dependent increases in steroidogenesis were observed in response to oLH (0.2-200 ng/ml), chicken FSH (cFSH; 20-200 ng/ml), cholera toxin (0.002-20 ng/ml), and 8-bromo-cAMP (0.1-3.33 mM). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10-167 nM) also stimulated dose-dependent increases in basal progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol production. In addition, while PMA had no effect on oLH (200 ng/ml)-promoted cAMP accumulation, or on oLH (20 ng/ml)- or 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM)-stimulated progesterone production, it attenuated oLH-induced and 8-bromo-cAMP-induced androstenedione and estradiol accumulation. We conclude that theca cells from 6-8-mm follicles possess m

  4. Treatments for Infertility Resulting from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fertility and Sterility , 92, 1966–1982. [top] Legro, R. S. (2007). Pregnancy considerations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology , 50, 295–304. [top] Kiddy, D.S., Hamilton-Fairley, D., Bush, A., Short, F., Anyaoku, V., Reed, ...

  5. Ectopic ovary with torsion: uncommon diagnosis made by ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Adham do Amaral e; Morandini, Fernando; Calixto, Caroline Paludo; Barros, Wagner Haese; Nakatani, Edson Tetsuya; Castro, Allan do Amaral e

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important diagnostic tool in inguinal hernia and in the evaluation of the contents of the hernia sac. This report presents a case in which ultrasound revealed a herniated ectopic ovary, complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle, in the right labia majora. We also present a brief discussion of ovarian hernia, its potential complications, and the treatments available. PMID:28298734

  6. Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Zhou, Changqing; Rattan, Saniya; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are found abundantly in the environment, resulting in daily human exposure. This is of concern because many EDCs are known to target the female reproductive system and, more specifically, the ovary. In the female, the ovary is the key organ responsible for reproductive and endocrine functions. Exposure to EDCs is known to cause many reproductive health problems such as infertility, premature ovarian failure, and abnormal sex steroid hormone levels. Some EDCs and their effects on adult ovarian function have been studied extensively over the years, whereas the effects of others remain unclear. This review covers what is currently known about the effects of selected EDCs (bisphenol A, methoxychlor, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, phthalates, and genistein) on the adult ovary and the mechanisms by which they act upon the ovary, focusing primarily on their effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Furthermore, this review discusses future directions needed to better understand the effects of EDCs, including the need to examine the effects of multiple and more consistent doses and to study different mechanisms of action.

  7. Treatments to Relieve Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF - 273 KB) [top] Moran, L. J., Pasquali, R., Teede, H. J., Hoeger, K. M., & Norman, R. J. (2009). Treatment of obesity in polycystic ovary ... htm [top] Moran, L. J., Hutchison, S. K., Norman, R. J., & Teede, H. J. (2011). Lifestyle changes in ...

  8. Mutation Detection in an Antibody-Producing Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line by Targeted RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siyan; Hughes, Jason D.; Murgolo, Nicholas; Levitan, Diane; Chen, Janice; Liu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been used widely in the pharmaceutical industry for production of biological therapeutics including monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The integrity of the gene of interest and the accuracy of the relay of genetic information impact product quality and patient safety. Here we employed next-generation sequencing, particularly RNA-seq, and developed a method to systematically analyze the mutation rate of the mRNA of CHO cell lines producing a mAb. The effect of an extended culturing period to mimic the scale of cell expansion in a manufacturing process and varying selection pressure in the cell culture were also closely examined. PMID:27088091

  9. A snapshot of the lives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A photovoice investigation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophie; Sheffield, David; Knibb, Rebecca C

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6  percent of women. Symptoms include hirsutism, acne, and infertility. This research explores the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on women's lives using photovoice. Nine participants photographed objects related to their quality of life and made diary entries explaining each photograph. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis of the diaries: control (of symptoms and polycystic ovary syndrome controlling their lives), perception (of self, others, and their situation), and support (from relationships, health care systems, and education). These findings illuminate positive aspects of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and the role pets and social networking sites play in providing support for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  10. Histopathological study of ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to different thymol concentrations.

    PubMed

    da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27 ± 1 °C; RH 80 ± 10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element.

  11. Regular and Moderate Exercise Counteracts the Decline of Antioxidant Protection but Not Methylglyoxal-Dependent Glycative Burden in the Ovary of Reproductively Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cordone, V.; Grannonico, M.; Cacchio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Population aging results in urgent needs of interventions aimed at ensuring healthy senescence. Exercise often results in healthy aging, yet many molecular mechanisms underlying such effects still need to be identified. We here investigated whether the age-dependent accumulation of oxidative and methylglyoxal- (MG-) related molecular damage could be delayed by moderate exercise in the mouse ovary, an organ that first exhibits impaired function with advancing age in mammals. CD1 female mice underwent two- or four-month treadmill-based running through the transition from adult to middle age, when ovaries show signs of senescence, and markers of protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MG were measured. The long-term exercise reduced the protein oxidative damage in the ovaries (P < 0.01), and this was linked to the preservation of the glutathione peroxidase protection against ROS (P < 0.001), as well as to the increased glutathione availability (P < 0.001). Conversely, even though the age-related deactivation of the MG-targeting systems was partially prevented by the long-term running programme (P < 0.001), exercised mice were not protected from the age-dependent glycative burden. In summary, lately initiated regular and moderate exercise limited some changes occurring in the ovaries of middle-aged mice, and this might help to develop nonpharmacological cointerventions to reduce the vulnerability of mammalian ovaries towards redox dysfunctions. PMID:28116035

  12. Effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on blood vessels area and expression of the angiogenic factors VEGF and TGFbeta1 in the rat ovary

    PubMed Central

    Julio-Pieper, Marcela; Lara, Hernán E; Bravo, Javier A; Romero, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a crucial process in follicular development and luteogenesis. The nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes angiogenesis in various tissues. An impaired production of this neurotrophin has been associated with delayed wound healing. A variety of ovarian functions are regulated by NGF, but its effects on ovarian angiogenesis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate if NGF modulates 1) the amount of follicular blood vessels and 2) ovarian expression of two angiogenic factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1), in the rat ovary. Results In cultured neonatal rat ovaries, NGF increased VEGF mRNA and protein levels, whereas TGFbeta1 expression did not change. Sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve, which increases ovarian NGF protein content, augmented VEGF immunoreactivity and the area of capillary vessels in ovaries of prepubertal rats compared to control ovaries. Conclusion Results indicate that NGF may be important in the maintenance of the follicular and luteal vasculature in adult rodents, either indirectly, by increasing the expression of VEGF in the ovary, or directly via promoting the proliferation of vascular cells. This data suggests that a disruption on NGF regulation could be a component in ovarian disorders related with impaired angiogenesis. PMID:17096853

  13. Involvement of gonadotropins in the induction of hypertrophy-hyperplasia in the interstitial tissues of ovaries in neonatally diethylstilbestrol-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Hanako; Tanaka, Masami; Chambon, Pierre; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    Neonatally diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment causes hypertrophy-hyperplasia in the interstitial tissue of mouse ovaries. To understand the induction mechanism of the hypertrophy, mRNA expression involved in steroidogenesis in the ovary of neonatally DES-treated mice was examined. The expression of StAR and Cyp11a1 was significantly reduced while Cyp19 and Sf-1 were stimulated in the ovary of neonatally DES-treated 3-month-old mice. Expression of those genes was not different between DES- and oil-treated mice after the gonadotropins treatment. Lhb in the pituitary of 3-month-old neonatally DES-treated mice was significantly decreased. Finally, ovaries from DES-treated mice transplanted to neonatally oil-treated hosts had developing follicles at several stages and corpora lutea, whereas grafted ovaries from neonatally oil-treated mice in 3-month-old neonatally DES-treated hosts showed lipid accumulation in the interstitial tissue. Thus, hypertrophy and accumulation of lipid droplets in interstitial cells of neonatally DES-treated mice is caused by impaired steroidogenesis due to the alterations of gonadotropins levels.

  14. Distribution of androgen and progesterone receptors in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2010-03-01

    This study describes the localization of androgen (AR) and progesterone (PR) receptors in the developing ovary in the spiny mouse. The immunohistochemical analysis showed for the first time the expression of AR and PR proteins in the ovary as early as in one day-old females. Both AR and PR were present in germinal epithelium cells, stromal cells as well as in the granulosa and theca layer of ovarian follicles. On days 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90, the distribution of AR and PR depended on the stage of follicular development rather than on the animal's age. A novel observation was that PR protein was detected not only in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles, but also in the growing and early antral follicles. It was demonstrated that there is a different pattern of AR and PR immunoexpression throughout folliculogenesis. In contrast to AR, whose expression decreased during follicular development, the PR immunostaining increased during this time. It is concluded that androgens and progesterone may play an important role in the early stage of follicular development in the spiny mouse.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovaries Reveals That Primordial Follicle Formation and Transition Are Differentially Regulated

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2017-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation represents a critical phase of the initiation of embryonic reproductive organ development, while the primordial follicle transition into primary follicle determines whether oestrus or ovulation will occur in female animals. To identify molecular mechanism of new proteins which are involved in ovarian development, we employed 2D-DIGE to compare the protein expression profiles of primordial follicles and primary follicles of fetal ovaries in pigs. Fetal ovaries were collected at distinct time-points of the gestation cycle (g55 and g90). The identified proteins at the g55 time-point are mainly involved in the development of anatomical structures [reticulocalbin-1 (RCN1), reticulocalbin-3 (RCN3)], cell differentiation (actin), and stress response [heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (HNRNPK)]. Meanwhile, at the g90 stage, the isolated proteins with altered expression levels were mainly associated with cell proliferation [major vault protein (MVP)] and stress response [heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2)]. In conclusion, our work revealed that primordial follicle formation is regulated by RCN1, RCN3, actin, and HNRNPK, while the primordial follicle transformation to primary follicle is regulated by MVP and HSPA2. Therefore, our results provide further information for the prospective understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of the ovarian follicle development. PMID:28265575

  16. Dimorphic ovary differentiation in honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae involves caste-specific expression of homologs of ark and buffy cell death genes.

    PubMed

    Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the number of repeated structural units, the ovarioles, in the ovaries is one of the critical events that shape caste polyphenism in social insects. In early postembryonic development, honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae have a pair of ovaries, each one consisting of almost two hundred ovariole primordia. While practically all these ovarioles continue developing in queen-destined larvae, they undergo massive programmed cell death (PCD) in worker-destined larvae. So as to gain insight into the molecular basis of this fundamental process in caste differentiation we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to investigate the expression of the Amark and Ambuffy genes in the ovaries of the two honeybee castes throughout the fifth larval instar. These are the homologs of ark and buffy Drosophila melanogaster genes, respectively, involved in activating and inhibiting PCD. Caste-specific expression patterns were found during this time-window defining ovariole number. Amark transcript levels were increased when ovariole resorption was intensified in workers, but remained at low levels in queen ovaries. The transcripts were mainly localized at the apical end of all the worker ovarioles, but appeared in only a few queen ovarioles, thus strongly suggesting a function in mediating massive ovariolar cell death in worker larvae. Ambuffy was mainly expressed in the peritoneal sheath cells covering each ovariole. The levels of Ambuffy transcripts increased earlier in the developing ovaries of queens than in workers. Consistent with a protective role against cell death, Ambuffy transcripts were localized in practically all queen ovarioles, but only in few worker ovarioles. The results are indicative of a functional relationship between the expression of evolutionary conserved cell death genes and the morphological events leading to caste-specific ovary differentiation in a social insect.

  17. Decreased Androgen Levels and Improved Menstrual Pattern after Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Telmisartan Treatment in Four Hypertensive Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Jensterle, Mojca; Janez, Andrej; Vrtovec, Bojan; Meden-Vrtovec, Helena; Pfeifer, Marija; Prezelj, Janez; Kocjan, Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    We describe 4 consecutive hypertensive women with polycystic ovary syndrome, classified according to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) criteria, treated with telmisartan 40 mg/d for six months. Blood pressure, menstrual pattern, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and androstenedione were recorded and measured before and after telmisartan treatment. Obese hypertensive polycystic ovary syndrome patients had a decrease in systolic blood pressure. Marked drop-off in serum androgen concentrations was observed in all four patients. Three patients improved their menstrual cyclicity. The improvements were independent of changes in weight. The reduction of androgen concentrations and improvement in menstrual pattern was achieved despite a non-significant change of fasting insulin levels in patients, who were not considered severely insulin resistant at baseline. These findings may provide a new basis for a proper choice of the antihypertensive drug in hypertensive women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:18074422

  18. Decreased androgen levels and improved menstrual pattern after angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan treatment in four hypertensive patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: case series.

    PubMed

    Jensterle, Mojca; Janez, Andrej; Vrtovec, Bojan; Meden-Vrtovec, Helena; Pfeifer, Marija; Prezelj, Janez; Kocjan, Tomaz

    2007-12-01

    We describe 4 consecutive hypertensive women with polycystic ovary syndrome, classified according to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) criteria, treated with telmisartan 40 mg/d for six months. Blood pressure, menstrual pattern, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and androstenedione were recorded and measured before and after telmisartan treatment. Obese hypertensive polycystic ovary syndrome patients had a decrease in systolic blood pressure. Marked drop-off in serum androgen concentrations was observed in all four patients. Three patients improved their menstrual cyclicity. The improvements were independent of changes in weight. The reduction of androgen concentrations and improvement in menstrual pattern was achieved despite a non-significant change of fasting insulin levels in patients, who were not considered severely insulin resistant at baseline. These findings may provide a new basis for a proper choice of the antihypertensive drug in hypertensive women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  19. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/Intermedin (IMD) in Rat Ovary: Changes in Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy and Its Role in Ovulation and Steroidogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy. PMID:25395681

  20. Quantification of steroids and endocrine disrupting chemicals in rat ovaries by LC-MS/MS for reproductive toxicology assessment.

    PubMed

    Quignot, Nadia; Tournier, Mikaël; Pouech, Charlène; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive function is controlled by a finely tuned balance of androgens and estrogens. Environmental toxicants, notably endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), appear to be involved in the disruption of hormonal balance in several studies. To further describe the effects of selected EDCs on steroid secretion in female rats, we aim to simultaneously investigate the EDC concentration and the sex hormone balance in the ovaries. Therefore, an effective method has been developed for the quantification of the sex steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and estrone) and four endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, atrazine, and the active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin) in rat ovaries. The sample preparation procedure is based on the so-called "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" approach, and an analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds with low detection limits by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer. This analytical method, applied to rat ovary samples following subacute EDC exposure, revealed some new findings for toxicological evaluation. In particular, we showed that EDCs with the same described in vitro mechanisms of action have different effects on the gonadal steroid balance. These results highlight the need to develop an integrative evaluation with the simultaneous measurement of EDCs and numerous steroids for good risk assessment.

  1. Comparative RNA-Seq analysis of differentially expressed genes in the testis and ovary of Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhicheng; Qiu, Xuemei; Kong, Derong; Zhou, Xiaoxu; Guo, Zhongbao; Gao, Changfu; Ma, Shuai; Hao, Weiwei; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shengcong; Zhang, Tao; Meng, Xuesong; Wang, Xiuli

    2017-02-04

    Takifugu rubripes is a classical model organism for studying the role of gonad organogenesis in such physiological processes as fertilization, sex determination, and sexual development. To explicitly investigate the mechanism associated with gonad organogenesis in T. rubripes, we obtained 44.3 million and 55.2 million raw reads from the testis and ovary, respectively, by RNA-seq and from these, 18,523 genes were identified. A total of 680 differentially expressed genes were obtained from comparison transcriptome analysis between the testis and ovary, and of these, 556 genes were up-regulated in the testis, whereas only 124 genes were upregulated in the ovary. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that many of these genes encode proteins involved in signal transduction and gonad development. We mainly focused on the differentially expressed genes that have the potential to develop into the gonad. The generation of large scale transcriptomic data presented in this work would enrich the genetic resources of T. rubripes, which should be valuable to the comparative and evolutionary studies of teleosts.

  2. The HEX 110 Hexamerin Is a Cytoplasmic and Nucleolar Protein in the Ovaries of Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2016-01-01

    Hexamerins are insect storage proteins abundantly secreted by the larval fat body into the haemolymph. The canonical role of hexamerins consists of serving as an amino acid reserve for development toward the adult stage. However, in Apis mellifera, immunofluorescence assays coupled to confocal laser-scanning microscopy, and high-throughput sequencing, have recently shown the presence of hexamerins in other organs than the fat body. These findings have led us to study these proteins with the expectation of uncovering additional functions in insect development. We show here that a honeybee hexamerin, HEX 110, localizes in the cytoplasm and nucleus of ovarian cells. In the nucleus of somatic and germline cells, HEX 110 colocalized with a nucleolar protein, fibrillarin, suggesting a structural or even regulatory function in the nucleolus. RNase A provoked the loss of HEX 110 signals in the ovarioles, indicating that the subcellular localization depends on RNA. This was reinforced by incubating ovaries with pyronin Y, a RNA-specific dye. Together, the colocalization with fibrillarin and pyronin Y, and the sensitivity to RNase, highlight unprecedented roles for HEX110 in the nucleolus, the nuclear structure harbouring the gene cluster involved in ribosomal RNA production. However, the similar patterns of HEX 110 foci distribution in the active and inactive ovaries of queens and workers preclude its association with the functional status of these organs. PMID:26954256

  3. Analysis of Pigeon (Columba) Ovary Transcriptomes to Identify Genes Involved in Blue Light Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Ding, Jia-Tong; Yang, Hai-Ming; Yan, Zheng-Jie; Cao, Wei; Li, Yang-Bai

    2015-01-01

    Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp) were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species.

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of the ovary and oogenesis in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata (Branchiopoda) and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Jędrzejowska, Izabela; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Biliński, Szczepan M

    2014-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have indicated a close relationship between Crustacea and Hexapoda and postulated their unification into the Pancrustacea/Tetraconata clade. Certain molecular analyses have also suggested that the crustacean lineage, which includes the Branchiopoda, might be the sister group of Hexapoda. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural features of oogenesis in two branchiopod species, Cyzicus tetracerus and Lynceus brachyurus, representing two separate orders, Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata, respectively. The female gonads of these species have not been investigated before. Here, we demonstrate that in both studied species the ovarian follicles develop inside characteristic ovarian protrusions and comprise a germline cyst surrounded by a simple somatic (follicular) epithelium, supported by a thin basal lamina. Each germline cyst consists of one oocyte and three supporting nurse cells, and the oocyte differentiates relatively late during ovarian follicle development. The synthesis of oocyte reserve materials involves rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. The follicular cells are penetrated by a complex canal system and there is no external epithelial sheath covering the ovarian follicles. The structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural characteristics of oogenesis are not only remarkably similar in both Cyzicus and Lynceus, but also share morphological similarities with Notostraca as well as the basal hexapods Campodeina and Collembola. Possible phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. A 57-year-old Brazilian woman with a giant mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Giant cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary are rarely described conditions. Case presentation The authors describe a 57-year-old Brazilian woman who presented with an increase in abdominal girth in February 2003. Imaging studies showed a giant abdominal pelvic mass with probable origin in the right ovary. Cancer antigen-125 was elevated, while carcinoembrionic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were normal. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and omentectomy were done. The mass weighed 40Kg, and the histopathology study revealed a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. She underwent chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin with no side effects. Under follow-up for more than 10 years, she is asymptomatic and with normal imaging and laboratory parameters, including the cancer antigen-125 marker. Conclusion This huge tumor evolved for a long time unsuspected and without metastases in a patient from a developing region. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this unexpected and unusual presentation of an ovarian cystadenocarcinoma are discussed. PMID:24594205

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Candidate Genes Mediating Purple Ovary Coloration in Asiatic Hybrid Lilies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Leifeng; Yang, Panpan; Yuan, Suxia; Feng, Yayan; Xu, Hua; Cao, Yuwei; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Lily tepals have a short lifespan. Once the tepals senesce, the ornamental value of the flower is lost. Some cultivars have attractive purple ovaries and fruits which greatly enhance the ornamental value of Asiatic hybrid lilies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. To investigate the transcriptional network that governs purple ovary coloration in Asiatic hybrid lilies, we obtained transcriptome data from green ovaries (S1) and purple ovaries (S2) of Asiatic “Tiny Padhye”. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 4228 differentially expressed genes. Differential expression analysis revealed that ten unigenes including four CHS genes, one CHI gene, one F3H gene, one F3′H gene, one DFR gene, one UFGT gene, and one 3RT gene were significantly up-regulated in purple ovaries. One MYB gene, LhMYB12-Lat, was identified as a key transcription factor determining the distribution of anthocyanins in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. Further qPCR results showed unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed in purple ovaries of three purple-ovaried Asiatic hybrid lilies at stages 2 and 3, while they showed an extremely low level of expression in ovaries of three green-ovaried Asiatic hybrid lilies during all developmental stages. In addition, shading treatment significantly decreased pigment accumulation by suppressing the expression of several unigenes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in ovaries of Asiatic “Tiny Padhye”. Lastly, a total of 15,048 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were identified in 13,710 sequences, and primer pairs for SSRs were designed. The results could further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Asiatic hybrid lily ovaries. PMID:27879624

  7. Neuroendocrine cells are present in the domestic fowl ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Pablo G; Báez Saldaña, Armida; Fortoul Van Der Goes, Teresa; González del Pliego, Margarita; Gutiérrez Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine cells are present in virtually all organs of the vertebrate body; however, it is yet uncertain whether they exist in the ovaries. Previous reports of ovarian neurons and neuron-like cells in mammals and birds might have resulted from misidentification. The aim of the present work was to determine the identity of neuron-like cells in immature ovaries of the domestic fowl. Cells immunoreactive to neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and chromogranin-A, with small, dense-core secretory granules, were consistently observed throughout the sub-cortical ovarian medulla and cortical interfollicular stroma. These cells also displayed immunoreactivity for tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine β-hydroxylases, as well as to aromatic L-DOPA decarboxylase, implying their ability to synthesize both catecholamines and indolamines. Our results support the argument that the ovarian cells previously reported as neuron-like in birds, are neuroendocrine cells. PMID:23083425

  8. Orexin A expression in the ovary of dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Germanà, A; Abbate, F

    2015-04-01

    Orexin A and B, also known as hypocretin A and B, are hypothalamic neuropeptides arising from a precursor to the 130 amino acid, called pre-pro orexin. They are synthesized mainly in lateral and posterior hypothalamus and are involved in different functions such as regulation of food intake and energy balance. Orexins and orexin receptors were previously described also in different tissues and organs outside the brain. The aim of this study was to demonstrate by means of the immunofluorescence technique, the presence of orexin A in the ovary of cat and dog, to support the hypothesis of the role of this substance also at the level of the female genital system. The presence of orexin A in the ovary either in dog or in cat is in agreement with previous data on the presence and role of orexins in the female genital system of other species.

  9. Internalization of ricin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, B; Wu, H C

    1981-01-01

    Internalization of ricin into Chinese hamster ovary cells has been investigated. Combined treatment with galactose and pronase at 0 degrees C resulted in a complete release of surface-bound [125I]ricin into the media. Galactose-pronase-resistant cell-bound [125I]ricin represents internalized ricin molecules inside the cells. The internalization process is time, temperature, and concentration dependent. The pH optimum of internalization of ricin is about pH 7. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has revealed that intact ricin molecules are internalized. Neither reduction nor proteolytic processing of ricin is required for the entry of ricin into Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:6965107

  10. ALDH1A1 provides a source of meiosis-inducing retinoic acid in mouse fetal ovaries.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Josephine; Feng, Chun-Wei; Miles, Kim; Ineson, Jessica; Spiller, Cassy; Koopman, Peter

    2016-02-19

    Substantial evidence exists that during fetal ovarian development in mammals, retinoic acid (RA) induces germ cells to express the pre-meiotic marker Stra8 and enter meiosis, and that these effects are prevented in the fetal testis by the RA-degrading P450 enzyme CYP26B1. Nonetheless, the role of RA has been disputed principally because germ cells in embryos lacking two major RA-synthesizing enzymes, ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3, remain able to enter meiosis. Here we show that a third RA-synthesizing enzyme, ALDH1A1, is expressed in fetal ovaries, providing a likely source of RA in the absence of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3. In ovaries lacking ALDH1A1, the onset of germ cell meiosis is delayed. Our data resolve the conundrum posed by conflicting published data sets and reconfirm the model that meiosis is triggered by endogenous RA in the developing ovary.

  11. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Decreases Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Mouse Ovaries: Relationship to Oocytes Developmental Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xian-Hong; Han, Hui; Shen, Ni; Jin, Ren-Tao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Gui-Xiang; He, Guo-Ping; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. Methods Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. Results Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn’t affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. Conclusion BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress. PMID:23284991

  12. Expression and regulation of MMP1, MMP3, and MMP9 in the chicken ovary in response to gonadotropins, sex hormones, and TGFB1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiyu; Kang, Li; Wei, Qingqing; Cui, Xinxing; Wang, Shouzhi; Chen, Yuxia; Jiang, Yunliang

    2014-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a specific class of proteolytic enzymes that play critical roles in follicular development and luteinization in mammals. However, the role of MMPs in avian ovary remains largely unknown. We found that three MMP genes (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP9) were significantly up-regulated in 23-wk-old (laying phase) chicken ovaries compared with 6-wk-old ovaries (prepubertal phase). In reproductively active chicken ovary, MMP1 expression (both mRNA and protein) remained low in prehierarchical and preovulatory follicles but increased in postovulatory follicles (POFs). Both MMP3 and MMP9 expression levels increased during follicular maturation. MMP3 reached maximal expression in the first largest follicle (F1), while MMP9 levels continued to rise in POF1 and POF2 after ovulation. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and zymography experiments indicated that MMP1, MMP3, and MMP9 were synthesized and secreted by granulosa cells of different follicles in the chicken ovary. The mRNA expression of MMP1 and MMP3 in the granulosa cells was stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, and estrogen but not by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1). However, the mRNA of MMP9 was induced by TGFB1 but not follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, or estrogen. Luciferase reporter and mutagenesis analysis indicated the AP1 and NFkappaB elements located in the promoter region from -1700 to -2400 bp were critical for both basal and TGFB1-induced MMP9 transcription. These data provide the first spatial-temporal expression analysis of MMP system in the chicken ovary.

  13. Aromatase excess in cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Chen, Dong; Lu, Meiling; Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Youhong; Demura, Masashi; Yilmaz, Bertan; Martin, Regina; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Thung, Steven; Su, Emily; Marsh, Erica; Hakim, Amy; Yin, Ping; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Amin, Sanober; Imir, Gonca; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Erkut; Reierstad, Scott; Innes, Joy; Lin, Zhihong

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis and growth of three common women's cancers (breast, endometrium and ovary) are linked to estrogen. A single gene encodes the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis named aromatase, inhibition of which effectively eliminates estrogen production in the entire body. Aromatase inhibitors successfully treat breast cancer, whereas their roles in endometrial and ovarian cancers are less clear. Ovary, testis, adipose tissue, skin, hypothalamus and placenta express aromatase normally, whereas breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers overexpress aromatase and produce local estrogen exerting paracrine and intracrine effects. Tissue-specific promoters distributed over a 93-kb regulatory region upstream of a common coding region alternatively control aromatase expression. A distinct set of transcription factors regulates each promoter in a signaling pathway- and tissue-specific manner. In cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary, aromatase expression is primarly regulated by increased activity of the proximally located promoter I.3/II region. Promoters I.3 and II lie 215 bp from each other and are coordinately stimulated by PGE(2) via a cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway. In breast adipose fibroblasts exposed to PGE(2) secreted by malignant epithelial cells, PKC is also activated, and this potentiates cAMP-PKA-dependent induction of aromatase. Thus, inflammatory substances such as PGE(2) may play important roles in inducing local production of estrogen that promotes tumor growth.

  14. Innervation pattern of polycystic ovaries in the women.

    PubMed

    Wojtkiewicz, Joanna; Jana, Barbara; Kozłowska, Anna; Crayton, Robert; Majewski, Mariusz; Zalecki, Michał; Baranowski, Włodzimierz; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in both the distribution pattern and density of nerve fibers containing dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the human polycystic ovaries. In the polycystic ovaries, when compared to the immunoreactions pattern observed in the control gonads, following changes were revealed: (1) an increase in the number of DβH-, VAChT-, VIP- or GAL-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers within the stroma as well as in the number of DβH-IR fibers near primordial follicles and medullar veins and venules; (2) a reduction in the number of nerve fibers containing nNOS, CGRP, SOM, PACAP within the stroma and in the numbers of CGRP-IR fibers around arteries; (3) an appearance of SP- and GAL-IR fibers around medullar and cortical arteries, arterioles, veins and venules, with except of GAL-IR fibers supplying medullar veins; and (4) the lack of nNOS-IR nerve fibers near primordial follicles and VIP-IR nerves around medullar arteries and arterioles. In conclusion, our results suggest that the changes in the innervation pattern of the polycystic ovaries in human may play an important role in the pathogenesis and/or course of this disorder.

  15. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome.

  16. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure.

  17. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Ambika; Huff, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.)] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle)] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses. PMID:27135522

  18. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Preventing Letrozole-Exposed Rats From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Si-Fan; Hu, Wen-Long; Wu, Min-Min; Jiang, Li-Yan

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrinological disorder in reproductive-age women and is often associated with a metabolic syndrome. To investigate whether exercise intervention promotes PCOS prevention, a rat model was used. Polycystic ovary syndrome was induced by letrozole administration, and animals presented with obesity, sex hormone disorder, no ovulation, large cystic follicles, and increasing fasting insulin (FINS) and leptin levels. The intervention was set at 3 different intensities of swimming exercise: low (0.5 h/d), moderate (1 h/d), and high (2 h/d), and compared with a PCOS model group (letrozole administration without exercise intervention) and a control group. The exercise intervention in the low-intensity group did not produce changes in obesity, testosterone, progesterone (P), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Moderate-intensity exercise reduced body weight, retained ovulation, and P levels were increased but remained lower than those in the control group. The FSH levels were significantly higher, and FINS and leptin levels were lower than in the model group ( P < 0.05) but not in the control group. The high-intensity group demonstrated the greatest effect of PCOS prevention. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone, FINS, and leptin levels were significantly lower in the high-intensity group, and FSH and P levels were higher compared with the model group. These results suggest that high-intensity exercise intervention can effectively prevent PCOS development.

  19. Alphafetoprotein and atretic follicles in the ovary of the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Seralini, G E; Lafaurie, M; Krebs, B; Stora, C

    1986-01-01

    Previous experiments have been conducted concerning the role of alphafetoprotein in genital system blockade in several cases: during adult rat N2-fluorenylacetamide hepatocarcinogenesis, after alphafetoprotein injections into normal adult female rats, during fetal life, and during postnatal and prepuberal development. In these conditions, alphafetoprotein is present at high plasma levels, and the normal cyclic ovarian function is stopped or nonexistent. The degenerating oocytes observed in the ovaries are often AFP-positive by histo-immunolocalization. Pregnancy corresponds to a physiological state in which alphafetoprotein levels are high while the gonadal activity is not characterized by ovulatory cycles. In order to assess our hypothesis, alpha-fetoprotein was studied in the ovary of pregnant rats from day 18 to 21 of gestation by an immunofluorescent technique, and alpha-fetoprotein was assayed in plasma samples. The results of this work show that, during pregnancy, follicular maturation is blocked at the antral stage, and the follicles contain degenerating oocytes that are AFP-positive in immunofluorescence. In conclusion, we suggest that the alpha-fetoprotein produced by the fetal liver and the yolk sac is disseminated in the amniotic fluid and passes through the placenta, and then reaches the ovarian follicles and the oocytes. The possible role of alphafetoprotein in follicular atresia is discussed.

  20. Cystic Endometrioma with Coexisting Fibroma Originating in a Supernumerary Ovary in the Rectovaginal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Asumi; Kodama, Hiroko; Ogura, Kanako; Miwa, Ayako; Sugimori, Yayoi; Matuoka, Shozo; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    A supernumerary ovary is an exceedingly rare disorder, in which the structure containing ovarian tissue is located at some distance from the normally placed ovary. 16 cases of endometriosis or tumors originating in a supernumerary ovary have been published in the English literature, but no case of coexisting endometriosis and a tumor has been published. We present the case of a 40-year-old female with cystic endometrioma with coexisting fibroma originating in a supernumerary ovary in the rectovaginal pouch. The present case is the first to be reported with coexisting endometriosis and a tumor originating in a supernumerary ovary. Our experience with this case and the results of our previous studies of rectovaginal endometriosis indicated that the possibility of originating in a supernumerary ovary shall be examined in cases of cystic endometrioma in the rectovaginal pouch. PMID:28210515

  1. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongdong; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fan, Zhaofei; Huang, Wei; You, Feng; Lou, Bao; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-01-01

    The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000) to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649) and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648) high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs) or ovary-enriched (581 contigs) with RPKM > 100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development. PMID:26981410

  2. Retinoic acid derived from the fetal ovary initiates meiosis in mouse germ cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xinyi; Wen, Jing; Guo, Meng; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Ge; Wang, Zhengpin; Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Cui, Yan; Xia, Guoliang

    2013-03-01

    Meiotic initiation of germ cells at 13.5 dpc (days post-coitus) indicates female sex determination in mice. Recent studies reveal that mesonephroi-derived retinoic acid (RA) is the key signal for induction of meiosis. However, whether the mesonephroi is dispensable for meiosis is unclear and the role of the ovary in this meiotic process remains to be clarified. This study provides data that RA derived from fetal ovaries is sufficient to induce germ cell meiosis in a fetal ovary culture system. When fetal ovaries were collected from 11.5 to 13.5 dpc fetuses, isolated and cultured in vitro, germ cells enter meiosis in the absence of mesonephroi. To exclude RA sourcing from mesonephroi, 11.5 dpc urogenital ridges (UGRs; mesonephroi and ovary complexes) were treated with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to block retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) activity in the mesonephros and the ovary. Meiosis occurred when DEAB was withdrawn and the mesonephros was removed 2 days later. Furthermore, RALDH1, rather than RALDH2, serves as the major RA synthetase in UGRs from 12.5 to 15.5 dpc. DEAB treatment to the ovary alone was able to block germ cell meiotic entry. We also found that exogenously supplied RA dose-dependently reduced germ cell numbers in ovaries by accelerating the entry into meiosis. These results suggest that ovary-derived RA is responsible for meiosis initiation.

  3. Genes and proteins of the alternative steroid backdoor pathway for dihydrotestosterone synthesis are expressed in the human ovary and seem enhanced in the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marti, Nesa; Galván, José A; Pandey, Amit V; Trippel, Mafalda; Tapia, Coya; Müller, Michel; Perren, Aurel; Flück, Christa E

    2017-02-05

    Recently, dihydrotestosterone biosynthesis through the backdoor pathway has been implicated for the human testis in addition to the classic pathway for testosterone (T) synthesis. In the human ovary, androgen precursors are crucial for estrogen synthesis and hyperandrogenism in pathologies such as the polycystic ovary syndrome is partially due to ovarian overproduction. However, a role for the backdoor pathway is only established for the testis and the adrenal, but not for the human ovary. To investigate whether the backdoor pathway exists in normal and PCOS ovaries, we performed specific gene and protein expression studies on ovarian tissues. We found aldo-keto reductases (AKR1C1-1C4), 5α-reductases (SRD5A1/2) and retinol dehydrogenase (RoDH) expressed in the human ovary, indicating that the ovary might produce dihydrotestosterone via the backdoor pathway. Immunohistochemical studies showed specific localization of these proteins to the theca cells. PCOS ovaries show enhanced expression, what may account for the hyperandrogenism.

  4. Stage-Specific Plasticity in Ovary Size Is Regulated by Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Ecdysone Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Cláudia C.; Mirth, Christen K.

    2016-01-01

    Animals from flies to humans adjust their development in response to environmental conditions through a series of developmental checkpoints, which alter the sensitivity of organs to environmental perturbation. Despite their importance, we know little about the molecular mechanisms through which this change in sensitivity occurs. Here we identify two phases of sensitivity to larval nutrition that contribute to plasticity in ovariole number, an important determinant of fecundity, in Drosophila melanogaster. These two phases of sensitivity are separated by the developmental checkpoint called “critical weight”; poor nutrition has greater effects on ovariole number in larvae before critical weight than after. We find that this switch in sensitivity results from distinct developmental processes. In precritical weight larvae, poor nutrition delays the onset of terminal filament cell differentiation, the starting point for ovariole development, and strongly suppresses the rate of terminal filament addition and the rate of increase in ovary volume. Conversely, in postcritical weight larvae, poor nutrition affects only the rate of increase in ovary volume. Our results further indicate that two hormonal pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor and the ecdysone-signaling pathways, modulate the timing and rates of all three developmental processes. The change in sensitivity in the ovary results from changes in the relative contribution of each pathway to the rates of terminal filament addition and increase in ovary volume before and after critical weight. Our work deepens our understanding of how hormones act to modify the sensitivity of organs to environmental conditions, thereby affecting their plasticity. PMID:26715667

  5. Stage-Specific Plasticity in Ovary Size Is Regulated by Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Ecdysone Signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cláudia C; Mirth, Christen K

    2016-02-01

    Animals from flies to humans adjust their development in response to environmental conditions through a series of developmental checkpoints, which alter the sensitivity of organs to environmental perturbation. Despite their importance, we know little about the molecular mechanisms through which this change in sensitivity occurs. Here we identify two phases of sensitivity to larval nutrition that contribute to plasticity in ovariole number, an important determinant of fecundity, in Drosophila melanogaster. These two phases of sensitivity are separated by the developmental checkpoint called "critical weight"; poor nutrition has greater effects on ovariole number in larvae before critical weight than after. We find that this switch in sensitivity results from distinct developmental processes. In precritical weight larvae, poor nutrition delays the onset of terminal filament cell differentiation, the starting point for ovariole development, and strongly suppresses the rate of terminal filament addition and the rate of increase in ovary volume. Conversely, in postcritical weight larvae, poor nutrition affects only the rate of increase in ovary volume. Our results further indicate that two hormonal pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor and the ecdysone-signaling pathways, modulate the timing and rates of all three developmental processes. The change in sensitivity in the ovary results from changes in the relative contribution of each pathway to the rates of terminal filament addition and increase in ovary volume before and after critical weight. Our work deepens our understanding of how hormones act to modify the sensitivity of organs to environmental conditions, thereby affecting their plasticity.

  6. Bisphenol A (BPA) and its potential role in the pathogenesis of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and the most heterogeneous endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. Apart from signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, hirsutism and hair loss, women with PCOS usually present with menstrual irregularities and fertility problems.Additionally, they are often characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, which usually leads to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review article describes current and novel approach to the pathomechanisms of PCOS and the potential role of an endocrine disrupting chemical ("endocrine disruptor" - ED) - bisphenol A (BPA), which is commonly used as a plasticizer and due to its molecular structure can interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). Recent observations point to the higher levels of BPA in biological fluids of women with PCOS and its role in the pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia. It seems that mother's exposure to BPA during pregnancy may also lead to the development of PCOS in the female offspring.

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary, ovarian and adrenal contributions to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baskind, N Ellissa; Balen, Adam H

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent heterogeneous disorder linked with disturbances of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic function. The definition and aetiological hypotheses of PCOS are continually developing to incorporate evolving evidence of the syndrome, which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The pathophysiology of PCOS encompasses inherent ovarian dysfunction that is strongly influenced by external factors including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and hyperinsulinaemia. Neuroendocrine abnormalities including increased gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse frequency with consequent hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH) affects ovarian androgen synthesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte development. Disturbed ovarian-pituitary and hypothalamic feedback accentuates the gonadotrophin abnormalities, and there is emerging evidence putatively implicating dysfunction of the Kiss 1 system. Within the follicle subunit itself, there are intra-ovarian paracrine modulators, cytokines and growth factors, which appear to play a role. Adrenally derived androgens may also contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS, but their role is less defined.

  8. Women's health providers: don't forget about polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farrell-Turner, Kristen A

    2015-01-01

    Comments on an article by Poleshuck and Woods (see record 2014-16756-003). The recent article by Poleshuck and Woods covered several areas of women's health that are defined, preceded, and/or followed by adverse psychosocial functioning. In a well-written and otherwise thorough summary of several women's health issues that are pertinent to mental health professionals, they neglected to mention polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is a very common disorder (8% to 17% prevalence; March et al., 2010) that is associated with several interrelated physiological and psychological disorders. The current author is submitting this comment because it is important that mental health professionals are familiar with the diagnostic criteria for PCOS, its impact on mental health functioning and on the development of several increasingly common chronic diseases, and how mental health professionals can play a role in reducing psychosocial disturbances and development of chronic disease among women with PCOS.

  9. Honeybee product therapeutic as stem cells homing for ovary failure

    PubMed Central

    Safitri, Erma; Widiyatno, Thomas V.; Prasetyo, R. Heru

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Complexity of the method of isolation, cultivation in vitro and the expensive cost of transplantation process of stem cells, it would require an innovation to homing and differentiation of stem cells and increase folliculogenesis. The stem cells homing was achieved through the provision of food or beverages derived from natural materials like honeybee product. Through honeybee product, there will be homing of stem cells and accompany with the sources from the body itself will take place in regeneration of the ovary. Materials and Methods: Female rats model of degenerative ovary was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused malnutrition and damage of the ovarian tissue. The administration of 50% honeybee product (T1) was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group (T0+) was fasted and not given honeybee product and the negative control (T0−) not fasted and without honeybee product. Observations were taken for homing of stem cells, raised of folliculogenesis, differentiation of stem cells, and regeneration of the ovarian tissue using routine H&E staining. Results: Homing of stem cells shown the vascular endothelial growth factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression; enhancement of folliculogenesis was indicated by an increase of follicle dee Graaf count; enhancement of differentiation of stem cells was indicated by growth differentiation factor-9 expression; and regeneration of ovarian tissue indicated by intact ovarian tissue with growing follicles. Conclusion: Honeybee product can be induced endogenous stem cells in regeneration of ovary failure due to malnutrition. PMID:27956789

  10. Diagnostic Criteria for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pitfalls and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Marla E.; Chizen, Donna R.; Pierson, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that as many as 1.4 million Canadian women may be afflicted with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Although PCOS is heralded as one of the most common endocrine disorders occurring in women, its diagnosis, management, and associated long-term health risks remain controversial. Historically, the combination of androgen excess and anovulation has been considered the hallmark of PCOS. To date, while these symptoms remain the most prevalent among PCOS patients, neither is considered an absolute requisite for the syndrome. Inclusion of ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries as a diagnostic marker has substantially broadened the phenotypic spectrum of PCOS, yet much debate surrounds the validity of these newly identified milder variants of the syndrome. Difficulty in resolving the spectrum of PCOS stems from the continued use of inconsistent and inaccurate methods of evaluating androgen excess, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. At present, there is no clear-cut definition of biochemical hyperandrogenemia, particularly since we depend on poor laboratory standards for measuring androgens in women. Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism are ill-defined in women with PCOS, and the diagnosis of both hirsutism and polycystic ovarian morphology remains alarmingly subjective. Lastly, there is an inappropriate tendency to assign ovulatory status solely on the basis of menstrual cycle history or poorly timed endocrine measurements. In this review, we elaborate on these limitations and propose possible resolutions for clinical and research settings. By stimulating awareness of these limitations, we hope to generate a dialogue aimed at solidifying the evaluation of PCOS in Canadian women. PMID:18786289

  11. Insulin resistance influences central opioid activity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berent-Spillson, Alison; Love, Tiffany; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Sowers, MaryFran; Persad, Carol C; Pennington, Kathryn P; Eyvazaddeh, Aimee D; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R

    2011-06-30

    This pilot study describes a relationship between insulin resistance and μ-opioid neurotransmission in limbic appetite and mood-regulating regions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting that insulin-opioid interactions may contribute to behavioral and reproductive pathologies of PCOS. We found that [1] patients with PCOS who are insulin-resistant (n = 7) had greater limbic μ-opioid receptor availability (nondisplaceable binding potential) than controls (n = 5); [2] receptor availability was correlated with severity of insulin resistance; and [3] receptor availability normalized after insulin-regulating treatment.

  12. Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal female.

    PubMed

    Fefferman, Nancy R; Pinkney, Lynne P; Rivera, Rafael; Popiolek, Dorota; Hummel-Levine, Pascale; Cosme, Jaqueline

    2003-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm of stromal origin with less than 100 cases reported in the literature. Unlike the other stromal tumors, thecomas and fibromas, which tend to occur in the fifth and sixth decades, sclerosing stromal tumors predominantly affect females in the second and third decades. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound findings have been described, but have not been reported previously in the pediatric literature. We present a case of SST of the ovary in a 10-year-old premenarchal female, the youngest patient to our knowledge reported in the literature, and describe the ultrasound and CT findings with pathologic correlation.

  13. Depression and body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Himelein, Melissa J; Thatcher, Samuel S

    2006-07-01

    Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p < .001) than comparison group women. Body image was strongly associated with depression overall, even after controlling body mass. Among women with PCOS, body dissatisfaction measures and education explained 66 percent of the variance in depression, suggesting explanations of the PCOS-depression link should consider the role of potentially mediating psychosocial variables.

  14. Oocyte Competence in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Stefano; Daolio, Jessica; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and affects fertility and pregnancy in cases of oligoanovulation. Ovulation induction is often used to treat anovulatory patients with PCOS, but many of these women fail to conceive and resort to assisted reproductive technologies. Alterations in oocyte competence (OC) are considered potential causative factors for subfertility in women with PCOS. In this review we present and critically assess all recent clinical and experimental data regarding OC in women with PCOS. Our analysis demonstrates that the contribution of OC to reproductive potential in women with PCOS varies and largely depends on the PCOS phenotype and comorbidities associated with PCOS.

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  16. A Computational Model of the Rainbow Trout Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary-Liver Axis

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Kendall; Krone, Stephen M.; Nagler, James J.; Schultz, Irvin R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction in fishes and other vertebrates represents the timely coordination of many endocrine factors that culminate in the production of mature, viable gametes. In recent years there has been rapid growth in understanding fish reproductive biology, which has been motivated in part by recognition of the potential effects that climate change, habitat destruction and contaminant exposure can have on natural and cultured fish populations. New approaches to understanding the impacts of these stressors are being developed that require a systems biology approach with more biologically accurate and detailed mathematical models. We have developed a multi-scale mathematical model of the female rainbow trout hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary-liver axis to use as a tool to help understand the functioning of the system and for extrapolation of laboratory findings of stressor impacts on specific components of the axis. The model describes the essential endocrine components of the female rainbow trout reproductive axis. The model also describes the stage specific growth of maturing oocytes within the ovary and permits the presence of sub-populations of oocytes at different stages of development. Model formulation and parametrization was largely based on previously published in vivo and in vitro data in rainbow trout and new data on the synthesis of gonadotropins in the pituitary. Model predictions were validated against several previously published data sets for annual changes in gonadotropins and estradiol in rainbow trout. Estimates of select model parameters can be obtained from in vitro assays using either quantitative (direct estimation of rate constants) or qualitative (relative change from control values) approaches. This is an important aspect of mathematical models as in vitro, cell-based assays are expected to provide the bulk of experimental data for future risk assessments and will require quantitative physiological models to extrapolate across biological scales. PMID

  17. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    PubMed

    Urbisz, Anna Z; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts is

  18. Cadaver study of the volume of the ovary in Bangladeshi women.

    PubMed

    Perven, H A; Nurunnabi, A S M; Ara, S; Jahan, M U

    2014-04-01

    Reproductive age, ovarian reserve and reproductive capability may be determined from the volume of the ovary. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, from January to December 2009, to see the variation in the volume of the ovary with age in Bangladeshi women. The study was performed on 140 post mortem human ovaries collected from 70 unclaimed female dead bodies which were in the morgue under examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka. The samples were divided into three age-groups including group A (10-13 years), group B (1445 years) & group C (46-52 years). Group A is pre-menarche group, group B represents reproductive age and group C is post menopausal group. The length, breadth and thickness of each ovary were measured by using a slide calipers. Then the volume of each ovary was determined by the product of its length, breadth and thickness multiplied by 0.524, according to the Prolate ellipsoid formula. The mean volume of the right ovary was found higher than that of the left one in all age groups (p < 0.001). The difference in mean volume of the ovary between group A & group B, group B & group C (p < 0.001) and group A & group C (p < 0.01) were also statistically significant. The volume of the ovary increases with age and then gradually starts to decrease from menopause.

  19. Plasmacytoma of the ovary: additional role of 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Raveendran, Ainharan; Jain, Vanita; Nijhawan, Raje; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharma, Suresh C

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of ovarian plasmacytomas where 18F-FDG PET/CT helped in staging by demonstrating increased FDG uptake limited to the ovary, and hence, surgical treatment was carried out as the disease was localized to the ovary.

  20. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: molecular insights and future therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary is known to show poorer sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents and to be associated with a worse prognosis than the more common serous adenocarcinoma or endometrioid adenocarcinoma. To improve the survival of patients with ovarian CCC, the deeper understanding of the mechanism of CCC carcinogenesis as well as the efforts to develop novel treatment strategies in the setting of both front-line treatment and salvage treatment for recurrent disease are needed. In this presentation, we first summarize the mechanism responsible for carcinogenesis. Then, we highlight the promising therapeutic targets in ovarian CCC and provide information on the novel agents which inhibit these molecular targets. Moreover, we discuss on the cytotoxic anti-cancer agents that can be best combined with targeted agents in the treatment of ovarian CCC. PMID:27029752

  1. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS.

  2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents - Relationship with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) within hepatocytes exceeding 5 % of liver weight. NAFLD is a spectrum of pathological processes from nonalcoholic fatty liver or simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. As NAFLD induces metabolic syndrome (MS), then, NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and even Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Because it is well established that patients carrying gene mutations also develop NAFLD in the absence of IR, the genetic predisposition to NAFLD is also discussed. Little is known about the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD in children and adolescents and the lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools in these populations is a major problem faced by physicians. The present review aims to discuss recent findings of NAFLD in children and adolescents and, considering the features in common with PCOS, we also discuss their relationship.

  3. The fetal ovary exhibits temporal sensitivity to a ‘real-life’ mixture of environmental chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Richard G.; Amezaga, Maria R.; Loup, Benoit; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice; Stefansdottir, Agnes; Filis, Panagiotis; Kyle, Carol; Zhang, Zulin; Allen, Ceri; Purdie, Laura; Jouneau, Luc; Cotinot, Corinne; Rhind, Stewart M.; Sinclair, Kevin D.; Fowler, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of fetal ovarian follicles is a critical determinant of adult female reproductive competence. Prolonged exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) can perturb this process with detrimental consequences for offspring. Here we report on the exposure of pregnant ewes to an environmental mixture of ECs derived from pastures fertilized with sewage sludge (biosolids): a common global agricultural practice. Exposure of pregnant ewes to ECs over 80 day periods during early, mid or late gestation reduced the proportion of healthy early stage fetal follicles comprising the ovarian reserve. Mid and late gestation EC exposures had the most marked effects, disturbing maternal and fetal liver chemical profiles, masculinising fetal anogenital distance and greatly increasing the number of altered fetal ovarian genes and proteins. In conclusion, differential temporal sensitivity of the fetus and its ovaries to EC mixtures has implications for adult ovarian function following adverse exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26931299

  4. Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary presenting as precocious puberty: a rare neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Afroz, Nishat; Maheshwari, Veena; Naim, Mohammed

    2014-03-31

    A 7-year-old Indian girl presented with symptoms of excessive development of breasts, early menarche, growth of pubic hairs, accelerated growth and abdominal distension. On clinical examination, a large right abdominopelvic mass was palpable. MRI revealed a large, heterogeneous, solid and cystic tumour in the right adnexal region, suggestive of an ovarian neoplasm. The hormonal profile showed markedly elevated oestradiol and low follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Clinical diagnosis of precocious puberty with right ovarian mass was concluded. Right-sided salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathology showed features consistent with sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary. Postoperatively, signs and symptoms of precocity gradually regressed and her serum oestradiol level came down to normal. This is the first reported case from India.

  5. Changes in follicular cells architecture during vitellogenin transport in the ovary of social Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ronnau, Milton; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Gonçlaves, Wagner Gonzaga; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Vitellogenins are the major yolk proteins, synthesized in the fat body, released into the hemolymph and captured by the developing oocytes, but the mechanisms by which these proteins cross the follicular cell layer are still poorly understood. This study describes the actin distribution in follicular cells during vitellogenin transport to the oocyte in social Hymenoptera represented by bees Apis mellifera and Melipona quadrifasciata, the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga and the ant Pachycondyla curvinodis. In oocytic chambers of vitellogenic follicles, vitellogenin was found within the follicular cells, perivitelline space and oocyte, indicating a transcellular route from the hemolymph to the perivitelline space. The cortical actin cytoskeleton in follicular cells underwent reorganization during transport of vitellogenin across this epithelium suggesting that in the ovary of social hymenopterans, vitellogenin delivery to oocytes requires a dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangement of actin filaments in the follicular cells.

  6. Effect of an oxadiazine, indoxacarb, on the biochemical composition of ovaries in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Maiza, A; Aribi, N; Smagghe, G; Soltani, N

    2010-01-01

    Conventional insecticides have been widely used to control cockroaches but these insects have developed resistance to several compounds. Safer insecticides with a low toxicity such as oxadiazine have been advanced: indoxacarb (30% WG) is designated to be a reduced-risk insecticide and is considered as an organophosphate replacement. Insecticidal activity occurs via blockage of the sodium channels in the insect nervous system. In a first series of experiments, the toxicity of different concentrations (15, 20, 25 and 30 ppm) administrated by topical application to newly emerged adults was studied on the German cockroach Blattella germanica, and the LC50 and LT50 values were determined. In a second series of experiments, the compound was applied at its LC50 and LC90 over a period of 6 days, and the effects on the biochemical composition of ovaries (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) during the adult life (2, 4 and 6 days) were examined.

  7. Ovarian innervation develops before initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Gibney, J A; Ojeda, S R

    1992-10-01

    Sympathetic neurotransmitters have been shown to be present in the ovary of the rat during early postnatal development and to affect steroidogenesis before the ovary becomes responsive to gonadotropins, and before the first primordial follicles are formed. This study was undertaken to determine if development of the ovarian innervation is an event that antedates the initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat, Rattus norvegicus. Serial sections of postnatal ovaries revealed a negligible frequency of follicles 24 h after birth (about 1 primordial follicle per ovary). Twelve hours later there were about 500 follicles per ovary, a number that more than doubled to about 1300 during the subsequent 12 h, indicating that an explosive period of follicular differentiation occurs between the end of postnatal days 1 and 2. Electron microscopy demonstrated that before birth the ovaries are already innervated by fibers containing clear and dense-core vesicles. Immunohistochemistry performed on either fetal (day 19) or newborn (less than 15h after birth) ovaries showed the presence of catecholaminergic nerves, identified by their content of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. While some of these fibers innervate blood vessels, others are associated with primordial ovarian cells, thereby suggesting their participation in non-vascular functions. Since prefollicular ovaries are insensitive to gonadotropins, the results suggest that the developing ovary becomes subjected to direct neurogenic influences before it acquires responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  8. [Metastatic tumors in the ovary, difficulties of histologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tamás, Judit; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Tóth, Erika

    2015-09-01

    The ovary is a common site of metastases. Secondary tumors account for 3-40% of all ovarian malignancies. Most ovarian metastases arise from the colon, although tumors of the breast, stomach and endometrium are also common places of origin. Clinical and histological features of metastatic tumors frequently mimic primary ovarian malignancies, causing serious diagnostic problems for the surgical pathologist. However, differentiation between primary ovarian cancer and ovarian metastasis is important in order to prevent inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment. The distinction between primary and secondary ovarian malignancies is especially difficult in cases when the metastasis is diagnosed before the primary tumor. Frozen section is widely used in the intra-operative assessment of patients with ovarian tumors but it can be very difficult to distinguish certain types of primary ovarian tumors and metastases from other sites. We examined 152 cases of secondary ovarian neoplasm diagnosed at the National Institute of Oncology, Hungary from 2000 to 2014. Colorectal cancer was the most common primary tumor (58 cases), followed by breast (33 cases), endometrium (30 cases) and stomach cancer (13 cases). The differential diagnosis proved the most difficult in cases when endometrioid and mucinous tumors were present in the ovaries. Metastases of colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas may simulate benign or borderline cystadenomas too. In these cases the knowledge of the patient's history and immunohistochemical stains were helpful. In our study we discuss the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing these secondary ovarian tumors from primary ovarian neoplasms and the limits of the intraoperative frozen sections.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome: reviewing diagnosis and management of metabolic disturbances.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2014-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women at reproductive age associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Proposed diagnosed criteria for PCOS include two out of three features: androgen excess, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovary appearance on ultrasound (PCO), after other causes of hyperandrogenism and dysovulation are excluded. Based on these diagnostic criteria, the most common phenotypes are the "classic PCOS"--hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea, with or without PCO; the "ovulatory phenotype"--hyperandrogenism and PCO in ovulatory women; and the "non-hyperandrogenic phenotype", in which there is oligomenorrhea and PCO, without overt hyperandrogenism. The presence of obesity may exacerbate the metabolic and reproductive disorders associated with the syndrome. In addition, PCOS women present higher risk for type 2 diabetes and higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors that seems to be associated with the classic phenotype. The main interventions to minimize cardiovascular and metabolic risks in PCOS are lifestyle changes, pharmacological therapy, and bariatric surgery. Treatment with metformin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, lowering blood glucose and androgen levels. These effects are more potent when combined with lifestyle interventions. In conclusion, besides reproductive abnormalities, PCOS has been associated to metabolic comorbidities, most of them linked to obesity. Confounders, such as the lack of standard diagnostic criteria, heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, and presence of obesity, make management of PCOS difficult. Therefore, the approach to metabolic abnormalities should be tailored to the risks and treatment goals of each individual woman.

  10. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

  11. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Morbidity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long-term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin resistance. Available data from register-based and data linkage studies support that metabolic-vascular and thyroid diseases, asthma, migraine, depression and cancer are diagnosed more frequently in PCOS, whereas fracture risk is decreased. Drug prescriptions are significantly more common in PCOS than controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long-term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, Western-style diet and smoking, whereas lifestyle intervention including weight loss may partly or fully resolve the symptoms of PCOS and could improve the long-term prognosis. In this review, the possible implications of increased morbidity for the clinical and biochemical evaluation of patients with PCOS at diagnosis and follow-up is further discussed along with possible modifying effects of medical treatment.

  12. Prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced response of the bovine ovary, oviduct (uterine tube), and uterus.

    PubMed

    Singh, L P; Sadiku, A; Verma, O P

    1979-12-01

    Tissue strips from the ovary, (uterine tube), and oviduct, and uterus of pregnant and nonpregnant cows were tested for their contractile response to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). When 2.1 x 10(-6)M PGF2 alpha was added to the uterine strips, tension of tissues from pregnant cows increased sharply; however, tension in tissues from nonpregnant cows only increased moderately. Similar concentrations failed to elicit any response from oviductal tissues of either group. Unlike the uterus and the oviduct, the ovaries contracted slowly and irregularly. They responded with varying degrees of stimulation; ovaries from pregnant cows with brief and mild stimulation and ovaries from nonpregnant cows with slower and relatively stronger stimulation. Results indicate that the bovine ovary contracts rhythmically and that its sensitivity to PGF2 alpha decreases during pregnancy in contrast to the bovine uterus which becomes increasingly sensitive during pregnancy.

  13. Cytotoxicity of refractory ceramic fibres to Chinese hamster ovary cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Hart, G A; Newman, M M; Bunn, W B; Hesterberg, T W

    1992-07-01

    The toxicity/oncogenicity of refractory ceramic fibres have been tested in chronic inhalation studies in rodents. Because these studies are time consuming and expensive, there is a need to develop and validate short-term models to screen fibres for their toxicological potential. In the present study, the toxic effects of four different compositions of refractory ceramic fibres were determined using Chinese hamster ovary cells grown in culture. These refractory ceramic fibres were the same size-selected fibres that had been used in animal inhalation studies, thus facilitating a direct comparison of findings in the two systems. Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with refractory ceramic fibres 24 hr after seeding into 60-mm culture dishes in Ham's F12 medium with 10% serum. Inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation were determined after 3-5 days of fibre exposure. Crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos were used as positive controls. Concentration-dependent inhibition of both cell proliferation and colony formation was observed after treatment with refractory ceramic fibres. The LC(50) for the different refractory ceramic fibres ranged from 10 to 30 mug/cm(2). The LC(50)s for crocidolite and chrysotile were 5 mug/cm(2) and 1 mug/cm(2), respectively. To assess the genotoxic potential of these fibres, fibre-exposed Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures were stained with acridine orange and scored for the incidence of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. The incidence of nuclear abnormalities for refractory ceramic fibres at 20 mug/cm(2) ranged from 20 to 40%. Toxic endpoints of the in vitro studies were compared with those of the chronic animal inhalation studies. The latter included induction of lung fibrosis and pleural and airway tumours. A correlation was observed between the in vitro and in vivo toxicological potencies of the respective four refractory ceramic fibres: the fibres that were most toxic in vitro were also the most toxic in the

  14. Edaravone mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes while estrogen restores antioxidant enzymes in the rat ovary in F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2014-07-01

    Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E₂) (10 μg in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E₂ treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E₂ restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary.

  15. Edaravone Mitigates Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Depletion of Antioxidant Enzymes while Estrogen Restores Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat Ovary in F1 Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E2) (10 μg in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E2 treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E2 restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

  16. The Pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): The Hypothesis of PCOS as Functional Ovarian Hyperandrogenism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Ehrmann, David A

    2016-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was hypothesized to result from functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) due to dysregulation of androgen secretion in 1989-1995. Subsequent studies have supported and amplified this hypothesis. When defined as otherwise unexplained hyperandrogenic oligoanovulation, two-thirds of PCOS cases have functionally typical FOH, characterized by 17-hydroxyprogesterone hyperresponsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation. Two-thirds of the remaining PCOS have FOH detectable by testosterone elevation after suppression of adrenal androgen production. About 3% of PCOS have a related isolated functional adrenal hyperandrogenism. The remaining PCOS cases are mild and lack evidence of steroid secretory abnormalities; most of these are obese, which we postulate to account for their atypical PCOS. Approximately half of normal women with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) have subclinical FOH-related steroidogenic defects. Theca cells from polycystic ovaries of classic PCOS patients in long-term culture have an intrinsic steroidogenic dysregulation that can account for the steroidogenic abnormalities typical of FOH. These cells overexpress most steroidogenic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450c17. Overexpression of a protein identified by genome-wide association screening, differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic development 1A.V2, in normal theca cells has reproduced this PCOS phenotype in vitro. A metabolic syndrome of obesity-related and/or intrinsic insulin resistance occurs in about half of PCOS patients, and the compensatory hyperinsulinism has tissue-selective effects, which include aggravation of hyperandrogenism. PCOS seems to arise as a complex trait that results from the interaction of diverse genetic and environmental factors. Heritable factors include PCOM, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and insulin secretory defects. Environmental factors include prenatal androgen exposure and poor fetal growth, whereas acquired obesity

  17. Expression and functional characterization of intrafollicular GH-IGF system in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Yu, Susana Man Ying; Ge, Wei

    2016-06-01

    The somatotrophic axis plays important roles in influencing reproduction. All key members of this axis including growth hormone (GH, gh), GH receptors (ghra and ghrb), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, igf1, igf2 and igf3) and IGF receptors (igf1ra and igf1rb) were detected in the zebrafish ovary. GH was exclusively expressed in the full-grown oocytes, while its receptors were detectable in both the follicle cells and oocytes. The IGFs and their receptors were all expressed in both compartments except igf3, which was expressed in the follicle cells only. During folliculogenesis, there was a sharp decrease of gh expression at follicle activation; however, the expression of its receptors increased significantly. The expression profiles of igf1, igf2a, and igf2b were similar to that of fshr, whereas igf3 expression was close to lhcgr, suggesting differential roles for different forms of IGFs in follicle development. To examine if the ovarian GH-IGF system is regulated by gonadotropins (e.g., hCG) and GH, we performed in vitro experiments using cultured zebrafish follicle cells. The expression of igf1 and igf1ra, but not others, was down-regulated by hCG (LH analog), whereas recombinant zebrafish GH stimulated igf1 expression. In addition, GH also increased the expression of activin βA subunit (inhbaa). In agreement with this, the stimulatory effect of GH but not IGF-I on oocyte maturation could be abolished by follistatin. In conclusion, the present study revealed an intrafollicular network involving GH-IGF mini-axis in the zebrafish ovary; however, it might not work in the same way as that of the systemic somatotrophic axis.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in Mongolian sheep ovaries by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaolong; Li, Bei; Wang, Feng; Tian, Chunying; Rong, Weiheng; Liu, Yongbin

    2012-07-01

    Fecundity is an important trait in sheep. Because it is directly related to production costs and efficiency, it has great economic impact in sheep husbandry. Because Mongolian sheep are a longstanding, indigenous breed, they are genetically related to most other breeds of sheep in China. The study of genes related to reproductive traits is essential to improving the fecundity of Mongolian sheep. In the present study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed using forward and reverse nested primers on cDNA libraries from ovarian tissue of single-bearing (S) and biparous (B) Mongolian sheep (MS). This yielded 768 clones. The length of the inserted fragments ranged from 150 to 1000 bp. From these, dot blot hybridization followed by sequencing and homology blast search in GenBank resolved 373 differentially expressed clones, representing 185 gene sequences (homology >85% and length >200 bp), 10 expressed sequence tags (ESTs; homology >95% and length >100 bp), and 4 unknown ESTs. The analysis of the differentially expressed gene functions allowed these genes to be categorized into seven groups: cell/body or immune defense, metabolism, transportation, nucleic acid modification, cell development, signal transduction, and cell structure. Four differentially expressed genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (ID3), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1), were randomly selected and verified using relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). The expression of these genes in BMS ovaries was 30.06, 11.55, 0.82, and 1.12-fold that of SMS ovaries, respectively.

  19. Insulin and GH secretion in adolescent girls with irregular cycles: polycystic vs multifollicular ovaries.

    PubMed

    Villa, P; Rossodivita, A; Fulghesu, A M; Cucinelli, F; Barini, A; Apa, R; Belosi, C; Lanzone, A

    2003-04-01

    In the present study insulin (I) and GH secretion was studied in a group of twenty-five young adolescent girls (mean age: 15 +/- 0.23 yr) with cycle irregularity associated to clinical signs of hyperandrogenism in comparison with that observed in eleven normal matched subjects with regular menses. All patients underwent basal hormone measurements and, on two consecutive days, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a GHRH iv test. Therefore, all subjects had a transabdominal US scan for the measurement of ovarian volume and the characterization of ovarian morphology. On the basis of the US examination we found patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO-like group) and subjects with multifollicular ovaries (MFO group). PCO-like group exhibited T (p<0.01) and LH (p<0.05) plasma levels higher than control group and the highest free androgen index (FAI) values (13 +/- 0.87). All patients with irregular menses showed plasma concentrations of AUC for I (AUC-I) significantly higher in respect to control group (7359.4 +/- 709 vs 5447 +/- 431 microIU/ml x 180 min, p<0.01) as well as both PCO-like group and MFO group did (p<0.001 and p<0.01) respectively. MFO group showed higher values of the AUC for GH (AUC-GH) (2809 +/- 432 ng/ml x 120 min) in respect to controls (1708 +/- 208 ng/ml x 120 min, p<0.05) and PCO-like subjects (p<0.001), who on the contrary showed the lowest AUC-GH values (618 +/- 119 ng/ml x 120 min). In conclusion, PCO-like patients associated hyperinsulinemia with a blunted GH secretion while MFO patients had higher GH secretion associated with higher AUC-I values in a way suggesting an immature and still developing reproductive system.

  20. Serum Adiponectin Level and Clinical, Metabolic, and Hormonal Markers in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Yunus; Ozaksit, Gülnur; Serdar Unlu, Bekir; Ozgu, Emre; Energin, Hasan; Kaba, Metin; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin, metabolic and hor- monal parameters, and insulin resistance in patients with non-treated polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 81 patients admitted to out-patient clinic with complaints of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and obesity were enrolled. Serum adiponectin, biochemical and hormonal parameters, and 75 gram oral glu- cose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: We observed inverse correlations between serum adiponectin level and body mass index, homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance score, insulin level, fast- ing glucose level, and prolactin level (p=0.001, p=0.02, p=0.04, p=0.02, and p=0.005, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum adiponectin level and age, height, weight, Ferriman-Gallwey score, 2 hours OGTT test value and free tes- tosterone level (p=0.3, p=0.6, p=0.2, p=0.8, p=0.9, and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that in polycystic ovary syndrome patients, when serum adiponectin level decreased, degree of insulin resistance increased. Our find- ings indicate that serum adiponectin level is likely to be an adequate marker for deter- mination of the degree of insulin resistance, and may be a predictor of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, which develop on the basis of insulin resistance. PMID:24520503

  1. Hyperandrogenemia association with acne and hirsutism severity in Croatian women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pavičić Baldani, Dinka; Škrgatić, Lana; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Trgovčić, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Clinical traits associated with androgen, acne and hirsutism, are important diagnostic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). As androgens are necessary for the development of cutaneous signs of PCOS, patients with severe forms of clinical hyperandrogenism are expected to present with higher levels of plasma androgens. This relationship has not been well established and studies examining the relationship have produced inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the severity of clinical traits caused by androgen, acne and hirsutism, with plasma levels of androgens in Croatian women diagnosed with PCOS. One hundred and forty-five women of reproductive age with isolated acne (n=61) or isolated hirsutism (n=84), oligo/amenorrhea and polycystic morphology of the ovaries were enrolled in the study. Acne grade, hirsutism grade, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were recorded. Hormonal profiles were measured and assessment of insulin resistance was performed. There were no significant associations between acne severity and BMI, WHR and examined hormonal and insulin resistance parameters. There was a significant correlation between sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone levels and the severity of hirsutism (ρ=-0.611, P<0.001 and ρ=0.337, P=0.002, respectively). No significant association was found between the hirsutism grade and other hormonal and metabolic parameters examined. In conclusion, acne severity in PCOS patients is not linearly associated with serum androgen levels; therefore, their levels should not be used to determine the dose of anti-androgen therapy. The observed negative correlation between serum SHBG levels and the degree of hirsutism suggests that hormonal contraception, which elevates SHBG, should be used as primary therapy in hirsute PCOS patients.

  2. Pre-ovulatory temperature gradients within mammalian ovaries: a review.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R H F; Einer-Jensen, N

    2005-08-01

    The existence of a temperature gradient between the testis and deep body temperature has been accepted for many years. It is based on two simultaneous principles: cooling of the testis through the scrotal wall and transfer of heat between the testicular blood vessels. The ovary is positioned in the abdomen; a temperature difference parallel to the male system therefore seems less likely. However, the temperature of large follicles has been found to be 0.5 to 1.5 degrees C cooler than the ovarian stroma in rabbits, pigs and, probably, women. The temperature difference seems to be based on a heat-consuming process in the expanding follicullar fluid, and a local transfer of heat between intra-ovarian blood vessels. The reason for the temperature gradient is not yet known; one may speculate of a common reason for the cooling of the gamete in male and female.

  3. The role of TGF-β in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Urbanek, Margrit; Rodgers, Raymond J; Legro, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic oligoanovulation and hyperandrogenism and associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. In recent years, genetic studies have linked PCOS to a dinucleotide marker D19S884 in the fibrillin 3 gene. Fibrillins make up the major component of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and interact with molecules in the ECM to regulate transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. Therefore, variations in fibrillin 3 and subsequent dysregulation of TGF-β may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Here, we review the evidence from genetic studies supporting the role of TGF-β in PCOS and describe how TGF-β dysregulation may contribute to (1) the fetal origins of PCOS, (2) reproductive abnormalities in PCOS, and (3) cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in PCOS.

  4. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.; Matthews, R.; Ercal, N.; Krishnan, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine demonstrating a radioprotective effect. The radioprotectant effect of glutamine for CHO cells was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results support the idea that glutamine protects body systems such as the gut more directly as a radioprotector as opposed to a more indirect route, such as preventing bacterial translocation from the gut. 16 refs.

  5. Microparticles: Inflammatory and haemostatic biomarkers in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L M L; Ferreira, C N; Sóter, M O; Sales, M F; Rodrigues, K F; Martins, S R; Candido, A L; Reis, F M; Silva, I F O; Campos, F M F; Gomes, K B

    2017-03-05

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation and predisposition to hemostatic and atherosclerotic complications. This case-control study evaluated the microparticles (MPs) profile in patients with the PCOS and related these MPs to clinical and biochemical parameters. MPs derived from platelets (PMPs), leuckocytes (LMPs) and endothelial cells (EMPs) were evaluated, as well as MPs expressing tissue factor (TFMPs), by flow cytometry, comparing women with PCOS (n = 50) and a healthy control group (n = 50). PCOS women presented increased total MPs, PMPs, LMPs and EMPs levels when compared to control group (all p < 0.05). TFMPs was similar between the groups (p = 0.379). In conclusion, these MPs populations could be useful biomarkers for association with thrombosis and cardiovascular disease in PCOS women.

  6. Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes.

  7. Alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfang; Pan, Jiexue; Liu, Ye; Meng, Qing; Lv, Pingping; Qu, Fan; Ding, Guo-Lian; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C. K.; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yao, Weimiao; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Shi, Biwei; Zhang, Junyu; Sheng, Jianzhong; Huang, Hefeng

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa cells (GCs) in ∼62% of patients with PCOS. AR ASVs are strongly associated with remarkable hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis, and are absent from all control subjects without PCOS. Alternative splicing dramatically alters genome-wide AR recruitment and androgen-induced expression of genes related to androgen metabolism and folliculogenesis in human GCs. These findings establish alternative splicing of AR in GCs as the major pathogenic mechanism for hyperandrogenism and abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS. PMID:25825716

  8. Ovulation requires the activation on proestrus of M₁ muscarinic receptors in the left ovary.

    PubMed

    Cruz, M E; Flores, A; Alvarado, B E; Hernández, C G; Zárate, A; Chavira, R; Cárdenas, M; Arrieta-Cruz, I; Gutiérrez-Juárez, R

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the effects of chemically blocking type 1 muscarinic receptors (M1R) on either the left or right ovary on ovulation rate, number of ova shed and steroid hormones levels. M1R were unilaterally blocked in ovary with the M1R selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZP). PZP was delivered into the bursa ovarica of the left or right ovary of adult rats at 13:00 h on proestrus day. PZP treatment in the left but not in the right ovary blocked ovulation. PZP did not modify the number of ova shed, nor progesterone or 17β-estradiol serum levels. The surge of luteinizing hormone levels was diminished while that of follicle-stimulating hormone did not change in animals treated with PZP in the left ovary. Interestingly, treatment with either synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or human chorionic gonadotropin 1 h after PZP administration in the left ovary restored ovulation in both ovaries. The presence of M1R protein in the theca cells of the ovarian follicles as well as in cells of the corpus luteum was detected on proestrus day. These results suggest that M1R activation in the left ovary is required for pre-ovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and ovulation. Furthermore, these results also suggest that M1R in the left ovary might be regulating ovulation asymmetrically through a stimulatory neural signal relayed to the hypothalamus via the vagus nerve to induce the GnRH secretion which then triggers ovulation.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome in patients on antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Lakshminarayanapuram G.; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Bhimani, Bipin C.; Reddy, Janardhan YC; Rama Murthy, Batchu S.; Subbakrishna, Doddaballapura K.; Sinha, Sanjib

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to discuss the prevalence of polycystic ovary (PCO) and Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with epilepsy (WWE) on valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), or phenobarbitone (PB), drug naive WWE and women with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) on VPA. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 190 women aged 18–45 years, who had epilepsy or BPAD (on VPA), and consented for study. Patients were grouped as Group 1 (n = 40): WWE on VPA, Group 2 (n = 50): WWE on CBZ, Group 3 (n = 50): WWE on PB, Group 4 (n = 30): drug naïve WWE, and Group 5 (n = 20): women with BPAD on VPA. All women were interviewed for medical, menstrual, drug and treatment history, nature of epilepsy, and seizure control. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were done to compare results between the groups. Results: Fifty-two women (52/190; 27.4%) had menstrual disturbances, in which oligomenorrhea was the most common (55.8%). There was a significant difference in the occurrence of PCOS in patients on VPA versus normal population (P = 0.05) and patients on other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (P = 0.02). There was, however, no significant difference in the occurrence of PCO between patients on VPA and the untreated epileptic women. VPA group (Epilepsy + BPAD) had a significantly higher occurrence of obesity than other treatment groups (P = 0.043, OR = 2.11). Conclusions: The study observed significantly higher occurrence of PCO in patients on VPA compared to other AEDs and the normal population. The importance of proper clinical evaluation before initiating VPA is highlighted. PMID:27570385

  10. Defects in insulin signaling pathways in ovarian steroidogenesis and other tissues in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Economou, Frangiskos; Kandaraki, Eleni; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age today. Women with PCOS often demonstrate defective ovarian steroid biosynthesis and present with hyperandrogenemia. Moreover, 50-70% of PCOS women are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic. Insulin acts on the ovary via its own receptor and interacts with gonadotrophins, modulating steroidogenesis. The precise role of insulin and the molecular mechanisms that take place are not yet completely explicated. This review will be focused on insulin's action on the ovary and other target tissues, describing the intracellular signaling pathways implicated in steroidogenesis and their defects in women with PCOS.

  11. Cellular localization and levels of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in olive (Olea europaea L.) pistil tissues during development: implications for pollen-pistil interaction.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Cynthia; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Castro, Antonio J; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Majewska-Sawka, Anna; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Cell wall components in the pistil are involved in cell-cell recognition, nutrition and regulation of pollen tube growth. The aim of this work was to study the level, whole-organ distribution, and subcellular localization of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in the olive developing pistil. Western blot analyses and immunolocalization with fluorescence and electron microscopy were carried out using a battery of antibodies recognizing different types of pectin epitopes (JIM7, JIM5, LM5, and LM6) and one anti-AGPs antibody (JIM13). In the olive pistil, highest levels of acid esterified and de-esterified pectins were observed at pollination. Moreover, pollination was accompanied by a slight decrease of the galactose-rich pectins pool, whereas arabinose-rich pectins were more abundant at that time. An increased expression of AGPs was also observed during pollination, in comparison to the pistil at the pre-anthesis stage. After pollination, the levels of pectins and AGPs declined significantly. Inmunofluorescence localization of pectins showed their different localization in the olive pistil. Pectins with galactose residues were located mainly in the cortical zones of the pistil, similar to the neutral pectins, which were found in the parenchyma and epidermis. In turn, the neutral pectins, which contain arabinose residues and AGPs, were localized predominantly in the stigmatic exudate, in the cell wall of secretory cells of the stigma, as well as in the transmitting tissue of the pistil during the pollination period. The differences in localization of pectins and AGPs are discussed in relation to their roles during olive pistil developmental course.

  12. Characterization and differential expression of microRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian follicular development and hormone secretion are complex and coordinated biological processes which will usually be altered during pregnancy. Ovarian function is tightly regulated by a multitude of genes, and also by some specific miRNAs. It is necessary to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant mammals, in order to further understand the role of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in mammalian reproduction. Here, we performed a comprehensive search for hircine miRNAs using two small RNA sequencing libraries prepared from the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats. Results 617 conserved and 7 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the hircine ovaries. A total of 471 conserved miRNAs (76.34%) were co-expressed in both pregnant and non-pregnant libraries, and 90 pregnancy-specific and 56 non-pregnancy-specific conserved miRNAs were identified. Additionally, 407 unique miRNAs (65.96%) were significantly differentially expressed in the pregnant and non-pregnant libraries, of which 294 were upregulated and 113 were downregulated in the pregnant library compared to the non-pregnant library. Further analysis showed that miR-143 was predicted to bind to the target sequences of Frizzled-6 and -3 receptor genes in the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, and let-7b may target the Activin receptor I and Smad 2/3 genes in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. The expression level of 5 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR), and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Conclusions The identification and characterization of differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats provides important information on the role of miRNA in the regulation of the ovarian development and function. This data will be helpful to facilitate studies on the regulation of miRNAs during

  13. Altered expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in follicles within dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovaries in rats.

    PubMed

    Bas, Diana; Abramovich, Dalhia; Hernandez, Fatima; Tesone, Marta

    2011-05-01

    PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by hyperandrogenaemia, hirsutism, oligo- or amenorrhea, insulin resistance and anovulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the balance between the ovarian expression of Bax (proapoptotic protein) and Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic protein) is altered in a PCOS model developed in rats by DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) administration. In addition, the ovarian morphology and the circulating progesterone levels were evaluated. Histological studies confirmed the presence of follicular cysts, atretic follicles and the absence of corpora lutea in the ovaries from the PCOS group and a significant decrease in circulating progesterone levels. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were mainly localized in granulosa cells of AFs (antral follicles) in both groups. Bax expression was greater in preantral and AFs from PCOS ovarian sections than in the controls. In contrast, intense Bcl-2 immunostaining was observed in the control AFs, while Bcl-2 protein was either absent in PFs (preantral follicles) or weakly expressed in AFs from PCOS rats. These results were partially confirmed by Western studies. Data revealed that the ovarian level of Bcl-2 protein was lower in PCOS than in the control and that there were no differences in Bax ovarian levels between groups. However, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly higher in PCOS group than in the control group. In conclusion, an increase in ovarian apoptosis through an imbalance among the Bcl-2 family members may be involved in the transformation of growing follicles in cystic follicles in the ovaries from DHEA-induced PCOS rats.

  14. Effects of jnk inhibitor on inflammation and fibrosis in the ovary tissue of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Gulay; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Dönmez, Yeliz Bozdemir; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Erten, Remzi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125) on fibrosis and inflammation in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Method: 50 Wistar-albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each): control group, sham group, PCOS group, SP600125+ PCOS group and SP600125 group. In the estradiol valerate (EV)-treated group in which PCOS was injected with a single 4 mg/kg i.p. of EV in 0.2 ml sesame oil and the rats were sacrificed on day 60. The estradiol valerate (EV)-treated + SP600125-treated group was injected with a single 4 mg/kg i.p. of EV in 0.2 ml sesame oil. As of day 60, the treatment group was additionally given 15 mg/kg i.p. of SP600125 once daily for 4 consecutive days and the rats were sacrificed on day 65. Histopathological findings (ovarian morphology, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular congestion and hyperemia) and collagen type IV immunoexpression were assessed. Results: The SP600125+ PCOS group showed a significant level of improvement in ovarian follicle morphology, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, vascular congestion and hyperemia as compared with the PCOS group. Furthermore, collagen type IV immunoexpression showed a significant reduction in staining intensity on the theca cell layer and ovary stroma as compared to the PCOS group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the therapeutic effect of SP600125 in the prevention of PCOS in an experimental model. PMID:26464620

  15. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized the ovary in a previously undescribed manner; bacteria were found in the posterior of the ovary, adjacent to the lateral oviduct. This local infection in the ovary resulted in melanization and activation of the cellular immune response at the site of infection. PMID:17400292

  16. Histological assessment of ovaries and uterus of rats subjected to nandrolone decanoate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Juliana Rubira; Frei, Fernando; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of nandrolone decanoate on the ovaries and uterus of adult females rats. This drug was administered intraperitoneally, at one, two and three doses of 3 mg nandrolone decanoate/kg of body weight, respectively, in the first, second and third week of treatment. The females of the control group received a physiological solution. The rats treated with nandrolone decanoate showed estral acyclicity and there was destruction of follicular units and an absence of corpus luteum in the ovaries. In the uterus, the drug promoted morphological alterations, characterized by vacuolated epithelium and endometrial stroma fibrosis. Ovary, uterus and pituitary weights were not affected by the steroid treatment. Nandrolone decanoate affects the sexual cycle and promotes histological alterations in the ovaries and uterus of adult female rats.

  17. IgG4-related Disease of the Ovary: A First Description.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Pichler Sekulic, Simona; Movahedi-Lankarani, Saeid

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-related disease has been previously described to involve numerous organs and anatomic sites, however, involvement of the ovary has not yet been reported in the literature. In this case report we describe an ovary involved with an inflammatory process with histopathologic features supportive of involvement by IgG4-related disease: a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with an eosinophilic component, obliterative phlebitis, and a prominent proportion of IgG-positive cells with IgG4 expression by immunohistochemistry (40%-50%). The differential diagnosis for this case would include eosinophilic perifolliculitis involving the ovary, another rare entity that shares the eosinophilic component of IgG4-related disease. In short, we present the first description of IgG4-related disease of the ovary providing morphologic characterization and immunohistochemical studies supporting the diagnosis.

  18. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

  19. The role of insulin and selected adipocytokines in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ozegowska, Katarzyna E; Pawelczyk, Leszek A

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is manifested by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, oligomenorrhoea and anovulation. PCOS patients are more vulnerable to metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, obesity endothelium dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and activation of proinflammatory factors. This association shows that PCOS might be an ovarian manifestation of a metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is also strongly correlated with reproductive failure. Approximately 100 factors, secreted in adipose tissue, are responsible for its regulation. Adipocytokines have been found to play an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity Abnormal levels of adipokines are detected in patients with insulin resistance. Studies indicate that these factors, and their different activity in PCOS women, may affect changes observed in their metabolism and, especially may participate in the development of insulin resistance. There are several adipokines whose role has been thoroughly investigated and many that we still know very little about, for example apein and visfatin. Counseling PCOS patients about the possibility of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases should be a standard of care.

  20. Progesterone increases ex vivo testosterone production and decreases the expression of progestin receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovary.

    PubMed

    Chishti, Yasmin Z; Feswick, April; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Progesterone (P4) is a metabolic precursor for a number of steroids, including estrogens and androgens. P4 also has diverse roles within the vertebrate ovary that include oocyte growth and development. The objectives of this study were to measure the effects of P4 on testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) production in the fathead minnow (FHM) ovary and on the mRNA abundance of transcripts involved in steroidogenesis and steroid receptor signaling. Ovary explants were treated with P4 (10(-6)M) for 6 and 12h. P4 administration significantly increased T production ∼3-fold at both 6 and 12h, whereas E2 production was not affected, consistent with the hypothesis that excess P4 is not converted to terminal estrogens in the mature ovary. Nuclear progesterone receptor mRNA was decreased at 6h and membrane progesterone receptor gamma-2 mRNA was significantly down-regulated at both 6 and 12h; however there was no change in membrane progesterone receptor alpha or beta mRNA levels. Androgen receptor (ar) and estrogen receptor 2a (esr2a) mRNA were significantly reduced at 6h with P4 treatment, but there was no change in esr2b mRNA at either time point. Transcripts for enzymes in the steroid pathway (star, hsd11b2) were significantly lower at 6h compared to controls, whereas cyp17a and cyp19a mRNA abundance did not change with treatments at either time point. These data suggest that P4 incubation can lead to increased T production in the FHM ovary without a concomitant change in E2, and that the membrane bound progestin receptors are differentially regulated by P4 in the teleost ovary. As environmental progestins have received increased attention due to their suspected role as endocrine disruptors, mechanistic data on the role of exogenous P4 treatments in the male and female gonad is warranted.

  1. Antigenic modulation of metastatic breast and ovary carcinoma cells by intracavitary injection of IFN-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, P.; Mottolese, M.; Fraioli, R.; Benevolo, M.; Venturo, I.; Natali, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Antigenic modulation of major histocompatibility and tumour associated antigens was observed in neoplastic cells obtained from patients with pleural and abdominal effusions of breast and ovary carcinomas following a single intracavitary dose of 18 x 10(6) U recombinant IFN-alpha. This regimen resulted in antigenic modulation in seven out of 11 tested cases, suggesting a potential, although limited, responsiveness of at least a fraction of breast and ovary carcinoma cells to in situ biomodification with IFN-alpha. PMID:1503908

  2. Toward Understanding the Genetic Basis of Yak Ovary Reproduction: A Characterization and Comparative Analyses of Estrus Ovary Transcriptiome in Yak and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cai; Mipam, Tserang Donko; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background Yaks (Bos grunniens) are endemic species that can adapt well to thin air, cold temperatures, and high altitude. These species can survive in harsh plateau environments and are major source of animal production for local residents, being an important breed in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. However, compared with ordinary cattle that live in the plains, yaks generally have lower fertility. Investigating the basic physiological molecular features of yak ovary and identifying the biological events underlying the differences between the ovaries of yak and plain cattle is necessary to understand the specificity of yak reproduction. Therefore, RNA-seq technology was applied to analyze transcriptome data comparatively between the yak and plain cattle estrous ovaries. Results After deep sequencing, 3,653,032 clean reads with a total of 4,828,772,880 base pairs were obtained from yak ovary library. Alignment analysis showed that 16992 yak genes mapped to the yak genome, among which, 12,731 and 14,631 genes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Furthermore, comparison of yak and cattle ovary transcriptome data revealed that 1307 genes were significantly and differentially expressed between the two libraries, wherein 661 genes were upregulated and 646 genes were downregulated in yak ovary. Functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were involved in various Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. GO annotations indicated that the genes related to “cell adhesion,” “hormonal” biological processes, and “calcium ion binding,” “cation transmembrane transport” molecular events were significantly active. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the “complement and coagulation cascade” pathway was the most enriched in yak ovary transcriptome data, followed by the “cytochrome P450” related and

  3. Hyberbaric oxygen increases atresia in normal & steroid induced PCO rat ovaries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the morphology of estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovary (PCO) to find a new treatment modality for improvement of PCO. Methods The rats were divided into four groups. Group1, control; group 2, PCO group; group 3, PCO with HBOT group and group 4, normal ovary with HBOT. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg EV in adult cycling rats. Other rats with normal ovaries had oil injection as placebo. HBOT was applied to third and fourth groups for six weeks. Histopathologic evaluation of ovaries of all groups were performed & compared. Results Six weeks of HBOT was resulted in increase in follicular atresia, decrease in the number of primary, secondary, tertiary follicles and decrease in the number of fresh corpus luteum in normal rat ovary. HBOT on polycystic rat ovary, resulted in significant increase in atretic follicles which were already present. Conclusions HBOT of six weeks itself, changed ovarian morphology in favor of atresia both in PCO group and control group. This result of aggravated follicular atresia after HBOT on EV induced PCO may be due to long-term exposure in our protocol which with this state seems to be inapplicable in the improvement of PCO morphology. PMID:22309835

  4. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction.

    PubMed

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-10-12

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick.

  5. Afferent fibers involved in the bradykinin-induced cardiovascular reflexes from the ovary in rats.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako; Hotta, Harumi

    2015-12-01

    Bleeding or rupture of the ovary often accompanies ovarian cysts and causes severe pain and autonomic responses such as hypotension. It would be expected that ovarian afferents contribute to cardiovascular responses induced by ovarian failure. The present study examined cardiovascular responses to noxious chemical stimulation of the ovary by bradykinin, an algesic substance released by tissue damage, and explored the role of ovarian afferents in the ovarian-cardiovascular responses in anesthetized rats. Non-pregnant adult rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital and artificially ventilated. The carotid artery was cannulated to monitor blood pressure and heart rate. Noxious chemical stimulation was achieved by applying a small piece of cotton soaked with bradykinin to the surface of the ovary for 30s. Application of bradykinin (10(-4) M) to the ovary decreased heart rate and blood pressure. These cardiovascular responses were not significantly influenced by severance of the vagal nerves or the superior ovarian nerve, but were abolished by severance of the ovarian nerve plexus (ONP). Application of bradykinin (10(-4) M) to the ovary evoked afferent activity of the ONP both in vivo and in vitro preparations. These results indicate that the decreases in heart rate and blood pressure following chemical noxious stimulation of the ovary with bradykinin are reflex responses, whose afferent nerve pathway is mainly through afferent fibers in the ONP.

  6. Infertility in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians: the role of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Harrath, Abdel Halim; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Mansour, Lamjed; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Arfah, Maha; Al Anazi, Mohamed S; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Nyengaard, Jens R; Alwasel, Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Ex-fissiparous planarians produce infertile cocoons or, in very rare cases, cocoons with very low fertility. Here, we describe the features of programmed cell death (PCD) occurring in the hyperplasic ovary of the ex-fissiparous freshwater planarian Dugesia arabica that may explain this infertility. Based on TEM results, we demonstrate a novel extensive co-clustering of cytoplasmic organelles, such as lysosomes and microtubules, and their fusion with autophagosomes during the early stage of oocyte cell death occurring through an autophagic pattern. During a later stage of cell death, the generation of apoptotic vesicles in the cytoplasm can be observed. The immunohistochemical labeling supports the ultrastructural results because it has been shown that the proapoptotic protein bax was more highly expressed in the hyperplasic ovary than in the normal one, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein bcl2 was slightly more highly expressed in the normal ovary compared to the hyperplasic one. TUNEL analysis of the hyperplasic ovary confirmed that the nuclei of the majority of differentiating oocytes were TUNEL-positive, whereas the nuclei of oogonia and young oocytes were TUNEL-negative; in the normal ovary, oocytes are TUNEL-negative. Considering all of these data, we suggest that the cell death mechanism of differentiating oocytes in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians is one of the most important factors that cause ex-fissiparous planarian infertility. We propose that autophagy precedes apoptosis during oogenesis, whereas apoptotic features can be observed later.

  7. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction

    PubMed Central

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick. PMID:26456007

  8. Modeling Grain Protein Formation in Relation to N Uptake and Remobilzation in Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain protein concentration is an important quality index, and formation of grain protein largely depends on pre-anthesis nitrogen assimilation and post-anthesis nitrogen remobilization. In this study, we developed a simplified process model for simulating plant nitrogen uptake and remobilization a...

  9. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis, Elias; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have. PMID:27570464

  10. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  11. Impact of graphene oxide on viability of Chinese hamster ovary and mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

    PubMed

    Batiuskaite, Danute; Grinceviciute, Nora; Snitka, Valentinas

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the cyto- and bio-compatibility is a critical step in the development of graphene oxide (GO) as a new promising material for in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, we report the impact of GO, with and without the addition of bovine serum albumin, on healthy (Chinese hamster ovary) and a cancer (mouse hepatoma MH-22A) cells viability and the estimation of the intracellular distribution of GO inside the cells in vitro. The viability tests were performed using a colony formation assay. The intracellular distribution of GO was estimated using Raman spectroscopy and imaging. The viability of both cell lines decreased with increasing concentration of graphene oxide (12.5-50.0 μg/ml): in the case of Chinese hamster ovary cells viability decreased from 44% to 11%, in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells--from 22% to 3%. These cell lines significantly differed in their response to GO and GO-BSA formulations. The results of viability tests correlate with results of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy and imaging findings. The GO influence on cell morphology changes, cell structure, cells colony growth dynamics and GO accumulation inside the cells was higher in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

  12. The distribution of APGWamide and RFamides in the central nervous system and ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Palasoon, Ronnarong; Panasophonkul, Sasiporn; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Hanna, Peter; Sobhon, Prasert; Chavadej, Jittipan

    2011-06-01

    Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity (RF-ir) was detected in neurons of all neuronal clusters of the eyestalk and CNS, except clusters 1 and 5 of the eyestalk, and dorsal clusters of the subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia. The RF-ir was also found in all neuropils of the CNS and SG, except the lamina ganglionaris. These immunohistochemical locations of the APGWamide-like and RF-like peptides in the eyestalk indicate that these neuropeptides could modulate the release of the neurohormones in the sinus gland. The presence of RFamide-like peptides in the thoracic and abdominal ganglia suggests that it may act as a neurotransmitter which controls muscular contractions. In the ovary, RF-ir was found predominantly in late previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes, and to a lesser degree in late vitellogenic oocytes. These RFs may be involved with oocyte development, but may also act with other neurohormones and/or neurotransmitters within the oocyte in an autocrine or paracrine manner.

  13. Serum sirtuin 1 levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiyak Caglayan, Emel; Engin-Ustun, Yaprak; Gocmen, Ayse Yesim; Polat, Muhammet Fevzi; Aktulay, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the study is to determine the human nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 level in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This cross-sectional study included 24 patients aged 20-38 years, who were diagnosed to have PCOS (patient group). The control group included 16 age- and body mass index-matched healthy female volunteers. The patients and controls were compared in terms of pre-prandial blood glucose, the homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP) and sirtuin 1 levels. The mean sirtuin 1 level in the patient group (6.67 ± 2.29 ng mL(-1)) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.69 ± 1.85 ng mL(-1)) (P = 0.007). Correlation analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the groups in fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR index or cholesterol, triglyceride, HD, LDL and CRP levels. The sirtuin 1 level, which is associated with inflammation, the immune system and insulin metabolism, was higher in the PCOS patients than in the healthy controls.

  14. The management of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Channa N; Franks, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The syndrome is typified by its heterogeneous presentation, which includes hirsutism (a function of hypersecretion of ovarian androgens), menstrual irregularity and infertility (that is due to infrequent or absent ovulation). Furthermore, PCOS predisposes patients to metabolic dysfunction and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aetiology of the syndrome has a major genetic component. Obesity exacerbates the insulin resistance that is a feature of PCOS in many women and amplifies the clinical and biochemical abnormalities. In clinical practice, the choice of investigations to be done depends mainly on the presenting symptoms. The approach to management is likewise dependent on the presenting complaint. Symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) require cosmetic measures, suppression of ovarian androgen function and anti-androgen therapy, alone or in combination. Ovulation rate is improved by diet and lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals but induction of ovulation by, in the first instance, anti-estrogens is usually required. Monitoring of glucose is important in overweight women and/or those with a family history of T2DM. Metformin is indicated for women with impaired glucose tolerance but whether this drug is otherwise useful in women with PCOS remains debatable.

  15. Role of Versican and ADAMTS-1 in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Özler, Sibel; Öztaş, Efser; Tokmak, Aytekin; Ergin, Merve; Kuru Pekcan, Meryem; Gümüş Güler, Başak; Yakut, Halil İbrahim; Yılmaz, Nafiye

    2017-01-01

    Objective: ADAMTS-1 is a matrix metalloproteinase which cleaves versican in the cumulus oocyte complex under the effect of luteinizing hormone surge in the periovulatory period. Altered levels may have a role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to determine the serum versican and ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-1) levels in PCOS patients and compare the results with healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with PCOS and forty healthy controls aged between 15 and 22 years were included in the study. They were sampled according to their basal hormone, serum versican, and ADAMTS-1 levels. Serum versican and ADAMTS-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the independent risk factors of PCOS. Results: Serum versican levels were significantly decreased in the PCOS group when compared with the controls. The best versican cut-off value for PCOS was calculated to be 33.65 with 76.74% sensitivity and 52.94% specificity. Serum versican levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, a Ferriman-Gallwey score higher than 8, and oligomenorrhea were the strongest predictors of PCOS. Serum versican levels were significantly decreased in PCOS patients. Besides, serum ADAMTS-1 and versican levels were significantly and positively correlated with each other. Conclusion: Serum versican levels were significantly decreased in patients with PCOS. This suggests a possible role of versican in ovulatory dysfunction and in the pathogenesis of PCOS. PMID:27908842

  16. Autonomic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Zainab Hasan; Hamdan, Farqad Bader; Al-Salihi, Anam Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central obesity and hyperinsulinaemia of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with chronic sympathetic over activity. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic functions and to indicate the superiority, if any, for those functions in the diagnosis of sympathetic over activity in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four PCOS patients and 40 women served as the control group were studied. The two groups were subdivided according to the body mass index (BMI) into two obese and non-obese groups. Waist:hip ratio (WHR), plasma epinephrine level was estimated, sympathetic skin response (SSR); postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, heart rate variability (HRV), and valsalva ratio were measured in both groups. Results: Compared to the control group, obese PCOS patients demonstrated higher BMI and WHR, reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, altered HRV, higher plasma epinephrine level, and rapid pulse rate. Moreover, non-obese patients show reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, higher plasma epinephrine level, and higher pulse rate. BMI and WHR of the patients were positively correlated with plasma epinephrine level; while the HRV was negatively correlated WHR. Conclusion: Women with PCOS exhibits altered autonomic function and sympathoexcitation is more pronounced in obese than non-obese patients; therefor the SSR could be useful auxiliary electrophysiological test to predict autonomic dysfunction in those patients. Receiver operating characteristics curve demonstrate the pulse rate in standing position as the autonomic function test that is superior to others in predicting sympathetic over activity in those patients. PMID:25653673

  17. Primary osteosarcoma of the ovary. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sakata, H; Hirahara, T; Ryu, A; Sawada, T; Yamamoto, M; Sakurai, I

    1991-04-01

    A case of primary osteosarcoma arising in the left ovary of a 75-year-old female is described. The chief complaint was a sensation of lower abdominal mass. An abdominal plain film showed a large calcified mass in pelvic region, and a preoperative diagnosis of "ovarian fibroma" was made. The excised tumor was divided into 4 pieces, resembling an oyster shell. Microscopically, the tumor fragments were composed of compact bone or woven bone with surrounding atypical osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The tumor was partly composed of numerous spindle cells with malignant osteoid or atypical chondroid formation, and diagnosed as "osteosarcoma". The cystic part of the lesion was lined with a single layer of columnar cells, but the tumor contained no other germ elements or stem cells, or malignant epithelium. Therefore, it is doubtful that this tumor originated from teratoma or malignant mixed mesodermal tumor, and we conclude that this ovarian osteosarcoma arose through a neoplastic change in ovarian stromal cells. The patient died 4 months after surgery due to intra-abdominal and intrathoracic dissemination of the tumor.

  18. Sebaceous carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-08-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports.

  19. Hyperprolactinemia and Hirsutism in Patients Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tirgar-Tabari, Soudabeh; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Manafi-Afkham, Sara; Montazeri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hirsutism is one of the most important diseases that lead women to refer to dermatology clinic. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the causes of hirsutism. The aim of this study was to determine prolactin (PRL) levels in hirsute women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, hirsute patients were evaluated. For all of the patients, 2 or 3 days after mense starting, hormone level tests were performed, and 200 patients that had not polycystic ovary syndrome enrolled to the study. A questionnaire of history and physical examination were performed. Data have been analyzed with SPSS version 21. Results: Hyperprolactinemia were seen in 25 patients (12.5%). There was no significant relation between marital statuses, galactorrhoea, positive family history, and infertility with hyperprolactinemia. But significant relation was seen between irregular mense and hyperprolactinemia. Conclusion: Although hyperprolactinemia is the rare cause of hirsutism, the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was high in our study. Thus, PRL level in hirsute patients should be evaluate. PMID:27625565

  20. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Leandro Martín; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder affecting women in reproductive age. Although the etiology of PCOS remains unclear, it is believed to result from genetic, environmental and behavioral interactions. Women with PCOS have higher lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease (CVR) than healthy women at the same age and tend to display insulin resistance (IR). IR has traditionally been defined as a decreased ability of insulin to mediate the metabolic actions on glucose uptake, glucose production, and/or lipolysis. This results in a requirement for increased amounts of insulin to achieve a given metabolic action. Metabolic syndrome (MS) includes hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, increased CVR and hyperleptinemia and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, IR, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of MS in women is around 50 %. In addition, it has been recently suggested that women with MS show increased circulating androgens. The present review discusses the main alterations and features of PCOS and MS and the most important treatments.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  2. A Review on Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohsen; Asadi, Nasrin; Pouralborz, Yasna; Ghodrat, Mahshid; Habibi, Shaghayegh

    2016-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age, with a variety of complications and consequences mostly due to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS patients with IR are at risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus (DM) along with its complications such as cardiovascular events. There are several methods for screening IR in patients with PCOS to predict DM and other complications. Fasting plasma glucose test, oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels are some available screening tools for IR. The American Diabetes Association recommended HbA1c to screen for DM because HbA1c is not affected by day-to-day plasma glucose levels and reflects the plasma glucose status during 2-3 months before measurement. Some studies have evaluated the role of HbA1c as a screening method to predict DM in PCOS patients, however, there are still controversies in this matter. Also some studies reported that HbA1c has a correlation with complications of PCOS such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. We found that HbA1c could be a suitable screening test for IR in PCOS patients but more studies are recommended, omitting confounding factors that could affect IR in patients with PCOS, such as antihyperglycemic agents like metformin, or lifestyle modification, which can be effective in reducing IR in patients with PCOS.

  3. Diagnostic features of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents (review).

    PubMed

    Beltadze, K; Barbakadze, L

    2015-01-01

    The problem of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is of a special importance due to its connection with not only medical but with psychosocial factors. PCOS is the most common endocrine cause of anovulatory infertility. It is a major factor for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical symptoms of PCOS such as acne, hirsutism, obesity, alopecia represent psychological problem, especially for the adolescents. Many women who have PCOS have the onset of symptoms during adolescence. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS are important for preventing of the above mentioned long-term consequences associated with this condition. Adolescent patients often have diagnostic problems because the features of normal puberty are similar with symptoms of PCOS. This article reviews the diagnostic and differential diagnostic characteristics of PCOS in adolescents. In conclusion, consensus statement in adolescent patients is still awaiting. Our data suggest that it may be prudent to define adolescent PCOS according to the Carmina modified Rotterdam criteria. The increase rate of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS emphasize the importance of regular screening due to the high cardiometabolic disorders risk.

  4. Developmental profiles of PERIOD and DOUBLETIME in Drosophila melanogaster ovary.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Joanna; Larson, Maureen K; Bebas, Piotr; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2009-05-01

    The clock protein PERIOD (PER) displays circadian cycles of accumulation, phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and degradation in Drosophila melanogaster clock cells. One exception to this pattern is in follicular cells enclosing previtellogenic ovarian egg chambers. In these cells, PER remains high and cytoplasmic at all times of day. Genetic evidence suggest that PER and its clock partner TIMELESS (TIM) interact in these cells, yet, they do not translocate to the nucleus. Here, we investigated the levels and subcellular localization of PER in older vitellogenic follicles. Cytoplasmic PER levels decreased in the follicular cells at the onset of vitellogenesis (stage 9). Interestingly, PER was observed in the nuclei of some follicular cells at this stage. PER signal disappeared in more advanced (stage 10) vitellogenic follicles. Since the phosphorylation state of PER is critical for the progression of circadian cycle, we investigated the status of PER phosphorylation in the ovary and the expression patterns of DOUBLETIME (DBT), a kinase known to affect PER in the clock cells. DBT was absent in previtellogenic follicular cells, but present in the cytoplasm of some stage 9 follicular cells. DBT was not distributed uniformly but was present in patches of adjacent cells, in a pattern resembling PER distribution at the same stage. Our data suggest that the absence of dbt expression in the follicular cells of previtellogenic egg chambers may be related to stable and cytoplasmic expression of PER in these cells. Onset of dbt expression in vitellogenic follicles coincides with nuclear localization of PER protein.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperprolactinaemia: a study of mild hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Hung-wen; Chen, Ching-min; Chou, Szu-yuan; Liang, So-jung; Hsu, Chun-sen; Hsu, Ming-i

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperprolactinaemia are both common causes of secondary amenorrhoea in reproductive women. The relationship between PCOS and hyperprolactinaemia has been reported with controversial results. To evaluate the clinical and laboratory features of women with mild hyperprolactinaemia and PCOS, we studied 474 Taiwan Chinese women: 101 had mild hyperprolactinaemia, 266 had PCOS and 107 were the control group. In this study, we found that 64% of the women with mild hyperprolactinaemia fulfilled the PCOS diagnostic criteria, regardless of their prolactin levels. Obese women with PCOS had significantly lower luteinising hormone (LH) and LH-to-FSH ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. Obese hyperprolactinaemic women had significantly lower follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but higher LH-to-FSH ratios than the non-obese hyperprolactinaemic women. For women with PCOS, the BMIs were significantly negative with LH (γ = -0.253, p < 0.001), but not with FSH (γ = -0.061, p = 0.319). For the hyperprolactinaemic women, the BMIs were significantly negative with FSH (γ = -0.353, p < 0.001), but not with LH (γ = -0.021, p = 0.837). Although PCOS-related syndrome was very prevalent in women with hyperprolactinaemia, the patterns of disturbance in gonadotropin secretion were different between the PCOS and the hyperprolactinaemia patients.

  6. Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjie; Qi, Yane; Yang, Xuefei; Zhao, Lihui; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Tang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is difficult to treat PCOS because of its complex etiology and pathogenesis. Here, we characterized the roles of gut microbiota on the pathogenesis and treatments in letrozole (a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor) induced PCOS rat model. Changes in estrous cycles, hormonal levels, ovarian morphology and gut microbiota by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR were determined. The results showed that PCOS rats displayed abnormal estrous cycles with increasing androgen biosynthesis and exhibited multiple large cysts with diminished granulosa layers in ovarian tissues. Meanwhile, the composition of gut microbiota in letrozole-treated rats was different from that in the controls. Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus and Clostridium were lower while Prevotella was higher in PCOS rats when compared with control rats. After treating PCOS rats with Lactobacillus and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy rats, it was found that the estrous cycles were improved in all 8 rats in FMT group, and in 6 of the 8 rats in Lactobacillus transplantation group with decreasing androgen biosynthesis. Their ovarian morphologies normalized. The composition of gut microbiota restored in both FMT and Lactobacillus treated groups with increasing of Lactobacillus and Clostridium, and decreasing of Prevotella. These results indicated that dysbiosis of gut microbiota was associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. Microbiota interventions through FMT and Lactobacillus transplantation were beneficial for the treatments of PCOS rats. PMID:27093642

  7. Interventions for the metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Cardiometabolic risk should be assessed at regular intervals starting from diagnosis. A comprehensive clinical evaluation includes determination of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and measurement of serum lipid and glucose levels in all women with PCOS. A standard 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test is required for women with a body mass index over 25kg/m(2) and with other risk factors for glucose intolerance. No long-term data are available for the risk or benefit of any medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS. For the initial management of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS, available guidelines recommend lifestyle intervention which improves androgen excess and insulin resistance without significant effect on glucose intolerance or dyslipidemia. Pharmacological interventions include insulin sensitizing agents and statins. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed insulin sensitizer in PCOS. Available randomized controlled trials suggest that metformin improves insulin resistance without any effect on body mass index, fasting glucose or lipid levels. Short term use of statins alone or in combination with metformin decreases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides in PCOS patients with dyslipidemia. Low dose oral contraception in PCOS appears not to be associated with clinically significant metabolic dysfunction.

  8. Complications and challenges associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; Falbo, Angela; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common endocrine dysfunction in fertile women and it is considered a heterogeneous and multifaceted disorder, with multiple reproductive and metabolic phenotypes which differently affect the early- and long-term syndrome’s risks. Women with PCOS present an adverse reproductive profile, including a high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Patients with PCOS present not only a higher prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, but also of nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors, including mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, at the moment, clinical data on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women with PCOS are controversial. Finally, women with PCOS show an increased risk of endometrial cancer compared to non-PCOS healthy women, particularly during premenopausal period. Currently, we are unable to clarify if the increased PCOS early- and long-term risks are totally due to PCOS per se or mostly due to obesity, in particular visceral obesity, that characterized the majority of PCOS patients. In any case, the main endocrine and gynecological scientific societies agree to consider women with PCOS at increased risk of obstetric, cardiometabolic, oncology, and psychological complications throughout life, and it is recommended that these women be accurately assessed with periodic follow-up. PMID:26261426

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome: do endocrine disrupting chemicals play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Sobolewski, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by multiple endocrine disturbances and its underlying causes, although uncertain, are likely to be both genetic and environmental. Recently, there has been interest in whether endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may contribute to the disorder. In animal models, exposure to BPA during the perinatal period, dramatically disrupts ovarian and reproductive function in females, often at doses similar to typical levels of human exposure. BPA also appears to have obesogenic properties, disrupting normal metabolic activity and making the body prone to overweight. In humans, cross-sectional data suggests that BPA concentrations are higher in women with PCOS than in reproductively healthy women, but the direction of causality has not been established. As this research is in its infancy, additional work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which EDCs may contribute to PCOS as well as the critical periods of exposure, which may even be transgenerational. Future research should also focus on translating the promising work in animal models into longitudinal human studies and determining whether additional EDCs, beyond BPA, may be important to consider. PMID:24715511

  10. Pharmacotherapy of polycystic ovary syndrome--an update.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a persisting challenge to clinical and basic research scientists as none of the presently available medications have been fully able to combat these consequences. The aim of the present review is to summarize the different lines of treatment available for the different symptomologies that women with PCOS presents. In this comprehensive review, search was made for various treatment options available for PCOS by using Cochrane library, Pubmed, Medline, in addition to the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. The search results revealed that oral contraceptives containing oestrogen and progesterone regularize the menstruation, antiandrogens like spironolactone and drosperinone have proven to be effective in hirsutism and acne, clomiphene is the gold standard for ovulation induction, but multiple pregnancies and clomiphene failure add to its limitation. Hence, aromatase inhibitors like letrozole, low-dose gondotropins, and ovarian drilling procedure have shown to be beneficial effect in clomiphene-resistant cases. Insulin sensitizers such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, and d-chiro-inositol increase insulin sensitivity and improve ovulation rate. Recently, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, acarbose, and statins have shown positive results in different symptomologies of PCOS. The results show that PCOS treatment constitutes varied line of treatment depending upon the clinical features with which a woman is presenting. Still, unfortunately, none of the treatments are fully able to combat the PCOS.

  11. Mood and sexual function in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Onno E; Hahn, Susanne; Tan, Susanne; Benson, Sven; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2008-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) fail to conform with societal norms for outer appearance. Many PCOS patients thus feel stigmatized in the sense of a loss of "feminine identity." In addition to somatic impairment, mood disturbances such as depression and limitations in emotional well-being, quality of life, and life satisfaction, the diagnosis of PCOS also has a negative impact on sexual self-worth and sexual satisfaction. Both obesity and hirsutism are major determinants of the physical component of quality of life in affected women. However, its psychological aspect appears to be inherent and specific for PCOS. Confirmation of the diagnosis and provision of detailed information to affected women, together with the availability of interdisciplinary treatment aimed at improving PCOS-related symptoms, such as hirsutism, obesity, menstrual irregularity, and infertility, will also reduce psychological distress and improve sexual self-worth. New treatment options, including insulin sensitizers, psychological counseling, and participation in a PCOS support group, are likely to further improve life satisfaction and coping of affected women.

  12. Combined oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome - indications and cautions.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2013-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been used in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for the treatment of menstrual disorders, acne and hirsutism. Despite years of their use and broad clinical experience, there are still ongoing doubts concerning their implications for the cardiovascular system and carbohydrate metabolism both in the general population and women with PCOS. In the general population, the risk of venous thromboembolism is reported to be increased. However, arterial thrombotic events seem to require concomitant risk factors to appear during administration of OCPs. In terms of carbohydrate metabolism, available data do not consistently suggest an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus, in spite of some subtle fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels. In subgroup analyses of epidemiological studies in the general population, there is no finding indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality in premenopausal women with PCOS. There is no significant alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism after use of OCP in PCOS either. The absence of further cardiometabolic risk with OCP use in PCOS might suggest some unproven preventive alterations in this patient population.

  13. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%–12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic. PMID:26770659

  14. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%-12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic.

  15. Constitutively active transforming growth factor β receptor 1 in the mouse ovary promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Vincent, David F.; Davis, Anna Jane; Sansom, Owen J.; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-established tumor suppressive role of TGFβ proteins, depletion of key TGFβ signaling components in the mouse ovary does not induce a growth advantage. To define the role of TGFβ signaling in ovarian tumorigenesis, we created a mouse model expressing a constitutively active TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in ovarian somatic cells using conditional gain-of-function approach. Remarkably, these mice developed ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors with complete penetrance, leading to reproductive failure and mortality. The tumors expressed multiple granulosa cell markers and caused elevated serum inhibin and estradiol levels, reminiscent of granulosa cell tumors. Consistent with the tumorigenic effect, overactivation of TGFBR1 altered tumor microenvironment by promoting angiogenesis and enhanced ovarian cell proliferation, accompanied by impaired cell differentiation and dysregulated expression of critical genes in ovarian function. By further exploiting complementary genetic models, we substantiated our finding that constitutively active TGFBR1 is a potent oncogenic switch in mouse granulosa cells. In summary, overactivation of TGFBR1 drives gonadal tumor development. The TGFBR1 constitutively active mouse model phenocopies a number of morphological, hormonal, and molecular features of human granulosa cell tumors and are potentially valuable for preclinical testing of targeted therapies to treat granulosa cell tumors, a class of poorly defined ovarian malignancies. PMID:27344183

  16. A Subpathway-Based Method of Drug Reposition for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Qiao; Mai, Zi-Xin; Zeng, Yan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The need for development of new therapeutic agents for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is urgent due to general lack of efficient and specialized drugs currently available. We aimed to explore the metabolic mechanism of PCOS and inferred drug reposition for PCOS by a subpathway-based method. Using the GSE34526 microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PCOS and normal samples. Then, we identified 13 significantly enriched metabolic subpathways that may be involved in the development of PCOS. Finally, by an integrated analysis of PCOS-involved subpathways and drug-affected subpathways, we identified 54 novel small molecular drugs capable to target the PCOS-involved subpathways. We also mapped the DEGs of PCOS and a potential novel drug (alprostadil) into purine metabolism pathway to illustrate the potentially active mechanism of alprostadil on PCOS. Candidate agents identified by our approach may provide insights into a novel therapy approach for PCOS. PMID:25015903

  17. The effect of low-dose experimental zearalenone intoxication on the immunoexpression of estrogen receptors in the ovaries of pre-pubertal bitches.

    PubMed

    Gajecka, M

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin that often contaminates plant material used in the production of feeds for companion animals. Small daily doses of ingested zearalenone--a competitive substrate modulating the activity of enzymes participating in estrogen biosynthesis at the pre-receptor level--can induce subclinical symptoms of hyperestrogenism in bitches. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low zearalenone doses on the presence of estrogen receptors in the ovaries of pre-pubertal Beagle bitches. The bitches were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: experimental group I--50 microg zearalenone/kg body weight administered once daily per os; experimental group II--75 microg zearalenone/kg body weight administered once daily per os; control group--placebo containing no ZEN administered per os. The animals were ovariorectomized at the end of the experiment, at 112 days of age. Estrogen receptors were detected in ovarian specimens by immunohistochemical methods. The results revealed an absence of estrogen receptors alpha in all groups. In both experimental groups a decrease in the positive response of estrogen receptors beta in specified structures of ovaries was observed. Very low alpha-zearalenol levels probably attested to the slowing down (hypostimulation) of the biotransformation process. Overall, zearalenone intoxication led to hyperestrogenism during a specific developmental stage of pre-pubertal bitches. As regards hormesis, the threshold dose of zearalenone (adaptive capability) was exceeded in the ovaries of experimental group II animals. The results obtained in both experimental groups suggest that long-term exposure to low-dose zearalenone intoxication decreased the degree of estrogen receptors beta staining in particular structures of ovaries in the experimental bitches, which initiated epigenetic modification mechanisms that inhibited ovarian development.

  18. Melatonin concentrations in relation to oxidative status and oocyte dynamics in the ovary during different reproductive phases of an annual cycle in carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Moniruzzaman, Mahammed; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The present study on carp Catla catla is the first attempt to search for a relationship between the concentrations of melatonin, oxidative status, and oocyte dynamics in the ovary of any fish. We measured the levels of melatonin, different antioxidative agents, and the marker of intracellular stress along with the profiles of different developmental stages of oocyte in the ovary of adult carp during four distinct phases in an annual reproductive cycle. Ovarian melatonin titers displayed significant seasonal variations with a peak during spawning and nadir during post-spawning, and thereby underlined its proximity to the course of ovarian development. A significant positive correlation was found between the ovarian levels of melatonin and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione transferase (GST), although each of them showed a negative correlation with the level of malondialdehyde (MDA)-a faithful indicator of intracellular stress. However, ovarian melatonin titers did not exhibit any correlation with the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Collectively, our findings suggest that melatonin measured in carp ovary may be associated with an enhanced activity/level of selective antioxidative agents for reduction in oxidative stress to augment ovarian functions during the spawning.

  19. Food chain model based on field data to predict westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) ovary selenium concentrations from water selenium concentrations in the Elk Valley, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Orr, P L; Wiramanaden, C I E; Paine, M D; Franklin, W; Fraser, C

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies conducted in the Elk River watershed showed that selenium concentrations are higher in aquatic biota in lentic compared to lotic habitats of the system having similar water selenium concentrations. Studies have also shown that water selenium concentrations have increased over time (~10% per year) and recent annual average concentrations have ranged up to 0.044 mg/L in areas downstream from mine discharges. For the present study, trophic transfer of selenium was characterized in lotic versus lentic habitats using concentrations measured in field-collected samples and assuming a three-step food chain of water to the base of the food web (biofilm), to benthic invertebrates, and then to westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) ovaries. Food chain models were developed for each habitat type (lotic and lentic) by combining linear regression equations for the three transfer relationships, allowing for prediction of fish ovary concentrations from water concentrations. Greater accumulation of selenium in lentic areas was mostly attributable to greater uptake at the base of the food chain compared to lotic areas. Enrichment/trophic transfer factors for selenium at all levels of the lotic and lentic food chains decreased and then became near constant as exposure concentrations increased. The lotic model predicted little increase in WCT ovary selenium concentrations over an eightfold increase in water concentrations (~0.005-0.040 mg/L), accounting for the lack of observed increase in within-area fish tissue concentrations over time despite increasing trends in water concentrations.

  20. Transcriptional networks associated with 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovary.

    PubMed

    Ornostay, Anna; Marr, Joshua; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Androgens play a significant role in regulating oogenesis in teleost fishes. The androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a potent non-aromatizable androgen involved in sexual differentiation in mammals; however, its actions are not well understood in teleost fish. To better characterize the physiological role of DHT in the fathead minnow (FHM) ovary on a temporal scale, in vitro assays for 17β-estradiol (E2) production were conducted in parallel with microarray analysis. Ovarian explants were incubated at different concentrations of DHT (10(-6), 10(-7), and 10(-8)M DHT) in three separate experiments conducted at 6, 9, and 12h. DHT treatment resulted in a rapid and consistent increase in E2 production from the ovary at all three time points. Therefore, DHT may act to shift the balance of metabolites in the steroidogenic pathway within the ovary. Major biological themes affected by DHT in the ovary in one or more of the time points included those related to blood (e.g. vasodilation, blood vessel contraction, clotting), lipids (e.g. lipid storage, cholesterol metabolism, lipid degradation) and reproduction (e.g. hormone and steroid metabolism). Gene networks related to immune responses and calcium signaling were also affected by DHT, suggesting that this androgen may play a role in regulating these processes in the ovary. This study detected no change in mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes (cyp19a1, star, 11βhsd, 17βhsd, srd5a isoforms), suggesting that the observed increase in E2 production is likely more dependent on the pre-existing gene or protein complement in the ovary rather than the de novo expression of transcripts. This study increases knowledge regarding the roles of DHT and androgens in general in the teleost ovary and identifies molecular signaling pathways that may be associated with increased E2 production.

  1. Assessment of symptoms of urinary incontinence in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Montezuma, Thais; Antônio, Flávia Ignácio; de Sá Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; de Sá, Marcos Felipe Silva; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pelvic floor muscles are sensitive to androgens, and due to hyperandrogenism, women with polycystic ovary syndrome can have increased mass in these muscles compared to controls. The aim of this study is to compare reports of urine leakage and quality of life between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: One hundred thirteen 18- to 40-year-old nulliparous women with polycystic ovary syndrome or without the disease (controls) were recruited at the University Hospital of School Medicine of São Paulo University at Ribeirão Preto City, Brazil. The subjects were not taking any hormonal medication, had not undergone previous pelvic surgery and did not exercise their pelvic floor muscles. The women were divided into the following four groups: I- polycystic ovary syndrome with normal body mass index (n = 18), II- polycystic ovary syndrome with body mass index ≥25 (n = 32), III- controls with normal body mass index (n = 29), and IV- controls with Body Mass Index ≥25 (n = 34). Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire, and the subjects with urinary complaints also completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form to evaluate the severity of their urinary incontinence. RESULTS: The replies to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form revealed a significant difference in urinary function between groups, with 24% of the subjects in group IV reporting urinary incontinence. The mean scores for the SF-36 questionnaire revealed that group II had the lowest quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The control obese group (IV) reported a higher prevalence of urinary incontinence. There was no difference in the reported frequency of urine loss between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with normal body mass index or between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with body mass index ≥25. PMID:22086521

  2. The Characterization of Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat Model Suitable for Exercise Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention. PMID:24905232

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome and its impact on women’s quality of life: More than just an endocrine disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Christine; Mousa, Shaymaa S; Mousa, Shaker A

    2009-01-01

    In the past, polycystic ovary syndrome has been looked at primarily as an endocrine disorder. Studies now show that polycystic ovary syndrome is a metabolic, hormonal, and psychosocial disorder that impacts a patient’s quality of life. It is extremely important to holistically treat these patients early on to help them deal with the emotional stress that is often overlooked with polycystic ovary syndrome. Early diagnosis and long term management can help control polycystic ovary syndrome so that women can still live a healthy active life and avoid long-term complications such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21701605

  4. Gonadal development in fish.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  5. Endocrine and metabolic characteristics in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte

    2016-04-01

    Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas. The manifestations of PCOS are diverse, and up to 50% patients are normal weight. In most cases, however, the severity of symptoms can be related to abdominal obesity. Increased inflammation in PCOS can be measured as decreased adiponectin levels and increased levels of adipokines, chemokines, and interleukins. In the present thesis the use of these inflammatory markers is reviewed, but more data including hard end points are needed to determine which of these markers that should be introduced to the daily clinic. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulates ovarian and adrenal androgen production, whereas SHBG levels are decreased. Increased testosterone levels may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, therefore describing PCOS as a vicious cycle. Abdominal obesity and increased activation of the inflammatory system is seen in both normal weight and obese PCOS patients leading to an increased risk of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and possibly cardiovascular disease. Patients diagnosed with PCOS therefore should be screened for elements in the metabolic syndrome including weight, waist, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipid status. Our data supported that prolactin and HbA1c levels could be markers of cardiovascular risk and should be confirmed by prospective studies. PCOS is a life-long condition and treatment modalities involve lifestyle modification, insulin sensitizers such as metformin, or

  6. Intergenerational Associations of Chronic Disease and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J.; Marino, Jennifer L.; Willson, Kristyn J.; March, Wendy A.; Moore, Vivienne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorder of heterogeneous clinical presentation, high disease burden, and unknown aetiology. The disease and associated conditions cluster in families, suggesting that PCOS may be the reproductive consequence of underlying chronic disease susceptibility. Objective To determine whether parents of young women with PCOS were more likely to have a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in later adult life. Design, Setting and Participants Structured interviews with 715 members of a cohort constructed by tracing female infants born at a single general hospital in Adelaide between 1973 and 1975. Participants were asked whether they had a pre-existing medical diagnosis of PCOS, and whether each parent had ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, stroke, or heart disease. Maternal high blood pressure during pregnancy was taken from the medical record of the pregnancy with the study participant. Results and Conclusions Mothers of women with PCOS were more likely than mothers of other women to have any cardiovascular disease (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.29, 2.47), and nearly twice as likely to have high blood pressure (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.38, 2.76). Fathers of women with PCOS were more than twice as likely to have heart disease (RR 2.36, 95% CI 1.44, 3.88) and over four times as likely to have had a stroke (RR 4.37, 95% CI 1.97, 9.70). Occurrence of cardiovascular disease in both mother and father are associated with the risk of PCOS in daughters. Further detailed study is required to elucidate the precise pathways that may be causally related to the observations. PMID:21991389

  7. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karaca Adıyeke, Seda; Karaca, Ibrahim; Yıldırım, Suna; Adıyeke, Mehmet; Uyar, İbrahim; Türe, Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1) and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2). Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone) levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001). The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560). Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively). Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552), weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351) and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393). Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342) and central corneal thickness (r=0.303), and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562) and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502). Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels. PMID:28182154

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome and the peripheral blood white cell count.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, A C; Kelly, R E; Hogan, J L; O'Connor, N; Farah, N; Turner, M J

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examined if the white cell count (WCC) is increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and if so, is it due to PCOS or to the associated obesity? Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 113 women studied, 36 had PCOS and 77 did not. The mean WCC was higher in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS group (8.9 × 10(9)/l vs 7.4 × 10(9)/l p = 0.002). This increase was due to a higher neutrophil count (5.6 × 10(9)/l vs 4.3 × 10(9)/l; p = 0.003). There was a leucocytosis (WCC >11 × 10(9)/l) present in 19% of the PCOS group compared with 1% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). The neutrophil count was abnormally high (>7.7 × 10(9)/l) in 14% of the PCOS group compared with 4% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). On regression analysis, however, the only independent variable which explained both the increased WCC and the increased neutrophil count was PCOS. We found that PCOS is associated with an increased WCC due to increased neutrophils, which supports the evidence that PCOS is associated with low-grade inflammation. The increase appears to be due to the underlying PCOS, and not to the increased adiposity associated with PCOS.

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in University Students: Occurrence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Attlee, Amita; Nusralla, Asma; Eqbal, Rashida; Said, Hanaa; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with body composition among students in University of Sharjah (UOS). Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included a total sample size of 50 female students registering in undergraduate programs at the University of Sharjah using convenience sampling technique. A pretested interview schedule was administered to elicit information pertaining to personal background and medical history related to PCOS. A diag- nostic ultrasound scan was performed for determining PCOS along with a body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technology. Results Twenty percent (10 out of 50 participants) were diagnosed with PCOS, of whom only 4 individuals were previously diagnosed with PCOS and aware of their conditions, while the reports showed 16% with oligomenorrhea, 4% with polymenorrhea, and none with amen- orrhea. A positive family history was indicated as reported by 22% of the total participants. Significant difference between the body weights of participants having PCOS (66.7 kg) and those without it (58.8 kg) were noted (p=0.043, t=2.084). On the other hand, the body compo- sition related variables including waist-hip ratio (WHR), fat-free mass (FFM), percent body fat (PBF) and visceral fat area (VFA) were relatively higher in participants having PCOS than those without it. However, there was no statistical significance of differences. Comparatively, the participants with PCOS had lower bone mineral density (BMD) than those without it, whereas the difference was statistically non-significant. Conclusion The occurrence of PCOS in the present study is consistent with the global preva- lence. Comparatively, the body composition of PCOS females is different from the normal fe- males. Further studies are required in the Middle East region on larger sample sizes and broader aspects of health including lifestyle and dietary

  10. Perspectives in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: From Hair to Eternity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common complex genetic disease. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, gonadotropin secretory changes, polycystic ovarian morphology, and insulin resistance. The etiology of PCOS remains unknown, but modern genetic approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), Mendelian randomization, and next-generation sequencing, promise to identify the pathways that are primarily disrupted. Evidence Acquisition: The literature on PCOS, including the author's research, is discussed. Evidence Synthesis: Recent genetic analyses are reviewed. Conclusions: Considerable progress has been made mapping PCOS susceptibility genes. GWAS have implicated gonadotropin secretion and action as important primary defects in disease pathogenesis in European and Han Chinese PCOS cohorts, respectively. European women with the National Institutes of Health and Rotterdam phenotypes as well as those with self-reported PCOS have some gene regions in common, such as chromosome 11p14.1 region containing the FSH B polypeptide (FSHB) gene, suggesting shared genetic susceptibility. Several chromosomal signals are significant in both Han Chinese and European PCOS cohorts, suggesting that the susceptibility genes in these regions are evolutionarily conserved. In addition, GWAS have suggested that DENND1A, epidermal growth factor signaling, and DNA repair pathways play a role in PCOS pathogenesis. Only a small amount of the heritability of PCOS is accounted for by the common susceptibility variants mapped so far. Future studies should clarify the contribution of rare genetic variants and epigenetic factors to the PCOS phenotype. Furthermore, Mendelian randomization can be used to clarify causal relationships, and phenome-wide association studies can provide insight into health risks associated with PCOS susceptibility variants. PMID:26908109

  11. Leptin and body mass index in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Nasrin; Haghnazari, Lida; Rasolinia, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with obesity. Human and animal studies showed a direct relationship between leptin level and obesity, however, results from different studies were mixed. This study investigated the status of leptin level in PCOS and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) in a group of Iranian women with PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 women with PCOS and 36 healthy women were assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Those in the PCOS group were not prescribed any medications for 3 months prior to the study. Fasting blood samples were then collected during the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation for laboratory measurement of serum total leptin, blood glucose (fasting blood sugar), serum insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: Mean BMI of the PCOS and control groups were 26.62 ± 4.03 kg/m2 and 23.52 ± 2.52 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean total leptin in the PCO group was also 10.69 ± 5.37 ng/mL and 5.73 ± 2.36 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.0001). A significant relationship was found between leptin level and BMI as well as LH level among women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between leptin and insulin (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated an increased leptin level among women with PCOS that positively associated with BMI and LH. PMID:27186548

  12. Invited commentary: progress in the nutritional epidemiology of ovary cancer.

    PubMed

    Mettlin, C J

    1991-09-01

    Researchers do not understand what causes ovarian cancer. Some studies find galactose to be toxic to oocytes which renders ovaries susceptible to cancer. 1 hypothesis is that high levels of lactose consumption and retained ability to digest lactose (lactase persistence) lead to high levels of galactose exposure which increases the ovarian cancer risk. Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland have the highest risk of ovarian cancer in the world. They also have the highest levels of lactase persistence and among the highest levels of milk supply for the population. Conversely, Hong Kong, Japan, Shanghai, and Singapore have low ovarian cancer risk, low consumption of milk, and low levels of lactase persistence. yet other researchers using the same data did not find per capita availability of milk to be significant independent of nondairy animal fat. Lactase persistence did have an independent association, however, but data was not standardized across populations. In a case control study, researchers took the dietary history of 11 dairy products to measure lactose consumption. A significant increase in ovarian cancer risk only existed with frequent intake of yogurt and cottage cheese. Researchers hypothesized that the prehydrolyzed lactose in both foods was the main contributor. Using the case control data, others found an increased risk for total lactose intake in women who never used oral contraceptives (OCs). The strongest predictor to date is the lactose/transferase ratio, yet those who found this association did not define this index based on an earlier study or examination. 1 problem with these studies is that dietary fat confounds the association. 2 studies showed that low fat milk was associated with decreased risk, even though both milks have the same lactose content. Another problem is that the subsets of exposure or subgroups of the population are unpredictable. Further research in nutritional epidemiology of ovarian cancer is needed.

  13. The Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Consensus has recently been reached by international pediatric subspecialty societies that otherwise unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation using age- and stage-appropriate standards are appropriate diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. The purpose of this review is to summarize these recommendations and discuss their basis and implications. Anovulation is indicated by abnormal uterine bleeding, which exists when menstrual cycle length is outside the normal range or bleeding is excessive: cycles outside 19 to 90 days are always abnormal, and most are 21 to 45 days even during the first postmenarcheal year. Continued menstrual abnormality in a hyperandrogenic adolescent for 1 year prognosticates at least 50% risk of persistence. Hyperandrogenism is best indicated by persistent elevation of serum testosterone above adult norms as determined in a reliable reference laboratory. Because hyperandrogenemia documentation can be problematic, moderate-severe hirsutism constitutes clinical evidence of hyperandrogenism. Moderate-severe inflammatory acne vulgaris unresponsive to topical treatment is an indication to test for hyperandrogenemia. Treatment of PCOS is symptom-directed. Cyclic estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives are ordinarily the preferred first-line medical treatment because they reliably improve both the menstrual abnormality and hyperandrogenism. First-line treatment of the comorbidities of obesity and insulin resistance is lifestyle modification with calorie restriction and increased exercise. Metformin in conjunction with behavior modification is indicated for glucose intolerance. Although persistence of hyperandrogenic anovulation for ≥2 years ensures the distinction of PCOS from physiologic anovulation, early workup is advisable to make a provisional diagnosis so that combined oral contraceptive treatment, which will mask diagnosis by suppressing hyperandrogenemia, is not unnecessarily delayed.

  14. Cocytotoxicity/comutagenicity of arsenic in a Chinese hamster ovary triple auxotroph

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.T.; Stewart, S.A.; Hanna, M.L.

    1984-06-04

    Among four forms of As that are measurable in human tissues (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate), non-cytotoxic concentrations of arsenite specifically enhance cell killing by various mutagenic agents in a Chinese hamster ovary auxotroph that requires glycine + adenosine + thymidine (CHO AUXB1). Arsenite is cocytotoxic at low concentrations of 2 to 12 ..mu..M. It is also the most growth rate inhibitory and cytotoxic of these As compounds, when each is incubated alone in AUXB1 cell cultures. None of these four As compounds are mutagenic per se, using an assay that we have developed to measure reversion to prototrophy at the FPGS gene locus. But arsenite (10 ..mu..M) specifically enhances induced reversion by the direct acting chemical mutagens cis-Pt(NH/sub 3/)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/, methylglyoxal, and glycidal with which it is also cocytotoxic. Its comutagenicity with other agents is being tested. The foregoing experiments represent the first systematic comparison in mammalian cells of As growth inhibition, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity versus its chemical form. Moreover, they provide the first evidence for the specific cocytotoxicity/comutagenicity of trivalent As in a mammalian cell line. Our findings support the suggestion that one role of As in its association with cancer could be to serve as a cocarcinogen. By functioning as a comutagen, perhaps through the inhibition of DNA repair, trivalent As may increase the initiation of tumor formation by enhancing the mutagenic activities of a large collection of primary environmental carcinogens. 55 references, 11 figures.

  15. A case-control investigation on cancer of the ovary in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, A; Anantha, N; Dhar, M; Ahuja, V; Kumar, R; Reddy, S; Venugopal, T; Rajanna; Vinutha, A T; Srinivas

    1995-11-03

    Cancer of the ovary is the sixth leading cancer among females in Bangalore, and is a leading site of cancer in other population-based cancer registries in India. A case-control investigation was conducted utilizing the data from the population-based cancer registry in Bangalore. In addition to the core patient information, certain other details pertaining to consumption of tobacco, reproductive and obstetric factors and those related to the practice of family planning, including the method adopted, were available with the registry, for the period 1982-1985. Identical information was also available for patients residing in the registry area who did not have cancer. Ninety-seven cases of ovarian cancer in ever-married women were age-matched with 194 controls from the same area who showed no evidence of cancer. The risk of ovarian cancer was not influenced by tobacco habits, alcohol consumption, diet or the various reproductive factors. However, tubectomy as a method of family planning appeared to reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer. This reduction in risk was not influenced by parity or age of the woman at the time of birth of the first child.

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin in capsaicin-treated rat ovaries during the different developmental periods

    PubMed Central

    Tütüncü, Ş.; İlhan, T.; Özfiliz, N.

    2016-01-01

    Red hot pepper is a plant that belongs to the Solanaceae family and is known as Capsicum annuum. Capsaicin is the active ingredient of cayenne pepper. Ghrelin is a hormone, which consists of polypeptide structure. Ghrelin also contributes to growth hormone secretion, energy balance, food intake and body weight regulator. The aim of this study was the localization and expression of ghrelin in the ovaries of rats treated with capsaicin during the postnatal development. Ninety female Sprague-Dawley rats (21 d) were used. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=30 each) as pubertal, post pubertal and adult. Each group was subdivided into three groups. The first subgroup (control) was given no injections. The second subgroup (vehicle) received only 0.3 cc solvent and the third subgroup (experiment) received subcutaneous injection of equal volume of capsaicin (1 mg/kg/d) for 42, 56, and 70 days. Ghrelin immunoreactivity was determined in ovarian follicular granulosa cells, interstitial cells and corpus luteal cells. A ghrelin immunopositive reaction located in the cytoplasm of cells in all groups. These results indicate that prolonged administration of low dose capsaicin does not affect ghrelin expression. However, follicular atresia was seen in lower rate in capsaicin treated group in comparison to other groups. PMID:27656230

  17. Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Hauspy, Jan; Beiner, Mario E.; Harley, Ian; Rosen, Barry; Murphy, Joan; Chapman, William; Le, Lisa W.; Fyles, Anthony; Levin, Wilfred

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To review the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the outcome and recurrence patterns of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary. Methods and Materials: The records of all patients with GCTs referred to the Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network between 1961 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using disease-free survival (DFS) as the endpoint. Results: A total of 103 patients with histologically confirmed GCTs were included in the present study. The mean duration of follow-up was 100 months (range, 1-399). Of the 103 patients, 31 received adjuvant RT. A total of 39 patients developed tumor recurrence. The tumor size, incidence of intraoperative rupture, and presence of concurrent endometrial cancer were not significant risk factors for DFS. The median DFS was 251 months for patients who underwent adjuvant RT compared with 112 months for patients who did not (p = .02). On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT remained a significant prognostic factor for DFS (p = .004). Of the 103 patients, 12 had died and 44 were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Ovarian GCTs can be indolent, with patients achieving long-term survival. In our series, adjuvant RT resulted in a significantly longer DFS. Ideally, randomized trials with long-term follow-up are needed to define the role of adjuvant RT for ovarian GCTs.

  18. Preliminary results of orthotopic en bloc uterus and ovary transplantation in the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Motoc, A; Jiga, L; Ionac, M; Raica, M; Motoc, M; Chiovschi, S

    2003-01-01

    A new experimental model of whole uterus and ovary transplantation in the laboratory rat was achieved. The main goals of this study were concerned with developing and standardizing the microsurgical technique of uterus transplantation in rats and observing the particular cellular patterns of acute allograft rejection at the level of the transplanted graft. Thirty-five orthotopic uterus transplantations were performed. An additional 20 female rats were used for dissection training sessions. Recipients were euthanasied at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Immediate postoperative survival was 100%. Patency of the microsurgical anastomoses, checked at 24 hours, was 100%. At 72 hours thrombosis occurred in all anastomoses. The explanted uterine grafts were fixed in formaline and analyzed under light microscopy and specific imunohistochemical analysis. The acute allograft rejection has a particular cellular reaction pattern, probably due to the unique diversity of the tissues that compose it. Inflammatory cells like LTCD8+, LBCD20+ and mastocytes tend to agglomerate in the vicinity of nervous and vascular structures, showing no signs of lymphoid tissue disposition like in typical acute rejection. Uterus transplantation in rats has proven to be a valid experiment that allows us to express hope that by further research on transplantation of the uterus gynecologists will be able to introduce an adapted technique in the treatment of specific cases of human female infertility.

  19. Association of common variants of FTO in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hongxi; Zhao, Han; Zhao, Yueran; Liu, Xin; Chen, Zijiang; Ma, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex multisystemic genetic disease. Previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PCOS has found several potentially causative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Han Chinese population. The goal of present investigation was to assess the potential association between rs1121980, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs8050136 SNPs and PCOS. In order to make a better elucidation of this disease, further investigations of association between SNPs susceptibility and PCOS become necessary. Methods: In the present study, we enrolled 212 patients with PCOS and 198 control subjects. Four polymorphisms of FTO gene (rs1121980, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs8050136) were genotyped by Taqman-MGB method, and their relationship with PCOS was speculated. Results: The allele frequency has no significant difference between the PCOS group and the controls. Genotype frequencies of the four SNPs in the additive, dominant and recessive models showed no significant difference between PCOS cases and controls. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that FTO gene has little association in PCOS development. PMID:26722565

  20. Pathway Analysis Based on a Genome-Wide Association Study of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Kim, Han-Na; Lee, Hyejin; Oh, Jee-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age, and it is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. Although the genetic component of PCOS is evident, studies aiming to identify susceptibility genes have shown controversial results. This study conducted a pathway-based analysis using a dataset obtained through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to elucidate the biological pathways that contribute to PCOS susceptibility and the associated genes. Methods We used GWAS data on 636,797 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 1,221 individuals (432 PCOS patients and 789 controls) for analysis. A pathway analysis was conducted using meta-analysis gene-set enrichment of variant associations (MAGENTA). Top-ranking pathways or gene sets associated with PCOS were identified, and significant genes within the pathways were analyzed. Results The pathway analysis of the GWAS dataset identified significant pathways related to oocyte meiosis and the regulation of insulin secretion by acetylcholine and free fatty acids (all nominal gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) P-values < 0.05). In addition, INS, GNAQ, STXBP1, PLCB3, PLCB2, SMC3 and PLCZ1 were significant genes observed within the biological pathways (all gene P-values < 0.05). Conclusions By applying MAGENTA pathway analysis to PCOS GWAS data, we identified significant pathways and candidate genes involved in PCOS. Our findings may provide new leads for understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of PCOS. PMID:26308735

  1. Health-related quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Montazeri, Ali; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing attention to the concept of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) health-related quality of life has led to the development of tool that aims to measure this concept. Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of psychometric properties of the PCOS health-related quality of life questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A search of database (Pubmed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Scopus and SID) from January1998 to December 2013 yielded 6152 references of which 27 papers remained after review of the titles and abstracts. The reviewers used structural tools to analyze the articles, critically appraise papers, and extract the data. Finally, eight papers met the full inclusion criteria. Results: Studies suggested that the PCOS health-related quality of life questionnaire (PCOSQ)/or its modified version (MPCOSQ) have partial known groups validity. The convergent/divergent validity of the questionnaire also was found to be relatively acceptable. The PCOSQ/MPCOSQ reached acceptable benchmarks for its reliability coefficients. Regarding structural validity, some studies suggested that the PCOSQ/MPCOSQ have an extra dimension (related to menstruation) in addition to its existing dimensions for original or modified versions. Conclusion: The PCOSQ/MPCOSQ showed acceptable content and construct validity, reliability and internal consistency. However, some other properties, particularly those related to factor and longitudinal validity, absolute error of measurement, minimal clinically important difference and responsiveness still need to be evaluated. PMID:26568749

  2. Epigenetic and Transcriptional Alterations in Human Adipose Tissue of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kokosar, Milana; Benrick, Anna; Perfilyev, Alexander; Fornes, Romina; Nilsson, Emma; Maliqueo, Manuel; Behre, Carl Johan; Sazonova, Antonina; Ohlsson, Claes; Ling, Charlotte; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic factors may predispose women to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common heritable disorder of unclear etiology. Here we investigated differences in genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in adipose tissue from 64 women with PCOS and 30 controls. In total, 1720 unique genes were differentially expressed (Q < 0.05). Six out of twenty selected genes with largest expression difference (CYP1B1, GPT), genes linked to PCOS (RAB5B) or type 2 diabetes (PPARG, SVEP1), and methylation (DMAP1) were replicated in a separate case-control study. In total, 63,213 sites (P < 0.05) and 440 sites (Q < 0.15) were differently methylated. Thirty differentially expressed genes had corresponding changes in 33 different DNA methylation sites. Moreover, a total number of 1913 pairs of differentially expressed “gene-CpG” probes were significantly correlated after correction for multiple testing and corresponded with 349 unique genes. In conclusion, we identified a large number of genes and pathways that are affected in adipose tissue from women with PCOS. We also identified specific DNA methylation pathways that may affect mRNA expression. Together, these novel findings show that women with PCOS have multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes in adipose tissue that are relevant for development of the disease. PMID:26975253

  3. Pregnancy outcomes and the effect of metformin treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ghazeeri, Ghina S; Nassar, Anwar H; Younes, Zeina; Awwad, Johnny T

    2012-06-01

    This article is a review of the literature assessing pregnancy outcomes and the effect of metformin treatment among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A review of research published in English was undertaken using PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The weight of the available evidence suggests that pregnant women with PCOS are at an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Obesity is a contributory factor for the increased risk of gestational diabetes in this group of women and is estimated to affect 5-40% of pregnant women with PCOS. The prevalence of other obstetric complications is estimated at 10-30% for gestational hypertension, 8-15% for pre-eclampsia and 6-15% for preterm birth. The association between PCOS and early pregnancy loss may not be direct, wherein the presence of PCOS-associated hyperinsulinemia, leading to hyperandrogenemia, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of early pregnancy loss. Apart from the role of metformin in improving the metabolic consequences accompanying PCOS, it has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with PCOS who are resistant to clomiphene citrate. In conclusion, pregnancy in women with PCOS is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes (multiple adverse obstetric risk). Whether metformin should be administered throughout pregnancy still remains controversial. Further prospective studies that foster a larger number of participants and adjust for all potentially confounding factors are needed.

  4. Calcitriol attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in a murine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Cao, Jia-Tian; Liang, Yan; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Lin, Xian-Hua; Li, Xiao-Cui; Tan, Ya-Jing; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhou, Cheng-Liang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex reproductive and metabolic disorder affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women, and is well associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. However, there are few data concerning the direct association of PCOS with cardiac pathologies. The present study aims to investigate the changes in cardiac structure, function, and cardiomyocyte survival in a PCOS model, and explore the possible effect of calcitriol administration on these changes. PCOS was induced in C57BL/6J female mice by chronic dihydrotestosterone administration, as evidenced by irregular estrous cycles, obesity and dyslipidemia. PCOS mice progressively developed cardiac abnormalities including cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, myocardial apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction. Conversely, concomitant administration of calcitriol significantly attenuated cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improved cardiac function. Molecular analysis revealed that the beneficial effect of calcitriol was associated with normalized autophagy function by increasing phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase and inhibiting phosphorylation levels of mammalian target of rapamycin complex. Our findings provide the first evidence for the presence of cardiac remodeling in a PCOS model, and vitamin D supplementation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of PCOS-related cardiac remodeling.

  5. The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: evidence-based criteria?

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2017-02-01

    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are used by a wide range of medical professionals and researchers. However, the development of these criteria was based on expert meetings and not on evidence-based treatment guidance. Over the last decade, the Rotterdam criteria have been useful in guiding research, and a number of clinical studies on PCOS have been published consequently. We plead to revisit the Rotterdam criteria based on the available evidence in prognostic studies and randomized controlled trials. In this opinion paper, we provide arguments of the strengths and limitations of the Rotterdam criteria in guiding treatment selections and predicting prognoses in women with infertility. While the Rotterdam criteria have shown their advantages in predicting reproductive prognosis, the next step is to evaluate whether they can guide treatment choices in infertility as well as other health aspects of the syndrome. Based on available data in clinical studies, we should be able to determine whether the Rotterdam criteria are evidence-based criteria.

  6. A possible role of polycystic ovary syndrome for pregnancy complications in women with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Clara; Caldarola, Giacomo; Corbeddu, Marialuisa; Moro, Francesca; Tropea, Anna; Moretta, Gaia; Apa, Rosanna

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) of the skin. IMIDs are multifactorial diseases characterized by common molecular pathways leading to a systemic inflammation. Patients with an IMID are also at higher risk of developing co-morbidities, such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, than the general population. A higher rate of pregnancy complications have been seen in inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The data for psoriasis are inconsistent but it appears that women with moderate-to-severe psoriasis may also have an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. The cause of this association is unknown, although it may be related to elevated proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, the high prevalence of comorbidities and other unhealthy behaviours, or the high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a recent study, PCOS prevalence in a psoriatic cohort (n = 51) was higher than in non-psoriatic women (n = 102) (47% versus 11%), and women with PCOS and psoriasis had a greater probability of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, and dyslipidaemia as well as a more severe skin condition, than those with psoriasis alone. Further studies are necessary to clarify the impact of psoriasis on pregnancy and in particular if these effects are mediated by concomitant PCOS.

  7. The DNA methylation landscape of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DP-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wippermann, Anna; Rupp, Oliver; Brinkrolf, Karina; Hoffrogge, Raimund; Noll, Thomas

    2015-04-10

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells represent the most commonly used production cell line for therapeutic proteins. By recent genome and transcriptome sequencing a basis was created for future investigations of genotype-phenotype relationships and for improvement of CHO cell productivity and product quality. In this context information is missing about DNA cytosine methylation as a crucial epigenetic modification and an important element in mammalian genome regulation and development. Here, we present the first DNA methylation map of a CHO cell line in single-base resolution that was generated by whole genome bisulfite sequencing combined with gene expression analysis by CHO microarrays. We show CHO DP-12 cells to exhibit global hypomethylation compared to a majority of mammalian methylomes and hypermethylation of CpG-dense regions at gene promoters called CpG islands. We also observed partially methylated domains that cover 62% of the CHO DP-12 cell genome and contain functional clusters of genes. Gene expression analysis showed these clusters to be either highly or weakly expressed with regard to CHO-specific characteristics and hence proves DNA methylation in CHO cells to be an important link between genomics and transcriptomics.

  8. Comparison of Lifestyle in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Sedigheh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Afrakhteh, Maryam; Esteki, Taraneh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Mahmoodi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and that a lifestyle is recognized effective in development of many diseases, this study aimed to compare lifestyle of women with PCOS and healthy women. Nor are there sufficient studies on the difference between lifestyle of these people with that of healthy people. Furthermore, studies show that changes in lifestyle improve this disease. This descriptive-comparative study was conducted on 65 women with PCOS and 65 healthy women of 18 to 45 years old who presented to hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013. The subjects were selected using multi stage random sampling method. The data were collected using questionnaires for diet, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and unhealthy behaviors and were analyzed in SPSS v. 17, using descriptive statistics, Man-Whitney, independent t, Chi-square and logistic regression tests. The results showed there was a significant relationship between PCOS and inappropriate diet (p=0.009), low physical activity (p=0.009), but no relationship was observed between PCOS and unhealthy behaviors. Given the results obtained, training and awareness raising is necessary for women and girls especially about appropriate diet and regular physical activity. PMID:25560358

  9. Serum betatrophin levels are increased and associated with insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qinglan; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Fengrong; Bao, Hongchu; Yang, Qiuhua

    2017-02-01

    Objective Betatrophin is a newly identified circulating protein that is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), adiposity, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether betatrophin levels and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were associated. Methods Circulating betatrophin levels were measured in 162 patients with PCOS and 156 matched control females using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Correlations between betatrophin levels and PCOS incidence as well as multiple key endocrine PCOS parameters were analyzed using multiple statistical methods. Results Betatrophin levels were significantly increased in patients with PCOS (685.3 ± 27.7 vs. 772.6 ± 42.5 pg/ml). When sub-grouping all investigated subjects according to the presence of insulin resistance, women with PCOS and insulin resistance exhibited markedly higher betatrophin concentrations. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance only in females with PCOS ( r = 0.531 and r = 0.628, respectively). Conclusion We provide the first report that betatrophin is strongly associated with PCOS. This study suggests that betatrophin may potentially serve as an independent predictor for the development of PCOS in at-risk women, especially those with insulin resistance.

  10. Association Study of Androgen Signaling Pathway Genes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ketefian, Aline; Jones, Michelle R.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Legro, Richard S.; Azziz, Ricardo; Goodarzi, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate genes involved in androgen receptor (AR) signaling as candidate genes for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Two groups of PCOS and control women (discovery and replication cohorts) were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes for AR chaperones and co-chaperones: HSPA1A, HSPA8, ST13, STIP1, PTGES3, FKBP4, BAG1, and STUB1. SNPs were tested for association with PCOS status, and with androgenic and metabolic parameters. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Discovery cohort: 354 PCOS and 161 control women. Replication cohort: 397 PCOS and 306 control women. Interventions Phenotypic and genotypic assessment. Main outcome measures SNP genotypes, association with PCOS status, and androgenic and metabolic parameters. Results In the discovery cohort, FKBP4 SNPs rs2968909 and rs4409904 were associated with lower odds of PCOS. This finding was not confirmed in the replication cohort analysis; however, when combining the two cohorts, rs4409904 was associated with lower odds of PCOS. In PCOS subjects in the replication cohort as well as in the combined cohort, rs2968909 was associated with lower BMI. Conclusions SNPs in FKBP4, which codes for the AR co-chaperone FKBP52, may be associated with PCOS and BMI in PCOS patients. The remaining genes studied do not appear to be major contributors to the development of PCOS. These findings warrant confirmation in future studies, and genes encoding other androgen pathway components remain to be studied. PMID:26493122

  11. Developmental Regulation Is Altered in the Calyx during in Vitro Ovary Culture of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ishida, B. K.

    1991-03-01

    To develop a system with which to study fruit ripening, in vitro ovary cultures were initiated from tomato flowers. As reported previously [Nitsch, J.P. (1951). Am. J. Bot. 38, 566-577], tomato fruit ripened after 6 to 7 weeks, but calyces swelled unexpectedly, lost their green color, and gradually became red and succulent. Investigations were conducted, therefore, to verify the occurrence of the ripening process in the calyx. Ethylene production increased in both ripening fruit and red calyx, as did tissue contents of its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. In addition, an increase in the mRNA of polygalacturonase [poly(1,4-[alpha]-D-galacturonide) glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.15], an enzyme that in tomato is present in large amounts only in ripening fruit, was established in both ripe fruit and red calyx by RNA gel blot analysis. Ultrastructural studies showed that the disruption of cell walls in red calyx was indistinguishable from that occurring in ripe tomato fruit. Thus, the developmental program of the calyx changed in several aspects to resemble that of tomato fruit.

  12. Effect of ovary storage and oocyte transport method on maturation rate of horse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Love, Linda B; Choi, Young Ho; Love, Charles C; Varner, Dickson D; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2003-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of storage on equine ovaries or isolated oocytes. Ovaries were collected at an abattoir and were maintained at room temperature during collection and transport (3-9h total). After arrival at the laboratory, ovaries were divided into three groups: immediate oocyte collection (control), storage at room temperature overnight (15-18 h) before oocyte collection, or storage at 4 degrees C overnight before oocyte collection. Collected oocytes were cultured in maturation medium for 24h. There was a significant increase in the proportion of oocytes classified as having compact cumuli in the two storage groups when compared with the controls. For oocytes originally having expanded cumuli, the rate of maturation to MII was significantly higher in the control group (72%) than in either storage group, and the maturation rate for oocytes from ovaries stored at room temperature (27%) was significantly higher than that for ovaries stored at 4 degrees C (10%). A similar trend was seen for oocytes originally having compact cumuli (24, 11, and 3% in MI-II for control, room temperature, and cold groups, respectively). In Experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of different packaging systems on the maturation of horse oocytes within a portable incubator. Use of 1 ml of equilibrated maturation medium in a 1 ml glass vial was associated with maturation equivalent to that for standard incubation.

  13. [Is neo-oogenesis in the adult ovary, a realistic paradigm?].

    PubMed

    Gougeon, A

    2010-06-01

    It is a central dogma of female reproductive biology that oogenesis ceases around the time of birth in mammalian species. In 2004 and 2005, two studies were published by Johnson et al., in which they claimed that in the adult mouse ovary, neo-oogenesis takes place and originates from female germline stem cells that are present in either the ovarian surface epithelium or bone marrow. Following these publications, experiments showed that non-germinal stem cells could generate oocytes. However, in the mouse, ability of extra-ovarian stem cells to refurbish the ovary in new oocytes competent to ovulate, and subsequent existence of a spontaneous neo-oogenesis in the adult ovary in normal physiologic conditions, have been disputed. Morphologic studies performed in the adult mouse ovary showed that atresia of the immature follicle pool was strongly overestimated by Johnson et al., and that no intermediary stages of meiosis were seen. These observations led to the conclusion that adult female mice do not need neo-oogenesis for maintaining a normal reproductive function. However, a recent study have shown that female germline stem cells might be present in the ovarian surface epithelium in mice and humans. When sampled in GFP transgenic mice, cultured for a long period and transplanted into ovaries of sterilized mice, these cells underwent oogenesis and the mice produced offsprings. These new data support the possibility to experimentally restore fertility in women suffering from a premature ovarian failure.

  14. In Vivo Delivery of Tinospora cordifolia Root Extract Preventing Radiation-Induced Dystrophies in Mice Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Riddhi

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious and unplanned radiation exposures are a severe threat to gonads particularly ovaries. The present study aims at finding radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers root extract (TCRE) in ovaries. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as “normal” and is administered double distilled water and Group 2 is given TCRE with optimum dosage selected as 75 mg/mice. Group 3 serving the purpose of “irradiated control” were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Group 4 (experimental) were administered optimum dosage of TCRE with prior exposure to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Follicle cell counts were scored at autopsy intervals of 24 hrs, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after gamma irradiation. To understand the mechanism of radioprotection, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels were also measured in all groups. TCRE supplementation rendered significant protection to ovaries by restoring follicle counts; it also reduced LPO levels and increased GSH levels in ovaries. It implies that TCRE administration protects ovaries against radiation exposure. PMID:26357520

  15. Ruptured Hemorrhagic Cyst of Undescended Ovary Mimicking Mucocele: A Rare Pediatric Case

    PubMed Central

    Sekmenli, Tamer; Gündüz, Metin; Ciftci, Ilhan

    2017-01-01

    Undescended ovary is a rare entity and usually presentedas a case report. It is associated with urinary and uterine anomalies. Symptomatic patients are diagnosed during surgery. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and treatment is unnecessary. They are incidentally diagnosed during infertility evaluation and treatment such as ovarian hyperstimulation studies. A 15-year-old female patient presented with the diagnosis of renal cystic massas identifiedduring ultrasonography in another hospital. Abdominal computedtomography image was requested. A cystic lesion of about 48×34 mm with well-defined borders associated with the appendix and probably with mucocele of the appendix was reported in the lower right abdominal quadrant close to the cecum. During exploration, the right ovary was seen to be attached to the cecum and was higher in position as well as a right ovary originated cystic structure of 5×5 cm. Using needle aspiration, intraovarian hemorrhage was confirmed and partial cystectomy was performed. The present study reports on an undescended ovary that hadacute abdomen symptoms imitating mucocele. In girls referring to the hospital with abdominal pain, although quite rare, undescended ovaries are to be also considered. As the incidence of renal and uterine anomalies is higher in suchpatients, in symptomatic cases relevant organs are to be investigated carefully during surgical intervention. PMID:28293058

  16. Changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries with cysts induced by dexamethasone administration.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, A; Majewski, M; Jana, B

    2014-09-01

    We revealed earlier that induction of ovarian cysts in gilts by dexamethasone phosphate disodium salt (DXM) administration from the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (EC) changed the cholinergic innervation of the gonad. In the present study, the innervation of porcine ovaries by vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive (IR) fibres, after induction of cystic changes from the middle luteal phase of the EC, was determined. The cystic changes were induced by DXM injections from days 7 to 21 of the EC, and 11 days later, the ovaries were collected. In the cystic ovaries, VAChT-, nNOS- and SOM-IR fibres were found around cysts and small tertiary follicles; nNOS-IR and also VAChT-IR fibres were observed near secondary follicles and veins; and VAChT- and nNOS-IR fibres were not found around cortical arteries. The number of VIP-IR fibres increased near the cysts and within the ground plexus, while the number of VAChT-IR fibres decreased within the medullar part of this structure. Thus, our study showed changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of the porcine cystic ovaries induced from the middle phase of the cycle and confirmed that cystic ovary innervation depends partly on the phase of the EC in which the induction of cysts was started.

  17. Endocrino-metabolic features in women with polycystic ovary syndrome during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, G; Fulghesu, A M; Ferrazzani, S; Moretti, S; Proto, C; Soranna, L; Caruso, A; Lanzone, A

    1998-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of metabolic adaptation of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during pregnancy, the endocrino-metabolic features of a group of PCOS patients with or without gestational diabetes were studied longitudinally during the three trimesters of gestation. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 100 g) and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp were performed throughout the study. Plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were determined by radioimmunoassay and glucose oxidase technique, respectively. Five of 13 PCOS patients developed gestational diabetes (GD) at the third trimester (PCOS-GD), while the other eight patients did not develop any alteration of glucose metabolism (PCOS-nGD). Both fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations did not change significantly during pregnancy and no difference was seen between the two groups. On the contrary PCOS-GD group early exhibited higher values of area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin response to OGTT with respect to those found in PCOS-nGD group. This difference was already significant in the first gestational trimester. Moreover insulin sensitivity value (M) was significantly lower in the first trimester of gestation in PCOS-GD as compared with that found in PCOS-nGD group. However, as gestation proceeded, M value decreased in PCOS-nDG group and the difference from PCOS patients developing gestational diabetes was not sustained into the second and third trimesters. Both groups had similar body mass index values and AUC insulin increase from first to third trimester of gestation. It is concluded that early alteration of insulin sensitivity and secretion constitute specific risk factors in PCOS patients for the development of abnormalities of glucose tolerance.

  18. THE PRESENCE OF THE OVARY PREVENTS HEPATIC MITOCHONDRIAL OXIDATIVE STRESS IN YOUNG AND AGED FEMALE MICE THROUGH GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE 1

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Ana P.; Schappal, Anna E.; Morris, E. Matthew; Thyfault, John P.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Spangenburg, Espen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background For unknown reasons a woman’s risk for developing the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) increases dramatically with age and/or loss of ovarian function. The MetS is characterized by hepatic insulin resistance (IR), which is strongly associated with intrahepatic lipid (IHL) accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that the endocrine function of the ovary can directly impact hepatic mitochondrial function, this hypothesis remains untested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age and secretory function of the ovary on mechanisms that regulate hepatic mitochondrial function. Methods Adult (10 week-old) and aged (88 week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were separated into two groups to undergo bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or control surgery (SHAM). Eight weeks after surgery hepatic tissue was removed for measurements of total IHL and fatty acid species within hepatic triglycerides, mitochondrial function, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results Hepatic IHL content was not affected by OVX, but was increased by age. OVX had no effect on mitochondrial respiration, however, hepatic mitochondria from aged mice had lower O2 consumption, lower complex IV and higher complex I content. Mitochondrial H2O2 production was highest in OVX groups and exacerbated by age, while mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was highest in the aged mice and exacerbated by OVX. Regardless of age, OVX resulted in lower mitochondrial content of antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1). Isolated liver tissue from a sub-set of animals were acutely treated with conditioned ovarian media which increased Gpx1 mRNA expression compared to vehicle treated liver tissue. Conclusion Ovarian secretory function is necessary for the maintenance of hepatic ROS buffering capacity in the mitochondria, while age significantly influences mitochondrial respiration. These data suggest that when age is coupled with loss of

  19. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing <2% of the queried ovary transcriptome explained >90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive

  20. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on the ovaries in multiple generations of mice

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Amelia; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Cudiamat, Jonathan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Changqing; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A is used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Previous studies show that in utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in the F1 generation of mice, but its effects on germ cell nest breakdown and on the ovary in the F2–F3 generations were unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BPA has transgenerational effects on the ovary. Mice were exposed to BPA in utero (BPA 0.5, 20, or 50 µg/kg/day), and ovaries were collected at postnatal days (PND) 4 and 21 from the F1–F3 generations and subjected to histological evaluation and gene expression analyses. In utero BPA exposure did not have transgenerational effects on germ cell nest breakdown and gene expression on PND 4, but it caused transgenerational changes in expression in multiple genes on PND 21. Collectively, these data indicate that in utero BPA exposure has some transgenerational effects in mice. PMID:26746108

  1. Concurrent tamoxifen-related Müllerian adenofibromas in uterus and ovary.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Chen, Xiaoduan; Lv, Bingjian; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a widely used in anti-oestrogen treatment of breast cancer. Previous reports showed that tamoxifen is associated with proliferative endometrial lesions. We herein reported an unusual case of concurrent hyperplastic lesions in the uterine cavity and right ovary in a 45-year-old woman with tamoxifen therapy. Regular vaginal ultrasonography showed the progressive endometrial thickening and right ovary enlargement during the period of drug use. Both lesions in the uterine cavity and right ovary showed characteristics resembling that of Müllerian adenofibroma. There were also foci of endometriosis in her bilateral ovarian surfaces. We suggest that women taking tamoxifen with a known history of endometriosis should be followed with transvaginal ultrasonography periodically.

  2. Generation of exogenous germ cells in the ovaries of sterile NANOS3-null beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ideta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shiro; Seki-Soma, Marie; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Chiba, Shiori; Komaki, Haruna; Ito, Tetsuya; Konishi, Masato; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Sendai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Blastocyst complementation (BC) systems have enabled in vivo generation of organs from allogeneic pluripotent cells, compensating for an empty germ cell niche in gene knockout (KO) animals. Here, we succeeded in producing chimeric beef cattle (Wagyu) by transferring allogenic germ cells into ovaries using somatic cell nuclear transfer and BC technology. The KO of NANOS3 (NANOS3−/−) in Wagyu bovine ovaries produced a complete loss of germ cells. Holstein blastomeres (NANOS3+/+) were injected into NANOS3−/− Wagyu embryos. Subsequently, exogenous germ cells (NANOS3+/+) were identified in the NANOS3−/− ovary. These results clearly indicate that allogeneic germ cells can be generated in recipient germ cell-free gonads using cloning and BC technologies. PMID:27117862

  3. Generation of exogenous germ cells in the ovaries of sterile NANOS3-null beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shiro; Seki-Soma, Marie; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Chiba, Shiori; Komaki, Haruna; Ito, Tetsuya; Konishi, Masato; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Sendai, Yutaka

    2016-04-27

    Blastocyst complementation (BC) systems have enabled in vivo generation of organs from allogeneic pluripotent cells, compensating for an empty germ cell niche in gene knockout (KO) animals. Here, we succeeded in producing chimeric beef cattle (Wagyu) by transferring allogenic germ cells into ovaries using somatic cell nuclear transfer and BC technology. The KO of NANOS3 (NANOS3(-/-)) in Wagyu bovine ovaries produced a complete loss of germ cells. Holstein blastomeres (NANOS3(+/+)) were injected into NANOS3(-/-) Wagyu embryos. Subsequently, exogenous germ cells (NANOS3(+/+)) were identified in the NANOS3(-/-) ovary. These results clearly indicate that allogeneic germ cells can be generated in recipient germ cell-free gonads using cloning and BC technologies.

  4. Kinetics of nuclear maturation and effect of holding ovaries at room temperature on in vitro maturation of camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wani, N A; Nowshari, M A

    2005-07-01

    culture to have an optimum number of oocytes in M-II stage. However, further studies are required to find out the most appropriate maturation period, which will result in the further development of these oocytes after IVF, ICSI, parthenogenetic activation or nuclear transfer. Ovaries can be collected and stored in normal saline solution at room temperature for 12h without any appreciable effect on the nuclear maturation of the oocytes.

  5. Capsaicinoids improve egg production by regulating ovary nuclear transcription factors against heat stress in quail.

    PubMed

    Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Juturu, V; Sahin, K

    2016-12-12

    To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n = 180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or at 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kilogram for 12 weeks (2 × 3 factorial arrangement). The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66.9% and 88.1%, respectively, and reduced ovary superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities by 28.3%, 48.7% and 43.8%, respectively. There were magnifications in the ovary nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) levels by 42.4% and suppressions in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), protein kinase B (Akt) and haem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels by 29.2%, 38.2% and 30.7%, respectively, in heat-stressed quail. With increasing supplemental capsaicinoids, there were linear increases in egg production, antioxidant enzyme activity, linear decreases in ovary MDA and NF-κB levels and linear increases in ovary Nrf2, Akt and HO-1 levels at a greater extent in quail reared under TN condition than those reared under HS condition. Two-way treatment interactions showed that the degree of restorations in all response variables was more notable under the HS environment than under the TN environment as supplemental capsaicinoid level was increased. In conclusion, capsaicinoid supplementation alleviates oxidative stress through regulating the ovary nuclear transcription factors in heat-stressed quail.

  6. Gibberellin reactivates and maintains ovary-wall cell division causing fruit set in parthenocarpic Citrus species.

    PubMed

    Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Bermejo, Almudena; Germanà, M Antonietta; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Citrus is a wide genus in which most of the cultivated species and cultivars are natural parthenocarpic mutants or hybrids (i.e. orange, mandarin, tangerine, grapefruit). The autonomous increase in GA1 ovary concentration during anthesis was suggested as being the stimulus responsible for parthenocarpy in Citrus regardless of the species. To determine the exact GA-role in parthenocarpic fruit set, the following hypothesis was tested: GA triggers and maintains cell division in ovary walls causing fruit set. Obligate and facultative parthenocarpic Citrus species were used as a model system because obligate parthenocarpic Citrus sp (i.e. Citrus unshiu) have higher GA levels and better natural parthenocarpic fruit set compared to other facultative parthenocarpic Citrus (i.e. Citrus clementina). The autonomous activation of GA synthesis in C. unshiu ovary preceded cell division and CYCA1.1 up-regulation (a G2-stage cell cycle regulator) at anthesis setting a high proportion of fruits, whereas C. clementina lacked this GA-biosynthesis and CYCA1.1 up-regulation failing in fruit set. In situ hybridization experiments revealed a tissue-specific expression of GA20ox2 only in the dividing tissues of the pericarp. Furthermore, CYCA1.1 expression correlated endogenous GA1 content with GA3 treatment, which stimulated cell division and ovary growth, mostly in C. clementina. Instead, paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor) negated cell division and reduced fruit set. Results suggest that in parthenocarpic citrus the specific GA synthesis in the ovary walls at anthesis triggers cell division and, thus, the necessary ovary growth rate to set fruit.

  7. Metabolic dysfunction in obese Hispanic women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Susan; Scoccia, Bert; Yalamanchi, Sudha; Mazzone, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are certain ethnic groups with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at increased risk of metabolic disorders? SUMMARY ANSWER Obese Hispanic women with PCOS are at increased risk of metabolic disorders compared with age- and BMI-matched obese non-Hispanic white women with PCOS in the USA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Ethnic differences in body composition and metabolic risk are well established. PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age and is associated with high rates of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A cross-sectional observational study was performed at an Academic Medical Center on 60 women of reproductive age with PCOS. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Blood was obtained after fasting from 17 Hispanic, 22 non-Hispanic black and 21 non-Hispanic white women with PCOS who were similar in age and BMI. Anthropometric parameters, insulin, lipid and lipoprotein levels (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance) were compared between the three groups. MAIN RESULTS A